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Sample records for chicken plasma gallus

  1. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  2. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Altered development and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) by corticosterone.

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    Dong, H; Lin, H; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Zhao, J P; Jiang, K J

    2007-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on protein metabolism and the amino acid composition in muscle tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In Trial 1, two groups of 30 broiler chickens were subjected to control or CORT treatment (30 mg/kg diet) from 28 to 39 days of age. In Trial 2, three groups of chickens of 28 days of age were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 7 days: CORT (30 mg/kg diet), pair-fed (maintaining the same feed intake as CORT treatment) and control treatments. The body mass gain and feed efficiency was significantly decreased by CORT treatment, while the food intake was decreased. The breast and thigh masses (% body mass) were significantly suppressed by CORT treatment, while the abdominal fat and liver masses (%) were obviously increased. The plasma levels of glucose, urate and total amino acid were significantly elevated by CORT treatment. The capacity for protein synthesis, estimated by RNA:protein ratio, were significantly suppressed by CORT in M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris. The 3-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in both M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris of CORT chickens, compared to control but not the pair-fed chickens. The amino acid composition of M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris was not significantly affected by CORT treatment. In conclusion, the arrested growth in skeletal muscles induced by CORT administration has tissue specificity. The CORT treatment retards the growth of skeletal muscle by suppressed protein synthesis and augmented protein catabolism.

  4. Genome-wide expression analysis of roxarsone-stimulated growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Li, Changlu; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Gengyu; Wu, Changxin; Li, Ning

    2011-09-01

    Roxarsone is a commonly used additive in chicken (Gallus gallus) industry. However, little is known on the intrinsic molecular mechanism via which the growth performance of birds improves. This study was therefore performed to investigate the expression profiles of genes induced by roxarsone. Fifty-six broiler chickens were divided into two groups, namely treated and untreated with roxarsone. The treated group was provided a diet of 45.4mg/kg roxarsone medication and the other group acted as control. Data analysis showed that roxarsone consistently and significantly (Proxarsone could be mainly to modify the expression levels of cell growth, immunity/defense and energy metabolism associated genes, as a result promoting animal growth. Further research on these genes should help to increase the knowledge of improving animal productivity safely and effectively.

  5. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2015-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results reve...

  6. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

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    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  7. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus, GLUT12.

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    Edouard Coudert

    Full Text Available In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity. An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state. Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.

  8. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12.

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    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.

  9. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  10. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in Phayao province, northern Thailand

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    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%, Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%, Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%, Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%, Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%, Raillietina tetragona (57.5%, Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%, Raillietina sp. (35.8%, Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2% and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%. The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  11. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

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    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  12. Learning of Monotonic and Nonmonotonic Sequences in Domesticated Horses ("Equus Callabus") and Chickens ("Gallus Domesticus")

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    Kundey, Shannon M. A.; Strandell, Brittany; Mathis, Heather; Rowan, James D.

    2010-01-01

    (Hulse and Dorsky, 1977) and (Hulse and Dorsky, 1979) found that rats, like humans, learn sequences following a simple rule-based structure more quickly than those lacking a rule-based structure. Through two experiments, we explored whether two additional species--domesticated horses ("Equus callabus") and chickens ("Gallus domesticus")--would…

  13. Differential sex-specific walking kinematics in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for different body size.

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    Rose, Kayleigh A; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-08-15

    The differing limb dynamics and postures of small and large terrestrial animals may be mechanisms for minimising metabolic costs under scale-dependent muscle force, work and power demands; however, empirical evidence for this is lacking. Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly dimorphic: males have greater body mass and relative muscle mass than females, which are permanently gravid and have greater relative intestinal mass. Furthermore, leghorns are selected for standard (large) and bantam (small) varieties and the former are sexually dimorphic in posture, with females having a more upright limb. Here, high-speed videography and morphological measurements were used to examine the walking gaits of leghorn chickens of the two varieties and sexes. Hindlimb skeletal elements were geometrically similar among the bird groups, yet the bird groups did not move with dynamic similarity. In agreement with the interspecific scaling of relative duty factor (DF, the proportion of a stride period with ground contact for any given foot) with body mass, bantams walked with greater DF than standards, and females walked with greater DF than males. Greater DF in females than in males was achieved via variety-specific kinematic mechanisms, associated with the presence/absence of postural dimorphism. Females may require greater DF in order to reduce peak muscle forces and minimise power demands associated with lower muscle to reproductive tissue mass ratios and smaller body size. Furthermore, a more upright posture observed in the standard, but not bantam, females, may relate to minimising the work demands of being larger and having proportionally larger reproductive tissue volume. Lower DF in males relative to females may also be a work-minimising strategy and/or due to greater limb inertia (as a result of greater pelvic limb muscle mass) prolonging the swing phase.

  14. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus

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    Ramnath V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days. The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, and serum reduced glutathione (GSH in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress.

  15. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

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    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  16. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus in Brazil

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    M.A Orsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3% were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks.

  17. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Cai, Guoqing; Mo, Chunheng; Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  18. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

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    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  19. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2 in Chickens (Gallus gallus.

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    Guoqing Cai

    Full Text Available Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2 in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89 and cCART1(49-89, which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98% with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91 with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s, were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  20. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel ...

  1. Polymorphism analysis of the hsp70 stress gene in Broiler chickens (Gallus gallus of different breeds

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    Carmen Maria Mazzi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region and the beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 stress gene were analysed in broiler chickens of a commercial breed (Hubbard-Pettersen, a breed selected for weight gain (PP1 and a non-selected breed (naked-neck Label Rouge. The naked neck gene (Naked neck, Na, which reduces feathering in birds and is thus related to heat resistance, was present in both PP1 and Label Rouge breeds. Genomic DNA was restricted with PstI and Southern blotting analysis of the samples revealed the absence of polymorphic sites for that enzyme in the promoter region and beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 gene of studied birds. PCR-SSCP analysis of these regions, however, indicated the presence of polymorphisms in the beginning of the coding region and the sequencing of the PCR products confirmed and identified two polymorphic sites in this region: a transition A ® G in position +258 and a transversion C ® G in position +276. Both mutations were considered to be silent, since they did not modify the aminoacid sequence of the protein Hsp70. The promoter region of the hsp70 gene was identical in all studied birds, indicating that the regulation pattern of this gene must be the same in all birds at the promoter region. Three different alleles (hsp70-1, hsp70-2 and hsp70-3 were identified for the hsp70 gene from the observed mutations. The allele hsp70-3 was detected in only two breeds, Hubbard-Pettersen and PP1, but at a low frequency (0,016 and 0,006, respectively.

  2. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

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    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  3. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

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    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  4. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  5. Low number of mitochondrial pseudogenes in the chicken (Gallus gallus nuclear genome: implications for molecular inference of population history and phylogenetics

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    Baker Allan J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts. Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts, some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragments and thus may have been inadvertently included in population genetic and phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial DNA. Birds have smaller genomes relative to mammals, and the genome-wide frequency and distribution of Numts is still unknown. The release of a preliminary version of the chicken (Gallus gallus genome by the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University, St. Louis provided an opportunity to search this first avian genome for the frequency and characteristics of Numts relative to those in human and plants. Results We detected at least 13 Numts in the chicken nuclear genome. Identities between Numts and mitochondrial sequences varied from 58.6 to 88.8%. Fragments ranged from 131 to 1,733 nucleotides, collectively representing only 0.00078% of the nuclear genome. Because fewer Numts were detected in the chicken nuclear genome, they do not represent all regions of the mitochondrial genome and are not widespread in all chromosomes. Nuclear integrations in chicken seem to occur by a DNA intermediate and in regions of low gene density, especially in macrochromosomes. Conclusion The number of Numts in chicken is low compared to those in human and plant genomes, and is within the range found for most sequenced eukaryotic genomes. For chicken, PCR amplifications of fragments of about 1.5 kilobases are highly likely to represent true mitochondrial amplification. Sequencing of these fragments should expose the presence of unusual features typical of pseudogenes, unless the nuclear integration is very recent and has not yet been mutated. Metabolic selection for compact genomes with reduced repetitive DNA and gene-poor regions where Numts occur may explain their low incidence in birds.

  6. Microarray analysis revealed that immunity-associated genes are primarily regulated by roxarsone in promoting broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) growth.

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    Li, C L; Wang, X L; Li, N; Wu, C X

    2012-12-01

    Addition of roxarsone can significantly improve the growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Nevertheless, this application will lead to the contamination of the environment as well as animal products. Understanding the response of genes to roxarsone may bring about the discovery of new, safer substitutes. In this study, we monitored the expression of 8,935 genes in chicken breast muscle using microarrays. Analysis showed that 30 genes, such as the interleukin 3 regulated nuclear factor (NFIL3), the regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein (RFXANK), the cleavage and polyadenylation-specific factor 3 (CPSF3), and the FK506 binding protein 9 (FKBP9), have consistently up or downregulated (fold change ≥1.5 or ≤0.6, P roxarsone can improve the immunity of chickens through regulating the expression of associated genes, and as a result contribute to the growth promotion. Further research on the encoded proteins of the differentially expressed genes should provide more evidence for the potential mechanism.

  7. Alterations in eicosanoid composition during embryonic development in the chorioallantoic membrane of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Theresa M; Bowden, John A; Scott, Jacob; Pérez-Viscasillas, Jimena B; Huncik, Kevin; Guillette, Matthew P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-11-01

    Eicosanoids are signaling lipids known to regulate several physiological processes in the mammalian placenta, including the initiation of parturition. Though all amniotes construct similar extraembryonic membranes during development, the composition and function of eicosanoids in extraembryonic membranes of oviparous reptiles is largely unknown. The majority of effort placed in eicosanoid investigations is typically targeted toward defining the role of specific compounds in disease etiology; however, comprehensive characterization of several pathways in eicosanoid synthesis during development is also needed to better understand the complex role of these lipids in comparative species. To this end, we have examined the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) during development. Previously, our lab has demonstrated that the CAM of several oviparous species shared conserved steroidogenic activity, a feature originally attributed to mammalian amniotes. To further explore this, we have developed a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method that is used here to quantify multiple eicosanoids in the CAM of two oviparous species at different stages of development. We identified 18 eicosanoids in the alligator CAM; the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway showed the largest increase from early development to later development in the alligator CAM. Similarly, the chicken CAM had an increase in COX products and COX activity, which supports the LC-MS/MS analyses. Jointly, our findings indicate that the CAM tissue of an oviparous species is capable of eicosanoid synthesis, which expands our knowledge of placental evolution and introduces the possibility of future comparative models of placental function.

  8. Screening for genes involved in antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Guan, Xiaojing; Smith, Edward J

    2015-09-01

    Antibody response, an important trait in both agriculture and biomedicine, plays a part in protecting animals from infection. Dissecting molecular basis of antibody response may improve artificial selection for natural disease resistance in livestock and poultry. A number of genetic markers associated with antibody response have been identified in the chicken and mouse by linkage-based association studies, which only define genomic regions by genetic markers but do not pinpoint genes for antibody response. In contrast, global expression profiling has been applied to define the molecular bases of a variety of biological traits through identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Here, we employed Affimetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays to identify differentially expressed genes for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) using chickens challenged with and without SRBC or chickens with high and low anti-SRBC titers. The DEGs include those with known (i.e., MHC class I and IgH genes) or unknown function in antibody response. Classification test of these genes suggested that the response of the chicken to intravenous injection of SRBC involved multiple biological processes, including response to stress or other different stimuli, sugar, carbohydrate or protein binding, and cell or soluble fraction, in addition to antibody response. This preliminary study thus provides an insight into molecular basis of antibody response to SRBC in the chicken.

  9. Epitope mapping of Campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Telli, Arife Ezgi; Jagne, Jarra F; Benson, Christopher L; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibodies against the homologous serotype. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) is an immunodominant protein that reacted strongly to sera from field chickens. In this communication, we mapped linear immunoreactive epitopes on FliD using a set of 158 synthetic peptides of 15-mer overlapping with 11 amino acid residues on peptide microarrays with sera from field chickens. The results from peptide microarrays showed (1) no cross-reactivity of the immobilized peptides with the secondary anti-chicken antibody in the control incubation, and (2) heterogeneous patterns of sera reacting to the immobilized peptides. The peptides that reacted to more than three chicken sera and had higher averages of fluorescence units were selected for further validation by the peptide ELISA. The results showed peptides 24, 91 and 92 had relatively high reactivity and less variation among 64 individual serum samples, indicating these peptides represented the shared immunodominant epitopes on the C. jejuni FliD protein. These peptides were also recognized by sera from chickens immunized with the purified recombinant FliD protein. The findings of the specific shared linear immunodominant epitopes on FliD in this study provide a rationale for further evaluation to determine their utility as epitope vaccines covering multiple serotypes for chicken immunization, and subsequently, for providing safer poultry products for human consumption.

  10. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and chicken (Gallus gallus genomes

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    Delany Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and

  11. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes.

  12. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

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    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, através da macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia, fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate. Cem fígados de frango foram coletados na linha de inspeção. Noventa deles tinham sido condenados por apresentarem alterações macroscópicas. Dez fígados não apresentavam alterações macroscópicas. As coletas foram feitas em dois abatedouros localizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. No laboratório, fez-se detalhada descrição das alterações macroscópicas dos fígados condenados e exames histopatológicos e bacteriológicos complementares. Para a descrição macroscópica, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: forma, coloração, tamanho, consistência, odor e presença de lesões visíveis. Foram observados fígados com alterações na cor, forma, tamanho e/ou consistência em 47/90 amostras; fígados marrom-pálidos e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas perfizeram 19/90 amostras; 5/90 fígados estavam amarelos ou amarelados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas; 19/90 fígados estavam verdes ou esverdeados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas. Os principais diagnósticos histopatológicos foram de colângio-hepatite heterofílica multifocal, degeneração e/ou necrose hepatocelular centrolobular e em ponte, hepatite necrosante aleatória, pericolangite heterofílica multifocal e peri-hepatite fibrinosa subaguda difusa acentuada. A bacteriologia foi direcionada para pesquisa de Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. e Staphylococcus sp. Utilizando-se cultivo direto das amostras de fígado em meios de cultura seletivos, isolou-se E. coli em 26/100 amostras e Staphylococcus sp. em 24/100 amostras. Para pesquisa de salmonelas, utilizou-se a metodologia convencional preconizada para esta bactéria, entretanto não houve isolamento de nenhuma espécie deste gênero. Através das avaliações realizadas pode-se confirmar o predomínio de lesões sugestivas de

  13. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Ericsson, Maria; Henriksen, Rie; Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here.

  14. Developmental changes of melatonin receptor expression in the spleen of the chicken, Gallus domesticus.

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    Guo, Qingyun; Dong, Yulan; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Zhang, Ziqiang; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin plays an essential role in development and immunoregulation of the avian spleen through its receptors; however, the variations in the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes in the developing avian spleen are still unclear. The objective of the present study was not only to investigate the distribution patterns and development changes of the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c) in the chicken spleen but also to identify the correlation between the plasma melatonin concentration and the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes. The immunohistochemical results indicated that Mel1a was mainly distributed in the red pulp and capillaries, Mel1b was predominantly distributed in the periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) and splenic nodule, and Mel1c was widely located in the red pulp, PALS and splenic nodule. From P0 to P21, the mRNA and protein expressions of Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c in the spleen were increased (P0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Mel1b and Mel1c between P0 and P14 raised more quickly than Mel1a. The plasma melatonin concentration increased in an age-dependent manner in the chicken from P0 to P42 (Pspleen. These results suggest the existence of age-related and region-specific changes in the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes within the spleen of the chicken, and this characteristic pattern may be involved in the development and functional maturation of the avian spleen.

  15. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-03

    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  16. Type-dependent differential expression of neuropeptide Y in chicken hypothalamus (Gallus domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important orexigenic agents in central regulation of feeding behavior, body weight and energy homeostasis in domestic chickens. To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior and body weight, we detected mRNA levels of NPY in hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (IN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area(LHA) of these two types of chickens using one-step real time RT-PCR. The meat-type chicken had more food daily (about 1.7 folds) and greater body weights (about 1.5 folds) and brain weights than the layer-type chicken at the age of 14 d. In the meat-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels of the IN and PVN were significantly greater than those of the LHA, and were not significantly different between the IN and PVN. However, in the layer-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels were significantly greater in the IN than those in the LHA and PVN, and were not significantly different between the PVN and LHA. In all these hypothalamic regions,the layer-type of chicken had significantly higher NPY mRNA levels than the meat-type chicken did. These results suggest the expression of NPY in the hypothalamus has a type-dependent pattern in domestic chickens.

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas

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    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N.caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the presen...

  18. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  19. 鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎性别的DNA分子鉴定%DNA Molecular Sex Identification for Chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail (Coturnix coturnix) Hybrids Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炜; 范丽娜; 翟曼君; 赵宗胜; 李青峰; 梁耀伟; 米拉

    2013-01-01

    According to our previous research, there was an obvious relationship between the early death of chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail(Cotumix cotunux) hybrids and sex differentiation. Meanwhile, current widespread adapted methods to indentify sex differentiation stayed at RNA level, experimental steps complicated and easy to make mistakes, and RNA samples, which are needed to be measured, was quite difficult to preserved longer, but could not be simply employed. So it is necessary to find a more simple and accurate way to identify the early embryo's sexing. In this study, there were two sections for CHD (chromobox-helicase-DNA binding) gene DNA level sex determination, at first,a total of 116 chicken-quail hybrid embryos at different incubate stages (2.5~5 d) was treated as experiment group and 10 mg embryonic organs were used to DNA extraction; then the DNA extraction from blood of 60 sex-known quails (male and female were half-and-half) was regarded as control. Wpkci (W-linked protein kinase C inhibitor) for mRNA level was known as a mature method to identify sexing, and then it is used to check the result of embryos' sex determination in our research. The result showed that CHD 2550F/2718R could identify the sex of chicken-quail hybrid embryos accurately. The amplication size of male embryo tissues was 613 bp and two bands in female were 613 and 446 bp, respectively. The experimental results provide basic data for the chicken-quail hybrids sex determination mechanism.%鸡(Gallus gallus)与鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)属间杂交胚胎早期死亡与性别分化存在着一定的关系,寻找简单、准确的早期胚胎性别鉴定方法是深入研究其死亡分子机制的前提.本实验室前期使用Wpkci引物从mRNA水平对早期胚胎进行准确的性别鉴定,而RNA提取对样品质量要求较高,鉴定程序较复杂.因此需要建立更加简单快捷的方法,对鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎进行准确性别鉴定.本

  20. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.

  2. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

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    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  3. Relationship between plasma and tissue corticosterone in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): implications for stress physiology and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Hemsworth, P H; Leury, B J; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    This study directly compared the dynamics of change in plasma corticosterone concentration with the dynamics of change in tissue corticosterone concentration in laying hens. In concert, we measured the rate of gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. We evaluated these changes acutely, over 3 h in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection, and chronically, over 24 h in response to food and water deprivation. In response to ACTH injection, there was a significant (P physiology under acute and chronic conditions. Our data suggest that extending our evaluation of stress to the site of corticosterone action, that is, the target tissue, may enhance our ability to evaluate stress and the welfare of laying hens.

  4. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  5. Genomic organization and molecular phylogenies of the beta (β keratin multigene family in the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata: implications for feather evolution

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    Sawyer Roger H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds are constructed of beta (β keratins. The molecular phylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, especially feathers. Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes of the chicken and zebra finch provide an opportunity not only to compare the genomic organization of their β-keratins, but to study their molecular evolution in archosaurians. Results The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5' to 3' order on microchromosome 25 in chicken and zebra finch, although the number of claw and feather genes differs between the species. Molecular phylogenies show that the monophyletic scale genes are the basal group within birds and that the monophyletic avian claw genes form the basal group to all feather and feather-like genes. Both species have a number of feather clades on microchromosome 27 that form monophyletic groups. An additional monophyletic cluster of feather genes exist on macrochromosome 2 for each species. Expression sequence tag analysis for the chicken demonstrates that all feather β-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions Similarity in the overall genomic organization of β-keratins in Galliformes and Passeriformes suggests similar organization in all Neognathae birds, and perhaps in the ancestral lineages leading to modern birds, such as the paravian Anchiornis huxleyi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that evolution of archosaurian epidermal appendages in the lineage leading to birds was accompanied by duplication and divergence of an ancestral β-keratin gene cluster. As morphological diversification of epidermal appendages occurred and the β-keratin multigene family expanded, novel β-keratin genes were selected for novel functions within appendages such as feathers.

  6. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Xi, Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (Pstress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052) and 90 (P = 0.054) gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  7. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  8. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus.

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    Jingjing Xie

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P<0.05. However, oxidation status of lipid and protein and expression of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05 and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (P<0.05. During chronic heat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (P<0.05 and HSP 90 mRNA (P<0.05 was decreased. In the liver, oxidation of protein was alleviated during acute heat challenge (P<0.05, however, gene expression HSF2, 3 and 4 and HSP 70 were highly induced (P<0.05. HSP90 expression was increased by chronic thermal treatment (P<0.05. In the muscle, both types of heat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052 and 90 (P = 0.054 gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  9. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

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    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  10. The genetic link between the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and the chicken and junglefowls of the genus Gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Takada, M; Ohno, S; Kondo, N

    1995-11-21

    Further comparison of mitochondrial control-region DNA base sequences of 16 avian species belonging to the subfamily Phasianinae revealed the following: (i) Generalized perdicine birds (quails and partridges) are of ancient lineages. Even the closest pair, the common quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), maintained only 85.71% identity. (ii) The 12 species of phasianine birds previously and presently studied belonged to three distinct branches. The first branch was made exclusively of members of the genus Gallus, while the second branch was made of pheasants of the genera Phasianus, Chrysolophus, and Syrmaticus. Gallopheasants of the genus Lophura were distant cousins to these pheasants. The great argus (Argusianus argus) and peafowls of the genus Pavo constituted the third branch. The position of peacock-pheasants of the genus Polyplectron in the third branch was similar to that of the genus Lophura in the second branch. Members of the fourth phasianine branch, such as tragopans and monals, were not included in the present study. (iii) The one perdicine species, Bambusicola thoracica, was more closely related to phasianine genera Gallus and Pavo than to members of other perdicine genera. The above might indicate that Bambusicola belong to one-stem perdicine lineage that later splits into two sublineages that yielded phasianine birds, one evolving to Gallus, and the other differentiating toward Pavo and its allies.

  11. Effect of gama irradiation (Co60 in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken (Gallus gallus heart

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    Marta Maria Braga Batista Soares Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the irradiation process in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken heart samples acquired in an industry located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using irradiation doses of 1.5 kGy, 3, 0 kGy and 4.5 kGy. These microorganisms are related to fecal contamination, and are indicators of the sanitary processing conditions of the foodstuffs. The bacteriological analyses were conducted applying the methodologies and standards recommended by Brazilian norms resolution no. 12 (BRASIL, 2001 and instruction no. 62 (BRASIL, 2003 Regarding Escherichia coli, no statistically significant difference among the four groups (control, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy was observed (p> 0.05. The Most Probable Number (MPN for Enterococci spp. was not proven in the investigated samples. Thus, the Co60 gamma irradiation process was effective in eliminating Escherichia coli, and the lowest dose, of 1.5 kGy, was enough to abolish this enteropathogen from the evaluated samples.

  12. Metabolic and organ mass responses to selection for high growth rates in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewski, M; Gavin, A; McDevitt, R; Wallis, I R

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should either lower the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a trade-off between the costs of growth and maintenance or increase RMR because of a buildup of metabolic machinery. Furthermore, some suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should reduce peak metabolic rate (PMR) through delayed tissue maturation and/or an increased energy allocation to organ growth. We studied this by comparing metabolic rates and organ sizes of fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) with those of birds from a laying strain, which grow much slower. During the first week of life, despite growing six times faster, the RMR of the broiler chickens was lower than that of birds of the laying strain. The difference between strains in RMR disappeared thereafter, even though broilers continued to grow twice as fast as layers. The differences between strains in growth rate during the first week after hatching were not reflected in similar differences in the relative masses of the heart, liver, and small intestine. However, broilers had heavier intestines once they reached a body mass of 80 g. In contrast, broilers had relatively smaller brains than did layers. There was a positive correlation, over both strains, between RMR and the masses of leg muscles, intestine, and liver. Furthermore, despite delayed maturation of muscle tissue, broilers exhibited significantly higher PMR. We hypothesize that a balance between the larger relative muscle mass but lower muscle maturation level explains this high PMR. Another correlation, between leg muscle mass and PMR, partly explained the positive correlation between RMR and PMR.

  13. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  14. A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing t...

  15. Genome-wide gene expression surveys and a transcriptome map in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, H.

    2010-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology, evolutionary research, and agricultural science. The completeness of the draft chicken genome sequence provided new possibilities to study genomic changes during evolution by comparing the chic

  16. Ammonia Production In Poultry Houses And Its Effect On The Growth Of Gallus Gallus Domestica Broiler Chickens A Case Study Of A Small Scale Poultry House In Riverside Kitwe Zambia

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    Patrick Sipalo Maliselo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chickens deaminate excess amino acids and excrete the derived nitrogen in the urine mainly as uric acid which is readily converted to ammonia. This gas has adverse effects on the health of chickens and air quality. Production of ammonia and its effect on the growth of chickens was monitored at a poultry house of House Number 5743 Mukuba Road in Riverside Kitwe from 21st August 2013 to 6th June 2014. Two batches of fifty day old hybrid broiler chicks were bred in house A and B 5 m x 7 m under the same management system in three phases. House A chicks were fed on Novatek feed only while those in house B were fed on Novatek feed blended with 0.5 0.7 and 0.9 ww bamboo charcoal of amp8804600m particle size. Weekly mass recording by the use of a weighing scale provided a measure of growth rate while analysis of the excreta using Kjeldahl method at the Copperbelt University and Nkana Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kitwe provided a means of monitoring the amount of ammonia generated. Chickens in house B showed a slightly faster growth rate from 28 to 42 days than those in house A. The f-test results from the study showed that there was a significant effect of ammonia concentration on chicken growth rate P0.05. The results obtained from excreta-litter mixture analysis showed a significant adsorption of ammonia by bamboo charcoal P0.05. The study further indicated a direct dependency of ammonia concentration in excreta on chicken age moisture content and pH.

  17. Soroprevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em galinhas (Gallus gallus domesticus de criações domésticas, oriundas de propriedades rurais do Norte do Paraná, Brasil Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in back yard chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus from rural properties in North region of Paraná State, Brazil

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    João Luis Garcia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário que pode infectar todos os animais homeotérmicos. No presente trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em galinhas de criações domésticas (fundo de quintal, oriundas de propriedades rurais localizadas no município de Jaguapitã, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Estudos prévios demostraram que o parasita está amplamente disseminado nas diferentes espécies de animais domésticos, de companhia e no homem nessas mesmas propriedades. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta, sendo a positividade considerada para àqueles títulos maiores ou iguais a 16. Foram estudados 155 soros , sendo que 16 (10,3% foram reagentes à toxoplasmose, e 139 (89,7% não reagentes. Os títulos mais freqüentes foram de 64 (5/31,2%, 16 e 1024 (ambos com 4/25% e o maior t��tulo encontrado foi de 1024 (4/25%. A soroprevalência do T. gondii não foi influenciada pelo sexo da ave (Exato de Fisher p = 0,12, pela finalidade da criação (corte ou postura, Exato de Fisher p = 0,39, pela percentagem de felinos sororeagentes na propriedade (r = -0,19 p = 0,27, nem pelo número de felinos sororeagentes (r = -0,09 p = 0,60. Através do presente trabalho, demostrou-se uma ocorrência elevada da resposta sorológica ao T. gondii em aves domésticas oriundas de propriedades rurais neste município, conseqüentemente esses animais podem representar risco de infecção para o homem e para outros animais quando consumidos crus ou mal cozidos.Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that can infect all homeothermic animals. The occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii in back yard chicken, from rural properties of Jaguapitã county, Paraná State, Brazil was studied, serun samples were analysed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA. Titers higher or equal to 16 were considered positives. A total of 155 sera were studied, 16 (10.3% of which were positive to T. gondii, whereas 139 (89.7% were non

  18. 京海黄鸡繁殖性状与29个多态位点的关联性%Association Between Reproduction Traits and 29 Loci in Jinghai Yellow Chicken(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊庆灿; 王金玉; 张跟喜; 张涛; 王文浩; 顾玉萍; 王永娟

    2014-01-01

    为了寻找影响鸡(Gallus gallus)繁殖性状的候选基因,本研究利用单核苷酸多态(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)芯片分型技术,利用已报道的影响鸡繁殖性状的29个位点对396只京海黄鸡母鸡的29个位点直接进行SNP分型,并对11个繁殖性状进行关联分析.结果发现,29个SNP中,有12个SNP与至少1个繁殖性状关联显著(P<0.05),其中有7个SNP同时与2个繁殖性状关联显著(P<0.05).所有繁殖性状中,与京海黄鸡开产体重关联显著的SNP有1个,与京海黄鸡462 d产蛋数关联显著的SNP有2个,与蛋重关联显著的SNP有6个,与开产体重关联显著的SNP有6个,与综合选择指数关联显著的SNP有2个,与后代健雏率关联显著的SNP有1个,没有发现与300 d产蛋数、300~462 d产蛋数和后代孵化率关联显著的SNP.同时,根据这些位点的群体遗传参数发现,12个SNP的平均多态信息含量偏低,说明京海黄鸡有持续选育提高的可能性和必要性.大部分有利基因型为纯合基因型,但有部分基因型为杂合基因型.对与12个SNP最近的功能基因犰狳(Priodontes maximus)重复基因(armadillo repeat gene deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome,ARVCF)、集落刺激因子3受体基因(colony stimulating factor 3 receptor,CSF3R)和ODZ同源物2基因(odz,odd Oz/ten-m homolog 2,ODZ2)的功能探讨发现,这些基因可以通过不同的途径影响鸡的繁殖性状.本研究为鸡繁殖性状候选基因的进一步研究提供了基础资料.

  19. Effects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S; Everaert, N; Métayer-Coustard, S; Rideau, N; Berri, C; Joubert, R; Temim, S; Collin, A; Tesseraud, S

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized.

  20. Proteomic analysis of the Gallus gallus embryo at stage-29 of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, David; Agudo Garcillán, David; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Martínez-Arribas, Fernando; Delcán, José; Schneider, José; Palomar, María Angustias; Linares, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the primary models for embryological and developmental studies. In order to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the normal and abnormal development of the chicken, we used 2-DE to construct a whole-embryo proteome map. Proteins were separated by IEF on IPG strips, and by 11% SDS-PAGE) gels. Protein identification was performed by means of PMF with MALDI-TOF-MS. In all, 105 protein spots were identified, 35 of them implicated in embryo development, 10 related with some diseases, and 16, finally, being proteins that have never been identified, purified or characterized in the chicken before. This map will be updated continuously and will serve as a reference database for investigators, studying changes at the protein level under different physiological conditions.

  1. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  2. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  3. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  4. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %).

  5. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  6. Effects of dietary nucleic acid on the level of serum uric acid in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken%饮食核酸对SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车会莲; 管春梅; 陈文华; 王宗涛; 李蓉

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨饮食核酸对 SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响. 方法:选 30日龄 SPF级家鸡按血尿酸水平随机分成急性、亚急性和亚慢性研究 3组,各组再按血尿酸水平随机分成 5个亚组,在常规饲料基础上,分别饲以添加不同剂量酵母 RNA的饮食.动态监测血尿酸水平;分期脱颈椎处死实验动物,测定胸腺、法氏囊和肝脏、脾脏的脏器指数,并进行病理学观察. 结果:各添加酵母 RNA实验组动物的体质量、脏器指数和病理组织学观察与 0剂量添加组相比均无统计学差异( P >0.05);饮食中添加酵母 RNA引起 SPF家鸡血尿酸水平升高至 0.41 mmol/L的急性作用阈剂量和亚急性作用阈剂量为 6.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 180倍;其亚慢性作用阈剂量为 8.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 240倍. 结论:饮食核酸可影响血尿酸水平;成人日补充量 2 g/d是安全的,不会引起血尿酸水平的异常持续性升高而产生高尿酸血症和痛风.%AIM:To explore the effect of dietary nucleic acid on the serum uric acid level in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken. METHODS:The SPF class gallus domesticated chickens aged 30 d were randomly divided into three groups according to the level of serum uric acid: acute,subacute and subchronic groups.Then each group was randomly divided again into five subgroups,which were fed feedstuff and applied different doses of yeast RNA.We monitored the changes in serum uric acid level and body mass periodically,and then the histopathological changes of their spleen,liver,thymus and bursa of Fabricius. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in body mass,visceral indexes and pathological observation between different dose groups(P >0.05). The threshold dose that dietary yeast RNA caused hyperuricemia in SPF chickens in acute and subacute tests was 6.0 g/(kg· d) and 8.0 g/(kg· d) in subchronic test,which were equal to 180 and 240 times in

  7. Estimation of protein content in the plasma of young chickens by a refractometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G W; Thaxton, P; Edens, F W

    1975-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate a refractometric method for determination of protein content of chicken plasma. Comparison of the results obtained with the refractometric and the Lowry methods indicated that refractometry, when used with due caution in a typical laboratory situation, provided a simple, fast, inexpensive and valid method for determining the protein content of plasma from young chickens.

  8. Neurotoxicity induced by arsenic in Gallus Gallus: Regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Houjuan; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected. Results showed slightly histology changes were obvious in the brain tissues exposure to arsenic. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were decreased compared to the control, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased gradually along with increase in diet-arsenic. The mRNA levels of Hsps and protein expressions of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were up-regulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to arsenic induced neurotoxicity in chickens. Arsenic exposure disturbed the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Increased heat shock response tried to protect chicken brain tissues from tissues damage caused by oxidative stress. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by arsenic include oxidative stress and heat shock protein response in chicken brain tissues.

  9. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  10. Investigation of Serotype, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistant Mechanisms of Salmonella Isolated from Chickens(Gallus domesticus)%鸡源沙门氏菌的血清型、耐药性和耐药机制调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹明; 魏蕊蕊; 张纯萍; 徐士新; 张启迪; 唐潘

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the serotype distribution,antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant mechanisms of Salmonella isolated from chickens(Gallus domesticus),110 Salmonella from Beijing and Shanxi were studied.The results of serotyping indicated that S.enteritidis(76.58%) was the predominant serotypes.The susceptibility of 110 Salmonella isolates to 13 kinds antimicrobials was determined by microbroth dilution method.The highest resistant rate was observed by polymyxin E(41.82%),followed by sulfisoxazole (31.82%),ampicillin(29.09%) and doxycycline(20.91%).Resistant rates to other antimicrobials were under 20%.Resistant mechnisms of isolates were detected,and the results showed that integron Ⅰ mainly harbored the resistance genes to aminoglycosides,sulfonamides,lincosamides,which might play a critical role in spresding drug resistance.This study provides basic data for prevalence investigation of Salmonella from chickens and the rational use of antimicrobials for Salmonella infection control in veterinary practice.%沙门氏菌(Salmonella)是一种重要的食源性致病菌,为了解不同地区鸡源沙门氏菌的血清型、耐药性和耐药机制,本研究对从北京和陕西地区分离的110株鸡(Gallus domesticus)源沙门氏菌进行了分析.血清型结果表明,沙门氏菌流行株为肠炎沙门氏菌(S.enteritidis),占76.58%.微量肉汤稀释法检测110株沙门氏菌对13种抗菌药物的耐药性,结果显示对多粘菌素E的耐药性最强,耐药率为41.82%,其次依次为磺胺异噁唑(31.82%)、氨苄西林(29.09%)和多西环素(20.91%),对其余9种药物的耐药率均低于20%.耐药机制研究结果表明,相关耐药基因在耐药菌株中的携带率较高,Ⅰ类整合子主要携带氨基糖苷类、磺胺类、林可胺类等药物的耐药基因,该整合子在沙门氏菌耐药性的传播方面具有重要作用,本研究为鸡源沙门氏菌的流行性分析以及兽医临床沙

  11. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP, with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP.

  12. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  13. 原鸡与不同品种家鸡杂交F1代生长发育研究%Study on the Growth and Development of F1 Generation between Gallus gallus and Different Varieties of Gallus domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先才; 彭章华; 雷胜辉; 周杰珑

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to discuss the growth and development laws of hybnd offspring from Gallus gallus and different local chicken varieties. [Method] Gallus gallus spadiceus (male) and different Gallus domesticus varieties (female) (Chuxiong Ma Chicken, Chahua Chicken, Green-ear Black-bone Chicken,Gallus gallus) were used as study objects to determine the growth and development indices of 0-22 week-old chicken. Using three typical nonlinear growth curve models (Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy), the growth models of hybrid F1 generation were fit. Meanwhile, the optimal regression equation was established by using stepwise regression method. [Result] The effect degree or indices of the body traits of hybrid F1 generation between Gallus gallus and different local chicken varieties on the body weight had some differences. The fitting degree of the regression equation of Logistic and Gompertz models were both more than 0. 99, which better fit the growth and development laws of F1 hybrid generation of Gallus gallus. [Conclusion] This research provided scientific basis and reference for the preservation, utilization of genetic resources of Gallus gallus, and the breeding and improvement of local domestic chicken varieties.%[目的]探讨原鸡与不同地方品种家鸡杂交后代的生长发育规律.[方法]以原鸡(♂)与不同地方鸡种(♀)(楚雄麻鸡、茶花鸡、绿耳乌骨鸡、原鸡)杂交组合F1代(♂)为研究对象,测定其0~22周龄的生长发育指标.运用Logistic、Gompertz和Bertalanffy3种典型的非线性生长曲线模型分别对其进行拟合分析,同时利用逐步回归法建立最优回归方程.[结果]原鸡与不同家鸡杂交F1代(♂)体尺性状对体重影响程度或指标存在一定差异.Logistic和Gompertz模型回归方程的拟合度都达到0.99以上,很好地模拟了原鸡杂交代F1的生长发育规律.[结论]该研究为原鸡遗传资源的保存、利用和地方家

  14. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, M.; Robertson, L.B.; Tempest, H.G.; Langley, E.J.; Ioannou, D.; Fowler, K.E.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, w

  15. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  16. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  17. Selection for the compactness of highly expressed genes in Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Ming

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding sequence (CDS length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana, indicated that there are negative relationships between expression level and gene size, CDS length as well as intron length. Different models such as selection for economy model, genomic design model, and mutational bias hypotheses have been proposed to explain such observation. The debate of which model is a superior one to explain the observation has not been settled down. The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates. As D. Melanogaster, chicken has a larger effective population size, selection for chicken genome is expected to be more effective in increasing protein synthesis efficiency. Therefore, in this study the chicken was used as a model organism to elucidate the interaction between gene features and expression pattern upon selection pressure. Results Based on different technologies, we gathered expression data for nuclear protein coding, single-splicing genes from Gallus gallus genome and compared them with gene parameters. We found that gene size, CDS length, first intron length, average intron length, and total intron length are negatively correlated with expression level and expression breadth significantly. The tissue specificity is positively correlated with the first intron length but negatively correlated with the average intron length, and not correlated with the CDS length and protein domain numbers. Comparison analyses showed that ubiquitously expressed genes and narrowly expressed genes with the similar expression levels do not differ in compactness. Our data provided evidence that the genomic design model can not, at least in part, explain our observations. We grouped all somatic-tissue-specific genes

  18. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Wang, L; Shen, X; Gu, X; Zeng, D; Zeng, Z

    2013-10-01

    The plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli were studied. Marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. Plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. In the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin concentrations in plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were 1.84, 1.33, 7.35, 5.61, 3.12, 2.98, and 4.51 g/mL (g); the elimination half-lives of marbofloxacin were 6.8, 2.74, 9.31, 8.45, 9.55, 11.53 and 5.46 h for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. AUC were calculated to be 9.68, 8.04, 45.1, 27.03, 20.56, 19.47, and 32.68 μg/mL (g) for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. Marbofloxacin concentration in tissues except for brain exceeded marbofloxacin concentration in plasma, with AUC(tissue) /AUC(plasma) ranging from 2.01 to 4.66 and Peak(tissue) /Peak(plasma) ranging from 1.62 to 3.99. The results showed that a marbofloxacin dosage of 5 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals may provide successful treatment of chicken with MG and E. coli infection.

  19. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major) . chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4' after exposed to an in-pa...

  20. Early host gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the intestine of chickens with different genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smith, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    So far the responses of chickens to Salmonella have not been studied in vivo on a whole genome-wide scale. Furthermore, the influence of the host genetic background on gene expression responses is unknown. In this study gene expression profiles in the chicken (Gallus gallus) intestine of two genetic

  1. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  2. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  3. What are the similarities between stress, sudden cardiac death in Gallus gallus and sudden unexpected death in people with epilepsy Similaridades entre stress, morte súbita cardíaca na espécie Gallus gallus e morte súbita em epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio A Scorza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with epilepsy are at higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, responsible for 7.5% to 17% of all deaths in epilepsy. Many factors are current associated with SUDEP and possible effect of stress and cardiac arrhythmia are still not clear. Sudden death syndrome (SDS in chickens is a disease characterized by an acute death of well-nourished and seeming healthy Gallus gallus after abrupt and brief flapping of their wings, similar to an epileptic seizure, with an incidence estimated as 0.5 to 5% in broiler chickens. A variety of nutritional and environmental factors have been included: but the exactly etiology of SDS is unknown. Studies had suggested that the hearts of broiler chickens are considerably more susceptible to arrhythmias and stress may induce ventricular arrhythmia and thus, sudden cardiac death. In this way, SDS in Gallus gallus could be an interesting model to study SUDEP.Indivíduos com epilepsia têm maior risco de sofrer morte súbita e inexplicada em epilepsia (SUDEP, responsável por 7,5% a 17% de todas as mortes em epilepsia. Diversos fatores têm sido associados com SUDEP e um possível efeito do stress e das arritmias cardíacas ainda não é claro. A síndrome da morte súbita (SDS em galinhas é uma situação caracterizada por uma morte aguda em Gallus gallus bem nutridos e aparentemente saudáveis após um evento curto e abrupto de bater de asas, semelhante a uma crise epiléptica, com incidência de 0,5 a 5% em granjas. Uma ampla variedade de fatores nutricionais e ambientais tem sido considerada, mas a causa exata da SDS é desconhecida. Estudos têm sugerido que o coração das galinhas criadas em granjas é mais sensível a arritmias cardíacas e que o stress poderia levar a arritmias cardíacas e, portanto, a morte súbita cardíaca. Assim, SDS em Gallus gallus pode ser considerado um interessante modelo de SUDEP.

  4. Dietary mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal improves growth and increases muscle weights in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Yoshimoto, Yu; Inui, Mariko; Fukui, Kensuke; Yonemoto, Hiroko; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The utilization of copra meal as a feed ingredient is limited because it contains a high level of mannan. However, recent findings indicate that the effect of copra meal on growth performance in broiler chickens can be improved by the supplementation of mannanase in the diet. In the present study, we examined the effect of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MCM) on growth performance and muscle protein metabolism in growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty 8-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups (four birds in each pen, five replicates) and fed either a commercial diet (as a control diet) or a diet containing MCM at 0.2% until 22 days of age. Dietary MCM significantly increased the weights of body, breast muscle, and thighs in chickens, whereas the weights of abdominal adipose tissue and liver were not affected. Cumulative feed intake was significantly increased by MCM. Dietary MCM significantly decreased plasma 3-methylhistidine level. The messenger RNA and protein levels of muscle protein metabolism-related factors were not altered by MCM. These findings suggest that the growth-promoting effect of MCM is related to the suppression of muscle proteolysis in growing broiler chickens.

  5. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  6. Evolution and function of leukocyte RNase A ribonucleases of the avian species, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitto, Takeaki; Dyer, Kimberly D; Czapiga, Meggan; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we explore the evolution and function of two closely related RNase A ribonucleases from the chicken, Gallus gallus. Separated by approximately 10 kb on chromosome 6, the coding sequences of RNases A-1 and A-2 are diverging under positive selection pressure (dN > dS) but remain similar to one another (81% amino acid identity) and to the mammalian angiogenins. Immunoreactive RNases A-1 and A-2 (both approximately 16 kDa) were detected in peripheral blood granulocytes and bone marrow. Recombinant proteins are ribonucleolytically active (kcat = 2.6 and 0.056 s(-1), respectively), and surprisingly, both interact with human placental ribonuclease inhibitor. RNase A-2, the more cationic (pI 11.0), is both angiogenic and bactericidal; RNase A-1 (pI 10.2) has neither activity. We demonstrated via point mutation of the catalytic His110 that ablation of ribonuclease activity has no impact on the bactericidal activity of RNase A-2. We determined that the divergent domains II (amino acids 71-76) and III (amino acids 89-104) of RNase A-2 are both important for bactericidal activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cationic domains can function as independent bactericidal peptides without the tertiary structure imposed by the RNase A backbone. These results suggest that ribonucleolytic activity may not be a crucial constraint limiting the ongoing evolution of this gene family and that the ribonuclease backbone may be merely serving as a scaffold to support the evolution of novel, nonribonucleolytic proteins.

  7. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S.; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A.; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Stephen; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data.RESULTS: An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integr...

  8. Molecular characterization of Saudi local chicken strains using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, H A; Ramadan, H A I; Baeshen, Nabih A; Sadek, Mahmoud Abdel; Abou Alsoud, M E

    2015-08-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate and estimate the genetic diversity of native breeds based on cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of mitochondrial DNA information. The obtained sequences of cyt-b gene segment have TAA as a stop codon at 488 position with no insertions or deletion in all individuals of both native chicken strains. The blast results showed that no variation was found among individuals within both native chicken strains, but when a comparison was established among them and other species of genus Gallus the variation is exploring, additionally many mutant sites were detected as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different sites. The phylogenetic trees exhibited three different groups. The results revealed that the native chicken strains were closely related to the cluster of Gallus gallus and subspecies of Gallus, suggesting that they may be separated from the same origin. According to this result and previously studies, the native chicken strains are genetically closer to Gallus gallus and it could be successfully distinguished from the other wild types of Gallus chicken based on cyt-b gene information. We recommended that the governmental concerns for native chicken strain should be enhanced to screen its genetic structure for large scale in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta in Gallus gallus from isolated and mixed backyard rearing systems Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta em Gallus gallus de criações de fundo de quintal isoladas e mistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Gomes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus, in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31% and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%, in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de malófagos em diferentes regiões do corpo de Gallus gallus, sob os sistemas de criação isolado e misto e determinar a dinâmica e estrutura da população. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 100 e 35% para as aves no sistema de criação isolado e misto, respectivamente. As espécies identificadas foram: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae e Lipeurus caponis. As aves mantidas isoladas apresentaram maior parasitismo do que

  10. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  11. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillier, L.W.; Miller, W.; Birney, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Aerts, J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome—composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence a

  12. Genetics of ascites resistance and tolerance in chicken: A random regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kause, A.; Dalen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two complementary mechanisms to reduce the detrimental effects of parasites, pathogens, and production diseases on host performance. Using body weight and ascites data on domesticated chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, we demonstrate the use of random regression animal mo

  13. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  14. Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two spec

  15. Efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas (Gallus domesticus Effect of cortico-cancellous bone grafting in osteogenisis of cortical ulnar failure of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Balthazar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas. Foram utilizadas 18 galinhas, com aproximadamente 70 semanas de idade e peso corpóreo médio de 2,5kg. Criou-se uma falha óssea na porção diafisária média da ulna em ambas as asas, sendo a direita utilizada como grupo-controle (grupo I e a esquerda como grupo-tratado (grupo II. As aves foram subdivididas aleatoriamente em quatro subgrupos de acordo com o período de observação (14, 35, 60 e 90 dias. No grupo II, dois fragmentos ósseos da carena do esterno foram retirados, seccionados e implantados na falha óssea. Ao término do período de observação de cada subgrupo, as aves foram abatidas com tiopental sódico para realização dos exames histopatológico e radiográfico post-mortem, com classificação dos resultados em escala semiquantitativa (escore. O grupo II demonstrou osteogênese mais evidente aos 35 e 90 dias de pós-cirúrgico (PThe aim of this survey was to evaluate the effect of cortico-cancellous bone grafting in osteogenesis in cortical ulnar failure in domestic chickens. Eighteen chickens weighing 2.5kg with approximately 70 weeks of age were used. A bone defect in the middle portion of the ulna shaft was created in both wings; the right wing in the control group (Group I and the left in the treated group (Group II. The birds were randomly divided into four subgroups according to the observation period (14, 35, 60 and 90 days. In group II, two bone fragments of the keel of the sternum were removed, sectioned and implanted in the bone defects. At the end of the observation period for each subgroup, the birds were euthanaized with sodium thiopental to perform the histopathological and radiographic postmortem, with ranking of results in a semi-quantitative scale (score. Group II showed a more evident osteogenisis at 35 and 90 days after surgery (P<0.05. In comparing both groups

  16. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Raillietina spp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) from Domestic Chickens in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (I...

  17. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  19. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  20. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  1. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  2. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Labas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC–MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ and seminal plasma (SP. We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  3. A New Chicken Genome Assembly Provides Insight into Avian Genome Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Warren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3, built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb, including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized. Of the 1.21 Gb genome, we include three previously missing autosomes, GGA30, 31, and 33, and improve sequence contig length 10-fold over the previous Gallus_gallus-4.0. Despite the significant base representation improvements made, 138 Mb of sequence is not yet located to chromosomes. When annotated for gene content, Gallus_gallus-5.0 shows an increase of 4679 annotated genes (2768 noncoding and 1911 protein-coding over those in Gallus_gallus-4.0. We also revisited the question of what genes are missing in the avian lineage, as assessed by the highest quality avian genome assembly to date, and found that a large fraction of the original set of missing genes are still absent in sequenced bird species. Finally, our new data support a detailed map of MHC-B, encompassing two segments: one with a highly stable gene copy number and another in which the gene copy number is highly variable. The chicken model has been a critical resource for many other fields of study, and this new reference assembly will substantially further these efforts.

  4. Hepatic mRNA expression and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I in broiler chickens selected for different growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Fernanda Giachetto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic expression and plasma concentrations of IGF-I were investigated in three broiler chicken strains selected for different growth rates (HP-Hubbard-Pettersen, a fast growing strain; NN-Naked-neck, a strain with an intermediate growth rate and a heterozygous genotype, and C-Caipira, a slow growing crossbred strain. The chickens were studied at 1, 21 and 42 days of age and had free access to food throughout the study. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression was assessed by dot blot analysis using a randomly labeled chicken IGF-I cDNA as the probe and plasma IGF-I concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay. The hepatic levels of IGF-I mRNA increased from 1 to 21 days of age in all strains, with NN chickens showing a higher (p < 0.05 IGF-I expression than the other strains. Plasma IGF-I concentrations increased (p < 0.05 with broiler chicken age, but there were no significant differences among the strains. These results indicate that despite differences in the growth rates among the strains, the changes in the expression of IGF-I mRNA in liver and in the plasma levels of IGF-I were independent of broiler chicken strain, but varied with chicken age.

  5. A simple two step procedure for purification of the catalytic domain of chicken tryptophan hydroxylase 1 in a form suitable for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte R.; Munch, Astrid;

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1 in Escheri...

  6. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  7. Determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the active component of the antifertility agent nicarbazin, in chicken, duck, and goose plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, T M; Kohler, D J; Goodall, M A; Yoder, C; Griffin, D; Miller, L; Johnston, J J

    2001-08-01

    4,4'-Dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) was extracted from chicken, duck, and goose plasma and isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. DNC was detected by ultraviolet absorbance at 347 nm and quantified by comparison to a calibration standard. Recovery data were determined by analyzing DNC-fortified control plasma. The mean recovery of DNC in fortified chicken plasma samples was 99.7 +/- 1.9% for 0.18 and 9.1 ppm DNC, and in fortified duck and goose plasma samples was 99.5 +/- 4.9% and 101.4 +/- 4.5%, respectively, for 0.18, 9.1, and 18 ppm DNC.

  8. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone leve

  9. Evaluation of the i-STAT portable clinical analyzer in chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, H W; Vogt, R.; Kästner, S; Riond, B.; Hatt, J M

    2007-01-01

    The i-STAT portable clinical analyzer (PCA) was evaluated for performance in avian species. With the EG7+ cartridge, which provided results for hydrogen ion concentration, oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, hematocrit, and various calculated parameters, analytical accuracy and precision were tested by comparing obtained values to those of established traditional blood gas and chemistry analyzers. Deming's regression and bias plots were used to compare ...

  10. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Zhuang, Hong; Hinton, Arthur; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-12-01

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major). Chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4 °C after exposed to an in-package cold plasma (80 kV for 180 s) treatment. Populations of mesophiles, psychrophiles, and pseudomonas spp. were measured as indicators for microbiological shelf life and CIELAB L(∗) values as an indicator for raw meat appearance. Results show that regardless of microbial type, there were no significant differences in microbial counts between the control and CP treated chicken fillets packed in air. However, in the MA packages, microbial counts were consistently lower than the non-treated control during refrigerated storage. Regardless of CP treatment, the microbial counts on the samples packed in air were much higher than in MA. They were more than 6 logs cfu/g in air compared to fewer than 4 logs cfu/g in MA after 7 d storage and fewer than 6 logs cfu/g after 14 d storage. Regardless of CP treatment and gas composition in package, there were no significant differences in the surface L(∗) value between the fillets pre-treatment and those after storage at 4 °C. These results demonstrate that the effects of in-package CP treatments on microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken fillets depend upon headspace composition in packages. When fresh chicken fillets are packed in air, CP treatment has no effect on microbiological shelf life. MA packages with high O2 and CO2 significantly extend shelf life and CP treatment with MA can at least double shelf life of fresh chicken meat (more than 14 days). Regardless of headspace composition, in-package CP does not have negative effects on chicken meat appearance.

  11. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep d

  12. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  13. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  15. Sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of ethopabate and amprolium hydrochloride in chicken plasma and their residues in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Magdy, N; Abbas, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric methods are proposed to determine ethopabate (ETH) and amprolium hydrochloride (AMP). First derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry determines the natively fluorescent ethopabate at 288 nm in presence of amprolium hydrochloride which is a non fluorescent quaternary compound with average recovery 100.54±0.721 over a concentration range of 0.01-0.8 μg/mL. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.007 μg/mL, respectively. The second method is direct synchronous spectrofluorimetry for determining amprolium hydrochloride at 362 nm after a reaction with 5% NaOH and 0.08% potassium ferricyanide that is optimized by a two-level factorial design. This method is linear over a concentration range of 0.01-0.65 μg/mL with average recovery 99.4±1.28. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.006 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed methods are found to be valid and applicable for the analysis of ETH and AMP in their veterinary formulation. They are successfully applied to determine the studied drugs in chicken plasma and their residues in chicken muscle, liver, egg and chicken-based baby food product with recoveries in the ranges of 95.71-108.73% and 97.36-111.89% and for ETH and AMP, respectively.

  16. One-Year Plasma N-linked Glycome Intra-individual and Inter-individual Variability in the Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. Brent; Bereman, Michael S.; Petitte, James N.; Hawkridge, Adam M.; Muddiman, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the chicken presents a similar pathogenesis compared with humans including CA-125 expression and genetic mutational frequencies (e.g., p53). The high prevalence of spontaneous EOC chickens also provides a unique experimental model for biomarker discovery at the genomic, proteomic, glycomic, and metabolomic level. In an effort to exploit this unique model for biomarker discovery, longitudinal plasma samples were collected from chickens at three month intervals for one year. The study described herein involved cleaving the N-glycans from these longitudinal chicken plasma samples and analyzing them via nanoLC-FTMS/MS. Glycans identified in this study were previously found in human plasma and this work provides a promising methodology to enable longitudinal studies of the N-linked plasma glycome profile during EOC progression. The structure, abundance, and intra-variability and inter-variability for 35 N-linked glycans identified in this study are reported. The full potential of the chicken model for biomarker discovery has yet to be realized, but the initial interrogation of longitudinally-procured samples provides evidence that supports the value of this strategy in the search for glycomic biomarkers. PMID:21845070

  17. Herring and chicken/pork meals lead to differences in plasma levels of TCA intermediates and arginine metabolites in overweight and obese men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Andrew; Savolainen, Otto I; Sen, Partho

    2017-01-01

    Scope: What effect does replacing chicken or pork with herring as the main dietary source of protein have on the human plasma metabolome? Method and results: A randomised crossover trial with 15 healthy obese men and women (age 24–70 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to four weeks of herring...... diet or a reference diet of chicken and lean pork, five meals per week, followed by a washout and the other intervention arm. Fasting blood serum metabolites were analysed at 0, 2 and 4 weeks for eleven subjects with available samples, using GC-MS based metabolomics. The herring diet decreased plasma...

  18. Impacts of acute imipramine treatment on plasma and brain amino acid metabolism in mice given graded levels of dietary chicken protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Sato, Mikako; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have shown a relationship between depression and animal protein intake. To evaluate whether the difference of dietary chicken protein levels induces an antidepressant-like effect and potentiates acute antidepressant effects, three levels of dietary chicken protein were used as the representative animal protein with imipramine used as the antidepressant. In addition, the effects of dietary chicken protein on brain metabolism were evaluated. Open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted on the 27th and 28th days, respectively. OFT and FST were not influenced by both imipramine and dietary protein levels. However, characteristic effects of imipramine treatment on brain monoamine metabolism were observed in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. In addition, dietary protein significantly increased taurine and L-ornithine levels even though these amino acids were not contained in the diets. In conclusion, the metabolism of several amino acids in the plasma and brain were altered by dietary chicken protein.

  19. Imunidade de aves (Gallus gallus) para Salmonella enterica subesp. enterica Sorovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum

    OpenAIRE

    Acelas Díaz, Silvia Juliana [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The fowl typhoid is a systemic disease of chickens caused by Salmonella enteric subsp. enteric serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum. This bacterium is highly pathogenic for chickens at any age, causing mortality even in adult birds. The progress of clinical signs differs among different lines of chickens. White lines of chickens are considered resistant and hardly mortality is observed. Chickens of brown lines are more susceptible and develop severe clinical signs with high mortality rates. T...

  20. Plasma thyroid hormones and corticosterone levels in blood of chicken embryos and post hatch chickens exposed during incubation to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pawlak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study attempted to determine the effect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF (only carrier frequency on thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and corticosterone (CORT concentrations in the blood plasma of chick embryos, and to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF exposure during embryogenesis on the level of these hormones in birds that are ready for slaughter. Material and Methods: Throughout the incubation period, embryos from the experimental group were exposed to a 1800 MHz EMF with power density of 0.1 W/m2, 10 times during 24 h for 4 min. Blood samples were collected to determine T4, T3 and CORT concentrations on the 12th (E12 and 18th (E18 day of incubation, from newly hatched chicks (D1 and from birds ready for slaughter (D42. Results: The experiment showed that T4 and T3 concentrations decreased markedly and CORT levels increased in the embryos and in the newly hatched chicks exposed to EMF during embryogenesis. However, no changes were found in the level of the analyzed hormones in the birds ready for slaughter. Differences in T4 and T3 plasma concentrations between the EMF-exposed group and the embryos incubated without additional EMF were the highest in the newly hatched chicks, which may be indicative of the cumulative effect of electromagnetic field on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT. Discussion: The obtained results suggest that additional 1800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic field inhibits function of HPT axis, however, it stimulates hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal axis by inducing adrenal steroidogenic cells to synthesize corticosterone. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which radio EMFs affect HPT and HPA axis function in the chicken embryos.

  1. Distinct physiological, plasma amino acid, and liver transcriptome responses to purified dietary beef, chicken, fish, and pork proteins in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Müller, M.R.; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Young rats received semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only
    regarding protein source; casein (reference) was replaced by beef, chicken, fish, or pork proteins.
    Compared to casein, all proteins, except pork, increased total plasma AA concentrations.
    Pork protein reduced adipose t

  2. The Genome of the Chicken DT40 Bursal Lymphoma Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Janos; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya

    2014-01-01

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell...... chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations...

  3. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken...... Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information...

  4. Impact of the genetic background on the composition of the chicken plasma MiRNome in response to a stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Endale Ahanda

    Full Text Available Circulating extra-cellular microRNAs (miRNAs have emerged as promising minimally invasive markers in human medicine. We evaluated miRNAs isolated from total plasma as biomarker candidates of a response to an abiotic stress (feed deprivation in a livestock species. Two chicken lines selected for high (R+ and low (R- residual feed intake were chosen as an experimental model because of their extreme divergence in feed intake and energy metabolism. Adult R+ and R- cocks were sampled after 16 hours of feed deprivation and again four hours after re-feeding. More than 292 million sequence reads were generated by small RNA-seq of total plasma RNA. A total of 649 mature miRNAs were identified; after quality filtering, 148 miRNAs were retained for further analyses. We identified 23 and 19 differentially abundant miRNAs between feeding conditions and between lines respectively, with only two miRNAs identified in both comparisons. We validated a panel of six differentially abundant miRNAs by RT-qPCR on a larger number of plasma samples and checked their response to feed deprivation in liver. Finally, we evaluated the conservation and tissue distribution of differentially abundant miRNAs in plasma across a variety of red jungle fowl tissues. We show that the chicken plasma miRNome reacts promptly to the alteration of the animal physiological condition driven by a feed deprivation stress. The plasma content of stress-responsive miRNAs is strongly influenced by the genetic background, with differences reflecting the phenotypic divergence acquired through long-term selection, as evidenced by the profiles of conserved miRNAs with a regulatory role in energy metabolism (gga-miR-204, gga-miR-let-7f-5p and gga-miR-122-5p. These results reinforce the emerging view in human medicine that even small genetic differences can have a considerable impact on the resolution of biomarker studies, and provide support for the emerging interest in miRNAs as potential novel and

  5. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  6. Plasma biochemical indices at various stages of infection with a field isolate of Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kumar Mondal

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis has a major impact on poultry industry as it affects broiler and layer birds of all age groups. Caecal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria tenella is a very devastating enteric disease in broiler,which involves huge economic loss In present study, experimental infective dose of Eimeria tenella isolated from field was determined in broiler chicken and subsequent alterations in different plasma biochemical constituents were evaluated at interval of 5th, 7th and 9th day of post inoculation (PI with the selected dose of 20000-25000 sporulated oocyst per bird. The dose was selected based on titration. A significant increase in plasma glucose, total cholesterol level and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity were observed where as a significant decrease in the level of total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity were evident during infection. Highest degree of infection was found on 7th day PI. Onward 9th day of PI onward clinical recovery was confirmed on the basis of pathognomonic caecal lesion score, clinical signs and symptoms. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 404-409

  7. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of Hybro PG lineage hens (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial vessels and their branches which irrigated the cloacal bursas of 30 hens (Gallus gallus of the Hybro PG lineage. First of all, the left isquiadic artery from the samples was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”; then, we continued the experiment with dissection whose results confi rmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the left and right internal pudendal arteries and bursocloacal arteries in 100% of the cases, varying only in terms of the numbers and disposition of their branches. There were also some branches from the median caudal artery (23% and left external pudendal (3.33%. The total number of branches varied from 1 to 4 and their distribution was unique in each sample.

  8. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls.

  9. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  10. Alleviative effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on acute heat stress-induced thermal panting and the level of plasma nonesterified fatty acids in hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Y

    2012-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid on hypothyroidism-induced negative growth performance and whether α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress in relation to hypothyroid status. 2. Female broiler chickens (14 d-old) were fed diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and an antithyroid substance, propylthiouracil (200 mg/kg), for 20 d under thermoneutral conditions (25°C). At 42 d of age, chickens were exposed to a high ambient temperature (36°C, 60% RH) for 4 h. 3. Under the thermoneutral condition, propylthiouracil administration decreased feed efficiency and concomitantly increased adipose tissue and thyroid gland weights. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triacylglycerol were also increased by propylthiouracil administration. However, α-lipoic acid supplementation did not affect the hypothyroidism-induced effects. 4. In hypothyroid chickens, the rise in respiratory rate induced by heat exposure was greatly inhibited by α-lipoic acid administration at 1 h, but this effect had disappeared at 4 h. In addition, a similar inhibitory effect on the concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids was subsequently observed at 4 h. 5. Therefore, the present study suggested that α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress if chickens are in a hypothyroid status.

  11. High bioavailablilty iron maize (Zea mays L. developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro (Caco-2 model and in vivo (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tako Elad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron (Fe deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L. lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High. Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate. Chicks (Gallus gallus were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P  Conclusions We conclude that the High Fe-bioavailability maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency.

  12. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  13. Tapeworms of rock dove and domestic chicken in Taif area, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrani, Mohammad R; Ashour, Ameen A; Shobrak, M Y

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the tapeworms that parasitize the rock dove Columba livia palastinae and domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus in Taif governorate, Saudi Arabia. A total of 115 rock doves and 105 domestic chicken have been examined. Birds were brought in from the wells and farms inside and outside the city of Taif. In rock doves, the percentage of infection was recorded as Cotugnia digonopora 5.21%, Hymenolepis carioca 10.43%, Raillietina echinobothrida 27.82%, Raillietina tetragona 22.6%. The prevalence of infection recorded in Municipal chicken with different types of tapeworms was Cotugnia digonopora 7.61%, Choanotaenia infundibulum 12.38%, Amoebotaenia sphenoides 7.61%, Raillietina echinobothrida 11.42%, Raillietina tetragona 8.57%, Raillietina (Paroniella) kashiwarensis 4.76%. The overall percentage of infected rock pigeons Columba livia palastinae with tapeworms was 66.1% while the percentage of infected chicken Gallus gallus domestica was 52.3%. The study defined and described this species as classification keys in place.

  14. Klf7 modulates the differentiation and proliferation of chicken preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhang; Haixia Wang; Yingning Sun; Hui Li; Ning Wang

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 7 (Klf7) has been extensively studied in the mammalian species,but its function in avian species is unclear.The objective of this study was to reveal the function of chicken Klf7 (Gallus gallus Klf7,gKlf7) in adipogenesis.The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the relative mRNA level of chicken Klf7 (gKlf7/gβ-Actin) in the abdominal adipose tissue was significantly associated with the abdominal fat content and the age of broilers (P <0.05),and gKlf7 was more highly expressed in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P< 0.05).In addition,Oil red O staining showed that gKlf7 inhibited chicken preadipocyte differentiation,and MTT assay indicated that gKlf7 overexpression promoted preadipocyte proliferation.Additionally,luciferase assays showed that gKlf7 overexpression suppressed the chicken CCAAT/enhancerbinding protein α (C/ebpα),fatty acid synthase (Fasn),and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) promoter activities (P < 0.05),and gKlf7 knockdown increased the chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ),C/ebpα and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) promoter activities (P < 0.05).Together,our study demonstrated that chicken Klf7 inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and promotes preadipocyte proliferation.

  15. Roxarsone and transformation products in chicken manure: determination by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Charlita G; Momplaisir, Georges-Marie; Heithmar, Edward M

    2005-04-01

    The determination of the animal feed additive roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) and six of its possible transformation products (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) in chicken manure was investigated using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS). Initial method development was conducted using ultraviolet (UV) detection for ruggedness and time efficiency. Separation of these seven arsenic species was effected using a 20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 5.7. The CE-ICP-MS limits of detection in terms of As for each of the species was in the low microg.L(-1) range, corresponding to absolute detection limits in the range 20-70 fg As (based on a 23 nL injection). Overall, the method developed in this study provides high selectivity and low limits of detection (1-3 microg.L(-1) or low-ppb, based on As), uses small sample volume (low nL), and produces minimal wastes.

  16. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-07-28

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  17. Biosecurity State in Gamecock (Gallus gallus Breeding Farms in Yacuanquer, Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Astaíza Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Colombia is sanitarily controlled and regulated; therefore, gamecock breeding farms should be regulated, but to this moment there are no studies about the biosecurity measurements implemented, which is a growing concern due to the sanitary impact this might have on the poultry industry. The goal of this work was to assess the knowledge and application of biosecurity norms in gamecock (Gallus gallus breeding farms from the Yacuanquer municipality, in Nariño, Colombia, as regulated by Resolution 3642 of August 21st of 2013, issued by the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. 157 breeders were surveyed, from which 88.54% does not recognize the biosecurity concept and does not control the entrance of people not related to the farm; 61.15% does not disinfect locations; 100% does not keep a pediluvium at the entrance of the farm nor do they carry out disinfection procedures for their vehicles; only 23.57% does a sanitary break inside their breeding farms and 63.7% does not put a quarantine period in place for the new specimens they acquire; 64.33% does not vaccinate and 98.09% does not have any veterinary advice. In conclusion, it was established that gamecock breeders in Yacuanquer do not know and have not implemented biosecurity measurements, which represents a risk factor for the poultry industry of the region.

  18. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  19. High interferon type I responses in the lung, plasma and spleen during highly pathogenic H5N1 infection of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Hervé R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study shows that high pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection of chicken induced high levels of bioactive interferon type I in the lung (4.3 × 105 U/mg tissue, plasma (1.1 × 105 U/mL, and spleen (9.1 × 105 U/mg tissue. In contrast, a low pathogenic attenuated H5N1 vaccine strain only induced approximately 24 times less IFN in the lung, 441 times less in the spleen and 649 less in the plasma. This was in the same range as a reassortant carrying the HA from the vaccine strain and the remaining genes from the high pathogenic virus. On the other hand, a reassortant virus with the HA from the high pathogenic H5N1 with the remaining genes from the vaccine strain had intermediate levels of IFN. The level of interferon responses related to the viral load, and those in the spleen and blood to the spread of virus to lymphoid tissue, as well as disease severity. In vitro, the viruses did not induce interferon in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, but high levels in splenocytes, with not clear relationship to pathogenicity and virulence. This, and the responses also with inactivated viruses imply the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cell-like leukocytes within the chicken immune system, possibly responsible for the high interferon responses during H5N1 infection. Our data also indicate that the viral load as well as the cleavability of the HA enabling systemic spread of the virus are two major factors controlling systemic IFN responses in chicken.

  20. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

  1. Epitope mapping of campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (gallus gallus domesticus) sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibod...

  2. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, LaDeana W.; Miller, Webb; Birney, Ewan; Warren, Wesley; Hardison, Ross C.; Chris P Ponting; Bork, Peer; Burt, Peer; Martien A M Groenen; Delany, Mary E.; Dodgson, Jerry B; Chinwalla, Asif; Cliften, Paul F; Sandra W Clifton; Delehaunty, Kimberly D

    2004-01-01

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance bet...

  3. The consequence of low mannose-binding lectin plasma concentration in relation to susceptibility to Salmonella Infantis in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie Louise; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Norup, Liselotte R.;

    2015-01-01

    to Salmonella, but knowledge in relation to chicken MBL and Salmonella is lacking. In order to study this relation day-old chickens from two selected lines L10H and L10L, differing in MBL serum concentration, were either orally infected with S. Infantis (S.123443) or kept as non-infected controls....... The differences between healthy L10H and L10L chicken sublines were more profound than differences caused by the S. Infantis infection. The average daily body weight was higher for L10H than for L10L, regardless of infection, indicating beneficial effects of MBL selection on growth. Salmonella was detected...

  4. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Li, J; Li, J; Li, R X; Lv, C F; Li, S; Mi, Y L; Zhang, C Q

    2016-07-01

    The Paneth cells are highly specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine of many vertebrate species. These cells reside at the base of crypts of the Lieberkühn and contain abundant secretory granules. Previous studies suggesting the existence of Paneth cells in the chicken (Gallus gallus) remained controversial. Here we seek to identify the Paneth cells in the chicken small intestine through morphological examination and specific gene expression. Histological staining and transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of granulated secretory cells at the base of the crypts in the chicken small intestine. Western blotting experiment also manifested the expression of lysozyme protein, which is specifically secreted by the Paneth cells in the small intestine. Moreover, lysozyme c and lysozyme g mRNAs were expressed in the small intestine of chickens at different ages. Lysozyme c mRNA, in particular, was located at the base of the small intestinal crypts as displayed by in situ hybridization. Collectively, we provide evidences that the Paneth cells indeed exist in the small intestine of the chicken.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of 100 Salmonella strains isolated from Gallus gallus in 4 wilayas of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounar-Kechih, S; Hamdi, T M; Mezali, L; Assaous, F; Rahal, K

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at identifying serotypes and surveying the antimicrobial resistance and plasmid support of resistance of 100 Salmonella strains, which were isolated from 96 out of 506 (18.97%) samples taken from different production farms in the wilayas (i.e., Algerian states) of Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Bejaïa, and Boumerdes in 2007. The highest percentage of Salmonella (48%) was recorded in Bouira. Thirteen serotypes were identified among the 100 Salmonella strains used in this study. The most prevalent ones were Salmonella Heidelberg (24%), Salmonella Enteritidis (20%), Salmonella Albany (16%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9%). The strains showed resistance to 8 of the 34 antibiotics tested. Fifty-three percent of strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, among which 15.09% were multiresistant. The most frequently observed resistance was to quinolones (58.49%), with a contribution of 94.74% of Salmonella Heidelberg resistant strains. The plasmid transfer performed on 53 strains showed that only 11 exhibited one or more markers of resistance, the most frequent being ampicillin, followed by tetracycline, then cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides, and kanamycin, in that order. The tetracycline characteristics were present in 72.72% of transconjugants, those of the β-lactams and sulphonamides in 27.27% each and those of the aminosides in 9.09%. The incompatibility groups of plasmids belong to the F1me and Com1 classes, and the molecular weight of the plasmid DNA was greater than 100 kb. The phenotypic and genotypic results indicate a clonal dissemination in the Gallus gallus species in this particular study; this phenomenon could generate resistant bacteria and transferable genes of resistance to humans.

  6. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  7. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  8. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Scofield, R. Paul; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-08-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773-1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period.

  9. Comparison of different solid-phase extraction materials for the determination of fluoroquinolones in chicken plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusch, Franziska; Scherz, Gesine; Mohring, Siegrun A I; Stahl, Jessica; Hamscher, Gerd

    2014-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones are synthetic antibiotics which are frequently used in veterinary medicine e.g. for the treatment of poultry. Their specific importance is based on the fact that they are regarded as antibiotics of last resort because of their broad spectrum of action against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Here, a new and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of four fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and difloxacin) in chicken plasma by LC-MS/MS was developed. Solid-phase extraction was chosen for sample preparation because a selective sample clean-up is combined with an effective extraction. Various solid-phase extraction materials including polymer-based reversed-phase, silica-based reversed-phase and mixed-mode sorbents were compared. Selection criteria were analyte recovery, sample extract purity and economical aspects (analysis time and elution solvent volume). Best recoveries and minimized elution solvent volumes were achieved using polymeric reversed-phase cartridges. However, post-column infusion experiments revealed that the analysis is influenced by co-eluting matrix components. Hence, a combination of a mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridge and a mixed-mode cation-exchange cartridge was used as final extraction method. This method yield slightly lower analyte recoveries compared to polymeric-reversed-phase cartridges but exhibit no matrix effects. Recoveries of spiked chicken plasma ranged from 61.9% to 84.8% with an inter-day precision of generally less than 12%. LODs are between 0.03 and 0.05μg/L; LOQs are between 0.08 and 0.16μg/L. Maximum plasma concentrations of chickens medicated with an enrofloxacin dosage of 3mg/kg bodyweight were 38.9μg/L for enrofloxacin and 3.3μg/L for its main metabolite ciprofloxacin.

  10. Gallus Heat shock cognate protein 70, a novel binding partner of Apoptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV infection of newly hatched chickens induces generalized lymphoid atrophy and causes immunosuppressive. VP3, also known as Apoptin, is non-structural protein of CAV. Apoptin specifically induces apoptosis in transformed or tumor cells but not in normal cells. In particular, there are no known cellular homologues of Apoptin hindering genetic approaches to elucidate its cellular function. Although a number of Apoptin-interacting molecules have been identified, the molecular mechanism underlying Apoptin's action is still poorly understood. To learn more about the molecular mechanism of Apoptin's action, we searched for Apoptin associated proteins. Results Using yeast two-hybrid and colony-life filter approaches we got five positive yeast clones. Through sequencing and BLASTed against NCBI, one of the clones was confirmed containing Gallus heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70. Hsc70 gene was clone into pRK5-Flag plasmid, coimmunoprecipitation assay show both exogenous Hsc70 and endogenous Hsc70 can interact with Apoptin. Truncated Apoptin expression plasmids were made and coimmunoprecipitation were performed, the results show the binding domain of Apoptin with Hsc70 is located between amino acids 30-60. Truncated expression plasmids of Hsc70 were also constructed and coimmunoprecipitation were performed, the results show the peptide-binding and variable domains of Hsc70 are responsible for the binding to Apoptin. Confocal assays were performed and results show that under physiological condition Hsc70 is predominantly distributed in cytoplasm, whereas Hsc70 is translocated into the nuclei and colocalized with Apoptin in the presence of Apoptin in DF-1 cell. Functional studies show that Apoptin markedly down-regulate the mRNA level of RelA/p65 in DF-1 cell. To explore the effect of Hsc70 on Apoptin-mediated RelA/p65 gene expression, we have searched two Hsc70 RNAi sequences, and found that all of them

  11. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...

  12. Observaçoes sobre o parasitismo de Gallilichus hiregoudari D'souza & Jagannath (Acari: Syringobiidae em Gallus gallus (L. em infestações naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Horacio Faccini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of Gallilichus hiregoudari D'Souza e Jagannath in Gallus gallus (L. is widespread in Brazil. All life stages of the mite can be found within the quills of primaries and secondaries of the flight feathers. Nymphal heteromorphism, imbalanced sex ratio toward females and thanatochresis are common features. Damage of the pulp caps and raquis are common pathological findings.

  13. Transgene transmission in chickens by sperm-mediated gene transfer after seminal plasma removal and exogenous DNA treated with dimethylsulfoxide or ,-dimethylacetamide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Priscila Marques Moura De Leon; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Marta G Amaral; Odir A Dellagostin; João Carlos Deschamps; Fabiana K Seixas

    2011-09-01

    Transgenic animals have been successfully produced by mass gene transfer techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). The aim of this work was to demonstrate transgene transmission by SMGT in chickens using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or ,-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as transfectants after seminal plasma removal to prevent DNase activity. Sperm samples were prepared by repetitive washes, and after each wash sperm motility, seminal plasma proteins, exogenous DNA integrity and its uptake by spermatozoa were evaluated. Laying hens were inseminated using spermatozoa transfected with pEGFP-N1 vector in the presence of DMSO or DMAc. Transgene transmission in newborn chicks was evaluated by in vivo enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, RT-PCR and PCR analysis. DNA internalization was limited to sperm samples washed twice. The presence of DMSO or DMAc during transfection had no effect on fertilization or hatching rates. PCR analysis detected the presence of EGFP DNA in 38% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group and 19% from the DMAc group. EGFP mRNA was detected in 21% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group, as against 8.5% from the DMAc group. However, in vivo expression of EGFP was only observed in a single animal from the DMSO group. Our data revealed that the plasmid DNA–DMSO combination coupled with sperm washes can be an efficient method for transfection in chickens.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  15. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Katajamaa, Rebecca; Altimiras, Jordi; Jensen, Per

    2015-09-01

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

  16. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2014-04-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova.

  17. Evaluation of the treatment of both sides of raw chicken breasts with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for the inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho; Oh, Mi Wha; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is an emerging nonthermal microbial inactivation technique. In this study, agar and raw chicken breast were inoculated with Escherichia coli and treated with an APP jet based on cold arc plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum conditions for the plasma treatment of an APP jet in order to maximize the efficiency of E. coli inactivation. The combination of N2+O2 (10 standard cubic centimeters per minute) and a longer treatment time (10 min) resulted in the highest inactivation of E. coli on agar plates with an optimum treatment distance of 20 mm. The samples in dry and wet conditions showed similar reductions in E. coli count when one side of the samples was treated at a given treatment time. Treating both sides-2.5 min on each side-resulted in a higher growth inhibition of E. coli than treatment of a single side only for 5 min. However, there was no significant difference between one-side treated samples (10 min) and both-sides treated samples (5+5 min). When the concentration of E. coli in the chicken breast sample was 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, the reduction rate of the E. coli was the highest, followed by 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) CFU/g; however, no difference was found between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g. In conclusion, various treatment conditions may affect the inactivation efficiency of E. coli. In the present study, the optimum condition was determined as the treatment distance of 20 mm and longer treatment time (10 min) with the addition of oxygen to the nitrogen gas flow. Furthermore, the cell concentration of sample was an important parameter for the efficacy of the inactivation process.

  18. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available he Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced for a total of 335 individuals from Indonesian native chicken. The individuals were drawn from sixteen populations of native chicken and three individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius. Indonesian native chicken populations were: Pelung Sembawa, PL (n = 18, Pelung Cianjur, PLC (n = 29 and Arab Silver, ARS (n=30, Cemani, CM (n = 32, Gaok, GA (n = 7, Kedu Hitam, KDH (n = 11, Wareng, T & TW (n = 10, Cemani, CMP (n = 2, Kedu, KD (n=26, Kedu Putih, KDP (n = 15, Sentul Jatiwangi, STJ (n = 27, Ayam Kate, KT (n = 29, Ayam Sentul, STC (n = 15, Arab Golden, ARG (n = 26, Ayam Merawang, MR (n = 28, Kedu Putih Jatiwangi, KDPJ (n=6 and Kapas, KPS (n = 21. Green jungle fowls were: two individuals from Flores island (FL5 and FL57 and one individual (BD42 from Sumbawa island. The sequences of the first 530 nucleotides were used for analysis. Eighty two haplotypes were identified from 78 polymorphic sites for the 335 individuals. Seventy nine haplotypes were identified in native chicken from 57 polymorphic sites while three were of jungle fowls. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian native chicken can be grouped into five clades (Clade I, II, IIIc, IIId and IV of the previously identified seven clades (Clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId and IV in Asian domestic chicken. Haplotypes CM10 and CM32 fall to a different category while STC12 is also on its own. Interestingly STC12 clusters together with Gallus gallus gallus (GenBank accession No. SULANDARI et al. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences 296 AB007720. When CM10 (same as CM14, CM32 and STC12 were removed, 77 haplotypes of domestic chicken were identified from 53 polymorphic sites. All the green jungle fowls are clustered to one clade of their own. The clades of domestic chicken are: Clade I which has three haplotypes, Clade II has 52

  19. Muscles of the pelvic outlet in the fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) with special reference to their nerve supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, K; Sakamoto, H; Sato, T

    1992-11-01

    The manner of innervation of the pelvic outlet muscles in fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was examined in detail in four male pelvic halves. The segmental arrangement of the nerve supply in the sacral and pudendal plexuses was compared to that of Lacertilia and Urodela as a basis for a morphological analysis of the pelvic outlet muscles. From the viewpoint of innervation, the pelvic outlet muscles of fowl are classified into two groups: a sphincter muscle group and a levator muscle group. These two groups are closely related to the ventral muscles of the pelvic limb. In contrast to the morphology of pelvic outlet muscles in lacertilians, in fowl the caudal muscle element does not contribute to the formation of these muscles.

  20. Evaluation of the antimicrobian resistance of Escherichia coli isolated of healthy hens (Gallus gallus).

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Adriano Sakai [UNESP; Andreatti Filho,Raphael Lucio; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio [UNESP; Rocha, Ticiana Silva

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota of the chickens is composed by many species of bacteria that benefit the host in many ways during its life. When the host is submitted to inadequate treatments with antibiotics, this microbiota suffers a selection trial, becoming resistant to these drugs. It was evaluated the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from intestine of healthy posture hens to the antibiotics. From 100 samples analyzed, 83 showed resistance to more than three antibiotics, and two wer...

  1. Modulatory antibacterial activity of body fat from Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Coutinho; Pedro Aquino; Jéssica Leite; Livia Leandro; Fernando Figueredo; Edinardo Matias; Tássia Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Based on the popular belief ,which uses fat from G. g. domesticus. (domestic chicken), to combat infectious and inflammatory processes, this work aims to evaluate the antibacterial action of lipids in adipose tissue of these animals besides verifying association with antibiotics observing the modulating effect of natural products against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and multiresistant of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates. We evaluated the antibacte...

  2. Development of an ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method to determine inorganic arsenic in liver from chickens treated with roxarsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Sean D; Shockey, Nohora; Kubachka, Kevin; Howard, Karyn D; Carson, Mary C

    2012-09-19

    Roxarsone, (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)arsonic acid, is an arsenic-containing compound that has been approved as a feed additive for poultry and swine since the 1940s; however, little information is available regarding residual arsenic species present in edible tissues. We developed a novel method for the extraction and quantification of arsenic species in chicken liver. A strongly basic solution solubilized the liver, and ultrafiltration removed macromolecules and particulate material. Ion chromatography separated the species [arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, (4-hydroxy-3-aminophenyl)arsonic acid, (4-hydroxy-3-acetaminophenyl)arsonic acid, and roxarsone] in the extracts, which were then detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The extraction oxidized most arsenite to arsenate. For fortification concentrations at 2 μg kg(-1) and above, recoveries ranged from 70 to 120%, with relative standard deviations from 7 to 34%. We detected roxarsone, its 3-amino and 3-acetamido metabolites, inorganic arsenic, and additional unknown arsenic species in livers from roxarsone-treated chickens. Both the originating laboratory and a second laboratory validated the method.

  3. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  5. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  6. Investigation of Leptin gene in broiler and layer chicken lines Investigação do gene da Leptina em linhagens de aves de corte e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Ninov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a polypeptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, plays an important role in feed intake regulation, energy metabolism and reproduction in several species. Its function has been intensively studied in mammals; however, in birds limited information is available. The cDNA sequence for chicken leptin has been reported, and high hepatic expression levels of leptin were associated with fat deposition in selected bird lines. However, controversies still remain concerning to the chicken leptin gene and several authors failed to amplify this gene from genomic DNA or cDNA. In view of this controversy and the importance of this gene, the present study aimed to investigate the leptin gene in a population of birds developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center (Brazil. First of all, the sequences of Gallus gallus leptin gene (GenBank AF012727 and Mus musculus (GenBank NM_008493 were aligned with the objective of designing primers in conserved regions among the two species, since 94.6% of similarity is described in the literature in those species. For all four pairs of primers designed, several amplification tests were performed with both DNA and cDNA, but neither unique fragment nor expected band size was ever achieved. The leptin sequence in GenBank does not represent the sequence of the chicken leptin gene.A leptina, hormônio polipeptídico secretado principalmente pelo tecido adiposo, tem um papel importante na regulação da ingestão de alimentos, metabolismo de energia e reprodução em mamíferos. A função do gene da leptina tem sido intensamente estudada em mamíferos, porém, em aves, ainda é pouco conhecida. O cDNA deste gene foi identificado em galinhas, e a alta expressão hepática e os níveis de leptina no plasma foram associados à alta deposição de gordura presente em linhagens de aves selecionadas. Entretanto, permanecem controvérsias sobre o gene da leptina em galinhas, pois diversos autores não conseguiram

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli Strain Isolated from a Gallus gallus Broiler Producing the Novel CTX-M-166 Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lurdes; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the CTX-M-166-harboring O6:H16 sequence type 48 (ST48)-fimH34 Escherichia coli strain recovered from a Gallus gallus broiler. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an IncI1/ST103-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-166-orf477 plasmid region and of diverse antibiotic resistance and virulence-acquired genes.

  8. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  9. Early life in a barren environment adversely affects spatial cognition in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Tahamtani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task, however the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  10. Isolation of Microsporum gallinae from a fighting cock (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako

    2013-02-01

    A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country.

  11. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  13. 砂烫鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺研究%The best Cooked hot Sand Gallus Gallus Domesticus Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伶佳; 贾天柱

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Gallus gallus domesticus processing methods on the hot sand to study to measure and filter out the sand hot processing methods the best processing technolog. Methods: Evaluation of protein content, choose the amount of sand,dry time,dry temperature factors for the study,using orthogonal design L9 (34) ,The best processing technology preferred Gallus gallus domesticus. Results:According to orthogonal experiment results, Health products Gallus gallus domesticus as the best processing technology ,The amount of sand per 30kg Gallus gallus domesticus 1200kg,In the bottom of the pot temperature of 200 -210 ℃ ,Frying 60s when the protein content of the highest,2. 0875%. Conclusion:Health products Gallus gallus domesticus 30kg of sand per volume of 1200kg, at the bottom of the pot temperature of 200 -210 ℃, Chaozhi 60s as the best cooked condition.%目的:对鸡内金炮制方法进行研究,测定并筛选出鸡内金砂烫炮制方法的最佳炮制工艺.方法:以可溶性蛋白质含量为评价指标,选择砂量,炒制时间,炒制温度为考察因素,采用正交设计L9(34),优选鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺.结果:根据正交试验的结果,生品鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺为,每30kg鸡内金用砂量1200kg,在锅底温度为200~210℃,炒制60s时的可溶性蛋白质含量最高,为0.706%.结论:生品鸡内金每30kg用砂量1200kg,在锅底温度为200~210℃,炒制60s为最佳炮制条件.

  14. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  15. Histomoniasis outbreak in free-range chickens in semiarid Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeann Leal Araújo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an outbreak of histomoniasis in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Juvenile chickens aged approximately 48 days showed disease over a 15-day period. Seven of 16 chickens showed yellow, watery stool, anorexia, lethargy, and death within 3-5 days of clinical illness. The mortality rate was 43.7%. The chickens were raised in a backyard with 12 adult birds that remained healthy. None of the chickens were vaccinated or dewormed. A necropsy on one deceased bird showed lesions confined to the cecum and liver. The left cecum was distended and had yellow, slightly elevated areas on the serosa. The liver was reddened with centrally depressed areas surrounded by a pale halo, which were distributed throughout the capsular surface and extended deep throughout the parenchyma. Microscopically, typhlitis and pyogranulomatous necrotizing hepatitis associated with numerous intralesional Histomonas trophozoites was observed. The birds were administered metronidazole and albendazole, which effectively controlled the histomoniasis. Although histomoniasis is rare in free-range poultry, it can occur and cause high mortality and significant economic losses.

  16. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  17. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  18. East African origins for Madagascan chickens as indicated by mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Michael B.; Thomson, Vicki A.; Wadley, Jessica J.; Piper, Philip J.; Sulandari, Sri; Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Gongora, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50–500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar). In contrast to the linguistic and human genetic evidence indicating dual African and Southeast Asian ancestry of the Malagasy people, we find that chickens in Madagascar only share a common ancestor with East Africa, which together are genetically closer to South Asian chickens than to those in Southeast Asia. This suggests that the earliest expansion of Austronesian-speaking people across the Indian Ocean did not successfully introduce chickens to Madagascar. Our results further demonstrate the complexity of the translocation history of introduced domesticates in Madagascar.

  19. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  20. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of the Lhoman White LSL lineage fowl (Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Primo Bombonato

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial branches supplying the cloacal bursas of 30 female fowl (Gallus gallus of the Lhoman White LSL lineage, aged between eight and ten weeks. The right isquiadic artery was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”. Next, the samples were fixed with a 10% formalin solution through deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracavitary injections for a period of at least 48 hours. Dissections confirmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the right bursocloacal arteries in 29 cases (96.67%, the left bursocloacal arteries in 28 cases (93.33%, the right cloacal arteries in 13 cases (43.33%, and the left cloacal arteries in 15 cases (50%. The number of branches from the arteries, independent of their origin, varied from two to six. There were two branches in 5 cases (16.67%, three branches in 14 cases (46.67%, four branches in 3 cases (10%, five branches in 6 cases (20%, and six branches in 1 case (3.33%. The distribution of the vessels was unique in each sample.

  1. Identification of goose, mule duck, chicken, turkey, and swine in foie gras by species-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Mayoral, Belén; López-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2003-03-12

    A specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been developed for the identification of goose (Anser anser), mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata), chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) in foie gras. A forward common primer was designed on a conserved DNA sequence in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA), and reverse primers were designed to hybridize on species-specific DNA sequences of each species considered. The different sizes of the species-specific amplicons, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed clear identification of goose, mule duck, chicken, turkey, and swine in foie gras. Analysis of experimental mixtures demonstrated that the detection limit of the assay was approximately 1% for each species analyzed. This genetic marker can be very useful for the accurate identification of these species, avoiding mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution in foie gras.

  2. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  3. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  4. Isolation of dermatophytes and related species from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Sano, Ayako; Hiruma, Midori; Murata, Michiko; Kaneshima, Takashi; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Touyama, Hidemi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nakazato, Yasutomo; Uehara, You; Hirakawa, Morihiko; Imura, Yoshimi; Terashima, Yoshie; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keji; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Hiruma, Masataro; Murakami, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 793 bird combs [645 chickens and 148 fighting cocks (Shamo)] to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The targeted fungal species were recovered from 195 of the 793 examined birds (24.6 %). Prevalence ratios were compared in temperate (the mainland) and subtropical (Nansei Islands) areas, genders, strains, breeding scale (individual and farm), and housing system (in cage and free ranging). The frequency of the fungal species in the mainland, males, fighting cocks, breeding scale by individual nursing, and free-range housing system exhibited significantly higher positive ratios than that in the other groups. A total of 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated, including 101 Arthroderma (Ar.) multifidum, 83 Aphanoascus (Ap.) terreus, five Uncinocarpus queenslandicus, two U. reesii, two Ap. pinarensis, one Amauroascus kuehnii, one Ar. simii, one Gymnoascus petalosporus, one Microsporum gallinae, and 28 Chrysosporium-like (Chrysosporium spp.) isolates, which were identified using internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The predominant fungal species in the mainland was Ap. terreus and that in the Nansei Islands was Ar. multifidum. Pathogenic fungal species to humans and animals were limited to M. gallinae and Ar. simii, which corresponded to 0.025 % of the isolates in this study.

  5. Spatiotemporal mapping of the muscular activity of the gizzard of the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Reynolds, G; de Loubens, C; Hulls, C; Janssen, P W M; Ravindran, V

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of spatiotemporal mapping of the spontaneous actions of component muscles of the gizzard and associated structures in ex vivo preparations with combined superfusion and vascular perfusion. Ongoing spontaneous contraction of cranial and caudal thin muscles occurred at a frequency of 2.2 ± 0.1 cycles per minute. Contractions of M. tenuis craniodorsalis with mean duration of 2.8 ± 0.2 s commenced ventrally adjacent to the distal limit of the proventriculus and progressed dorsally at 2.02 ± 0.03 mm•s(-1) in a concerted front. Near simultaneous contraction of M. tenuis caudoventralis of mean duration of contraction of 4.7 ± 0.7 s commenced dorsally and progressed ventrally at a similar rate (2.1 ± 0.1 mm•s(-1)) and in a similar manner. Contraction of the caudoventralis preceded that of craniodorsalis (mean 1.1 ± 0.15 s). Contraction of the 2 tenuis muscles was synchronous with the first component peak of the cyclic increase in lumen pressure and with distension of the crassus musculature. Contraction of the M. crassus caudodorsalis muscle coincided with the second component peak and was followed by distension of the tenuis musculature. The latter commenced before the relaxation of the tenuis muscles. Contractions of the crassus muscle propagated rapidly at right angles to the orientation of the muscle fibers at a faster velocity than that of the tenuis musculature. The durations of the component peaks in lumen pressure indicated that the duration of crassus contraction was similar to that of the tenuis musculature.

  6. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  7. Alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos de Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Alterations in hematological parameters of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Borrelia anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S. Lisbôa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Borreliose aviária é uma doença septicêmica aguda, cosmopolita, que acomete diferentes espécies aviárias, sendo causada por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações hematológicas em Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por B. anserina via vetor Argas (Persicargas miniatus. Um total de 27 aves da espécie G. g. domesticus com 67 dias de vida, foram divididas em três grupos inteiramente casualizados contendo nove animais cada. Um grupo foi exposto a carrapatos infectados por B. anserina (Grupo 1; outro a carrapatos livres deste agente (Grupo 2; além de um grupo não exposto aos carrapatos (Grupo 3. Realizaram-se esfregaços sangüíneos diariamente, a partir do primeiro dia de exposição ao vetor, até o 25º dia pós-exposição (DPE. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas 3 dias antes da exposição aos carrapatos, e 3, 8 e 18 dias pós-exposição (DPE, para a realização dos hemogramas. O exame dos esfregaços das aves do Grupo 1 revelou grande número de espiroquetas. Os esfregaços sangüíneos dos Grupos 2 e 3 mantiveram-se negativos durante todo o período experimental. De acordo com os resultados das avaliações hematológicas, as aves do Grupo 1 apresentaram um quadro de anemia normocítica normocrômica em oito DPE, além de leucocitose com heterofilia e monocitose que cursaram paralelamente ao período de espiroquetemia. Concluiu-se que a infecção por B. anserina determinou nas aves do Grupo 1 alterações hematológicas compatíveis com uma infecção bacteriana de moderada gravidade, evoluindo para auto-cura, nas condições experimentais estabelecidas neste trabalho.Avian spirochaetosis is a cosmopolite acute septicemic disease of many avian species, caused by Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. The present study assesses the estimate of the hematological alterations of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with B. anserina by vector Argas

  8. Comparison of pretectal genoarchitectonic pattern between quail and chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma eMerchán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization of the central nervous system is controlled by local networks of transcription factors that establish and maintain the identities of neuroepithelial progenitor areas and their neuronal derivatives. The conserved cerebral Bauplan of vertebrates must result essentially from conserved patterns of developmentally expressed transcription factors. We have previously produced detailed molecular maps for the alar plate of prosomere 1 (the pretectal region in chicken (Ferran et al., 2007, 2008, 2009. Here we compare the early molecular signature of the pretectum of two closely related avian species of the family Phasianidae, Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail and Gallus gallus (chicken, aiming to test conservation of the described pattern at a microevolutionary level. We studied the developmental pretectal expression of Bhlhb4, Dbx1, Ebf1, Gata3, Gbx2, Lim1, Meis1, Meis2 Pax3, Pax6, Six3, Tal2, and Tcf7l2 (Tcf4 mRNA, using in situ hybridization, and PAX7 immunohistochemistry. The genoarchitectonic profile of individual pretectal domains and strata was produced, using comparable section planes. Remarkable conservation of the combinatorial genoarchitectonic code was observed, fundamented in a tripartite anteroposterior subdivision. However, we found that at corresponding developmental stages the pretectal region of G. gallus was approximately 30% larger than that of C. japonica, but seemed relatively less mature. Altogether, our results on a conserved genoarchitectonic pattern highlight the importance of early developmental gene networks that causally underlie the production of homologous derivatives in these two evolutionarily closely-related species. The shared patterns probably apply to sauropsids in general, as well as to more distantly related vertebrate species.

  9. The simultaneous separation and determination of six flavonoids and troxerutin in rat urine and chicken plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong-Jun; Liu, Ping; Qu, Xi-Long; Xu, Min-Juan; Qu, Qi-Shu; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Hu, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Zhi-Yue

    2007-09-01

    The method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-vis detection was used and validated for the simultaneous determination of six flavonoids (puerarin, rutin, morin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol) and troxerutin in rat urine and chicken plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed using a VP-ODS column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5.0 microm) maintained at 35.0 degrees C. The mobile phase was a mixture of water, methanol and acetic acid (57:43:1, v/v/v, pH 3.0) at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Six flavonoids and troxerutin were analyzed simultaneously with good separation. On optimum conditions, calibration curves were found to be linear with the ranges of 0.10-70.00 microg/mL (puerarin, rutin, morin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol) and 0.50-350.00 microg/mL (troxerutin). The detection limits were 0.010-0.050 microg/mL. The method was validated for accuracy and precision, and it was successfully applied to determine drug concentrations in rat urine and chicken plasma samples from rat and chicken that had been orally administered with six flavonoids and troxerutin.

  10. Expression and functional analyses of Krüppel-like factor 3 in chicken adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Yan; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Studies in mammalian species showed that Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) regulated adipose tissue development. However, it was not reported in chicken. In the current study, we found that during the growth and development of abdominal fat tissue, chicken KLF3 (Gallus gallus KLF3, gKLF3) was consecutively expressed, and its transcripts were higher at 7 weeks of age and lower at 10 weeks of age in lean broilers than in fat broilers. In addition, gKLF3 overexpression suppressed chicken CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter activities, but increased chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) promoter activity. Additionally, point mutagenesis analysis showed that the substitution of Asp by Gly within the Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Thr (PVDLT) motif of gKLF3 significantly reduced the ability of gKLF3 to regulate the promoter activities of FABP4, FASN, LPL, C/EBPα, and PPARγ.

  11. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  12. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  13. Evaluación Clínica de Crema Facial a Base de Enjundia de Gallina (Gallus Gallus) para el Tratamiento de las Arrugas

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Cortez, Carlos Alejandro; Universidad Alas Peruanas

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antiarrugas de la enjundia de gallina doméstica o gallina roja (Gallus gallus), procedente de un criadero de aves de una chacra particular, ubicada en el distrito de Chaclacayo, departamento de Lima (Perú). La grasa administrada bajo la forma de crema facial demostró propiedades para el relleno de arrugas y atenuación de líneas de expresión en el rostro. El ensayo se llevó a cabo, previo consentimiento informado, en 237 voluntarios sanos de ambos sexos, con edades mayores ...

  14. Uso de Infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng y del vinagre en la crianza de pollos Acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga, Chuchuca; Sánchez Quinche, Angel; Vargas González, Oliverio; Hurtado, Flores; Quevedo Guerrero, José

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en la Granja Santa Inés, perteneciente a la Universidad Técnica de Machala, utilizando para ello 160 pollos acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados, los mismos que se alojaron tratando de cumplir las mejores condiciones de manejo y sanidad, sin embargo para provocar desafíos no se administró vacunas, ni antibiótico en la granja. El objetivo fue determinar la eficacia del vinagre e infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus en la crianza de pollo...

  15. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  16. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis

  17. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saborni Roy; Tapas C Nag; Ashish Datt Upadhyay; Rashmi Mathur; Suman Jain

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and visual perceptual learning and synaptic plasticity, as evident by synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, were done at posthatch days (PH) 1, 2 and 3. The number of responders was significantly higher in the music stimulated group as compared to controls at PH1 in both auditory and visual preference tests. The stimulated chicks took significantly lesser time to enter and spent more time in the maternal area in both preference tests. A significantly higher expression of synaptophysin and PSD-95 was observed in the stimulated group in comparison to control at PH1-3 both in the auditory cortex and visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest facilitation of postnatal perceptual behaviour and synaptic plasticity in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal stimulation with complex rhythmic music.

  18. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  19. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  20. Evidence of balanced diversity at the chicken interleukin 4 receptor alpha chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podisi Baitsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα, a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF, grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation of methionine and its hydroxy analog DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid on growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and the redox status of broiler chickens exposed to high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, H; Swennen, Q; Everaert, N; Geraert, P-A; Mercier, Y; Stinckens, A; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2011-10-01

    Heat stress is known to impair performance and to induce oxidative stress in poultry. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of dl-methionine (dl-M) or the synthetic analog 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (dl-HMTBA) on broiler growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and some oxidative stress-related parameters under conditions of chronic exposure to high temperatures (HT). From 2 to 6 wk of age, male broiler chickens were reared under either a constant temperature of 32°C until 6 wk of age or a normal temperature scheme (gradual decrease to 18°C at 5 wk of age). Chicks in both the normal and HT treatments were provided with a commercial grower diet supplemented with either 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg of dl-M or 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg of dl-HMTBA. Because there were no effects of supplement dose, data were pooled over both doses within each temperature treatment. The chronic HT treatment impaired feed intake and BW gain, but these negative effects were less pronounced when the chickens received dl-HMTBA. Exposure to HT was also associated with decreased (P chickens subjected to HT were characterized by significantly lower plasma TBA-reactive substance levels. In contrast, at 6 wk of age, plasma TBA-reactive substance levels were significantly increased by HT, but this effect was observed only for the chickens receiving dl-M and not for those receiving dl-HMTBA. High temperatures induced a significant increase in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) and oxidized GSH levels, regardless of the supplemental source. However, the hepatic ratios of reduced GSH to total GSH and reduced GSH to oxidized GSH were highest in chickens supplemented with dl-HMTBA. In conclusion, dl-HMTBA supplementation partially prevented the growth-depressing effects of chronic heat exposure compared with dl-M supplementation. It can be inferred that dl-HMTBA is more efficient in alleviating HT-induced oxidative damage because of a more favorable reduced GSH

  2. The effects of the duration and onset of light stimulation during incubation on the behavior, plasma melatonin levels, and productivity of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S; Mench, J A

    2014-04-01

    Light stimulation during incubation can affect the behavior, health, and performance of poultry posthatch. However, there has been relatively little work systematically assessing the pattern of light stimulation needed to produce these effects or the mechanism underlying them. We conducted 2 experiments to assess the effects of duration and onset of light exposure during incubation on Cobb 500 broiler chickens. In the first, eggs (n = 1,404) were incubated under photoperiods of either 0 h of light and 24 h of darkness (0 L:24 D), 1 h of light and 23 h of darkness (1 L:23 D), 6 h of light and 18 h of darkness (6L:18D), or 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12L:12D). In the second, eggs (n = 1,008) were incubated in either complete darkness or under 12L:12D, which was applied either for the entire incubation period or with light onset beginning at either 7 or 14 d of incubation. Broilers were then housed in floor pens under a 12L:12D cycle posthatch. Measurements included performance outcomes, plasma melatonin, general behavioral activity assessed using passive infrared detection, and feeding activity assessed using automated continuous monitoring of feed intake at wk 5 of age. There were no treatment differences in hatchability, mortality, growth, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, overall feeding behavior activity, or general behavioral activity over a 24-h period in either experiment. However, broilers incubated under 12L:12D fed more (P lights came on in Exp. 1 and during the first hour after the lights came on in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, general activity levels measured using passive infrared detection at night also differed (P = 0.05), with 0 L:24 D more active than 12L:12D. There was a treatment difference between the 0 L:12 D and 12 L:12 D in their plasma melatonin rhythms during d 19 of incubation, but this difference had disappeared when broilers were sampled at wk 5 posthatch. The results of this study indicate that providing 12 h of light during

  3. Genome-wide association study identified a narrow chromosome 1 region associated with chicken growth traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS, we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5-175 Mb of chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome (GGA 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW at 0-90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW, leg muscle weight (LMW and wing weight (WW at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22-48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29-42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22-42 d.

  4. Morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of Cajal's "centrifugal neurons": the cells of origin of the tectoventrogeniculate pathway in pigeon (Columba livia) and chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of these cells by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double-label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs.

  5. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a novel parvovirus isolated from chickens in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Huang, Li; Fan, Qin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Leyi

    2016-11-01

    A previously unidentified chicken parvovirus (ChPV) strain, associated with runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), is now endemic among chickens in China. To explore the genetic diversity of ChPV strains, we determined the first complete genome sequence of a novel ChPV isolate (GX-CH-PV-7) identified in chickens in Guang Xi, China, and showed moderate genome sequence similarity to reference strains. Analysis showed that the viral genome sequence is 86.4 %-93.9 % identical to those of other ChPVs. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly emergent GX-CH-PV-7 is closely related to Gallus gallus enteric parvovirus isolate ChPV 798 from the USA, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. The complete DNA sequence is 4612 bp long with an A+T content of 56.66 %. We determined the first complete genome sequence of a previously unidentified ChPV strain to elucidate its origin and evolutionary status.

  6. Exploring the molecular mechanism of acute heat stress exposure in broiler chickens using gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q B; Song, X Y; Ji, C L; Zhang, X Q; Zhang, D X

    2014-08-10

    The process of heat regulation is complex and its exact molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, to investigate the global gene regulation response to acute heat exposure, gene microarrays were exploited to analyze the effects of heat stress on three tissues (brain, liver, leg muscle) of the yellow broiler chicken (Gallus gallus). We detected 166 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain, 219 in the leg muscle and 317 in the liver. Six of these genes were differentially expressed in all three tissues and were validated by qRT-PCR, and included heat shock protein genes (HSPH1, HSP25), apoptosis-related genes (RB1CC1, BAG3), a cell proliferation and differentiation-related gene (ID1) and the hunger and energy metabolism related gene (PDK). All these genes might be important factors in chickens suffering from heat stress. We constructed gene co-expression networks using the DEGs of the brain, leg muscle and liver and two, four and two gene co-expression modules were identified in these tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment of these gene modules revealed that various functional clusters were related to the effects of heat stress, including those for cytoskeleton, extracellular space, ion binding and energy metabolism. We concluded that these genes and functional clusters might be important factors in chickens under acute heat stress. Further in-depth research on the newly discovered heat-related genes and functional clusters is required to fully understand their molecular functions in thermoregulation.

  7. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Raillietina spp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) from Domestic Chickens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-12-01

    Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene were employed for precise identification and phylogenetic relationship studies of Raillietina spp. Four Raillietina species, including R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus, and Raillietina sp., were recovered in domestic chickens from 4 districts in Phayao province, Thailand. LM and SEM observations revealed differences in the morphology of the scolex, position of the genital pore, number of eggs per egg capsule, and rostellar opening surface structures in all 4 species. Phylogenetic relationships were found among the phylogenetic trees obtained by the maximum likelihood and distance-based neighbor-joining methods. ITS2 and ND1 sequence data recorded from Raillietina sp. appeared to be monophyletic. The query sequences of R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus, and Raillietina sp. were separated according to the different morphological characters. This study confirmed that morphological studies combined with molecular analyses can differentiate related species within the genus Raillietina in Thailand.

  8. Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools

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    Thomson Pippa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC, eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken.

  9. The "silver" Japanese quail and the MITF gene: causal mutation, associated traits and homology with the "blue" chicken plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin'ichi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene has been investigated in mice and various vertebrates but its variations and associated effects have not yet been explored much in birds. The present study describes the causal mutation B at the MITF gene responsible for the "silver" plumage colour in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, and its associated effects on growth and body composition, and tests its allelism with the "blue" plumage colour mutation Bl in Gallus gallus. Results The semi dominant B mutation results from a premature stop codon caused by a 2 bp deletion in exon 11 of MITF. Homozygous "white" (B/B quail which have a white plumage also show a slightly lower growth, lower body temperature, smaller heart, and lighter pectoralis muscles but more abdominal adipose tissue than the recessive homozygous "wild-type" (+/+ and heterozygous "silver" (B/+ quail. Similar observations on cardiac and body growth were made on mice (Mus musculus homozygous for mutations at MITF. The production of chicken-quail hybrids with a white plumage obtained by crossing Bl/+ chicken heterozygous for the blue mutation with B/B white quail indicated that the mutations were allelic. Conclusion The "silver" Japanese quail is an interesting model for the comparative study of the effects of MITF in birds and mammals. Further investigation using a chicken family segregating for the "blue" plumage and molecular data will be needed to confirm if the "blue" plumage in chicken results from a mutation in MITF.

  10. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  11. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  12. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  13. 羟基肉桂酸锗氮桥环化合物在乌鸡饲料中的应用%The Application of Germatranes of Hydroxyl Substituted Cinnamic Acid Compounds in the Diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 陈晓东

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] By using germatranes of hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid compounds as additives, the effects of adding it in the diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson on biochemical indexes were studied. [ Method] Adding germatranes of p - ,o - ,m - hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid to the diet with 40 mg/kg for each,their weight,melanin content, fat content were measured when chickens are at 30,60,75,90,120 day old age. [ Result ] Adding cinnamic acid germanium in the diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson could improve weight, increase melanin content, decrease fat content,while germatranes of p - ,o - ,m - hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid have no significant differences. [ Conclusion] .The study will provide theoretical basis for the application of germanium addictives in Gallus domesticus Brisson production.%[目的]以羟基肉桂酸锗氮桥环化合物为添加剂,研究将其添加于乌鸡日粮中对乌鸡生化指标的影响.[方法]以邻、对、间羟基肉桂酸锗各40 mg/kg添加到日粮中,分别在30、60、75、90、120日龄时,测定乌鸡的体重、黑色素含量、脂肪含量.[结果]在乌鸡饲料中添加肉桂酸锗均能提高乌鸡体重,增加黑色素含量,降低脂肪含量,而邻、对、间羟基肉桂酸锗之间无显著差异.[结论]该研究为锗添加剂在乌骨鸡生产中的应用提供了理论依据.

  14. Different levels of natural antibodies in chickens divergently selected for specific antibody responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, H.K.; Lammers, A.; Hoekman, J.J.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Zaanen, I.T.A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the presence of Natural antibodies in plasma samples from individual birds from selected chicken lines at young and old age. Binding, specificity, and relative affinity to various antigens were determined in plasma from non-immunized female chickens at 5 weeks of age, and in plasma obtain

  15. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barriers such as the health related ones, that could be an obstacle for free trade. The industrial-type poultry industry (broilers, layers, breeders, grandmothers, turkey is one of the leading sectors of the country’s livestock production. Other types of exploitation such as the breeding of fighting cocks, backyard poultry, farm ostrich and quail, among others, represent another important part of this sector. However, a big concern related to these types of practices is the movement of birds and the potential risk of these as distributors of diseases that could potentially affect the national poultry industry.The Newcastle (ENC is among the most important diseases. This is one of the easily transmitted pathologies that causes great economic impact to the poultry industry due to its costs associated to high morbidity and mortality, low in production, high costs of treatment of secondary infections and significant investments in programs targeting its control and eradication. Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies of the disease in fighting cocks (Gallus gallus in Saboyá, Boyacá. The technique of hemagglutination inhibition was used for this matter. Prior to the study, a census was conducted to determine the population of (N = 1.500 animals. The health, manipulation and biosecurity standards of the subject population were assessed through the use of an epidemiological survey. The size of the study sample which was n

  16. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  17. DETERMINATION OF A VETERINARY PROPHYLACTIC PHARMACEUTICAL AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN EXCRETA BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS - UV AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular, most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone (3-nitro- 4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the res...

  18. Genetic analysis of local Vietnamese chickens provides evidence of gene flow from wild to domestic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi C Vu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens. This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï. Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60 was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9. No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively

  19. Associated Analysis on Polymorphisms of UCP Genotypes, Reactive Oxygen Species Contents and Birth Weight with Three Chicken Breeds%鸡解耦联蛋白基因型与活性氧含量、初生重的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程甲; 程曦; 朱庆鸿; 赵兴波

    2011-01-01

    为了研究解耦联蛋白基因(uncoupling protein,UCP)对鸡(Gallus gallus)初生重及活性氧含量的影响,本实验通过对3个品种鸡初生重、UCP C353T多态位点基因型以及肌肉组织活性氧(ROS)含量的测定,发现丝羽乌鸡ROS值显著低于白莱航、寿光鸡,UCPTT基因型ROS值显著高于CT和CC基因型,而ROS含量与雏鸡初生重之间存在着正向的相关性(r=0.5011),UCPTT基因型的初生重显著高于CT和CC基因型.实验结果揭示了鸡UCP基因型对初生重性状具有选择效应.%In order to explore the effect of uncoupling protein gene (UCP) on birth weight and content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chickens (Gallus gallus), the birth weight, UCP C353T mutation genotyping and muscle ROS contents from three chicken breeds were analyzed.The results indicated Silky chicken had higher ROS contents than that of White Leghorn and Shouguang chickens, and ROS contents for genotype TT of UCP appeared notably higher than that of CT and CC genotypes.ROS contents presented a positive correlation with chicken birth weight (r=0.5011).The birth weight for genotype TT of UCPdemonstrated notably higher than that of CT and CC genotype.The findings showed UCP genotypes can impact chicken birth weight for selections.

  20. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  1. In-house validation of a method for determination of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat based on asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Navratilova, Jana; Grombe, Ringo;

    2015-01-01

    spectrometric detection (AF4-ICP-MS) was applied for quantitative analysis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a chicken meat matrix following enzymatic sample preparation. For the first time an analytical validation of nanoparticle detection in a food matrix by AF4-ICP-MS has been carried out and the results......Nanomaterials are increasingly used in food production and packaging, and validated methods for detection of nanoparticles (NPs) in foodstuffs need to be developed both for regulatory purposes and product development. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with inductively coupled plasma mass...... showed repeatable and intermediately reproducible determination of AgNP mass fraction and size. The findings demonstrated the potential of AF4-ICP-MS for quantitative analysis of NPs in complex food matrices for use in food monitoring and control. The accurate determination of AgNP size distribution...

  2. Environ: E00525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00525 Chicken stomach lining Galli stomachichum corium Crude drug Gallus gallus [T...AX:9031] Phasianidae Gallus gallus stomach lining (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Birds E00525 Chicken stomach lining ...

  3. Genetic evidence from Indian red jungle fowl corroborates multiple domestication of modern day chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakati RD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication of chicken is believed to have occurred in Southeast Asia, especially in Indus valley. However, non-inclusion of Indian red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus murghi in previous studies has left a big gap in understanding the relationship of this major group of birds. In the present study, we addressed this issue by analyzing 76 Indian birds that included 56 G. g. murghi (RJF, 16 G. g. domesticus (domestic chicken and 4 G. sonneratii (Grey JF using both microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D-loop sequences. We also compared the D-loop sequences of Indian birds with those of 779 birds obtained from GenBank. Results Microsatellite marker analyses of Indian birds indicated an average FST of 0.126 within G. g. murghi, and 0.154 within G. g. domesticus while it was more than 0.2 between the two groups. The microsatellite-based phylogenetic trees showed a clear separation of G. g. domesticus from G. g. murghi, and G. sonneratii. Mitochondrial DNA based mismatch distribution analyses showed a lower Harpending's raggedness index in both G. g. murghi (0.001515 and in Indian G. g. domesticus (0.0149 birds indicating population expansion. When meta analysis of global populations of 855 birds was carried out using median joining haplotype network, 43 Indian birds of G. g. domesticus (19 haplotypes were distributed throughout the network sharing haplotypes with the RJFs of different origins. Conclusion Our results suggest that the domestication of chicken has occurred independently in different locations of Asia including India. We found evidence for domestication of Indian birds from G. g. spadiceus and G. g. gallus as well as from G. g. murghi, corroborating multiple domestication of Indian and other domestic chicken. In contrast to the commonly held view that RJF and domestic birds hybridize in nature, the present study shows that G. g. murghi is relatively pure. Further, the study also suggested that the chicken

  4. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  5. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus.

  6. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available The yellow fever (YF 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system.

  7. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  8. The genome of the chicken DT40 bursal lymphoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, János; Póti, Ádám; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnády, Gábor E; Szallasi, Zoltan; Csabai, István; Szüts, Dávid

    2014-09-15

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell line using whole genome shotgun sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array hybridization. The results indicate that wild-type DT40 has a relatively normal karyotype, except for whole chromosome copy number gains, and no karyotype variability within stocks. In a comparison to two domestic chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a typical transformed cell line with a relatively intact genome; therefore, it is well-suited to the role of a model system for DNA repair and related processes. The sequence data generated by this study, including a searchable de novo genome assembly and annotated lists of mutated genes, will support future research using this cell line.

  9. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Ascaridia galli infections on behaviour and health of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, O.; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Permin, A.

    2005-01-01

    1. The effect of infections with Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite or chicken mite) and Ascaridia galli (roundworm) on the behaviour and health of laying hens was investigated. 2. Six groups of 15 pullets (Isa Brown) were kept in indoor pens from 18 weeks of age. Two groups were artificially...... infected with D. gallinae, two groups with A. galli and two groups were kept as uninfected controls. The hens were observed for behavioural reactions and physiological changes (weight gain and various blood variables) to the parasitic infections. 3. Infections with D. gallinae resulted in reduced weight...... gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. 4. A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables...

  10. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  11. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test......Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... for marginal symmetry, Proportion of agreement P-0, P-, P-, and Odds Ratio. The highest agreement was found between the 2 types of sock sampling, while the lowest agreement was found by comparing 60 faecal samples with 5 pairs of socks. Two pairs of socks analysed as one pool appeared to be just as effective...

  12. RNA sequencing based analysis of the spleen transcriptome following the infectious bronchitis virus infection of chickens selected for different mannose-binding lectin serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria;

    2016-01-01

    in strategies to control IB. To this end, two chicken lines, selected for high and low serum concentration of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern recognition receptor, were studied. In total, 32 animals from each line (designated L10H for high and L10L for low MBL serum concentration) were used....... Sixteen birds from each line were infected with IBV on day 1 and birds were euthanized at 1 week and 3 weeks post infection, 8 uninfected controls and 8 infected birds from each line at each occasion. RNA sequencing was performed on spleen samples from all 64 birds used in the experiment. Differential...... was performed using Gene Ontology (GO) Immune System Process terms specific for Gallus gallus.ResultsComparing uninfected L10H and L10L birds, we identified 1698 and 1934 differentially expressed (DE) genes at week 1 and week 3, respectively. For the IBV infected birds 1698 and 1934 DE genes were identified...

  13. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  14. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  15. Estudo comparativo entre sevofluorano, halotano e isofluorano em Gallus domesticus Comparite evaluation with sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane in Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dambrosio Guimarães

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 30 frangos com 20 semanas de idade, pesando em média 2,90 ± 0,65kg divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. A indução da anestesia foi realizada com máscara facial artesanal conectada ao sistema de Maggil Modificado, utilizando entre 3,0 e 3,5 vezes a dose anestésica mínima (DAM de cada agente e fluxo diluente de O2 de 2l/min, sendo que posteriormente os animais foram intubados e mantidos com valores de aproximadamente 1,7DAM durante 65 minutos. O isofluorano causou maior depressão respiratória e hipotensão; o halotano proporcionou maiores valores de pressão arterial e temperatura corporal e o sevofluorano, menor depressão respiratória e hipotensão em relação ao grupo do isofluorano, sendo considerado o agente mais indicado para a utilização em aves. A indução e recuperação foram mais rápidas com o sevofluorano, embora sem diferença significativa estatisticamente.For the comparison 30 twenty-week-old chicken were used. They weigh na averdage of 2.90 ± 0.65kg aleatorily divided into 3 groups. The anesthetic induction was accomplished with a home-made facial mask connected with the modified circuit of Maggil using values between 3.0 e 3.5 a minimal anesthetic dose (MAD for each agent. Posteriorly, the animals were intubated and anesthesia was maintained with values approximately 1.7DAM during 65 minutes. Isoflurane caused further respiratory depression and hypotension when it is compared to the other two anesthetic agents. The group of halothane presented higher values of blood pressure and body temperature and the group of sevoflurane, lower respiratory depression and hypotension in relation to the group of isoflurane. The induction and recuperation were faster with the sevoflurane, although without expressive diference statistically. The sevoflurane is the most indicated anesthetic agent.

  16. Green tea polyphenols alleviate obesity in broiler chickens through the regulation of lipid-metabolism-related genes and transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbao; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2013-09-11

    The current study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on lipid metabolism and its mechanisms using broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 36 male chickens (35 days old) had been subjected to an oral administration of GTPs at a dosage of 0, 50 (low), and 100 (high) mg/kg of body weight for 20 days. Our results showed that GTPs significantly decreased the abdominal and subcutaneous fat masses of broilers and reduced the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those of the control. Furthermore, the expression levels for lipid anabolism genes were significantly downregulated, while the expression levels of fat transportation and catabolism-related genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT-I), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in liver, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in abdominal fat, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscles, were notably upregulated. Our data have revealed that GTPs alleviate obesity and serum lipid levels in broiler chickens by suppressing fatty acid synthesis and stimulating lipolysis.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated chicken Stra8 gene knockout and inhibition of male germ cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qisheng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Fei; Ji, Yanqin; Jin, Jing; Lu, Zhenyu; Wang, Man; Zhang, Chen; Li, Bichun

    2017-01-01

    An efficient genome editing approach had been established to construct the stable transgenic cell lines in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) at present. Our objectives were to investigate gene function in the differentiation process of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs). Three guides RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the Stra8 gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in domestic chicken cells using cleavage activity of in vitro transcription of gRNA, Luciferase-SSA assay, T7 endonuclease I assay(T7E1) and TA clone sequence. In addition, the Cas9/gRNA plasmid was transfected into ESCs to confirm the function of Stra8. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-1 and gRNA- 2 was higher than that of gRNA-3. TA clone sequencing showed that the knockdown efficiency was 25% (10/40) in DF-1 cells, the knockdown efficiency was 23% (9/40) in chicken ESCs. T7E1 assay indicated that there were cleavage activity for three individuals, and the knockdown efficiency was 12% (3/25). Cell morphology, qRT-PCR, immunostaining and FCS indicated that Cas9/gRNA not only resulted in the knockout of Stra8 gene, but also suggested that the generation of SSCs was blocked by the Stra8 gene knockdown in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system could mediate stable Stra8 gene knockdown in domestic chicken’s cells and inhibit ECSs differentiation into SSCs. PMID:28234938

  18. A Metabolomics Study on Chicken Plasma Based on Fermented Feed from Cottonseed Meal Mixed Substrate%基于棉籽粕源发酵饲料的鸡血浆代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂存喜; 张文举; 闫理东; 蒋粒薪; 马贵军

    2013-01-01

    旨在将基于液相色谱-质谱(LC-MS)的代谢组学分析平台用于研究不同棉籽粕源发酵饲料对鸡血浆代谢物的影响.本研究用LC-MS采集对照组(CG)、假丝酵母组(CT)、酿酒酵母组(SC)和复合发酵组(CF)4组鸡血浆谱图,通过软件的峰识别和峰匹配等步骤得到峰表,采用偏最小二乘法-判别分析(PLS-DA)方法对样品进行分型,根据模型的变量重要性投影(VIP> 1.5)和显著性差异检验结果(P<0.05)等筛选差异代谢物.结果表明:与CG相比,添加发酵饲料后鸡血浆代谢物存在显著差异,较CG组均极显著上调(P<0.01).发生变化的主要化合物CT组为磷脂酰胆碱(PC)、磷脂酰乙醇胺(PE)、胆固醇酯(CE)、鞘磷脂(SM)、甘油二酯(DG)和甘油三酯(TG),SC组为PC、CE、SM、DG和TG,CF组为PC、PE和DG.饲粮中添加棉籽粕源微生物发酵饲料后,对鸡血浆代谢物产生了显著的影响,主要表现在脂类代谢物的增加,其中共同差异代谢物为PC和DG.%The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fermented feed from cottonseed meal mixed substrate on chickens plasma metabolites via metabolomic technology based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectromentry (LC-MS).The data of plasma metabolites profile collected by LC-MS,which included four groups of control group (CG),Candida tropicalis group (CT),Saccharomyces cerevisiae group (SC) and compound fermentation group (CF),were transformed and the peak characterization was obtained by the commercial software automatically.The total difference of metabolites among CG,CT,SC and CF were found through partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA),and the differential metabolites were selected according to the value of variable importance in the projection(VIP>1.5)and P (P<0.05).The results showed that significant difference of plasma metabolites were found after adding the fermented feed to diets and the relative contents of these

  19. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  20. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  1. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  2. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  3. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of chicken melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) and chicken melanocortin-2 accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlock, Travis K; Gehr, Deshae T; Dores, Robert M

    2014-09-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells when chicken melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1) is co-expressed. The transiently transfected CHO cells responded in a robust manner to stimulation by hACTH(1-24) (EC50 value=2.7 × 10(-12)M +/- 1.3 × 10(-12)), but the transfected CHO cells could not be stimulated by NDP-MSH at concentrations as high as 10(-7)M. Incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with alanine substituted analogs of hACTH(1-24) at amino acid positions F(7) or W(9) completely blocked stimulation of the transfected cells. Similarly, incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with an analog of hACTH(1-24) with alanine substitutions at amino acid positions R(17)R(18)P(19) resulted in a 276 fold shift in EC50 value relative to the positive control (pHFRW motif and KKRRP motif of hACTH(1-24), and both motifs are required for full activation of the receptor. While previous studies had shown that Anolis carolinensis MC2R and Xenopus tropicalis MC2R could be functionally expressed in CHO cells that co-expressed mouse MRAP1, co-expression of these non-mammalian tetrapod MC2Rs with cMRAP1 resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to hACTH(1-24), as measured by EC50 value, for A. carolinensis MC2R (p<0.005) and X. tropicalis MC2R (p<0.007). The implications of these observations are discussed.

  4. Validation of the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens by using cat and mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Laurin, E; Kwowk, O C H

    2016-03-01

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) is one of the most commonly used tests for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human sera. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the MAT and bioassay in free-range/backyard (FR) chickens (Gallus domesticus). Previously-published T. gondii test results from 2066 chickens from 19 countries were compiled for the present study. The frequency of isolation of T. gondii increased for MAT titres between 1:5 and 1:160, and ranged from 61 to 75% for antibody titres of 1:160, 1:320, and ⩾1:640. Twenty-three cats fed pooled hearts from a total of 802 FR seronegative (MAT, <1:5) chickens from several countries did not excrete oocysts, indicating a high negative predictive value of MAT because FR chickens would have been exposed to many microbes; cats are the most sensitive indicators of T. gondii infection in tissues and can excrete millions of oocysts after ingesting even a few bradyzoites. Of the 29 cats in this study, six cats, fed hearts pooled from 15-122 FR chickens, excreted oocysts; but these identifications were likely related to misidentification or prozone. Results of the present study support the validity of MAT for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and residues of enrofloxacin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, A; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Díaz, M J; Bringas, P; Martínez, M A; Fernàndez-Cruz, M L; Fernández, M C; Fernández, R

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of enrofloxacin were determined in broiler chickens after single IV and orally administered doses of 10 mg/kg of body weight. After IV and oral administrations, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life and the mean +/- SEM residence time of enrofloxacin for plasma were 10.29 +/- 0.45 and 9.65 +/- 0.48 hours, respectively, after IV administration and 14.23 +/- 0.46 and 15.30 +/- 0.53 hours, respectively, after oral administration. After single oral administration, enrofloxacin was absorbed slowly, with time to reach maximal plasma concentration of 1.64 +/- 0.04 hours. Maximal plasma concentration was 2.44 +/- 0.06 micrograms/ml. Oral bioavailability was found to be 64.0 +/- 0.2%. Statistically significant differences between the 2 routes of administration were found for the pharmacokinetic variables--half-lives of the distribution and elimination phase and apparent volume of distribution and volume of distribution at steady state. In chickens, enrofloxacin was extensively metabolized into ciprofloxacin. Residues of enrofloxacin and the major metabolite ciprofloxacin in fat, kidney, liver, lungs, muscles, and skin were measured in chickens that received an orally administered dose of 10 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. The results indicate that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues were cleared slowly. Mean muscle, liver, and kidney concentrations of the metabolite ciprofloxacin ranging between 0.020 and 0.075 micrograms/g persisted on day 12 in chickens after dosing. However, at the time of slaughter (12 days), enrofloxacin residues were only detected in liver and mean +/- SEM concentration was 0.025 +/- 0.003 micrograms/g.

  6. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 is responsible for the tyrosinase-independent recessive white (mo(w and mottled (mo plumage phenotypes in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kinoshita

    Full Text Available A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo, which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mo(w for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mo(w /mo(w chicken and the panda (s/s mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 gene, showed a mo(w/mo(w chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2 in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3-EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies Loci and candidate genes for body composition and meat quality traits in Beijing-You chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranran Liu

    Full Text Available Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW, eviscerated weight (EW, dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW and percentage (BrP, thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM and compressed mixed linear (MLM models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E-6 have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome 4 (GGA4, including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1, were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed.

  8. The chicken miR-150 targets the avian orthologue of the functional zebrafish MYB 3'UTR target site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillon-Munos Audrey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The c-myb proto-oncogene is the founding member of a family of transcription factors involved principally in haematopoiesis, in diverse organisms, from zebrafish to mammals. Its deregulation has been implicated in human leukaemogenesis and other cancers. The expression of c-myb is tightly regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms involving microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small, highly conserved non-coding RNAs that inhibit translation and decrease mRNA stability by binding to regulatory motifs mostly located in the 3'UTR of target mRNAs conserved throughout evolution. MYB is an evolutionarily conserved miR-150 target experimentally validated in mice, humans and zebrafish. However, the functional miR-150 sites of humans and mice are orthologous, whereas that of zebrafish is different. Results We identified the avian mature miRNA-150-5P, Gallus gallus gga-miR-150 from chicken leukocyte small-RNA libraries and showed that, as expected, the gga-miR-150 sequence was highly conserved, including the seed region sequence present in the other miR-150 sequences listed in miRBase. Reporter assays showed that gga-miR-150 acted on the avian MYB 3'UTR and identified the avian MYB target site involved in gga-miR-150 binding. A comparative in silico analysis of the miR-150 target sites of MYB 3'UTRs from different species led to the identification of a single set of putative target sites in amphibians and zebrafish, whereas two sets of putative target sites were identified in chicken and mammals. However, only the target site present in the chicken MYB 3'UTR that was identical to that in zebrafish was functional, despite the additional presence of mammalian target sites in chicken. This specific miR-150 site usage was not cell-type specific and persisted when the chicken c-myb 3'UTR was used in the cell system to identify mammalian target sites, showing that this miR-150 target site usage was intrinsic to the chicken c-myb 3'UTR. Conclusion Our

  9. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity on macro- and microchromosomes in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muir William M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken (Gallus gallus, like most avian species, has a very distinct karyotype consisting of many micro- and a few macrochromosomes. While it is known that recombination frequencies are much higher for micro- as compared to macrochromosomes, there is limited information on differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype diversity between these two classes of chromosomes. In this study, LD and haplotype diversity were systematically characterized in 371 birds from eight chicken populations (commercial lines, fancy breeds, and red jungle fowl across macro- and microchromosomes. To this end we sampled four regions of ~1 cM each on macrochromosomes (GGA1 and GGA2, and four 1.5 -2 cM regions on microchromosomes (GGA26 and GGA27 at a high density of 1 SNP every 2 kb (total of 889 SNPs. Results At a similar physical distance, LD, haplotype homozygosity, haploblock structure, and haplotype sharing were all lower for the micro- as compared to the macrochromosomes. These differences were consistent across populations. Heterozygosity, genetic differentiation, and derived allele frequencies were also higher for the microchromosomes. Differences in LD, haplotype variation, and haplotype sharing between populations were largely in line with known demographic history of the commercial chicken. Despite very low levels of LD, as measured by r2 for most populations, some haploblock structure was observed, particularly in the macrochromosomes, but the haploblock sizes were typically less than 10 kb. Conclusion Differences in LD between micro- and macrochromosomes were almost completely explained by differences in recombination rate. Differences in haplotype diversity and haplotype sharing between micro- and macrochromosomes were explained by differences in recombination rate and genotype variation. Haploblock structure was consistent with demography of the chicken populations, and differences in recombination rates between micro

  10. Development of a new duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of dicer in G. gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Qi; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Yongqiang; Qin, Liting; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence showing that cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virus-host interactions. Numerous studies have focused on analyses of the expression profiles of cellular miRNAs, but the expression patterns of Dicer, which is responsible for the generation of miRNAs, have only rarely been explored in Gallus gallus. We developed a duplex realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) assay for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of Dicer and beta-actin in G. gallus. To apply this method, the expression of Dicer in avian cells after infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was detected using our established duplex real-time RT-PCR. The duplex realtime RT-PCR assay is sufficiently sensitive, specific, accurate, reproducible, and cost-effective for the detection of Dicer in G. gallus. Furthermore, this study, for the first time, demonstrated that ALV-J can induce differential expression of Dicer mRNA in the ALV-J-infected cells.

  11. Nest-site Characteristics of Red Jungle Fowl, Gallus gallus jabouillei%原鸡海南亚种的巢址特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玲; 张春兰; 张海; 符海豪; 林贤梅; 符运南; 符明利; 胡慧建

    2009-01-01

    选择适宜的巢址对降低巢捕食风险,提高繁殖成效有重要意义.2008年3-7月,在海南省大田国家级自然保护区,采用随机样线法结合访问法在各种生境类型中系统地寻找原鸡海南亚种(Gallus gallus jabouillei)的巢,并在野外追踪观察基础上用样方法对原鸡的巢址选择进行研究.共记录到原鸡的巢16个,以巢为中心选取样方并测量反映巢址的13个特征生境参数,同时分析16个对照样方以进行比较,并通过主成分分析探讨影响巢址选择的主导因子.结果表明:(1)原鸡的巢位于密集的丛生草本下或低矮的灌木丛基部.营巢背景多样,其中位于草本植物下10个(62.5%);灌草丛5个(31.3%):灌木下1个(6.25%).(2)Mann-Whitney U检验的结果显示,原鸡偏好于比较开阔、地面落叶稀少而靠近的小道和林缘的位置营巢.(3)主成分分析表明,植被盖度因子和空间位置因子贡献率最大,在降低巢捕食风险中有重要价值,是影响原鸡巢址选择的主要因素.

  12. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  13. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  14. Genetic diversity of native chicken based on analysis of D-Loop mtDNA marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Production was carried out using control region/D-loop mtDNA marker. The base population of native chicken was selected from subpopulation at Cianjur, Jatiwangi, Depok, Bogor I, and Bogor 2. Samples from each population was 10 heads and 2 samples Green Jungle Fowl (Gallus various from East Java as out Group samples. Two primers binding conserved tRNA Phenylalanine gene and tRNA Glutamine gene were DNA Heavy stranded HI255 (5'-CATCTTGGCATCTTCAGTGCC-3' and DNA Light stranded Ll6750 (5'-AGGACTACGGCTTGAAAAGC-3' was used to amplify D-Ioop mtDNA chicken. PCR-RFLP methods with 6 restriction enzymes 4 cutter such as, Alul (AG↓CT, Hpall (C↓CGG, Mbol (↓GATC, Rsal (GT↓AC, NlaIII (CATG↓ and HaeIII (GG↓CC were used to detect polymorphism within and between subpopulation. Result of experiment show that mtDNA which was amplified by PCR was 1320 bp, consist of 1227 bp control region/D-loop, 45 bp tRNA Glutamine gene and 48 bp tRNA Phenylalananine gene. PCR product which were digested from 6 endonucleases enzyme show that native chicken within and between population was monomorphic and if its compare with Green Jungle Fowl was polymorphic.

  15. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

  16. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32 %) chickens, 130 (38.92 %) ducks and 97 (31.09 %) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (Pcaged and free-range chickens was 7.54 % and 29.63 %, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (Pcaged and free-range ducks was 26.13 % and 45.29 %, respectively (Pbirds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent.

  17. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  18. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  19. Acute heat stress impairs performance parameters and induces mild intestinal enteritis in broiler chickens: role of acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Rodrigues, M V; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2012-06-01

    Studies on the environmental consequences of stress are relevant for economic and animal welfare reasons. We recently reported that long-term heat stressors (31 ± 1°C and 36 ± 1°C for 10 h/d) applied to broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from d 35 to 42 of life increased serum corticosterone concentrations, decreased performance variables and the macrophage oxidative burst, and produced mild, multifocal acute enteritis. Being cognizant of the relevance of acute heat stress on tropical and subtropical poultry production, we designed the current experiment to analyze, from a neuroimmune perspective, the effects of an acute heat stress (31 ± 1°C for 10 h on d 35 of life) on serum corticosterone, performance variables, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity in chickens. We demonstrated that the acute heat stress increased serum corticosterone concentrations and mortality and decreased food intake, BW gain, and feed conversion (P 0.05). Increases in the basal and the Staphylococcus aureus-induced macrophage oxidative bursts and a decrease in the percentage of macrophages performing phagocytosis were also observed. Finally, mild, multifocal acute enteritis, characterized by the increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the lamina propria of the jejunum, was also observed. We found that the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was responsible for the negative effects observed on chicken performance and immune function as well as for the changes in the intestinal mucosa. The data presented here corroborate with those presented in other studies in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  20. Characterization of the expression profiles of adipogenesis-related factors, ZNF423, KLFs and FGF10, during preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal adipose tissue development in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yusuke; Aoki, Michiru; Endo, Tonami; Sato, Kan

    2013-07-01

    Adipogenesis is controlled by a complicated process involving certain transcriptional events. In chicken adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal fat accumulation. However, in a recent study in mammals, some novel factors related to regulation of adipogenesis, including preadipocyte differentiation, were identified in mammals. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the expression profiles of these mammalian adipogenesis-related factors, such as zinc-finger protein 423 (ZNF423), Krüppel-like factor -2, -5, and -15 (KLF-2, -5, -15), and FGF10, in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Specifically, we analyzed their expression in primary preadipocyte differentiation in vitro and also analyzed their tissue distribution and their temporal expression in adipose tissue development in vivo. During chicken adipocyte differentiation, the gene expression of ZNF423, KLF-2, KLF-5 and FGF10 was found to rapidly decrease in the early stage of preadipocyte differentiation. Expression of ZNF423 then increased in the late stage of differentiation. KLF-15 expression increased in a time-dependent manner for 48 h. Protein expressions of these factors were reflected by Western blot analysis. High levels of aP2, PPARγ and FGF10 mRNA were found in adipose tissue. In addition, aP2, PPARγ and ZNF423 mRNA levels in the adipose tissue were elevated at days 10 and 20. These expression profiles of the adipogenesis-related factors in chicken are, in part, different from mammalian adipogenesis but this seems to reflect the differences in the regulation of adipogenesis and in adipose tissue functions between avians and mammals.

  1. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No hormones are used in the raising of chickens. Antibiotics may be used to prevent disease and increase ... a "withdrawal" period is required from the time antibiotics are administered. ... not allowed on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as ...

  2. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...

  3. New evidence for intrinsic blood coagulation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, J A; Hamilton, P B

    1981-01-01

    Coagulation of blood in chickens is considered the result of an extrinsic clotting system initiated, as in mammals, by tissue thromboplastin released from injured tissues. Blood coagulation in mammals depends principally on an intrinsic mechanism in which thromboplastin is generated from blood itself. Only a negligible role, if any, has been ascribed to an intrinsic system in chickens. A reevaluation of intrinsic coagulation in chickens was undertaken in this study. Whole blood of chickens was found to clot over 30% faster when contacted by suitable surface activators such as kaolin or glass than when such contact was omitted. Plasma recalcification times were significantly (P less than .02) shortened by contact activators. Clotting functions were measurable both by partial thromboplastin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, tests that bypass extrinsic factors. Intrinsic thromboplastin could be generated from dilute whole chicken blood although at a slower rate than that reported for human blood. Modification of whole blood thromboplastin generation techniques permitted measurement of activities that seem analogous to human intrinsic factors VIII and IX but not XI or XII. These data provide evidence of a functioning intrinsic clotting mechanism in chickens. A complete description and role for this mechanism remains to be defined.

  4. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  5. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan

    2006-05-01

    The stress responses and possible oxidative damage in plasma, liver and heart were investigated in broiler chickens acutely exposed to high temperature. Eighty 5-week old broiler chickens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 6h. The extent of lipid peroxidation, activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant power in plasma, liver and heart tissues were investigated. Meanwhile, the blood metabolites such as glucose, urate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, corticosterone, ceruloplasmin and creatine kinase were measured before and after 3 and 6h of heat exposure. The results showed that oxidative stress could be induced in 5-week old broiler chickens by acute heat exposure (32 degrees C, 6h). The results suggest that the elevated body temperature can induce the metabolic changes that are involved in the induction of oxidative stress. The liver is more susceptible to oxidative stress than heart during acute heat exposure in broiler chickens. The oxidative stress should be considered as part of the stress response of broiler chickens to heat exposure.

  6. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  7. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos...... was calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and then slowing down between 16 and 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. HE...... followed the pattern of gas exchange, with a mean around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19. The main source of HE was oxidized fat. In addition to respiration experiments chemical analyses were carried out on 60 eggs from RO and 60 from LA. Prior to chemical analyses...

  8. Extra-pituitary prolactin (PRL) and prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) in chickens and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guixian; Liang, Xiaomeng; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-09-01

    It is generally believed that in vertebrates, prolactin (PRL) is predominantly synthesized and released by pituitary lactotrophs and plays important roles in many physiological processes via activation of PRL receptor (PRLR), including water and electrolyte balance, reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, immuno-modulation, and behavior. However, there is increasing evidence showing that PRL and the newly identified 'prolactin-like protein (PRL-L)', a novel ligand of PRL receptor, are also expressed in a variety of extra-pituitary tissues, such as the brain, skin, ovary, and testes in non-mammalian vertebrates. In this brief review, we summarize the recent research progress on the structure, biological activities, and extra-pituitary expression of PRL and PRL-L in chickens (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) from our and other laboratories and briefly discuss their potential paracrine/autocrine roles in non-mammalian vertebrates, which may promote us to rethink the broad spectrum of PRL actions previously attributed to pituitary PRL only.

  9. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  10. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  11. A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.J.; Eck, J.H.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Pijpers, A.

    2004-01-01

    To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regio

  12. Tuberculosis en Rhea Americana y Gallus Sp. en cautiverio Tuberculosis in ratites and ornamental birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis aviar tiene, distribución mundial y afecta a las aves domésticas y silvestres. El agente etiológico es Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. El potencial zoonótico de esta enfermedad ha adquirido relevancia con la pandemia de HIV por ello todas las maniobras que involucren la manipulación de microorganismos viables, deben ser llevadas a cabo con adecuadas medidas de bioseguridad. La fuente primaria de infección es el ambiente contaminado con este agente. La presentación clínica es variable y el método definitivo para confirmar la infección es el aislamiento. El objetivo fue identificar mediante histopatología, bacteriología y biología molecular la etiología de lesiones compatibles con tuberculosis en una raza ornamental de Gallus sp. (sedosa del Japón y Rhea americana (ñandú. En la necropsia se observaron granulomas que presentaron centro caseonecrótico no mineralizado con bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en la histopatología. Se confirmó la presencia de M. avium subsp. avium por bacteriología y por PCR en las cepas aisladas. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico combinando técnicas y describir por primera vez en la Argentina un caso de tuberculosis en ñandú.Avian tuberculosis is worldwide distributed and affects domestic and wild birds. Aetiological agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Its zoonotic potential has acquired importance since HIV pandemia, that is why the manipulation of viable microorganism should be done with careful biosecurity measures. Primary source of infection is the environment contaminated with these microbes. Clinical signs are not uniform and the confirmation of the disease is by bacteriologycal isolation. The purpose was to identify by histopathologycal, bacteriologycal and molecular biology methods the aetiology from tuberculosis like lesions found in an ornamental race of Gallus sp. (Japanese Silkie and Rhea americana. At post-mortem examination granulomas were

  13. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  15. 免疫应激对肉鸡肠道微生物区系的影响%Effects of Different Immune Status on the Variation of Intestinal Microflora Community in Broiler Chickens(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯焱; 杨小军; 胡雄兵; 刘烨; 尹瑞卿; 覃定奎; 姚军虎

    2012-01-01

    微生物区系的平衡是确保肠道健康的重点,本研究对不同免疫状态下肉仔鸡消化道内微生物变化规律进行了研究.选用180只AA肉公鸡随机分4个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复9只肉公鸡.实验分为无免疫组、常规免疫组、免疫亢进和免疫抑制4个处理组.于21、28、35和42日龄肠段的内容物,提取总DNA,并以此为模板获得反映肠道微生物群落结构特征的肠杆菌基因间重复序列-PCR(ERIC-PCR)指纹图谱,比较各DNA样品指纹图谱的相似性指数.ERIC-PCR扩增产物大部分为200~2 000 bp的基因片段,聚类分析显示,各日龄阶段,处理组间十二指肠细菌种群结构的相似性最高(75%),其次是盲肠(40%),回肠(39%)和空肠(38%)的相似性较低.图谱的条带数目为十二指肠>回肠>盲肠>空肠.28和35日龄,十二指肠和空肠脂多糖(LPS)组条带都低于21日龄,而回肠和盲肠的未见显著变化.21日龄,回肠环磷酰胺(CYP)组的条带低于其他处理组.不同免疫状态影响回肠、空肠和盲肠道微生物区系,42日龄,不同免疫状态对微生物数量和种群的影响不明显.%It focuses on the intestinal health that balances in microbial flora. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of gastrointestinal tract microflora in broilers raised under different immune status. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) was conducted to evaluate this effect in broilers. Treatments consisted of a negative control, general vaccination, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) + general vaccination and cyclophosphamide (CYP )+ general vaccination. On the age of 21, 28, 35 and 42 d, digesta of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected to assay for gut microflora. The results showed that the DNA fingerprinting of ERIC-PCR had high stability and repetition. The molecular weights of gene fragment were almost from 200 to 2 000 bp after ERIC-PCR amplification. Different immune stress affected gut microflora to different degrees, and as age varied, the dominant microflora correspondingly changed. The diversity of cecal microflora was mostly obvious in LPS+ general vaccination treatment and CYP+ general vaccination treatment. In the present study, based on cluster analysis, the similarity of gut microflora in negative control was relatively stable, and among all treatments, the similarity of duodenal microflora was up to 75%, followed by cecum (40%), jejunum (38%) and ileum (39%). Under different immune status, between LPS group and no vaccination group, the microbial number and distribution in jejunum were different, but there were no significant difference in ileum and cecum between LPS group and CYP group.

  16. Differentiation state-specific mitochondrial dynamic regulatory networks are revealed by global transcriptional analysis of the developing chicken lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauss, Daniel; Basu, Subhasree; Rajakaruna, Suren; Ma, Zhiwei; Gau, Victoria; Anastas, Sara; Brennan, Lisa A; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Menko, A Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2014-06-13

    The mature eye lens contains a surface layer of epithelial cells called the lens epithelium that requires a functional mitochondrial population to maintain the homeostasis and transparency of the entire lens. The lens epithelium overlies a core of terminally differentiated fiber cells that must degrade their mitochondria to achieve lens transparency. These distinct mitochondrial populations make the lens a useful model system to identify those genes that regulate the balance between mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination. Here we used an RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approach to identify the transcript levels of all genes expressed by distinct regions of the lens epithelium and maturing fiber cells of the embryonic Gallus gallus (chicken) lens. Our analysis detected more than 15,000 unique transcripts expressed by the embryonic chicken lens. Of these, more than 3000 transcripts exhibited significant differences in expression between lens epithelial cells and fiber cells. Multiple transcripts coding for separate mitochondrial homeostatic and degradation mechanisms were identified to exhibit preferred patterns of expression in lens epithelial cells that require mitochondria relative to lens fiber cells that require mitochondrial elimination. These included differences in the expression levels of metabolic (DUT, PDK1, SNPH), autophagy (ATG3, ATG4B, BECN1, FYCO1, WIPI1), and mitophagy (BNIP3L/NIX, BNIP3, PARK2, p62/SQSTM1) transcripts between lens epithelial cells and lens fiber cells. These data provide a comprehensive window into all genes transcribed by the lens and those mitochondrial regulatory and degradation pathways that function to maintain mitochondrial populations in the lens epithelium and to eliminate mitochondria in maturing lens fiber cells.

  17. Histological analyses demonstrate the temporary contribution of yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow to hematopoiesis during chicken development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tavares Guedes

    Full Text Available The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3 and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.

  18. Quantifying the effects of genetic selection and genetic variation for body size, carcass composition, and meat quality in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, D A; Nute, G R; Hocking, P M

    2009-05-01

    A multistrain experiment was conducted to quantify the extent of genetic differences in carcass and muscle yields, muscle quality, support organs, and taste panel assessments of cooked breast muscle of 296 birds from 37 lines of commercial broiler, layer, and traditional chickens. The birds were reared as broilers and 4 males from each line were slaughtered at 6 and 10 wk of age. The extent of genetic variation was measured as the intraclass correlation. The intraclass correlation for live weight; carcass yields; breast, drum, and wing portions; and associated muscle yields were high, whereas those for the thigh portion and yield were low. Broilers had more breast and thigh muscle but similar drum muscle as a proportion of carcass weight compared with layer and traditional lines. Genetic variation for muscle quality (plasma creatine kinase activity) was high; that for muscle color (L, a, and b) and hemorrhage score were moderate in size and were greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler lines had greater creatine kinase activity indicative of greater muscle pathology; breast muscle was lighter, less red and yellow in color, and had a greater hemorrhage score than muscle from layer and traditional lines, which were similar. Intraclass correlations for taste panel scores were low and generally not significant except for texture, chicken flavor intensity, flavor liking, and overall liking at 6 wk of age. Significantly greater scores from broiler compared with layer and traditional lines for texture, chicken flavor intensity, and overall liking were observed. At 10 wk of age, chicken flavor intensity did not differ between broiler or layer birds but was significantly greater in both groups than traditional birds. Genetic variation for relative weight of abdominal fat, spleen, and heart was moderately high and greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler carcasses had a relatively high proportion of abdominal fat and smaller spleen and heart weights.

  19. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  20. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Kongroi, K; Kuadsantia, P; Poompramun, C; Likitdecharote, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study.

  1. The effect of hypoxia on facial shape variation and disease phenotypes in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Smith

    2013-07-01

    Craniofacial anomalies can arise from both genetic and environmental factors, including prenatal hypoxia. Recent clinical evidence correlates hypoxia to craniofacial malformations. However, the mechanisms by which hypoxia mediates these defects are not yet understood. We examined the cellular mechanisms underlying malformations induced by hypoxia using a chicken (Gallus gallus embryo model. Eggs were incubated in either hypoxic (7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 or 19% O2 or normoxic (21% O2 conditions. Embryos were photographed for morphological analysis at days 3–6. For analysis of skeletal development, 13-day embryos were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. Quantitative analysis of facial shape variation was performed on images of embryos via geometric morphometrics. Early-stage embryos (day 2 were analyzed for apoptosis via whole-mount and section TUNEL staining and immunostaining for cleaved caspase-3, whereas later-stage embryos (days 4–6 were sectioned in paraffin for analysis of cell proliferation (BrdU, apoptosis (TUNEL and metabolic stress (phospho-AMPK. Results demonstrate that survival is reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Hypoxic embryos displayed a spectrum of craniofacial anomalies, from mild asymmetry and eye defects to more severe frontonasal and cephalic anomalies. Skull bone development was delayed in hypoxic embryos, with some skeletal defects observed. Morphometric analysis showed facial shape variation relative to centroid size and age in hypoxic groups. Hypoxia disrupted cell proliferation and, in early-stage embryos, caused apoptosis of neural crest progenitor cells. Hypoxic embryos also displayed an increased metabolic stress response. These results indicate that hypoxia during early embryonic craniofacial development might induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to apoptosis of the neural crest progenitor cells that are crucial to normal craniofacial morphogenesis.

  2. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria oocysts protects chickens against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Klopp, Spangler; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to turkeys and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1995-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination was studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg/kg body weight) to 15 turkeys and 15 chickens. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between turkeys and chickens in the disposition kinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model in turkeys and chickens. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in turkeys were significantly slower than in chickens. The elimination half-life of amoxicillin was similar in turkeys (1.12 +/-0.09 h) and chickens (1.03 +/-0.11 h) after intravenous administration, but that of clavulanic acid differed significantly (P<0.05) between turkeys (1.12 +/-0.03 h) and chickens (0.98 +/- 0.05 h). After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P<0.05) in turkeys and chickens than that after the intravenous treatment. The bioavailability after the intramuscular injection was high and similar with both drugs, but higher values were obtained for chickens than turkeys.

  4. Natural origin immunomodulators influence on insulin content in broiler chickens blood under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Степан Стефанович Грабовський

    2014-01-01

    The results of determination of protein fractions content insulin and protein concentrations in plasma of broiler chickens, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances is given. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period biologically active substances of spleen extract were obtained with and without ultrasound application. Aerosol introduction of spleen extract to the broiler chickens feed increases the insulin concentration in broile...

  5. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  6. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  8. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  9. Macroscopic morphology and arterial vascular supply of thymus in fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of Red Bro Cou Nu lineag - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8529

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mauricio Mendes de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Red Bro Cou Nu lineage were studied. They were about 35 days old and had their arteries filled with Neoprene Latex 450", aqueous solution at 50%, stained with specific pigment (Globo S/A, Tintas e Pigmentos, and then fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. The present study aimed to quantify the thymic lobes and identify the main arteries responsible for the blood supply of these lobes and their frequencies. The number of thymic lobes on the right antimere varied from two to 11, with a greater frequency of 8 lobes; and the left antimere showed a variation from one to eight, with a greater frequency of five lobes. The arteries destined to the thymus were composed by direct and indirect branches of the following arteries: left and right common vagus nerve, left and right cranial thyroid, left and right caudal thyroid, left and right ascending esophageal, right ingluvial, left and right cutaneous, and right common carotid. The right thymic lobes, regardless their origin, received from eight to 27 vascular branches, and the left thymic lobes, from eight to 24 branches.  

  10. Analysis of chromatin compaction and determination of the storage time and distribution of a rooster’s (Gallus gallus spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules of hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Nunes Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to elucidate alterations in the compaction of sperm chromatin during storage in the sperm storage tubules of fowl hens, to observe the storage time, and to estimate the variation in the amount of stored spermatozoa in the cranial, medium and caudal sections of the uterovaginal junction over a period of 23 days. For the analysis of the spermatozoa during storage in the sperm storage tubules of hens, 48 thirty-six-week-old meat chickens of the Cobb Avian 48 strain were used. Samples from the uterovaginal junction of the hens were collected for 23 days after the mating with the roosters, and six hens were euthanized every four days for the production of histological microscope slides. Spermatozoa were found throughout the area of the sperm storage tubules. Most of them were gathered in the medium section of the uterovaginal junction. There was no meaningful statistical difference in the amount of sperm in the sperm storage tubules over the days of the experiment. A greater amount of sperm cells were observed up to the 23rd day of assessment. Therefore, the storage of spermatozoa in hens lasts at least 23 days.

  11. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  12. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  13. Systematic pathogenesis and replication of avian hepatitis E virus in specific-pathogen-free adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billam, P; Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Elvinger, F; Guenette, D K; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. Due to the lack of a cell culture system and a practical animal model for HEV, little is known about its pathogenesis and replication. The discovery of a strain of HEV in chickens, designated avian HEV, prompted us to evaluate chickens as a model for the study of HEV. Eighty-five 60-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 chickens (n=28) were each inoculated with 5 x 10(4.5) 50% chicken infectious doses of avian HEV by the oronasal route, group 2 chickens (n=29) were each inoculated with the same dose by the intravenous (i.v.) route, and group 3 chickens (n=28) were not inoculated and were used as controls. Two chickens from each group were necropsied at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 35, and 42 days postinoculation (dpi), and the remaining chickens were necropsied at 56 dpi. Serum, fecal, and various tissue samples, including liver and spleen samples, were collected at each necropsy for pathological and virological testing. By 21 dpi, all oronasally and i.v. inoculated chickens had seroconverted. Fecal virus shedding was detected variably from 1 to 20 dpi for the i.v. group and from 10 to 56 dpi for the oronasal group. Avian HEV RNA was detected in serum, bile, and liver samples from both i.v. and oronasally inoculated chickens. Gross liver lesions, characterized by subcapsular hemorrhages or enlargement of the right intermediate lobe, were observed in 7 of 28 oronasally and 7 of 29 i.v. inoculated chickens. Microscopic liver lesions were mainly lymphocytic periphlebitis and phlebitis. The lesion scores were higher for oronasal (P=0.0008) and i.v. (P=0.0029) group birds than for control birds. Slight elevations of the plasma liver enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were observed in infected chickens. The results indicated that chickens are a useful model for studying HEV replication and pathogenesis. This is the first report of HEV transmission via its natural

  14. Ontogeny of vestibular compound action potentials in the domestic chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of -0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately -25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6-P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 microV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ.

  15. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  16. Bone protein “extractomics”: comparing the efficiency of bone protein extractions of Gallus gallus in tandem mass spectrometry, with an eye towards paleoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R. Schroeter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of bone require specialized extraction protocols to demineralize and solubilize proteins from within the bone matrix. Although various protocols exist for bone protein recovery, little is known about how discrete steps in each protocol affect the subset of the bone proteome recovered by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Characterizing these different “extractomes” will provide critical data for development of novel and more efficient protein extraction methodologies for fossils. Here, we analyze 22 unique sub-extractions of chicken bone and directly compare individual extraction components for their total protein yield and diversity and coverage of bone proteins identified by MS. We extracted proteins using different combinations and ratios of demineralizing reagents, protein-solubilizing reagents, and post-extraction buffer removal methods, then evaluated tryptic digests from 20 µg aliquots of each fraction by tandem MS/MS on a 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. We compared total numbers of peptide spectral matches, peptides, and proteins identified from each fraction, the redundancy of protein identifications between discrete steps of extraction methods, and the sequence coverage obtained for select, abundant proteins. Although both alpha chains of collagen I (the most abundant protein in bone were found in all fractions, other collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g., apolipoprotein, osteonectin, hemoglobin were differentially identified. We found that when a standardized amount of extracted proteins was analyzed, extraction steps that yielded the most protein (by weight from bone were often not the ones that produced the greatest diversity of bone proteins, or the highest degree of protein coverage. Generally, the highest degrees of diversity and coverage were obtained from demineralization fractions, and the proteins found in the subsequent solubilization fractions were highly redundant with those in the previous

  17. Alterações bioquímicas, anatômicas e histopatológicas em fígado de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. Cepeda

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espiroquetose aviária é uma enfermidade septicêmica de curso agudo, cosmopolita, que acomete diversas espécies aviárias, causada por Borrelia anserina e transmitida pelo carrapato Argas miniatus. O experimento teve como objetivos avaliar as alterações bioquímicas e anátomo-histopatológicas no fígado de Gallus gallus, causadas pela infecção experimental por B. anserina. Quarenta aves da espécie G. gallus foram divididas em quatro grupos inteiramente casualizados com 10 animais cada: G1 - inoculado com soro infectado com B. anserina; G2 - inoculado com soro fisiológico a 0,9%; G3 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus infectados por B. anserina; G4 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus livres de B. anserina. As aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 manifestaram no 3º e 6º dias pós-inoculação (DPI respectivamente, sintomatologia característica da doença como inapetência, perda de peso, sonolência, diarreia esverdeada, mucosas hipocoradas, penas arrepiadas e hipertermia. Os níveis de ALT do Grupo 1 mostraram-se significativamente mais elevados apenas no 12ºDPI e 24ºDPI em relação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 2 e no Grupo 3 esses níveis se mantiveram elevados até o 20º DPI em comparação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 4. Os níveis da enzima AST pouco oscilaram nos grupos experimentais, embora tenham sido encontradas elevações no 12ºDPI nos Grupos 1 e 3. Os fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 apresentaram à necropsia, moderada hepatomegalia, congestão, superfície irregular e coloração vermelha a cianótica; constataram-se ainda pequenos pontos esbranquiçados na superfície. A histopatologia do fígado revelou congestão, infiltrados inflamatórios mononucleares, focos de necrose fibrinoide, dilatação dos sinusoides e vacuolização de hepatócitos. A coloração de Warthin-Starry revelou, nos fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3, a presença de espiroquetas compatíveis com B. anserina

  18. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  19. Effect of tylosin tartrate on humoral immune responses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, T; Yamashita, N; Kodama, H; Mukamoto, M; Asada, M; Nakamoto, K; Nose, Y; McGruder, E D

    1998-06-01

    While many antimicrobial agents have been reported to cause immunosuppression in animals, macrolide antibiotics enhance the immune function. Tylosin tartrate is a macrolide antibiotic approved for the control of mycoplasmosis in poultry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of tylosin on the humoral immune functions in chickens. Three days after oral tylosin tartrate administration, 4- or 8-week-old chickens were immunized intravenously with carbolic acid-killed Brucella abortus bacterin or sheep red blood cells. Seven days (plasma antibodies titre) or 4 days (antibody forming cells) post-immunization, there was a significant increase in antibody production as well as in the numbers of antibody-producing cells in tylosin tartrate-administered chickens compared with the untreated controls. However, 3 days after tylosin tartrate administration, there was no difference in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 or CD8 positive cells) or B lymphocytes (surface immunoglobulin positive cells) in either the peripheral blood or spleens or untreated control chickens.

  20. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  1. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase.

  2. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  3. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPARIAN, Shahram; ABDULAHNEJAD, Ahad; RASHIDI, Farzad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernata...

  4. Neural tuning characteristics of auditory primary afferents in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Primary afferent activity was recorded from the cochlear ganglion in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) at 19 days of incubation (E19). The ganglion was accessed via the recessus scala tympani and impaled with glass micropipettes. Frequency tuning curves were obtained using a computerized threshold tracking procedure. Tuning curves were evaluated to determine characteristics frequencies (CFs), CF thresholds, slopes of low and high frequency flanks, and tip sharpness (Q10dB). The majority of tuning curves exhibited the typical 'V' shape described for older birds and, on average, appeared relatively mature based on mean values for CF thresholds (59.6 +/- 20.3 dBSPL) and tip sharpness (Q10dB = 5.2 +/- 3). The mean slopes of low (61.9 +/- 37 dB/octave) and high (64.6 +/- 33 dB/octave) frequency flanks although comparable were somewhat less than those reported for 21-day-old chickens. Approximately 14% of the tuning curves displayed an unusual 'saw-tooth' pattern. CFs ranged from 188 to 1623 Hz. The highest CF was well below those reported for post-hatch birds. In addition, a broader range of Q10dB values (1.2 to 16.9) may related to a greater variability in embryonic tuning curves. Overall, these data suggest that an impressive functional maturity exists in the embryo at E19. The most significant sign of immaturity was the limited expression of high frequencies. It is argued that the limited high CF in part may be due to the developing middle ear transfer function and/or to a functionally immature cochlear base.

  5. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  6. Metabolic and hormonal responses of growing modern meat type chickens to fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compared the effects of fasting on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon in male and female modern meat-type chickens (Ross 708) at three ages (19 d, 33 d and 47 d). Plasma concentrations of glucose were reduced by fasting with reductions of 24.9% (19-d-old),...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphisms in Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken and their evolutionary relatedness with nine domestic Wugu breeds%东乡绿壳蛋鸡线粒体DNA控制区多态性及与9种地方乌鸡的进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章学东; 李庆海; 张成先; 陈贤惠; 楼立峰; 王欢欢

    2014-01-01

    71.4% (15 /21 ) were transitional and 28.6%(7/21) were transversional . The nucleotide diversity was 0.008 29 ± 0.001 30 . There were 73 haplotypes found in 248 samples from 10 Wugu chicken breeds . The Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken had nine haplotypes with a diversity of 0.773 ± 0.048 . Estimates of evolutionary divergence between breeds showed that the Dongxiang blueeggshell chicken was genetically closest ( 0.009 ) to the Taihe silky chicken ,which was also originally bred in Jiangxi Province . Yunxian Wugu chicken originally bred in Hubei Province had the farthest genetic distance ( 0.019 ,0.020) from Yanjin Wugu and Tengchong snow chickens originally bred in Yunnan Province . A neighbor-joining phylogeny tree revealed six original clades among 10 domestic Wugu chicken breeds .Clade B included Gallus gallus sp adiceus subspecies and had the largest number of samples ( 31.0% , 77/248) , followed by clade A(27.8% ,69 /248) . The Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken was closely related to three clades , of which clade A was the largest (64.1% ,25 /39) . It is concluded that the Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken is moderately genetically diverse and there is an apparent geographical association between domestic Wugu chicken breeds and their maternal origins , although each had individual characteristics .%采用PCR产物直接测序的方法,对39只东乡绿壳蛋鸡(♂19、♀20)的线粒体DNA(mtDNA)控制区进行遗传多态性分析;并与9个国内其他地方乌鸡种的209个个体进行序列比对和进化分析.结果显示:东乡绿壳蛋鸡mtDNA控制区534 bp序列的G+C含量为43.1%;序列共存在21个变异位点,其中转换占71.4%(15/21)、颠换占28.6%(6/21);核苷酸多样度为0.00829±0.00130.分析10个乌鸡种的248个个体共获得73种单倍型,其中东乡绿壳蛋鸡含9种单倍型,单倍型多样度为0.773±0.048.品种间进化分歧显示:东乡绿壳蛋鸡与同处江西省的泰和丝

  8. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  9. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  10. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  11. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  12. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  13. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  14. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  15. Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed

  16. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  17. Cholesterol deregulation induced by chronic corticosterone (CORT) stress in pectoralis major of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yujing; Fu, Wenyan; Wang, Song; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-10-01

    Chronic endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess in mammals is associated with metabolic dysfunction and dyslipidemia that are characterized by increased plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (Tch) levels. However, the effects of chronic GC administration on cholesterol metabolism, particularly in muscle tissues of broiler chickens, are unknown. In this study, broiler chickens were treated chronically with vehicle (CON) or corticosterone (CORT) for 2 weeks. Chronic CORT treatment significantly increased Tch levels in pectoralis major muscle (PMC) (p0.05). Western blot results showed that the levels of total GR (p=0.08) tended to be increased and nuclear GR protein (pchickens by increasing cholesterol synthesis and uptake.

  18. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  19. Outbreak of type C botulism in chickens in Pancas city, Espírito Santo state, BrazilSurto de botulismo tipo C em frangos na cidade de Pancas, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to describe an outbreak of botulism in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus, in Pancas City, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The birds were derived from a subsistence property with approximately 150 domestic fowls. The owner reported finding some birds lying on the floor and others exhibiting limited mobility. Ten animals in agony were euthanized, necropsied and had their blood serum collected. About 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs, 144 (96% animals of the creation had already died. No postmortem changes were found at necropsies. Clostridium botulinum type C toxins were detected in the sera of euthanized chickens by mice neutralization tests. The observation of clinical signs, absence of post-mortem lesions and the result of mouse neutralization tests confirmed the diagnosis of botulism caused by C. botulinum type C. Unfortunately, the source of toxins was not found. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever um surto de botulismo em aves domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus, ocorrido na cidade de Pancas, estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. As aves eram oriundas de uma propriedade de subsistência com aproximadamente 150 frangos domésticos. O proprietário relatou encontrar algumas aves caídas no chão e outras apresentando dificuldade de locomoção. Dez animais em estado agônico foram eutanasiados, submetidos à necropsia e coleta de soro sanguíneo. Em 72 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos, 144 (96% animais da criação já haviam vindo a óbito. Nenhuma alteração post-mortem foi encontrada durante a necropsia. Foi possível detectar a toxina botulínica tipo C por soroneutralização em camundongos no soro dos animais eutanasiados. A observação da sintomatologia clínica, ausência de lesões à necropsia e o resultado da soroneutralização permitem confirmar o diagnóstico de botulismo por Clostridium botulinum tipo C.

  20. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  1. Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2014-10-01

    Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin), respectively].

  2. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  3. 高效液相色谱-电感耦合等离子体质谱同时分析鸡肉中洛克沙生、阿散酸和硝苯胂酸%Simultaneous Determination of Roxarsone,Arsanilic and Nitarsone in Chicken by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽君; 刘玉敏; 崔凤杰; 郭伟; 徐成钢; 李兆杰

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine roxarsone,arsanilic and nitarsone in chicken by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(HPLC-ICP-MS).Samples were extracted with methanol/water solution.The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna C18 using methanol and water(containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) as the mobile phase.Identification and quantification were achieved by using ICP-MS.Good linearity was observed in the range of 1 to 50 μg/kg with correlation coefficients above 0.99.The method was validated at the spike levels of 1,2,10 μg/kg.The validation results indicated that the average recoveries of arsenicum praeparatum ranged from 85.4% to 103.1% with a relative standard deviation of 3.3%-7.2%.The quantification limits of 3 arsenicum praeparatum were 1μg/kg.The method had good reproducibility,high sensitivity and simple pre-treatment.Its performance could meet both domestic and international legislation requirements.This method is applicable for simultaneous determination of arsenicum praeparatum in chicken.%建立一种同时测定鸡肉中洛克沙生、阿散酸和硝苯胂酸等3种有机砷类制剂的高效液相色谱-电感耦合等离子体质谱(high performance liquid chromatography tandem inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,HPLC-ICP-MS)分析方法。样品经甲醇溶液提取,采用Phenomenex Luna C18色谱柱,体积分数0.05%的三氟乙酸溶液-甲醇作为流动相进行洗脱,经高效液相色谱分离,电感耦合等离子体质谱进行定性和定量分析。结果表明:1~50μg/kg范围内各砷制剂线性良好,相关系数r2均在0.99以上;在1、2、10μg/kg三个加标水平下进行方法验证,平均回收率为85.4%~103.1%,相对标准偏差为3.3%~7.2%;3种有机砷类制剂的定量限均为1μg/kg。方法重现性好、灵敏度高、前处理简单,各项指标均满足国内外法规要求,适用

  4. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  5. Insulin immuno-neutralization in fed chickens: effects on liver and muscle transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jean; Milenkovic, Dragan; Godet, Estelle; Cabau, Cedric; Collin, Anne; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Rideau, Nicole; Tesseraud, Sophie; Derouet, Michel; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Gespach, Christian; Porter, Tom E; Duclos, Michel J; Dupont, Joëlle; Cogburn, Larry A

    2012-03-01

    Chickens mimic an insulin-resistance state by exhibiting several peculiarities with regard to plasma glucose level and its control by insulin. To gain insight into the role of insulin in the control of chicken transcriptome, liver and leg muscle transcriptomes were compared in fed controls and "diabetic" chickens, at 5 h after insulin immuno-neutralization, using 20.7K-chicken oligo-microarrays. At a level of false discovery rate <0.01, 1,573 and 1,225 signals were significantly modified by insulin privation in liver and muscle, respectively. Microarray data agreed reasonably well with qRT-PCR and some protein level measurements. Differentially expressed mRNAs with human ID were classified using Biorag analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Multiple metabolic pathways, structural proteins, transporters and proteins of intracellular trafficking, major signaling pathways, and elements of the transcriptional control machinery were largely represented in both tissues. At least 42 mRNAs have already been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, energy expenditure, or identified as sensors of metabolism in mice or humans. The contribution of the pathways presently identified to chicken physiology (particularly those not yet related to insulin) needs to be evaluated in future studies. Other challenges include the characterization of "unknown" mRNAs and the identification of the steps or networks, which disturbed tissue transcriptome so extensively, quickly after the turning off of the insulin signal. In conclusion, pleiotropic effects of insulin in chickens are further evidenced; major pathways controlled by insulin in mammals have been conserved despite the presence of unique features of insulin signaling in chicken muscle.

  6. Comparison of the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of monensin and salinomycin in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, J; Maurice, R; Postollec, G; Dubreil-Cheneau, E; Roudaut, B; Laurentie, M; Sanders, P

    2012-02-01

    The current study describes the pharmacokinetic parameters of two carboxylic polyether ionophores: monensin in turkeys and salinomycin in chickens. These data can be used to understand and predict the occurrence of undesirable residues of coccidiostats in edible tissues of these animal species. Special attention is paid to the distribution of residues between the different edible tissues during and at the end of the treatment period. For the bioavailability studies, monensin was administered to turkeys intravenously, in the left wing vein, at a dose of 0.4 mg /kg and orally at a dose of 20 mg /kg. Salinomycin was administered to chickens intravenously, in the left wing vein, at a dose of 0.25 mg /kg and orally at a dose of 2.5 mg /kg. Residue studies were carried out with supplemented feed at the rate of 100 mg /kg of feed for monensin in turkeys and 70 mg /kg for salinomycin in chickens, respectively. Coccidiostats had a low bioavailability in poultry (around 30% for monensin in chickens, around 1% for monensin in turkeys and around 15% for salinomycin in chickens). Monensin in chickens had a longer terminal half-life (between 3.07 and 5.55 h) than both monensin in turkeys (between 1.36 and 1.55 h) and salinomycin in chickens (between 1.33 and 1.79 h). The tissue /plasma partition coefficients showed a higher affinity of both monensin and salinomycin for fat, followed by liver and muscle tissue. The depletion data showed a fairly rapid elimination of coccidiostats in all the tissues after cessation of treatment. According to the results of depletion studies, a withdrawal period of 1 day seems sufficient to avoid undesirable exposure of consumers.

  7. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  8. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  9. Effects of luminal nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, and intravenous parenteral alimentation on the recovery responses of duodenal villus morphology following feed withdrawal in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarachai, P; Yamauchi, K

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify which of the following three factors induces villus morphological recovery best: enteral nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, or intravenous parenteral alimentation. At 142 d, male White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were divided into eight groups of five birds each as follows: 1) access given ad libitum to a commercial layer mash diet (CP, 17.5%; ME, 2,830 kcal/kg) (control), 2) 5-d feed withdrawal (feed withdrawal), 3) 3-d feed withdrawal (3-FW), followed by refeeding the same diet as the control for 2 d (refeeding), 4) 3-FW followed by force-feeding enteral hyperalimentation (enteral), 5) 3-FW followed by force-feeding an indigestible (nonabsorbable) substance (kaolin), 6) 3-FW followed by force-feeding water for 2 d (force-fed control), 7) 3-FW followed by parenteral hyperalimentation (parenteral), and 8) 3-FW followed by no alimentation (sham control) for 2 d. In the refeeding and enteral groups, BW significantly recovered (P kaolin could not be absorbed enterally. Compared with the feed withdrawal group, villus height, cell mitosis, and villus tip surface morphology of refeeding and enteral groups exhibited rapid villus morphological recovery. Villus morphological recovery of the enteral group appears to have been caused by enteral nutrient absorption. However, villus morphology in the kaolin treatment was not different from that in the feed withdrawal group, which suggests that intraluminal physical stimulation had no effect on villus morphological recovery. On the other hand, the parenteral group showed no effect on villus morphological recovery, which suggests that the parenteral nutrient supplied to the villi via the blood could not induce villus morphological recovery; the intestinal mucosal atrophy might have been caused by the absence of enteral nutrients, and would only be stimulated by enteral nutrient absorption. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that villus morphology

  10. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Teenu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Objective: To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Materials and Methods : Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg and high dose (20 mg/kg of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the clinical signs and symptoms, mortality, alterations in blood biochemistry, and necropsy findings. Results : The birds of Group II showed only mild symptoms of diarrhea. In Group III, 50% of birds died in between 24 and 36 h post-treatment showing the symptoms of segregatory behavior, lethargy, terminal anorexia, and severe bloody diarrhea. The birds of Group II and the surviving birds of Group III showed a significantly (P< 0.05 increased plasma uric acid, creatinine and plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (PGPT, and decreased total protein and albumin at 12 and 24 h post-treatment which returned to the normal levels at 36 h post-treatment. The dead birds of the high-dose group also showed similar pattern of biochemical changes at 12 and 24 h post-treatment and revealed extensive visceral gout with characteristic histopathological lesions in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine on post-mortem. Conclusion : The results indicate that diclofenac sodium has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and visceral gout inducing potentials in White Leghorn birds, especially at higher dose.

  11. Toxicokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of melamine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poapolathep, S; Klangkaew, N; Arreesrisom, P; Isariyodom, S; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicokinetic characteristics of melamine in broilers due to the limited information available for livestock. Melamine was then administered to broiler chickens at an intravenous (i.v.) or oral (p.o.) dosage of 5.5 mg/kg of body weight, and plasma samples were collected up to 48 h. The concentration of melamine in each plasma sample was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Melamine was measurable up to 24 h after i.v. and p.o. administration. A one-compartment model was developed to describe the toxicokinetics of melamine in broilers. Following i.v. administration, the values for the elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), the volume of distribution (Vd ), and the clearance (CL) were 4.42 ± 1.02 h, 00.52 ± 0.18 L/kg, and 0.08 ± 0.01 L/h/kg, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability (F) was 95.63 ± 3.54%. The results suggest that most of the administered melamine is favorably absorbed from the alimentary tract and rapidly cleared by the kidneys in broiler chickens.

  12. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  13. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  14. Combined effects of muscular dystrophy, ecological stress, and selenium on blood antioxidant status in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V; Stoyanchev, Krasimir; Bozakova, Nadia; Jotova, Ivanka

    2011-09-01

    The results obtained in this study demonstrated that experimentally induced alimentary muscular dystrophy (MD) in Cobb 500 broiler chickens resulted in increased plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), deviations in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD (decrease), and CAT (increase) as well as reduction in plasma concentrations of trace elements Cu, Zn, and Se in affected birds. These data evidenced the presence of oxidative stress in birds with MD, reared both under conditions of ecological comfort and ecological stress. The increased MDA and САТ levels and the reduced Cu,Zn-SOD, Cu, Zn, and Se concentrations in healthy chickens reared under unfavorable microclimatic conditions such as higher air temperature and humidity, higher ammonia concentrations, and lower light intensity were indicative about an induced ecological stress. After the 10-day oral treatment with a selenium-containing preparation, the levels of MDA, Cu,Zn-SOD, CAT, Cu, Zn, and Se attained their normal values in chickens with MD, reared under ecologically comfortable conditions. According to our results, ecological stress was shown to exert independently a significant adverse effect upon the levels of the studied parameters and possibly to be a cause for their slower and not complete normalization despite the selenium therapy in experimental broiler chickens.

  15. Eta vs. sigma: review of past results, Gallus-Klemp test, and large-scale wind skill in ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of switching between the eta and the sigma coordinate in numerical weather prediction involving topography, five sets of tests were performed. The eta version did better in all of them particularly with precipitation scores and more accurate placement of storms. However, a problem of flow separation in the lee of the bell-shaped topography discovered by Gallus and Klemp seemed to many to suggest the eta coordinate to be ill suited for high-resolution models. Flow separation is shown not to occur following a refinement of the eta discretization. Trying to identify a primary cause of the improvement in 250 hPa winds previously demonstrated in Eta ensemble members over their ECMWF driver members, ten of the Eta members were run switched to sigma. At a critical time, the Eta members in eta mode showed a tendency for more accurate tilt of a 250 hPa trough than the members run in sigma mode. The experiment was rerun for a more recent and higher resolution ECMWF ensemble, and for an increased number of members. The advantage of the Eta over ECMWF is seen again, even though this time, the Eta resolution during the first 10 days of the experiment was about the same as that of driver members. Rerunning the Eta ensemble switched to sigma showed an advantage in the Eta/eta 250 hPa wind scores used, again associated with an upper-air trough's movement across the Rockies. Better positioning of lee lows ahead of these troughs using Eta/eta is suggested to be making significant contributions to its better precipitation scores. Implications of experiments done for regional climate modeling are discussed as well.

  16. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  17. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  18. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  19. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  20. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  1. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction as indicator of cellular immune competence in broiler chickens exposed to dietary corticosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Gielkens, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to evaluate the delayed type hypersensitivity test against keyhole limpet haemocyanin as a parameter to measure stress-induced cellular immune suppression. The test was optimised for broiler chickens and evaluated in a stress model in which plasma corticosterone leve

  2. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  3. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  4. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  5. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  6. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faixová Zita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03 supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetheroleum of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calendula a.s., Nová L'ubovña, Slovakia. Continuous lighting and water and feed ad libitum were provided throughout the trial. The addition of cinnamon to the diets caused a significantly lower plasma glucose level and the effects of cinnamon on plasma glucose levels tended to be dose-dependent. Dietary intake of 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon reduced serum ALT and plasma potassium levels. Ingestion of cinnamon, however, resulted in no significant changes in circulating calcium, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol and cholesterol levels. It was concluded that cinnamon could be used not only for flavor and taste in food preparation but it had an additional role in glucose metabolism in broiler chickens.

  7. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  8. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  9. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  10. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Abdulkarimi; Alimirza Aghazadeh; Mohsen Daneshyar

    2011-01-01

    A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT), 0.2 (LT), 0.4 (MT) or 0.6% (HT) thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the b...

  11. Orexin and orexin receptor like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of Gallus domesticus: An immunohistochemical survey on presence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcamone, N; D'Angelo, L; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C; Pelagalli, A; Castaldo, L

    2014-04-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization and distribution of orexin A and B-like and their receptors-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of chicken. The immunoreactivity is distributed in endocrine cells, nerve fibers and neurons, both in the stomach and intestine, and shows a discrete conformity with the data till now reported for Mammals. Our study suggests a possible participation of orexin-like peptides in the modulation of chicken gastroenteric activities and the preservation of their main distribution compared to Mammals. Western blot analysis has confirmed the presence of prepro-orexin and both receptors in the examined tissues. This survey represents the first evidence of the presence of orexin-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of non mammalian species, and the results could help to better understand the alimentary control and body weight in domestic birds, which are of relevance to determine the productive factors in breeding animals. This study might also serve as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non mammalian Vertebrates.

  12. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-32 45% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  13. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0424 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-34 50% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  14. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-18 37% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  15. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0200 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 6e-14 47% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  16. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  17. Análise morfométrica da parede intestinal e dinâmica de mucinas secretadas no íleo de frangos infectados por Toxoplasma gondii Morphometric analysis of the intestinal wall and the dynamic of mucins secreted in the chicken ileum infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Sayuri Shiraishi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar os efeitos da toxoplasmose sobre a morfometria da parede intestinal e a dinâmica de mucinas secretadas no íleo de frangos. Foram utilizados 16 frangos de corte machos (Gallus gallus da linhagem Cobb, com 26 dias de idade. As aves foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos (G1, G2 e G3. O G1 não recebeu nenhum inóculo caracterizando o grupo controle, o G2 foi inoculado com cistos teciduais da cepa ME49 de Toxoplasma gondii, e o G3 foi inoculado com oocistos da cepa M7741 de T. gondii. Após 60 dias da inoculação, os animais foram mortos, e coletou-se o íleo, o qual foi submetido à rotina de processamento histológico. Cortes transversais de 4mm foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2,5 e Alcian Blue (AB pH 1,0. Nos animais do G2, observou-se aumento da parede intestinal, sobretudo a túnica muscular, muscular da mucosa e túnica mucosa, além de aumento na secreção de mucinas neutras. Já nos animais do G3, houve uma atrofia da parede intestinal, sobretudo para a túnica mucosa, e aumento na secreção de mucinas neutras.The effects of toxoplasmosis on the intestinal wall morphometry and the dynamic of mucins secreted in the chicken ileum were analyzed. Sixteen 26-day-old, male, Cobb broiler chicks (Gallus gallus were used and randomly divided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. G1 received no inoculum characterizing the control group, G2 was inoculated with tissue cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii, and G3 was inoculated with oocytes of M7741 strain of T. gondii. After 60 days of inoculation, the animals were killed and had their ileum collected and submitted to histological processing. Tranversal cuts (4mm were stained with Hematoxilin-Eosine (HE, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2.5 and Alcian Blue (AB pH 1.0. Intestinal wall increase was noticed for the animals from G2 - mostly the muscle tunic, the muscularis mucosae, and the mucous tunic

  18. Structures and Functions Prediction and Expression Profiles of Calreticulin as Calcium Binding Chaperones in Chicken%鸡钙离子结合分子伴侣Calreticulin的结构与功能预测及组织表达特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 李楠; 曹嫦妤; 龚都强; 于东; 王伟; 李金龙

    2014-01-01

    内的终端非还原性α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷残基的水解,作用于α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷、含(1,3)和/或(1,5)糖苷键的阿拉伯聚糖、阿拉伯木聚糖和阿拉伯半乳聚糖,能与糖类分子及Ca2+特异性结合,可监控糖蛋白组装折叠及Ca2+调控,且在消化系统中发挥重要作用。%[Objective] The aim of the current study is to reveal the evolutionary relationships, and investigate the protein structure and functions and the expression profiles of calreticulin (CRT) as a key Ca2+ binding molecular chaperone within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of chicken.[Method]The nucleotides and amino acids of CRT in 12 species of vertebrates recorded in Gene bank were analyzed for evolutionary relationships by Laser Gene, and the structures and functions of CRT protein in chicken were predicted by bioinformatics, and the expression profiles of CRT in 30 organizations of chicken was analyzed by real-time PCR.[Result]Results of homology analysis showed that compared with the other 11 species of nucleotide sequences of CRT gene in chicken, gallus gallus and oryctolagus cuniculus had the highest nucleotide sequence homology, which was 78.7%, in addition, gallus gallus and oncorhynchus mykiss had the lowest homology, which was 70.5%. In the homology of amino acid sequences, the relationship between gallus gallus and crotalus adamanteus cadam is the closest by 85.0%, and the furthest relationships with gallus gallus is oncorhynchus mykiss which was 69.0% in amino acid sequence, besides, the homology of gallus gallus with cricetulus griseus, macaca mulatta, homo sapiens, oryctolagus cuniculus, sus scrofa, bos taurus, and xenopus (silurana) tropicalisis relatively close to almost above 80.1%. The protein structure and function prediction revealed that the CRT of chicken was constitute with 404 amino acids, and had a relative molecular mass of 46.8802 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.41, moreover, the negative charge

  19. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  20. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  1. Assessment of liver steatosis in chicken by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman Aroca, Florentina; Serrano, Laura; Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Ayala, Ignacio [University of Murcia, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Murcia (Spain); Castell, Maria T. [University of Murcia, Department of Cell Biology, Murcia (Spain); Garcia-Perez, Bartolome [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Internal Medicine Service, El Palmar, Murcia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a non-invasive tool for quantification of the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. We used two different diets: a standard diet (SD group) and a hyperlipidaemic diet (HD group). The ARFI technique was performed in all the animals in the right hepatic lobe and shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured and expressed in metres per second (m/s). Plasma lipid levels were analysed. Steatosis was quantified by using semiquantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was used and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Mean SWV was 0.94 {+-} 0.16 m/s (range 0.8-1.3 m/s) in the SD group and 1.91 {+-} 0.25 m/s (range 1.3-2.2 m/s) in the HD group (p < 0.001). The lowest SWVs ({<=}1.3 m/s) corresponded to the chickens in the SD group, with 100% of the animals returning a score of 0, whereas the range of SWV in the HD group chickens was between 1.6 and 2.2 m/s. A substantial correlation was observed between SWVs with histological semiquantitative analysis of steatosis (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). ARFI imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allows discrimination between the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. (orig.)

  2. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  3. Profiling histidine dipeptides in plasma and urine after ingesting beef, chicken or chicken broth in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS), oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein & sugars, play a role in the etiology of certain chronic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that histidine-dipeptides such as carnosine and anserine detoxify cytotoxic carbonyls such as 4-hydroxy-trans-...

  4. Influences of environment and personality on cognitive judgment bias in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes include biases, such as cognitive judgment bias. Cognitive judgment bias influences how the surrounding is interpreted, and this can differ between individuals. However, thus far no formal framework exists to understand how cognitive judgment bias works. Here I investigated how environmental factors and personality influence cognitive judgment bias in Gallus gallus chicks. First I investigated how two environmental factors affected the cognitive judgment bias of laying hen...

  5. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  6. Enzyme-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for the determination of arsenic species in chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Le, X Chris

    2015-08-12

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in North America. Concentrations of arsenic in chicken range from μg kg(-1) to mg kg(-1). However, little is known about the speciation of arsenic in chicken meat. The objective of this research was to develop a method enabling determination of arsenic species in chicken breast muscle. We report here enzyme-enhanced extraction of arsenic species from chicken meat, separation using anion exchange chromatography (HPLC), and simultaneous detection with both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESIMS). We compared the extraction of arsenic species using several proteolytic enzymes: bromelain, papain, pepsin, proteinase K, and trypsin. With the use of papain-assisted extraction, 10 arsenic species were extracted and detected, as compared to 8 detectable arsenic species in the water/methanol extract. The overall extraction efficiency was also improved using a combination of ultrasonication and papain digestion, as compared to the conventional water/methanol extraction. Detection limits were in the range of 1.0-1.8 μg arsenic per kg chicken breast meat (dry weight) for seven arsenic species: arsenobetaine (AsB), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), inorganic arsenate (As(V)), 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone), and N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (NAHAA). Analysis of breast meat samples from six chickens receiving feed containing Roxarsone showed the presence of (mean±standard deviation μg kg(-1)) AsB (107±4), As(III) (113±7), As(V) (7±2), MMA (51±5), DMA (64±6), Roxarsone (18±1), and four unidentified arsenic species (approximate concentration 1-10 μg kg(-1)).

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  8. Plasma Components as Traits for Resistance to Coccidiosis in Chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    For successful genetic dissection of disease resistance it is of great importance to accurately identify the respective phenotypes. In case of coccidiosis some of the conventional phenotypes don’t fully reflect the animal health status. The objective of this study was large-scale evaluation of pl...

  9. Effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on sexual difference of growth performance, heat exposure-induced metabolic response and lipid peroxidation of raw meat in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Y

    2014-01-01

    1. The effects of α-lipoic acid administration on sexual differences in growth performance, heat exposure-induced metabolic response and lipid peroxidation of raw meat in broiler chickens were studied. 2. Two-week-old male and female broiler chicks were divided into two groups each, as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Half the birds were fed on a diet supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and half on a control diet. All groups were reared to 6 weeks of age at 25°C and, thereafter, exposed to 33°C for 8 h per day for 3 d. 3. Under thermo-neutral conditions, α-lipoic acid decreased feed consumption and body weight gain of male chickens. However, the feed conversion rate and tissue mass of breast muscle and abdominal fat were unchanged. 4. In plasma metabolites, α-lipoic acid increased the molar ratio of non-esterified fatty acids to free glycerol, regardless of sex and heat exposure. A decrease in β-hydroxybutyrate was observed in the α-lipoic acid-fed male chickens. In the heat-exposed chickens, α-lipoic acid lowered the molar ratio of plasma lactate to pyruvate in relation to the enhanced concentrations of plasma pyruvate. However, no sexual difference was observed. 5. The value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in breast meat of heat-stressed chickens that was refrigerated for 3 or 7 d was higher in males than in females. An antioxidative effect of α-lipoic acid was observed in the meat of male chickens. 6. The present study suggests that the α-lipoic acid-inducing fatty acid metabolism and antioxidative effect persisted during the heat stress, even though a sexual difference in the responsiveness was seen in broiler chickens.

  10. Eimeria tenella (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A. E.

    1962-01-01

    Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445

  11. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  12. Effect of lignin on oxidative stress in chickens fed a diet contaminated with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Bořutová, Radka; Faix, Stefan; Plachá, Iveta; Cobanová, Klaudia; Košíková, Božena; Leng, L'ubomír

    2012-03-01

    The effect of lignin supplementation to a diet contaminated with zearalenone (ZEA) on antioxidant status was studied in female chickens of the ISA BROWN laying strain. From the day of hatching to 2 weeks of age, four groups of chickens were fed the same uncontaminated control diet. After 14 days, Group 1 (control) continued to receive the uncontaminated diet, while Group 2 was fed an identical diet enriched with 0.5% chemically modified lignin. Simultaneously, chickens of Group 3 were switched to a diet contaminated with 7.9 mg/kg ZEA and those of Group 4 to an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin. At 6 weeks of age blood and tissue samples were collected. Feeding of a diet contaminated with a high level of ZEA resulted in elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the duodenal mucosa and kidney tissues, and an increased γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in the plasma, indicative of oxidative stress. In the liver tissue, no mycotoxin-induced response in GPx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities occurred, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was even reduced. Neither the plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol nor the activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and GPx in blood were affected in birds fed the contaminated diet. The only effect of lignin supplemented to the contaminated feed was that it prevented the increase of GPx activity in the duodenal mucosa as an indicator of oxidative stress.

  13. Study on the Germplasm Characteristic of Yunnan Daweishan Mini Chickens%云南屏边大围山微型鸡种质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣华; 李琦华; 贾俊静; 陈晓波; 熊保良; 万全书; 曹振辉; 陈宝定; 文生萍; 张曦; 葛长荣

    2011-01-01

    试验选用36只零日龄云南屏边大围山微型鸡进行为期14周饲养试验,对相关的种质特性进行了测定.从体形和毛色来看大围山微型鸡具有典型东南亚原鸡的外表特征.14周龄公母鸡体重分别为778.81 g和712.50 g;母鸡的胸宽、胸肌率、脂肪重和脂肪率显著地比公鸡的高(P<0.05),公鸡体尺和屠宰的其它指标均显著地比母鸡高(P<0.05).公母鸡屠宰率平均分别为88.23%及90.23%,全净膛率平均分别为66.16%及59.58%.母鸡有较高的法氏囊、胸腺重量及其指数.大围山微型鸡的生长速度比其它生态类型鸡种较慢,均属于目前所报道的我国地方鸡种中体重较轻的地方鸡种.尽管大围山微型鸡的体重较小,但从屠宰件能指标显示,该鸡具有较高的屠宰率.%Thirty-six Yunnan Pingbian Daweishan mini chickens were used to investigate the growth performance, body size, body composition and germplasm characteristic, and compared with different ecological types of other chickens.The mini chickens possess the feature with the red jungle fowl ( Gllus gallus).The weights of cock and hen were 778.81 g and 712.50 g, respectively, at the age of 14 weeks.The chest width, breast muscle and fat weigh, fat percentage in hens were significantly higher than those in the cocks ( P < 0.05) and converse observations for the other parameters of body size and carcass composition (P <0.05).The dressing percentage was 88.23% and 90.23% , respectively, for cocks and hens while eviscerated weight percentage were 66.16% and 59.58% , respectively, for cocks and hens.The hens had high bursa of fabricius weight and thymic weight.Compared with the Chinese n-ative chickens at the same age, the fowl showed the lowest growth performance, body weight and size.The body length, shank length, shank girth, chest width and depth, thoraco-bone angle and keel length of Daweishan mini chickens were the lowest, compared with the Chinese native chickens

  14. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  15. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  16. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  17. Mitogenomic analysis of a 50-generation chicken pedigree reveals a rapid rate of mitochondrial evolution and evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michelle; Ho, Simon Y W; Molak, Martyna; Barnett, Ross; Carlborg, Örjan; Dorshorst, Ben; Honaker, Christa; Besnier, Francois; Wahlberg, Per; Dobney, Keith; Siegel, Paul; Andersson, Leif; Larson, Greger

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes represent a valuable source of data for evolutionary research, but studies of their short-term evolution have typically been limited to invertebrates, humans and laboratory organisms. Here we present a detailed study of 12 mitochondrial genomes that span a total of 385 transmissions in a well-documented 50-generation pedigree in which two lineages of chickens were selected for low and high juvenile body weight. These data allowed us to test the hypothesis of time-dependent evolutionary rates and the assumption of strict maternal mitochondrial transmission, and to investigate the role of mitochondrial mutations in determining phenotype. The identification of a non-synonymous mutation in ND4L and a synonymous mutation in CYTB, both novel mutations in Gallus, allowed us to estimate a molecular rate of 3.13 × 10(-7) mutations/site/year (95% confidence interval 3.75 × 10(-8)-1.12 × 10(-6)). This is substantially higher than avian rate estimates based upon fossil calibrations. Ascertaining which of the two novel mutations was present in an additional 49 individuals also revealed an instance of paternal inheritance of mtDNA. Lastly, an association analysis demonstrated that neither of the point mutations was strongly associated with the phenotypic differences between the two selection lines. Together, these observations reveal the highly dynamic nature of mitochondrial evolution over short time periods.

  18. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppy, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Colour is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, colour has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific colours of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel colours tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early colour variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries colour varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of colours and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

  19. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  20. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  1. Analisis D-loop DNA Mitokondria untuk Memposisikan Ayam Hutan Merah dalam Domestikasi Ayam di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current poultry is a domesticated chickens used for both meat and egg production. Pedigree investigation is an important part to understand the process of chicken domestication in Indonesia. Molecular DNA approach using D-loop Mitochondrial DNA marker (hypervariable 1 segment was used in this analysis. The objective of the study was to construct the pedigree analysis of Indonesian chicken. Four hundreds and eighty four (434 samples belonging to 15 breeds of Indonesian local chicken (Cemani, Kedu, Kedu Putih, Pelung, Sentul, Wareng, Merawang, Kapas, Kate, Arab Silver, Arab Gold, Gaok, Nunukan, Kalosi and Tolaki and 9 samples of Red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus gallus were extracted, PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. Four sequence references from GeneBank, Gallus gallus (NCBI, accession number AB0986688. G. gallus (GenBank accession number AB098668, G. gallus spadiceus (GenBank accession number AB007721, and G. gallus bankiva (GenBank accession number AB007718 were included in this analysis. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. The results show that 72 haplotypes were identified from 56 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Indonesian chicken have a close relationship with 2 subspecies of Gallus gallus (G. gallus gallus and G. gallus spadiceus. Our results suggest that D-loop region is highly variable in Indonesian chicken with large number of haplotypes.

  2. 清远麻鸡生长激素基因(GH)的SNPs检测及其对生长及繁殖性状的遗传效应%SNPs Detection of Growth Hormone Gene (GH) in Qingyuan Partridge Chicken and Its Genetic Effects on Growth and Reproductive Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束婧婷; 张莹; 尹平安; 韩威; 宋卫涛; 邝智祥; 李慧芳

    2011-01-01

    为了研究生长激素基因(GH)对清远麻鸡部分生长及繁殖性状的遗传效应,基于聚合酶链反应-连接酶检测反应(PCR-LDR)基因多态性并行检测系统,对清远麻鸡(Gallus gallus)生长激素(CH)基因内含子1的G662A位点和内含子4的T3094C,C3199T位点进行检测,并分析其对部分生长及繁殖性状的遗传效应.检测结果显示,清远麻鸡在3个位点上均产生了3种基因型,LDR分型结果同直接测序结果一致.G662A位点对生长及繁殖性状均不存在显着的效应;T3094C位点上,TT型个体的开产日龄显着晚于CC和CT型个体,其18周龄体重又显著高于CC和CT型个体;C3199T位点上,不同基因型个体仅在50周平均蛋重上存在显着差异,TT型个体的50周平均蛋重显着高于CC和CT型个体.3个位点的合并基因型对开产蛋重、50周平均蛋重以及生长性状均有显着的影响,且对生长性能的遗传效应更加明显,合并基因型AACTCC可以作为筛选清远麻鸡高的体重的分子标记.%In order to investigate the association single nucleotide polymorphisms in GH gene with growth and reproductive traits in Qingyuan partridge chicken, the parallel typing system based on PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDG) was established in the present study, and used to detect the polymorphisms of G662A in intron 1 and T3094C and C3199T loci in intron 4 of growth hormone (GH) gene as well as its genetic effects on growth and reproductive traits in Qingyuan partridge chicken (Gallus gallus).The results were as follows: three loci exhibited polymorphisms and were coincidence with direct sequencing.There was no significant effect on growth and reproductive traits at locus G662A; At locus T3094C, individuals with TT genotype had significant older age at first egg and significant higher body weight at the age of 18 weeks than that of CC and CT genotype birds.At locus C3199T, TT genotype birds had significant higher average egg weight at the age of 50 weeks

  3. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  4. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  5. Bursa of Fabricius--mitotic index in the follicles of immunized and non-immunized chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, F; Borella, M I

    1979-01-01

    The mitotic index in the cortical compartment of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius from chicks immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) is always higher when compaired with non-immunized ones. This mitotic index reachs its maximum 6 days after the SRBC injection, coincident with the highest serum antibody titer. The mitotic activity in the cortex of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius is always higher than that of the medulla during the postembryonic development of chickens (PROCHAZKA, RODAK, KREJCI 1967). Otherwise it is almost established that the cortex is a zone of continuous lymphocyte proliferation, not occuring the same with the medulla. In addition these bursal histological structures are considered as 2 distinct compartments (GROSSI et al. 1974). The purpose of this paper is to study the response in the mitotic index of the cortical and medullary compartments of the follicles of the bursa of immunized and non-immunized chicks. To correlate possible changes in the mitotic index with circulating antibody levels, the serum antibody titer from the same birds was also recorded.

  6. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  8. A Dual-marker Vector for Constant RNAi and Rapid Selection of Stable RNAi Clones in Gallus Cells%鸡源细胞基因沉默及快速筛选的实用型双标记RNAi载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培培; 游雷鸣; 罗俊; 鄂魏; 蒋志政; 郅玉宝; 张改平; 王爱萍

    2011-01-01

    利用人H1 RNA启动子、EGFP基因及Neomycin抗性基因,构建用于禽类细胞基因持续沉默和快速筛选的实用型RNAi载体.在将pCDNA3.1(+)载体上的SV40启动子替换为鸡源的β-actin 启动子后,装入EGFP基因表达框以及用于驱动外源shRNA转录的人H1 RNA启动子,构建成同时具有EGFP和Neomycin抗性双标记的RNAi载体,并为载体引入独特设计的含媒介序列的多克隆位点以方便外源shRNA编码小片断插入后的快速筛选,载体设计非常实用.插入靶向EGFP和sIgMλ基因的shRNA编码序列后分别瞬时转染DF-1和DT40细胞,结果显示靶基因表达得到了明显抑制.联用EGFP和Neomycin双标记快速筛选sIgMλ轻链基因稳定沉默的DT40细胞克隆的结果也证实,H1启动子转录shRNA的干扰效果是高效的,双标记筛选策略不仅有效而且方便、快捷.%A practical vector, termed as pAnGH1, designed for constant RNAi and rapid selection of stable RNAi clones in gallus cells was constructed. It replied on the well-know interference of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to target gene expression, and choosed the EGFP gene as a visual marker, and neomycin resistance gene controlled by the endogenous chicken β-actin promter as a selection marker to faciliate the visual and rapid selection of stable RNAi clones. Also, the specially designed cassete under human HI RNA promoter contained BglII and /firedIII sites that were spaced by an additional 50bp intermediary sequence, which enabled the rapid PCR-scanning of recombinant clones containing the shRNA-coding insert in that the insertion of foreign shRNA-coding fragment resulted in the loss of the priming sites in intermediary sequence. The shRNA-mediated transient interference of EGFP and slgM \\ were performed in the chicken embryo fibroblast cells DF-I and the chicken B-lymphocyte cells DT40 respectively, which exhibited the remarkable inhibition of target expression. In addtiton, the selection of stable s

  9. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  10. Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and residues of chloramphenicol in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, A; Bringas, P; Martinez-Larrañaga, M R; Diaz, M J

    1994-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of chloramphenicol were determined in broiler chickens after two single oral doses (30 and 50 mg/kg body weight) and after a single intravenous (i.v.) dose (30 mg/kg body weight). After oral and i.v. administration, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. After oral administration (30 and 50 mg/kg), chloramphenicol was absorbed rapidly (time to maximal concentration of 0.72 or 0.60 h) and eliminated with a mean half-life (t1/2 beta) of 6.87 or 7.41 h, respectively. The bioavailability was 29% at 30 mg/kg chloramphenicol and 38% at 50 mg/kg chloramphenicol. Concentrations greater than 5 micrograms/ml were achieved at 15 min and persisted up to 2 or 4 h post-administration, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the two routes of administration were found for the pharmacokinetic variables, half-lives of both distribution and elimination phases (t1/2 alpha, t1/2 beta) and apparent volume of distribution [Vd(area)]. The mean t1/2 beta of chloramphenicol and i.v. administration was 5.23 h. Chloramphenicol was extensively metabolized into dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), nitrophenylaminopropanedione (NPAP) and nitroso-chloramphenicol (NO-CAP) derivatives. Residues of chloramphenicol (CAP) and the three metabolites DH-CAP, NPAP and NO-CAP in kidney, liver and muscle were measured in chickens that received an oral dose of 50 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. The results indicate that CAP and DH-CAP residues were cleared slowly and were at or below the detection limit of 0.005 microgram/ml within 12 days after dosing. However, at the time of slaughter (12 days), the NPAP and NO-CAP residues were detected in the tissue.

  11. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  12. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth......This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group Ag...... and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, repectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism...

  13. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  14. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  15. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  16. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found.

  17. Gene finding in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonarakis Stylianos E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods.

  18. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  19. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  20. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  1. Short- and long-term movement patterns in complex confined environments in broiler chickens: the effects of distribution of cover panels and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, I; Mallapur, A; Miller, C; Christman, M C

    2010-04-01

    In captivity, the positioning of structural enrichment and food resources influences behavior and space use. The aim of this experiment was to examine the influence of cover panels and the positioning of food resources on the movement and space use of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Eight groups of 45 male chickens were used for this study. Each group was temporarily divided into 2 groups of 20 birds; each group was used to investigate the influence of cover panels and the effects of food resources. In the cover panel treatments, 20 birds were placed in the 10-m(2) testing enclosures that contained one 2-m cover panel in the center, four 0.5-m panels in a zigzag fashion, or had no panels (controls). In the food resource treatments, the position of the feed trays varied, with 1 feed tray in the center; 2 feed trays, one at each edge; or 4 feed trays, one at each corner of the enclosure. Locations of focal birds were collected through instantaneous scan sampling that was recorded as X,Y coordinates. From these X,Y coordinates, we calculated net and total distance moved, mean and maximum step lengths, and angular dispersion of the path of movement. To calculate long-term space use, 3 replications for each of 3 cover panel and food resource treatments were placed in nine 10-m(2) enclosures for 1 wk. Locations of focal birds in each group were collected by ad libitum scan sampling and data were used to calculate core areas by kernel estimates. Mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the distribution of cover panels and positioning of food resources on movement parameters during the study period, whereas 1-way ANOVA was used for core areas. Surprisingly, our analyses showed that long-term and short-term movement was not affected by changing the location of cover panels or food resources. Only net distance seemed to be affected to a certain degree by the presence of the cover and the distinctive availability of food resources.

  2. Vitamin E supplementation alleviates the oxidative stress induced by dexamethasone treatment and improves meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Lin, H; Wang, X J; Song, Z G; Jiao, H C

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of long-term exogenous glucocorticoids administration and dietary supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate on the induction of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle were investigated. Male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 diet treatments: the basal diet supplemented with 20 (low level of vitamin E) or 200 (high level of vitamin E) mg of vitamin E (as DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate)/kg of diet. At 35 d of age, the chickens in each dietary treatment were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 chickens and subjected to the following treatments: daily s.c. injection of dexamethasone (DEX, 2 mg/kg of BW) for 6 d, sham injection of saline (control), or the sham-treated pair-fed control that maintained the same feed intake as DEX treatment (pair-control). The results showed that the growth of chickens was suppressed by DEX, whereas it was improved by the high level of vitamin E treatment. The DEX treatment resulted in augmented plasma concentrations of TBA reacting substances. Muscle TBA reacting substances levels were higher in DEX chickens at both 24- and 48-h time points postslaughter. Vitamin E supplementation suppressed the formation of lipid peroxidation in both plasma and skeletal muscle tissues. Muscle activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by DEX treatment in both musculus pectoralis major and musculus biceps femoris and maintained as such during the initial 48 h postmortem. The result of the present study indicated that DEX treatment increased the saturation level of skeletal muscle fatty acids. These results suggest that vitamin E supplementation was favorable for the performance of broiler chickens by alleviating the oxidative stress induced by DEX treatment.

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO WenBin; CHEN GuoHong; LI BiChun; WU XinSheng; SHU JingTing; WU ShengLong; XU Qi; Steffen WEIGEND

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspe-cies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86±6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708±0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds' distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds' genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steffen; WEIGEND

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspe- cies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86±6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708±0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds’ distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G. gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G. gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds’ genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G. gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  5. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  6. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  7. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  8. Genetic diversity and haplogroups distributions of Kampung chickens using hypervariable-I mitochondrial DNA control region

    OpenAIRE

    M. Syamsul Arifin Zein; S. Sulandari

    2012-01-01

    Until now no studies evaluating the position of Kampung chickens in chicken clade of Asia. Thus studies based on molecular DNA sequence hipervariable-I on Kampung chicken is needed. Molecular studies based on DNA sequences hyper variable-I of Kampong chicken was done to confirm the results of previous evaluations conducted on 15 families of local chickens of Indonesia. An analysis of 210 individuals Kampung chicken (Aceh, North Sumatra, Lampung, Banten, Central Java, Lombok, Sulawesi, Ternate...

  9. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed

    OpenAIRE

    Heres, L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jong, de, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantif...

  10. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p chickens.

  11. Study on immunofunction and immunoregulation post newcastle disease vaccination of chickens infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV) at one-day-old and vaccinated with La Sota vaccine 8 days later. Meanwhile, uninfected chickens were vaccinated as controls. At 7, 14 and 28 days post vaccination, the content of IgG,IgM,IgA and HI titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T、B cells, the inductive activity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon (IFN) in thymus and spleen were tested. The results showed that the content of IgG, IgM, IgA and hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T cells and B cells as well as the inductive activity of IL-2 and IFN in thymus and spleen of infected-vaccinated chickens significantly decreased compared with the control. These results indicated that the immunofunction and immunoregulation were dropped post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  12. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....

  13. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  14. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  15. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  16. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  17. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  18. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  19. Chicken QTL mapping by multiplex PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate rapid determination of the chromosomal location of quantitative trait loci, the current approaches to gene mapping are improved using a multiplex PCR technique. The high-throughput linkage analysis method described here allows selection of 178 from 328 microsatellite markers through the multiplex PCR method combined with the semi-automatic fluorescence-labeled DNA analysis technology. Those polymorphism markers are distributed on 23 autosomes and one sex chromosome (chromosome Z), covering 3080cM genetic distance. The average marker density is 18cM, dispersed into 30 different sets. These selected polymorphism microsatellite markers segregate with the family members, following the Mendel's heritage laws, and are very useful for chicken linkage map analysis as well as for the research on some important economic quantitative characters of chicken.

  20. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaad T. Bakir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better biodiesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v. The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  1. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

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    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  2. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  3. Cardiovascular histamine receptors in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, N; Eyre, P

    1975-08-01

    The effects of mepyramine (H1-antagonist) and burimamide (H2-antagonist) were studied on histamine, 2-methylhistamine (a selective H1-agonist), 4-methylhistamine (a selective H2-agonist) and acetylcholine-induced changes in systemic arterial and central venous pressure and respiration in anaesthetized chickens. The result of this study suggested a predominance of H1 and some H2 histamine receptors in the cardiovascular system of domestic fowl where both are mediating systemic hypotension. There also appears to be predominance of H1 receptors mediating venous hypertension and respiratory apnoea to large doses of histamine and 2-methylhistamine. In addition, a possible involvement of H2-receptors in the cardiovascular system of chicken is suggested by the finding that burimamide always blocked mepyramine potentiated secondary pressor response to histamine and its analogues.

  4. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  5. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  6. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods:One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results:S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40%and 48%in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions:The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  7. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  8. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  9. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  10. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  11. Correlation Analysis between Body Size and Slaughter Performance in F-1 Hybrid Offspring of Princess Chicken and Kirin Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Naibin; Du; Bingwang; Yang; Fenxia; Tao; Lin; Chen; Jiebo

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the meat development value of princess chicken,the body size traits and slaughter performance of 12-week-old F1 hybrid offspring of princess chicken(♂) and kirin chicken(♀) were measured and the correlations between different traits were analyzed. The results showed that body length,keel length and shank length of male F1 hybrid offspring were significantly higher than those of female chickens(P < 0. 05). The live weight,carcass weight,semi-eviscerated weight,semi-eviscerated ratio,eviscerated weight,chest muscle weight,the leg muscle weight and heart weight of male chickens were extremely significantly higher than that of female chickens(P < 0. 01),and the leg muscle ratio and wings weight were significantly higher than that of female chickens(P < 0. 05),but sebum thickness of male chickens was extremely significantly lower than that of female chickens(P < 0. 01). Other indicators failed to reach the significant difference level. There were extremely significant or significant correlations between the slaughter performance and body size in F1 hybrid offspring. The regression equations between different indicators were identified and developed. The results provided a certain theoretical reference to predict slaughter performance indicators through a living body size measurement,and revealed an improved production performance of F1 hybrid offspring.

  12. Acute cold- and chronic heat-exposure upregulate hepatic leptin and muscle uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Sami; Temim, Soraya; Derouet, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2008-08-01

    Emerging evidence showed that variations in environmental temperature affect both leptin and uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression in mammals, whereas a little is known about such interactions in birds. Thus, we conducted the present study to investigate the influence of acute (2 hours) cold (4 degrees C) and chronic (10 days) heat (32 degrees C) exposure on hepatic leptin and muscle UCP gene expression in 5-wk-old broiler chickens. Both cold- and heat-exposure significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) upregulated hepatic leptin (by 35 and 46%, respectively) and muscle UCP mRNA levels (by 71 and 71%, respectively) compared to the thermoneutrality (22 degrees C). This result suggests that leptin and UCP may be involved in the thermoregulation response of chickens to extreme climate (cold and hot temperatures). The upregulation of hepatic leptin gene expression was accompanied by an increase in plasma leptin levels, indicating that leptin may be regulated at transcriptional level. The increase of leptin and UCP mRNA abundance, and leptinemia we report here were not related to plasma glucose or insulin levels. In conclusion, the exposure of broiler chickens to extreme ambient temperatures (cold and heat) increases hepatic leptin and muscle UCP gene expression.

  13. Increased DNA damage and oxidative stress in chickens with natural Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Hikmet; Fidan, A Fatih; Cigerci, I Hakki; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Karadas, Erkan; Dundar, Yilmaz

    2010-01-15

    Oxidative stress contributes to the accumulation of genomic abnormalities, prevents cellular apoptosis, and also mediates immunosuppression resulting in tumor formation. Marek's Disease provides excellent opportunities for the study of herpesvirus-induced tumors both in experimental- and natural conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Marek's Disease (MD) on basal levels of DNA strand breaks and on the oxidative-antioxidative status of chickens with MD. White-Lohmann hens-fifteen infected with Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) and fifteen healthy-of same age and sex were included in this study. MD infection was diagnosed via clinical signs, gross- and micro-pathological findings and also by detection of viral antigens in feather follicle epithelium by the indirect immunoperoxidase method. Compared with healthy controls, DNA damage was greater and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma protein carbonyl (PCO), and plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) higher in the MD group. Furthermore, total antioxidant activities (AOAs) were found lowered and glutathione (GSH) levels reduced in the MD group compared to the control group. Significantly positive correlation was found between DNA damage, MDA, PCO, and NOx in the MD group. DNA strand breaks were found negatively associated with AOA and GSH concentrations in the MD group. Our results demonstrated that oxidative stress markers and DNA damage substantially increased in chickens with MD, which indicated that increased DNA damage levels might be related to the increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant activity.

  14. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  15. Content of macroelements in the blood serum of polbar chicken depending on sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gryzińska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on chickens protected genetic resources polbar breed. In each case from 100 birds (50 hen and 50 cockerels being in 8-, 12-, and 18-weeks of age blood was collected to determine the content of minerals (Ca, Na, K and Mg in the blood plasma. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gender and age of polbar breed on the level of calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium in the blood serum. The concentration of each macronutrient was varied in different age groups. Higher average concentration of calcium, magnesium and sodium in three test periods were obtained for the cocks, while for hens higher concentrations of potassium were recorded. For each of the elements studied, there was no statistically significant difference between hens and cocks. The results of the mineral content in the plasma of consolidated genetically breed can be used for comparison to other poultry breeds.

  16. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to

  18. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1 the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2 any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  19. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.

  20. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Hulsegge, B.; Schokker, D.J.; Smits, M.A.; Fife, M.; Zoorob, R.; Endale, M.L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness.

  1. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  2. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore,

  3. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  4. Inadequate anti-polysaccharide antibody responses in the chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.H.M.; Janse, E.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Claassen, E.

    1998-01-01

    Chickens are notorious for the fact that they carry bacteria such as Salmonellae and Campylobacter, which can cause zoonoses by contamination of the end product, without hampering growth and development of the chicken itself. This carrier status can only been explained by the inability of the chicke

  5. Detecting gallbladders in chicken livers using spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Mølvig Jensen, Eigil; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting gallbladders attached to chicken livers using spectral imaging. Gallbladders can contaminate good livers, making them unfit for human consumption. A data set consisting of chicken livers with and without gallbladders, has been captured using 33 wavelengt...

  6. Analysis of Avian Hepatitis E Virus from Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-01-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  7. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  8. First reported fatal Morganella morganii infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changguang; Tang, Na; Wu, Yanping; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Wanmeng; Qin, Xiuhui; Zhao, Jixun; Zhang, Guozhong

    2012-05-01

    Morganella morganii, a Gram-negative rod commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, is here confirmed to cause a fatal infection in chickens by isolation and identification of the bacteria, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and experimental infection. This is the first case of M. morganii infection in chickens.

  9. 英语『变色龙』Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程朝峰

    2010-01-01

    @@ "同学们,你们看过Chicken Little吗?相信你们一定喜欢这部3D动画片里的Chicken Little,今天的英语'变色龙',我们就一起来学习一些有关chicken的习语."洋博士开始上课了.

  10. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  11. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine specif

  12. A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Bumstead, N.; Benkel, B.; Briles, E.; Burt, D.W.; Burke, T.; Dodgson, J.; Hillel, J.; Lamont, S.; Ponce, de F.A.; Soller, M.

    2000-01-01

    A consensus linkage map has been developed in the chicken that combines all of the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations. Genotyping data were contributed by the laboratories that have been using the East Lansing and Compton reference populations and from the Animal Br

  13. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denm...

  14. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  15. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines.

  16. Partial replacement of chicken semen by turkey semen in artificial insemination of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavora, J S; Hodgson, G C

    1976-07-01

    Chicken semen undiluted, diluted with a diluent containing fructose and/or mixed with turkey semen was used to inseminate Leghorn hens. In two of three experiments there was an improvement in fertility from insemination by mixed semen as compared to semen diluted to the same extent with the diluent.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day...

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  19. Ways of Improving Risk Management on Chicken Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Turc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ways of improving riskmanagement on broiler or egg chicken farms can be evaluated depending on therisk categories in emergency situations and on the components of riskmanagement. Risks can generate biological, natural, social and technologicalemergency situations. A risk element is any element that can deviate from thestrategies, plans and programmes of a chicken farm and allows predictingreality and confronting true achievements with expected results. Achieving thegoals of any broiler or egg chicken farm supposes knowing and assuming multiplerisks: risk management covers both risk identification and risk reaction. Riskanalysis supposes measures for the increase of transparency regarding chickenhealth safety, supply of experiences and protection within international tradewith broiler chickens and eggs or even live chicken. Risk analysis stipulatesthe improvement of phyto-sanitary measures and it aim at collecting, evaluatingand recording information that lead to recommendations, positions, approachesand actions as a response to an identified risk or danger; it is not meant tosupply decisions but to support decision-making.

  20. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  1. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K

    2001-01-01

    Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...... tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin...

  2. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, Phage Types, and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Chickens and Chicken Meat in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalender, H.; Sen, S.; Hasman, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed...

  6. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  7. Accumulation of α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in tissues of fast- and slow-growing broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondreville, Catherine; Cariou, Ronan; Méda, Bertrand; Dominguez-Romero, Elena; Omer, Elsa; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Travel, Angélique; Baéza, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe the fate of ingested α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers, through an exposure to a dietary concentration of 50 ng α-HBCDD g(-1) feed during 42 and 84 days, respectively. Depuration parameters were assessed in SG broilers successively exposed during 42 days and depurated during 42 days. At market age, SG broilers had ingested 42% more feed than FG broilers, while their body weight gain per g of feed ingested was 34% lower. No isomerization of α- to β- or γ-HBCDD forms occurred, while OH-HBCDD was identified as a product of α-HBCDD metabolism. Irrespective of the strain, abdominal fat displayed the highest α-HBCDD concentration on a lipid weight basis, followed leg muscles and then breast muscle, liver and plasma. The accumulation ratios of α-HBCDD were slightly higher in SG (6.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 9.9 in leg muscles, breast muscle, liver and abdominal fat, respectively) than in FG broilers (5.2, 2.2, 1.1 and 8.4, respectively). The elimination half-lives in SG broilers were 20, 12 and 19 d in leg muscles, breast muscle and abdominal fat, respectively, to which dilution through growth contributed for around 50%. The overall assimilation efficiency of α-HBCDD was estimated at 58 and 50% in FG and SG broilers, respectively, while 22 and 17% of α-HBCDD ingested were estimated to be eliminated in excreta as metabolites.

  8. Identification and characterization of genes that control fat deposition in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Claire D’Andre, Hirwa; Paul, Wallace; Shen, Xu; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Liang; Zhang,Xiquan

    2013-01-01

    Background Fat deposits in chickens contribute significantly to meat quality attributes such as juiciness, flavor, taste and other organoleptic properties. The quantity of fat deposited increases faster and earlier in the fast-growing chickens than in slow-growing chickens. In this study, Affymetrix Genechip® Chicken Genome Arrays 32773 transcripts were used to compare gene expression profiles in liver and hypothalamus tissues of fast-growing and slow-growing chicken at 8 wk of age. Real-time...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watteyn, A; Plessers, E; Wyns, H; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2013-06-01

    Gamithromycin is a new macrolide antibiotic that is only registered for use in cattle to treat respiratory disorders such as bovine respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin in broiler chickens. Gamithromycin (6 mg/kg of BW) was injected intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to six 4-wk-old chickens in a parallel study design, and blood was collected at different time points postadministration. Quantification of gamithromycin in plasma was performed using an in-house validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and the pharmacokinetics analyzed according to a 2-compartmental model. Following IV administration, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→∞), and α and β half-life of elimination (t1/2el α and t1/2el β) were 3,998 h•ng/mL, 0.90 h, and 14.12 h, respectively. Similar values were obtained after a SC bolus injection, i.e., 4,095 h•ng/mL, 0.34 h, and 11.63 h, for AUC0→∞, t1/2el α, and t1/2el β, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration (889.46 ng/mL) appeared at 0.13 h. Gamithromycin showed a large volume of distribution after IV as well as SC administration, 27.08 and 20.89 L/kg, respectively, and a total body clearance of 1.61 and 1.77 L/h•kg, respectively. The absolute bioavailability was 102.4%, showing that there is a complete absorption of gamithromycin after a SC bolus injection of 6 mg/kg of BW.

  10. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  11. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  12. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  13. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  14. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice.

  15. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics.

  16. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  17. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  18. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration.

  20. Two 5S genes are expressed in chicken somatic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, E; Haendler, B.; Jacob, M

    1983-01-01

    Two 5S RNA species were detected in chicken cells. 5S I RNA has the nucleotide sequence of chicken 5S RNA previously published by Brownlee et al. (1) and 5S II RNA differs from it by 10 mutations. The secondary structure of both species is compatible with that proposed for other eukaryotic 5S RNAs. 5S II RNA represents 50-60% of 5S I RNA. Both species were found in total chicken liver and brain and were present in polysomes in the same relative proportions. Only one 5S RNA species could be de...

  1. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  2. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, A; Niemann, J; Engberg, Jørgen H

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  3. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  4. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  5. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  6. Effects of PCBs, DDT, and mercury compounds in chickens and Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.L.

    1977-05-01

    In well-controlled experiments using white leghorn chickens and Japanese quail, dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and related compounds produced no detrimental effects on eggshell quality. A drastic reduction in hatchability of chicks occurred with 10 to 20 ppM PCBs, but no detrimental effects on eggshell quality, egg production or hatchability were found with 0.5 and 1.0 ppM PCBs, or DDT up to 100 ppM. Dietary PCBs potentiated a vitamin E-selenium deficiency in the chick, increased exudative diathesis, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase levels. Dietary PCBs induced hepatic microsomal benzopyrine hydroxylase. Dietary levels of 100 or 200 ppM inorganic mercury as HgSO/sub 4/ or HgCl/sub 2/ had little effect on egg production, hatchability, shell quality, morbidity and mortality. Methylmercury chloride, however, at levels providing 10 or 20 mg Hg/kg of diet, severely affected all of these parameters. Even though the present experiments demonstrate that neither DDT nor PCBs has any effect on eggshell quality in chickens and Japanese quail, they may cause thinning of eggshells in other species. Controlled experiments are lacking. Eagles, ospreys and pelicans all consume fish which in many areas of the world are known to contain methyl mercury. The thinning of eggshells in these species in the wild may have been due, at least in part, to environmental contamination with methylmercury rather than DDT, DDE or PCBs, as has been claimed.

  7. Effects of PCBs, DDT, and mercury compounds in chickens and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M L

    1977-05-01

    In well-controlled experiments using white leghorn chickens and Japanese quail, dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and related compounds produced no detrimental effects on eggshell quality. A drastic reduction in hatchability of chicks occurred with 10-20 ppm PCBs, but no detrimental effects on eggshell quality, egg production or hatchability were found with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm PCBs, or DDT up to 100 ppm. Dietary PCBs potentiated a vitamin E-selenium deficiency in the chick, increased exudative diathesis, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase levels. Dietary PCBs induced hepatic microsomal benzopyrine hydroxylase. Dietary levles of 100 or 200 ppm inorganic mercury as HgSO4 or HgCl2 had little effect on egg production, hatchability, shell quality, morbidity and mortality. Methylmercury chloride, however, at levels providing 10 or 20 mg Hg/kg of diet, severely affected all of these parameters. Even though the present experiments demonstrate that neither DDT nor PCBs has any effect on eggshell quality in chickens and Japanese quail, they may cause thinning of eggshells in other species. Controlled experiments are lacking. Eagles, ospreys and pelicans all consume fish which in many areas of the world are known to contain methyl mercury. The thinning of eggshells in the species in the wild may have been due, at least in part, to environmental contamination with methylmercury rather than DDT, DDE or PCBs, as has been claimed.

  8. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  9. Japanese domesticated chickens have been derived from Shamo traditional fighting cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2004-10-01

    With the aim of elucidating the evolutionary origin of Japanese domesticated chickens, this study evolutionarily analyzed 85 chicken mtDNA sequences. Thirty-four various ornamental chickens, 42 fighting cocks (Shamo), and nine long-crowing chickens (Naganakidori) were included. Of the Shamo, 18 were sampled from Okinawa, while the remaining 24 were collected in other islands around Japan. In addition, three Southeast Asian Junglefowls were used as a reference to determine the common ancestor of Japanese domesticated chickens. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the 88 mtDNA sequences revealing that the Shamo group from Okinawa clearly diverged from the other Japanese domesticated chickens studied. This strongly suggests that all Japanese domesticated chickens, including the ornamental varieties and Naganakidori, derived from the ancestors of the Shamo in Okinawa. To create novel varieties of ornamental chickens, intensive artificial selection is imposed on ancestral Shamo populations, resulting in profoundly differentiated Japanese domesticated chickens.

  10. Quantification of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 in plasma from healthy donors and cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M. B.; Stephens, R. W.; Brünner, Nils;

    2005-01-01

    and optimized for measurement of TIMP-2 in plasma. The capturing antibody in the ELISA was a monoclonal, while the detecting antibody was a chicken polyclonal antibody recognizing the native form of human TIMP-2. The levels of TIMP-2 were measured in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate plasma...... from healthy donors. The median values were determined as 163 ng/ml (n = 186) with a range of 109-253 ng/ml for EDTA plasma and 139 ng/ml (n = 77) with a range of 95-223 ng/ml for citrate plasma. The TIMP-2 concentration in citrate plasma from 15 patients with advanced, stage IV breast cancer had...... a median value of 160 ng/ml, only slightly higher but statistically distinguishable from the level found in citrate plasma from the healthy donors. In addition, the TIMP-2 concentration in EDTA plasma from colorectal cancer patients revealed a significantly higher level in plasma from patients with Dukes...

  11. Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.