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Sample records for chicken lines divergently

  1. Chicken lines divergent for low or high abdominal fat deposition: a relevant model to study the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2013-06-01

    Divergent selection of chickens for low or high abdominal fat (AF) but similar BW at 63 days of age was undertaken in 1977. The selection programme was conducted over seven successive generations. The difference between lines was then maintained constant at about twice the AF in the fat line as in the lean line. The aims of the first studies on these divergent chicken lines were to describe the growth, body composition and reproductive performance in young and adult birds. The lines were then used to improve the understanding of the relationship between fatness and energy and protein metabolism in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues, as well as the regulation of such metabolism at hormonal, gene and hypothalamic levels. The effects on muscle energy metabolism in relation to meat quality parameters were also described. This paper reviews the main results obtained with these lines.

  2. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Da, Yang; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiao-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan-Dan; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Leng, Li; Tang, Zhi-Quan; Li, Hui

    2012-12-15

    Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (Pchickens. We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress.

  3. Cytokines Expression and Nitric Oxide Production under Induced Infection to Typhimurium in Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Cutaneous Hypersensitivity

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    Rani Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on cell-mediated immunity (CMI was investigated in 5 week-old immuno divergent broiler lines selected for the high and low response to phytohemagglutinin-P. The immune response was assessed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs induced with Salmonella Typhimurium at different time intervals (0 h, 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. The differential mRNA expression patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2 and iNOS were evaluated by quantitative real time PCR. In-vitro production of nitric oxide (NO was also estimated in the culture supernatant and correlated with iNOS mRNA expression. Present study showed higher production of NO in the high cell-mediated line (HCMI as compared to the low cell-mediated line (LCMI upon stimulation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Correspondingly, higher mRNA expression of iNOS and IFN-γ were observed in high response birds (HCMI; but IL-2 was down regulated in this line compared to the low response birds (LCMI. Significantly (p<0.05 higher expression of iNOS, IFN-γ and higher production of NO in high line indicated that the selection for PHA-P response might be employed for increasing the immune competence against Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken flocks.

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

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    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  5. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  6. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (Pfeeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Commercial chicken breeds exhibit highly divergent patterns of linkage disequilibrium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R J Pengelly; A A Gheyas; R Kuo; E Mossotto; E G Seaby; D W Burt; S Ennis; A Collins

    2016-01-01

    ... mechanisms such as those driving recombination and the impact of selection. We apply the Malécot-Morton model of LD to create additive LD maps that describe the high-resolution LD landscape of commercial chickens...

  8. Different levels of natural antibodies in chickens divergently selected for specific antibody responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, H.K.; Lammers, A.; Hoekman, J.J.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Zaanen, I.T.A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the presence of Natural antibodies in plasma samples from individual birds from selected chicken lines at young and old age. Binding, specificity, and relative affinity to various antigens were determined in plasma from non-immunized female chickens at 5 weeks of age, and in plasma obtain

  9. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: r.m.cooke@ewi.tudelft.nl; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.

  10. Physiological responses to divergent selection for phytate phosphorus bioavailability in a randombred chicken population

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation was conducted to study insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGFII, insulin, glucagon, recombinant human leptin, triidothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in a randombred chicken population divergently selected for phosphorus bioavailability (PBA). There were also differences in ...

  11. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  12. Generation of a multi-locus chicken introgression line to study the effects of genetic interactions on metabolic phenotypes in chickens

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    Weronica eEk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most biological traits are regulated by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. By intercrossing divergent lines, it is possible to identify individual and interacting QTL involved in the genetic architecture of these traits. When the loci have been mapped, alternative strategies are needed for fine-mapping and studying the individual and interactive effects of the QTL in detail. We have previously identified, replicated and fine-mapped a four-locus QTL network that determines nearly half of the eight-fold difference in body-weight at 56 days of age between two divergently selected chicken lines. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first generation of a three-locus QTL introgression line in chickens to further study the effect of three of the interacting loci in this network on metabolic phenotypes. Recurrent marker assisted backcrossing was used to simultaneously transfer QTL alleles from the low-weight selected line into the high-weight selected line. Three generations of backcrossing and one generation of intercrossing resulted in an introgression line where all three introgressed QTL and several unlinked and linked control-loci were segregating at nearly expected allele frequencies. We show that marker-based sexing is an efficient method for sexing breeding populations and how intensive selection can be applied using artificial insemination to generate large half-sib families. Based on our empirical observations, we provide recommendations for future introgression-line breeding experiments. In the future, use of this confirmed introgression line will facilitate detailed studies of the effects of genetic interactions on complex traits.

  13. In-Depth Duodenal Transcriptome Survey in Chickens with Divergent Feed Efficiency Using RNA-Seq.

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    Guoqiang Yi

    Full Text Available Since the feed cost is a major determinant of profitability in poultry industry, how to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection is an intriguing subject for breeders and producers. As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for RFI in chickens are still less well appreciated. In this study, we investigated the duodenal transcriptome architecture of extreme RFI phenotypes in the six brown-egg dwarf hens (three per group using RNA sequencing technology. Among all mapped reads, an average of 75.62% fell into annotated exons, 5.50% were located in introns, and the remaining 18.88% were assigned to intergenic regions. In total, we identified 41 promising candidate genes by differential expression analysis between the low and high RFI groups. Furthermore, qRT-PCR assays were designed for 10 randomly chosen genes, and nine (90.00% were successfully validated. Functional annotation analyses revealed that these significant genes belong to several specific biological functions related to digestibility, metabolism and biosynthesis processes as well as energy homeostasis. We also predicted 253 intergenic coding transcripts, and these transcripts were mainly involved in fundamental biological regulation and metabolism processes. Our findings provided a pioneering exploration of biological basis underlying divergent RFI using RNA-Seq, which pinpoints promising candidate genes of functional relevance, is helpful to guide future breeding strategies to optimize feed efficiency and assists in improving the current gene annotation in chickens.

  14. Rfp-Y region polymorphism and Marek's disease resistance in multitrait immunocompetence-selected chicken lines.

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    Lakshmanan, N; Lamont, S J

    1998-04-01

    Although the influence of the chicken classical MHC in resistance to many diseases is well established, the role of the recently identified, genetically independent, MHC-like region known as Rfp-Y is unclear. The objectives of this study were to analyze the frequencies of DNA polymorphisms of the Rfp-Y region in White Leghorn lines, which were divergently selected in replicate for multitrait immunocompetence, and to determine the association of these polymorphisms with Marek's disease (MD) resistance. Chicks, either with or without herpes virus of turkey (HVT) vaccination, were challenged with 500 ffu of a very virulent Marek's disease virus (Md5) at 2 d of age. The MD-related data were collected for 10 wk. PvuII-digested genomic DNA was hybridized with an Rfp-Y region-specific probe, 18.1. Three Rfp-Y polymorphisms were observed. The frequency of one Rfp-Y polymorphism was significantly different between divergently selected multitrait immunocompetence lines in one replicate only; therefore, the impact of multitrait immunocompetence selection on Rfp-Y polymorphisms is inconclusive. The PvuII defined Rfp-Y region polymorphisms had no association with either innate or vaccine-induced MD resistance to Md5 virus challenge.

  15. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

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    Flávio de França Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A divergência genética entre 31 genótipos de melancia foi avaliada por meio da análise de variáveis canônicas e de técnicas de agrupamento (Tocher e método hierárquico de Ward baseadas na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Trinta linhagens, obtidas a partir de acessos coletados no Nordeste brasileiro e a cultivar 'Crimson Sweet' foram avaliadas quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NDM e NDF; número do nó da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NGM e NGF; número de frutos por planta (NFP; comprimento de rama principal (CRP; peso médio de fruto (PMF; teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS; diâmetro transversal e longitudinal do fruto (DTF e DLF e espessura média de casca (EMC. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, compostas por parcelas de sete plantas. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência entre as linhagens foram número de frutos por planta, diâmetro longitudinal, teor de sólidos solúveis e peso médio de fruto. Foram formados três grupos por meio do método de otimização de Tocher, três por meio do método hierárquico de Ward e quatro grupos pela dispersão gráfica baseada nas duas primeiras variáveis canônicas. Neste caso, o grupo I compôs-se de sete linhagens de Pernambuco e uma da Bahia; o grupo II reuniu todas as 21 linhagens do Maranhão; os grupos III e IV foram compostos pela linhagem 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco e pela cultivar Crimson Sweet, respectivamente. As linhagens 87-019.021 e 87-019.022 foram as mais semelhantes, enquanto a linhagem 87-019.023 e 'Crimson Sweet' apresentaram maior dissimilaridade pela distância generalizada Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Os cruzamentos mais promissores serão aqueles realizados entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo II. Cruzamentos entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo I serão interessantes para a obtenção de

  16. SNP detection and prediction of variability between chicken lines using genome resequencing of DNA pools

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    Carlborg Örjan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing technologies are widely used for detection of millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and also provide a means of assessing their variation. This information is useful for composing subsets of highly informative SNPs for region-specific or genome-wide analysis and to identify mutations regulating phenotypic differences within or between populations. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of SNP detection and introduced the flanking SNPs value (FSV as a novel measure for predicting SNP-variability using ~5X genome resequencing with ABI SOLID and DNA pools from two chicken lines divergently selected for juvenile bodyweight. Results Genotyping with a 60 K SNP chip revealed polymorphisms within or between two divergently selected chicken lines for 31 363 SNPs, 48% of which were also detected using resequencing of DNA pools. SNP detection using resequencing was more powerful for positions with larger differences in allele frequency between the lines. About 50% of the SNPs with non-reference allele frequencies in the range 0.5-0.6 and 67% of those with frequencies > 0.9 could be detected. On average, ~3.7 SNPs/kb were detected by resequencing, with about 5% lower density on microchromosomes than on macrochromosomes. There was a positive correlation between the observed between-line SNP variation from the 60 K chip analysis and our proposed FSV score computed from the genome resequencing data. The strongest correlations on macrochromosomes and microchromosomes were observed when the FSV was calculated with total flanking regions of 62 kb (correlation 0.55 and 38 kb (correlation 0.45, respectively. Conclusions Genome resequencing with limited coverage (~5X using pooled DNA samples and three non-reference reads as a threshold for SNP detection, identified 50 - 67% of the 60 K SNPs with a non-reference allele frequency larger than 0.5. The SNP density was around 5% lower on the

  17. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.;

    1998-01-01

    Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...

  18. Differences in macrophage functions between broiler chicken lines against Salmonella enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.; wagenaar, J.A.; Visscher, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    In this experiment two commercial broiler chicken lines were used, line E1 and line E4, to find variation between the lines in their natural resistance against Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections. At various time points after oral infection with SE the macrophage functions, the cellular and humor

  19. RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the spleen of Necrotic enteritis-afflicted chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study aimed to compare the Necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcriptome differences in the spleen of two highly inbred White Leghorn chicken lines, line 6.3 that is Marek’s Disease (MD) resistant and line 7.2 that is MD susceptible. Induction of NE in the chickens was achieved by co-infection ...

  20. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host...... of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed “robust” Hellevad chickens with two...... chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between...

  1. Genomic regions associated with necrotic enteritis resistance in Fayoumi and White Leghorn chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used two breeds of chicken to identify genomic regions corresponding to necrotic enteritis (NE) resistance. We scanned the genomes of a resistant and susceptible line of Fayoumi and White Leghorn chicken using a chicken 60K Illumina SNP panel. A total of 235 loci with divergently ...

  2. The Genome of the Chicken DT40 Bursal Lymphoma Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Janos; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya

    2014-01-01

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell...... chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations...

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

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    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  4. Mapping main, epistatic and sex-specific QTL for body composition in a chicken population divergently selected for low or high growth rate

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    Vignal Alain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delineating the genetic basis of body composition is important to agriculture and medicine. In addition, the incorporation of gene-gene interactions in the statistical model provides further insight into the genetic factors that underlie body composition traits. We used Bayesian model selection to comprehensively map main, epistatic and sex-specific QTL in an F2 reciprocal intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for high or low growth rate. Results We identified 17 QTL with main effects across 13 chromosomes and several sex-specific and sex-antagonistic QTL for breast meat yield, thigh + drumstick yield and abdominal fatness. Different sets of QTL were found for both breast muscles [Pectoralis (P major and P. minor], which suggests that they could be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms. Significant interactions of QTL by sex allowed detection of sex-specific and sex-antagonistic QTL for body composition and abdominal fat. We found several female-specific P. major QTL and sex-antagonistic P. minor and abdominal fatness QTL. Also, several QTL on different chromosomes interact with each other to affect body composition and abdominal fatness. Conclusions The detection of main effects, epistasis and sex-dimorphic QTL suggest complex genetic regulation of somatic growth. An understanding of such regulatory mechanisms is key to mapping specific genes that underlie QTL controlling somatic growth in an avian model.

  5. Differences in the early response of hatchlings of different chicken breeding lines to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, D; Peters, T H F; Hoekman, A J W; Rebel, J M J; Smits, M A

    2012-02-01

    chicken lines divergent in their response to Salmonella infection at a young age include developmental differences of the gut.

  6. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower

  7. Phenotypic divergence in two lines of L-Fabp-/- mice reflects substrain differences and environmental modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Jiang, Hui; Ory, Daniel S; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2015-10-15

    Phenotypic divergence in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and hepatic steatosis has been reported in two independently generated lines of L-Fabp(-/-) mice [New Jersey (NJ) L-Fabp(-/-) vs. Washington University (WU) L-Fabp(-/-) mice]. We performed side-by-side studies to examine differences between the lines and investigate the role of genetic background, intestinal microbiota, sex, and diet in the divergent phenotypes. Fasting-induced steatosis was attenuated in both L-Fabp(-/-) lines compared with C57BL/6J controls, with restoration of hepatic triglyceride levels following adenoviral L-Fabp rescue. Both lines were protected against DIO after high-saturated-fat diet feeding. Hepatic steatosis was attenuated in WU but not NJ L-Fabp(-/-) mice, although this difference between the lines disappeared upon antibiotic treatment and cohousing. In contrast, there was phenotypic divergence in L-Fabp(-/-) mice fed a high cocoa butter fat diet, with WU L-Fabp(-/-) mice, but not NJ L-Fabp(-/-) mice, showing protection against both DIO and hepatic steatosis, with some sex-dependent (female > male) differences. Dense mapping revealed no evidence of unintended targeting, duplications, or deletions surrounding the Fabp1 locus in either line and only minor differences in mRNA expression of genes located near the targeted allele. However, a C57BL/6 substrain screen showed that the NJ L-Fabp(-/-) line contains ∼40% C57BL/6N genomic DNA, despite reports that these mice were backcrossed six generations. Overall, these findings suggest that some of the phenotypic divergence between the two L-Fabp(-/-) lines may reflect unanticipated differences in genetic background, underscoring the importance of genetic background in phenotypic characterization.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of locally adapted South African chicken lines: Implications for conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle-Koster, van E.; Hefer, C.A.; Nel, L.H.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study microsatellite markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the six local chicken lines kept in the “Fowls for Africa” program, for better clarification of parameters for breed differentiation and genetic conservation of this valuable resource.

  9. Avian hepatitis E virus identified in Russian chicken flocks exhibits high genetic divergence based on the ORF2 capsid gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprygin, A V; Nikonova, Z B; Zinyakov, N G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 79 liver samples from clinically sick and asymptomatic chickens were tested for avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV). Samples were received from 19 farms, five of which tested positive with primers targeting the ORF2 capsid gene. The phylogenetic analysis of a 242-base-pair fragment demonstrated that the Russian aHEV isolates share between 78.2 and 96.2% over the fragment sequenced, whereas the nucleotide sequence identities between the Russian isolates and the other representatives from GeneBank varied from 76.3 to 96.2%. The homology between the studied hepatitis E viruses and swine hepatitis E virus varied between 46.9 to 48.1%. The most divergent isolate aHEV16050 showed homology of 82.6% as compared with the strains in the dendrogram. The three positive hepatitis E virus samples (aHEV16279, aHEV16050 and aHEV18196) did not cluster with the European genotype 3 as expected due to the close location of Russia to Europe, nor did they with the other two genotypes, separating to a distinct branch. The aHEV16211 grouped together with European and Chinese isolates, and the aHEV18198 with Canadian ones.

  10. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  11. Fine mapping and replication of QTL in outbred chicken advanced intercross lines

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    Andersson Leif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linkage mapping is used to identify genomic regions affecting the expression of complex traits. However, when experimental crosses such as F2 populations or backcrosses are used to map regions containing a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL, the size of the regions identified remains quite large, i.e. 10 or more Mb. Thus, other experimental strategies are needed to refine the QTL locations. Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL are produced by repeated intercrossing of F2 animals and successive generations, which decrease linkage disequilibrium in a controlled manner. Although this approach is seen as promising, both to replicate QTL analyses and fine-map QTL, only a few AIL datasets, all originating from inbred founders, have been reported in the literature. Methods We have produced a nine-generation AIL pedigree (n = 1529 from two outbred chicken lines divergently selected for body weight at eight weeks of age. All animals were weighed at eight weeks of age and genotyped for SNP located in nine genomic regions where significant or suggestive QTL had previously been detected in the F2 population. In parallel, we have developed a novel strategy to analyse the data that uses both genotype and pedigree information of all AIL individuals to replicate the detection of and fine-map QTL affecting juvenile body weight. Results Five of the nine QTL detected with the original F2 population were confirmed and fine-mapped with the AIL, while for the remaining four, only suggestive evidence of their existence was obtained. All original QTL were confirmed as a single locus, except for one, which split into two linked QTL. Conclusions Our results indicate that many of the QTL, which are genome-wide significant or suggestive in the analyses of large intercross populations, are true effects that can be replicated and fine-mapped using AIL. Key factors for success are the use of large populations and powerful statistical tools. Moreover, we believe that

  12. Development of an endogenous virus-free line of chickens susceptible to all subgroups of avian leukosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special specific pathogen free chicken lines are normally used for detection of contamination with avian leukosis viruses (ALV). The suitability and efficiency of such tests mostly depend on the susceptibility of CEF to varied subgroups of ALV. The ideal...

  13. Chicken line-dependent mortality after experimental infection with three type IIxIII recombinant Toxoplasma gondii clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schares, G; Herrmann, D C; Maksimov, P; Matzkeit, B; Conraths, F J; Moré, G; Preisinger, R; Weigend, S

    2017-09-01

    Three genetically different clones of Toxoplasma gondii, also different in mouse virulence, were studied by experimental infection in chickens. For the experiments, four chicken lines were used, which differed in phylogenetic origin and performance level: two white egg layer lines, one with high laying performance (WLA), one with low (R11) and two brown layer lines, also displaying high (BLA) and low (L68) egg number. Chickens were intraperitoneally infected with three different T. gondii isolates representing type IIxIII recombinant clones, i.e. showing both, type II- and type III-specific alleles. These clones (K119/2 2C10, B136/1 B6H6, K119/2 A7) had exhibited virulence differences in a mouse model. In chickens, a significantly higher mortality was observed in white layer lines, but not in brown layer lines, suggesting that differences in the phylogenetic background may influence the susceptibility of chickens for toxoplasmosis. In addition, antibody (IgY) levels varied in surviving chickens at 31 days post infection. While low to intermediate antibody levels were observed in white layers, intermediate to high levels were measured in brown layers. Infection with a T. gondii clone showing low chicken virulence resulted in higher antibody levels in all chicken lines compared to infection with T. gondii clones of intermediate or high chicken virulence. This was in agreement with the parasite load as determined by real-time PCR. Overall, results show that progeny resulting from natural sexual recombination of T. gondii clonal lineages, may differ in their virulence for mice and chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... L10H chickens than in the infected and noninfected L10L chickens. Thus, these results indicate that MBL is produced locally and may be involved in the regulation of the cellular immune response after an IBV infection. However, MBL did not appear to influence the humoral immune response after IBV...

  15. Antibodies to two major chicken heat shock proteins cross-react with similar proteins in widely divergent species.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, P M; Schlesinger, M J

    1982-01-01

    Three of the proteins induced by heat shock of chicken embryo fibroblasts have been purified, and rabbit antibodies have been raised against them. These antibodies have been used in radioimmune precipitation reactions and in a solid-phase immune assay to detect antigenic material in non-heat-shocked chicken tissues and in extracts of widely different species ranging from yeast to mammalian tissue culture cells and human erythrocyte ghosts. Antibodies to two of the major chicken heat shock pro...

  16. Liver transcriptome response to hyperthermic stress in three distinct chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xi; Hsieh, John C F; Schmidt, Carl J; Zhu, Qing; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-11-22

    High ambient temperatures cause stress in poultry, especially for broiler lines, which are genetically selected for rapid muscle growth. RNA-seq technology provides powerful insights into environmental response from a highly metabolic tissue, the liver. We investigated the effects of acute (3 h, 35 °C) and chronic (7d of 35 °C for 7 h/d) heat stress on the liver transcriptome of 3-week-old chicks of a heat-susceptible broiler line, a heat-resistant Fayoumi line, and their advanced intercross line (AIL). Transcriptome sequencing of 48 male chickens using Illumina HiSeq 2500 technology yielded an average of 33.9 million, 100 base-pair, single-end reads per sample. There were 8 times more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR heat samples to the control (25 °C) samples. Contrasting genetic lines under similar heat treatments, the highest number of DEGs appeared between Fayoumi and broiler lines. Principal component analysis of gene expression and analysis of the number of DEGs suggested that the AIL had a transcriptomic response more similar to the Fayoumi than the broiler line during acute heat stress. The number of DEGs also suggested that acute heat stress had greater impact on the broiler liver transcriptome than chronic heat stress. The angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) gene was identified as differentially expressed among all 6 contrasts. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) created a novel network that combines the heat shock protein family with immune response genes. This study extends our understanding of the liver transcriptome response to different heat exposure treatments in distinct genetic chicken lines and provides information necessary for breeding birds to be more resilient to the negative impacts of heat. The data strongly suggest ANGPTL4 as a candidate gene for improvement of heat tolerance in chickens.

  17. Transcriptome response to heat stress in a chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Lamont, Susan J.; Cooksey, Amanda M; McCarthy, Fiona; Tudor, Catalina O.; Vijay-Shanker, K.; DeRita, Rachael M.; Rothschild, Max; Ashwell, Chris; Michael E Persia; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress triggers an evolutionarily conserved set of responses in cells. The transcriptome responds to hyperthermia by altering expression of genes to adapt the cell or organism to survive the heat challenge. RNA-seq technology allows rapid identification of environmentally responsive genes on a large scale. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify heat stress responsive genes in the chicken male white leghorn hepatocellular (LMH) cell line. The transcripts of 812 genes were respons...

  18. Genotypic characterization of ten microsatellite loci in two Brazilian free range (Caipira chicken lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Helen Pagani Possamai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the genetic variability of two Brazilian free range (Caipira chickens lines using microsatellites analysis of ten loci. It was collected a total of 99 blood samples, which 49 were from Paraíso Pedrês (PP and 50 were from Rubro Negra (RN lines. The amplification of the DNA fragments was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the genotyping was conduct using ABI 3130 sequencer. The allele number variation was among 3 (LEI0254 to 32 (LEI0212 in the PP line, and 4 (LEI0254 to 31 (LEI0212 in the RN line. The allelic average per locus was 13.3 and 13.1 in the PP and RN lines, respectively. The average observed and the expected heterozygosity were 0.650 and 0.820 in the PP line, and 0.671 and 0.804 in the RN line. All of the analyzed loci were informative (PIC>0.5. These results indicate that these free-range animals have a high genetic variability, at least for the majority of the analyzed loci, and this genetic variation is higher than the commercial chickens and similar for the no-commercial birds

  19. The Protective Effect of Silybin against Lasalocid Cytotoxic Exposure on Chicken and Rat Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Radko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasalocid, an ionophore coccidiostat, extensive use implies a risk of toxicological impacts. Protective effects of silybin, a herbal compound of Silybum marianum, are reported elsewhere. The aim of this study was to compare effects of the combined use of lasalocid and silybin in chicken hepatoma cells (LMH and rat myoblasts (L6 cell lines cultures. The cytoprotective effect resulting from an interaction of both pharmaceuticals was measured with the help of MTT reduction and, coomassie brilliant blue binding (CBB and LDH release assays. Isobolography and the combination index (CI estimated the nature and scale of interaction. In all performed tests, the lowest lasalocid EC50-values were obtained for chicken hepatocytes. In the rat myoblasts cultures, the lowest lasalocid EC50-values were found with LDH test. Simultaneously, a lack of silybin cytotoxic effect was proven for the studied cell lines. An interaction between both substances led to a considerable decrease of lasalocid cytotoxicity. The isobolograms and combination index showed a significant antagonistic nature of silybin effect in the course of lasalocid cytotoxicity. It is concluded that the mechanism of cytoprotection results from complex reaction at biochemical and biophysical endpoints during chicken hepatocytes and rat myoblasts cell lines exposure to silybin and lasalocid co-action.

  20. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  1. Evaporating droplet hologram simulation for digital in-line holography setup with divergent beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méès, Loïc; Grosjean, Nathalie; Chareyron, Delphine; Marié, Jean-Louis; Seifi, Mozhdeh; Fournier, Corinne

    2013-10-01

    Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) for a multilayered sphere is used to simulate holograms produced by evaporating spherical droplets with refractive index gradient in the surrounding air/vapor mixture. Simulated holograms provide a physical interpretation of experimental holograms produced by evaporating Diethyl Ether droplets with diameter in the order of 50 μm and recorded in a digital in-line holography configuration with a divergent beam. Refractive index gradients in the surrounding medium lead to a modification of the center part of the droplet holograms, where the first fringe is unusually bright. GLMT simulations reproduce this modification well, assuming an exponential decay of the refractive index from the droplet surface to infinity. The diverging beam effect is also considered. In both evaporating and nonevaporating cases, an equivalence is found between Gaussian beam and plane wave illuminations, simply based on a magnification ratio to be applied to the droplets' parameters.

  2. Prospection of genomic regions divergently selected in racing line of Quarter Horses in relation to cutting line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, C T; Curi, R A; Farah, M M; de Oliveira, H N; Béltran, N A R; Silva, J A V; Mota, M D S da

    2014-11-01

    Selection of Quarter Horses for different purposes has led to the formation of lines, including racing and cutting horses. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions divergently selected in racing line of Quarter Horses in relation to cutting line applying relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis, an extension of extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) analysis, and the fixation index (F ST) statistic. A total of 188 horses of both sexes, born between 1985 and 2009 and registered at the Brazilian Association of Quarter Horse Breeders, including 120 of the racing line and 68 of the cutting line, were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. On the basis of 27 genomic regions identified as selection signatures by REHH and F ST statistics, functional annotations of genes were made in order to identify those that could have been important during formation of the racing line and that could be used subsequently for the development of selection tools. Genes involved in muscle growth (n=8), skeletal growth (n=10), muscle energy metabolism (n=15), cardiovascular system (n=14) and nervous system (n=23) were identified, including the FKTN, INSR, GYS1, CLCN1, MYLK, SYK, ANG, CNTFR and HTR2B.

  3. The genome of the chicken DT40 bursal lymphoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, János; Póti, Ádám; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnády, Gábor E; Szallasi, Zoltan; Csabai, István; Szüts, Dávid

    2014-09-15

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell line using whole genome shotgun sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array hybridization. The results indicate that wild-type DT40 has a relatively normal karyotype, except for whole chromosome copy number gains, and no karyotype variability within stocks. In a comparison to two domestic chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a typical transformed cell line with a relatively intact genome; therefore, it is well-suited to the role of a model system for DNA repair and related processes. The sequence data generated by this study, including a searchable de novo genome assembly and annotated lists of mutated genes, will support future research using this cell line.

  4. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Apratim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV. Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigenetic factors are believed to be one of the major determinants of disease response. Results Here, we carried out comprehensive analyses of the epigenetic landscape induced by MDV, utilizing genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation maps from chicken lines with varying resistance to MD. Differential chromatin marks were observed on genes previously implicated in the disease such as MX1 and CTLA-4 and also on genes reported in other cancers including IGF2BP1 and GAL. We detected bivalent domains on immune-related transcriptional regulators BCL6, CITED2 and EGR1, which underwent dynamic changes in both lines as a result of MDV infection. In addition, putative roles for GAL in the mechanism of MD progression were revealed. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of widespread epigenetic differences induced by MD in chicken lines with different levels of genetic resistance. A majority of observed epigenetic changes were indicative of increased levels of viral infection in the susceptible line symptomatic of lowered immunocompetence in these birds caused by early cytolytic infection. The GAL system that has known anti-proliferative effects in other cancers is also revealed to be potentially involved in MD progression. Our study provides further insight into the mechanisms of MD progression while revealing a complex landscape of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that varies depending on host factors.

  5. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2<0.1; and for WS h2≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens.

  6. Nonperturbative landscape of the Mott-Hubbard transition: Multiple divergence lines around the critical endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.; Ciuchi, S.; Wallerberger, M.; Thunström, P.; Gunnarsson, O.; Sangiovanni, G.; Rohringer, G.; Toschi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the highly nonperturbative regime surrounding the Mott-Hubbard metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) by means of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations at the two-particle level. By extending the results of Schäfer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 246405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.246405] we show the existence of infinitely many lines in the phase diagram of the Hubbard model where the local Bethe-Salpeter equations, and the related irreducible vertex functions, become singular in the charge as well as the particle-particle channel. By comparing our numerical data for the Hubbard model with analytical calculations for exactly solvable systems of increasing complexity [disordered binary mixture (BM), Falicov-Kimball (FK), and atomic limit (AL)], we have (i) identified two different kinds of divergence lines; (ii) classified them in terms of the frequency structure of the associated singular eigenvectors; and (iii) investigated their relation to the emergence of multiple branches in the Luttinger-Ward functional. In this way, we could distinguish the situations where the multiple divergences simply reflect the emergence of an underlying, single energy scale ν* below which perturbation theory is no longer applicable, from those where the breakdown of perturbation theory affects, not trivially, different energy regimes. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the theoretical understanding of the nonperturbative physics around the MIT and for future developments of many-body algorithms applicable in this regime.

  7. Evolution of the polymorphism at molecular markers in QTL and non-QTL regions in selected chicken lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loywyck, V.; Bed'hom, B.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.; Pitel, F.; Verrier, E.; Bijma, P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the joint evolution of neutral and selected genomic regions in three chicken lines selected for immune response and in one control line. We compared the evolution of polymorphism of 21 supposedly neutral microsatellite markers versus 30 microsatellite markers located in seven quantit

  8. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos was ca...

  9. Thermal influences on antibody production and metabolism in chicken lines divergently selected for immune responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction
    The international character of the poultry industry requires that poultry bred under temperate conditions should be able to perform under tropical conditions as well. However, abrupt changes in environmental

  10. Thermal influences on antibody production and metabolism in chicken lines divergently selected for immune responsiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, R.

    1989-01-01

    IntroductionThe international character of the poultry industry requires that poultry bred under temperate conditions should be able to perform under tropical conditions as well. However, abrupt changes in environmental temperature or continuous high temperatures may affect production traits, im

  11. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  12. Muscle lipid metabolism in two rabbit lines divergently selected for intramuscular fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvaro, M; Agha, S; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2017-06-01

    A divergent selection experiment for intramuscular fat (IMF) of LM at 9 wk of age was performed in rabbits. The objective of this work was to compare the lipid metabolism in muscles and fat tissues of the high-IMF and low-IMF lines. Lipogenic, catabolic, and lipolytic activities were studied in 2 muscles with different oxidative patterns (LM and semimembranosus proprius) and in the perirenal fat depot at 2 ages, 9 and 13 wk. In addition, adipocytes were characterized in perirenal fat. In the fifth generation, direct response to selection was 0.26 g IMF/100 g muscle. Lines showed differences in their lipogenic activities of muscles and fat tissues at 13 wk but not at 9 wk. The high-IMF line showed greater glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (EM), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) activities in LM than the low-IMF line, with probabilities = 1.00, 0.93, and 0.90, respectively. Differences between lines were particularly great for G6PDH activity, representing 1.13 SD. The high-IMF line also showed greater G6PDH and FAS activities in semimembranosus proprius (P = 0.98 for G6PDH and 0.95 for FAS) and perirenal fat (P = 0.91 for G6PDH and 0.96 for FAS). However, in perirenal fat, EM activity was greater in the low-IMF line (P = 0.90). No differences between lines were found in almost any catabolic or lipolytic activities of muscles. Regarding adipocyte characteristics, the high-IMF line showed larger adipocytes in perirenal fat depot tissue (P = 0.97) compared to the low-IMF line, but no differences between lines were observed in the number of adipocytes. This study sheds light on the metabolic activities involved in the genetic differentiation of lipid deposition in rabbits. This study shows that lipogenic activities in muscles and fat tissues, in particular G6PDH in LM, are involved in the lipid accumulation in muscle and adipose tissues.

  13. Identification of two novel multiple recombinant avian leukosis viruses in two different lines of layer chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liming; Shen, Yanwei; Wang, Guihua; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2013-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is the most common oncogenetic retrovirus that emerges spontaneously as a result of recombination between exogenous viruses, exogenous viruses and endogenous viruses, and exogenous viruses and non-homologous cellular genes. In the present study, two natural recombinant avian leukosis viruses (rALVs) (LC110515-5 and LC110803-5) carrying a subgroup C gp85 gene, a subgroup E gp37 gene, and a subgroup J 3'UTR and 3'LTR were isolated from two different lines of layer flocks, Black-bone silky fowl (BSF) and commercial layer chicken, that suffered from myeloid leukosis. Although tumours were not observed in rALV-infected individual chickens, other non-neoplastic inflammatory lesions were evident. The two rALVs were cultured on DF-1 cells and identified by PCR, immunofluorescence assay and gene sequencing. The gp85 nucleotide sequence in the two isolates displayed a high identity (>95 %) with that of the gp85 gene in ALV-C, but the identity was less than 90 % with ALV-A/B/D/E and only 51 % with ALV-J. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences confirmed that the two isolates were recombinant between ALV-C, ALV-E and ALV-J. Subgroup C ALV is rarely found in field cases. This report is the first to provide evidence that ALV-C has recombined with ALV-E and ALV-J in two different chicken lines. The source and characteristics of the two rALVs and ALV-C need to be further investigated.

  14. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jean

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG and low (LG growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15 and ultimate pH (pHu, breast color-redness (BCo-R and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral

  15. Evaluation of the chicken transcriptome by SAGE of B cells and the DT40 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeldenwagner Manuel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of whole genome sequences in higher eukaryotes depends to a large degree on the reliable definition of transcription units including exon/intron structures, translated open reading frames (ORFs and flanking untranslated regions. The best currently available chicken transcript catalog is the Ensembl build based on the mappings of a relatively small number of full length cDNAs and ESTs to the genome as well as genome sequence derived in silico gene predictions. Results We use Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (LongSAGE in bursal lymphocytes and the DT40 cell line to verify the quality and completeness of the annotated transcripts. 53.6% of the more than 38,000 unique SAGE tags (unitags match to full length bursal cDNAs, the Ensembl transcript build or the genome sequence. The majority of all matching unitags show single matches to the genome, but no matches to the genome derived Ensembl transcript build. Nevertheless, most of these tags map close to the 3' boundaries of annotated Ensembl transcripts. Conclusions These results suggests that rather few genes are missing in the current Ensembl chicken transcript build, but that the 3' ends of many transcripts may not have been accurately predicted. The tags with no match in the transcript sequences can now be used to improve gene predictions, pinpoint the genomic location of entirely missed transcripts and optimize the accuracy of gene finder software.

  16. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  17. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus, domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedup Dorji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowllike, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively, two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus, two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111 to 23 (MCW0183. Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  18. Cytokine response to the RSV antigen delivered by dendritic cell-directed vaccination in congenic chicken lines.

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    Mucksová, Jitka; Plachý, Jiří; Staněk, Ondřej; Hejnar, Jiří; Kalina, Jiří; Benešová, Barbora; Trefil, Pavel

    2017-04-05

    Systems of antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells represent an important novel strategy in chicken vaccine development. In this study, we verified the ability of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) antigens fused with streptavidin to be targeted by specific biotinylated monoclonal antibody (anti-CD205) into dendritic cells and induce virus-specific protective immunity. The method was tested in four congenic lines of chickens that are either resistant or susceptible to the progressive growth of RSV-induced tumors. Our analyses confirmed that the biot-anti-CD205-SA-FITC complex was internalized by chicken splenocytes. In the cytokine expression profile, several significant differences were evident between RSV-challenged progressor and regressor chicken lines. A significant up-regulation of IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 expression was detected in immunized chickens of both regressor and progressor groups. Of these cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12 were most up-regulated 14 days post-challenge (dpc), while IL-15 and IL-18 were most up-regulated at 28 dpc. On the contrary, IL-10 expression was significantly down-regulated in all immunized groups of progressor chickens at 14 dpc. We detected significant up-regulation of IL-17 in the group of immunized progressors. LITAF down-regulation with iNOS up-regulation was especially observed in the progressor group of immunized chickens that developed large tumors. Based on the increased expression of cytokines specific for activated dendritic cells, we conclude that our system is able to induce partial stimulation of specific cell types involved in cell-mediated immunity.

  19. Proviral integrations and expression of endogenous Avian leucosis virus during long term selection for high and low body weight in two chicken lines

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    Bornold Lina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term selection (> 45 generations for low or high juvenile body weight from a common founder population of White Plymouth Rock chickens has generated two extremely divergent lines, the LWS and HWS lines. In addition to a > 9-fold difference between lines for the selected trait, large behavioural and metabolic differences between the two lines evolved during the course of the selection. We recently compared gene expression in brain tissue from birds representing these lines using a global cDNA array analysis and the results showed multiple but small expression differences in protein coding genes. The main differentially expressed transcripts were endogenous retroviral sequences identified as avian leucosis virus subgroup-E (ALVE. Results In this work we confirm the differential ALVE expression and analysed expression and number of proviral integrations in the two parental lines as well as in F9 individuals from an advanced intercross of the lines. Correlation analysis between expression, proviral integrations and body weight showed that high ALVE levels in the LWS line were inherited and that more ALVE integrations were detected in LWS than HWS birds. Conclusion We conclude that only a few of the integrations contribute to the high expression levels seen in the LWS line and that high ALVE expression was significantly correlated with lower body weights for the females but not males. The conserved correlation between high expression and low body weight in females after 9 generations of intercrosses, indicated that ALVE loci conferring high expression directly affects growth or are very closely linked to loci regulating growth.

  20. Evolution of the polymorphism at molecular markers in QTL and non-QTL regions in selected chicken lines (Open Access publication

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    Bijma Piter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the joint evolution of neutral and selected genomic regions in three chicken lines selected for immune response and in one control line. We compared the evolution of polymorphism of 21 supposedly neutral microsatellite markers versus 30 microsatellite markers located in seven quantitative trait loci (QTL regions. Divergence of lines was observed by factor analysis. Five supposedly neutral markers and 12 markers in theQTL regions showed Fst values greater than 0.15. However, the non-significant difference (P > 0.05 between matrices of genetic distances based on genotypes at supposedly neutral markers on the one hand, and at markers in QTL regions, on the other hand, showed that none of the markers in the QTL regions were influenced by selection. A supposedly neutral marker and a marker located in the QTL region on chromosome 14 showed temporal variations in allele frequencies that could not be explained by drift only. Finally, to confirm thatmarkers located inQTL regions on chromosomes 1, 7 and 14were under the influence of selection, simulations were performed using haplotype dropping along the existing pedigree. In the zone located on chromosome 14, the simulation results confirmed that selection had an effect on the evolution of polymorphism of markers within the zone.

  1. Efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in Mhc heterozygous chickens: Mhc congenic x inbred line F1 matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that Mhc (B) heterozygous chickens differ in efficacy of response to several Marek's disease (MD) vaccines. Four types of B2 heterozygotes, in addition to B2B2 homozygotes, were developed by crossing 15.B congenic males to inbred line 7(1) (B2B2) hens. The five types of F1 chicks were intermingled in isolators and vaccinated with one of four types of MD vaccine before inoculation with the very virulent Md5 strain of MD herpesvirus. The F1 chickens differ in development of protective immunity following MD vaccination from two perspectives. First, chickens of a particular Mhc genotype were protected better by some vaccines than others. Second, individual vaccine preparations protected some Mhc genotypes more effectively. We conclude that some MD vaccines are more appropriate than others for certain B-haplotypes when chickens are heterozygous for the Mhc. The value of using Mhc-congenic x inbred line F1 animals for studies concerning the influence of the Mhc on vaccinal immunity is discussed.

  2. RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Spleen of Necrotic Enteritis-afflicted Chicken Lines

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    Anh Duc Truong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the necrotic enteritis (NE-induced transcriptome differences between the spleens of Marek’s disease resistant chicken line 6.3 and susceptible line 7.2 co-infected with Eimeria maxima/Clostridium perfringens using RNA-Seq. Total RNA from the spleens of two chicken lines were used to make libraries, generating 42,736,296 and 42,617,720 usable reads, which were assembled into groups of 29,897 and 29,833 mRNA genes, respectively. The transcriptome changes were investigated using the differentially expressed genes (DEGs package, which indicated 3,255, 2,468 and 2,234 DEGs of line 6.3, line 7.2, and comparison between two lines, respectively (fold change ≥2, p<0.01. The transcription levels of 14 genes identified were further examined using qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the RNA-seq data. All of the DEGs were analysed using gene ontology terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database and the DEGs in each term were found to be more highly expressed in line 6.3 than in line 7.2. RNA-seq analysis indicated 139 immune related genes, 44 CD molecular genes and 150 cytokines genes which were differentially expressed among chicken lines 6.3 and 7.2 (fold change ≥2, p<0.01. Novel mRNA analysis indicated 15,518 novel genes, for which the expression was shown to be higher in line 6.3 than in line 7.2 including some immune-related targets. These findings will help to understand host-pathogen interaction in the spleen and elucidate the mechanism of host genetic control of NE, and provide basis for future studies that can lead to the development of marker-based selection of highly disease-resistant chickens.

  3. Understanding mechanisms of vitiligo development in Smyth line of chickens by transcriptomic microarray analysis of evolving autoimmune lesions

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    Shi Fengying

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Smyth line (SL of chicken is an excellent avian model for human autoimmune vitiligo. The etiology of vitiligo is complicated and far from clear. In order to better understand critical components leading to vitiligo development, cDNA microarray technology was used to compare gene expression profiles in the target tissue (the growing feather of SL chickens at different vitiligo (SLV states. Results Compared to the reference sample, which was from Brown line chickens (the parental control, 395, 522, 524 and 526 out of the 44 k genes were differentially expressed (DE (P ≤ 0.05 in feather samples collected from SL chickens that never developed SLV (NV, from SLV chickens prior to SLV onset (EV, during active loss of pigmentation (AV, and after complete loss of melanocytes (CV. Comparisons of gene expression levels within SL samples (NV, EV, AV and CV revealed 206 DE genes, which could be categorized into immune system-, melanocyte-, stress-, and apoptosis-related genes based on the biological functions of their corresponding proteins. The autoimmune nature of SLV was supported by predominant presence of immune system related DE genes and their remarkably elevated expression in AV samples compared to NV, EV and/or CV samples. Melanocyte loss was confirmed by decreased expression of genes for melanocyte related proteins in AV and CV samples compared to NV and EV samples. In addition, SLV development was also accompanied by altered expression of genes associated with disturbed redox status and apoptosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of DE genes provided functional interpretations involving but not limited to innate and adaptive immune response, oxidative stress and cell death. Conclusions The microarray results provided comprehensive information at the transcriptome level supporting the multifactorial etiology of vitiligo, where together with apparent inflammatory/innate immune activity and oxidative stress, the adaptive immune

  4. Transcriptome response to heat stress in a chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Lamont, Susan J; Cooksey, Amanda M; McCarthy, Fiona; Tudor, Catalina O; Vijay-Shanker, K; DeRita, Rachael M; Rothschild, Max; Ashwell, Chris; Persia, Michael E; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-11-01

    Heat stress triggers an evolutionarily conserved set of responses in cells. The transcriptome responds to hyperthermia by altering expression of genes to adapt the cell or organism to survive the heat challenge. RNA-seq technology allows rapid identification of environmentally responsive genes on a large scale. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify heat stress responsive genes in the chicken male white leghorn hepatocellular (LMH) cell line. The transcripts of 812 genes were responsive to heat stress (p heat stress. Among the upregulated were genes whose products function as chaperones, along with genes affecting collagen synthesis and deposition, transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and genes modulating the WNT and TGF-beta pathways. Predominant among the downregulated genes were ones that affect DNA replication and repair along with chromosomal segregation. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously implicated in the heat stress response. These data extend our understanding of the transcriptome response to heat stress with many of the identified biological processes and pathways likely to function in adapting cells and organisms to hyperthermic stress. Furthermore, this study should provide important insight to future efforts attempting to improve species abilities to withstand heat stress through genome-wide association studies and breeding.

  5. Insulin regulates lipid and glucose metabolism similarly in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junyan; Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Aguirre, Peyo; Véron, Vincent; Médale, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    Two experimental rainbow trout lines were developed through divergent selection for low (Lean 'L' line) or high (Fat 'F' line) muscle fat content. Previous nutritional studies suggested that these lines differed in their regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Since insulin acts as an anabolic hormone by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, we put forward the hypothesis that F line might have a stronger sensitivity to insulin than L line. In order to test this hypothesis, bovine insulin was injected into rainbow trout of the two lines fasted for 48 h. As expected, insulin induced hypoglycemia and activated Akt-TOR signaling both in the liver and muscle of the two lines. We demonstrate that this was coupled with increased expression of insulin dependent glucose transporter (GLUT4) and transcription factors of fatty acid anabolism (LXR and SREBP1c) in the muscle and liver, respectively, and lower mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation enzymes (CPT1a, CPT1b and HOAD) in the white muscle of both lines. Regarding the genotype effect, TOR signaling response to insulin was stronger in F line as reflected by the higher phosphorylation of S6 protein and elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic enzyme (FAS) in the liver of F line. This observation was concordant with the higher plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and triglycerides in F line. Moreover, mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes (G6Pase2, FBPase and PEPCK) and muscle fatty acid oxidation enzymes (CPT1a, CPT1b, HOAD and ACO) were higher in the F line. However, very few insulin-genotype interactions were detected, indicating that insulin induced similar changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in both lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-13

    Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR). The RNAseq analysis was carried out using Ilumina Hiseq (2 x 100 bp paired end read) and raw reads were assembled with the galgal4 reference chicken genome. With normalized RPM values, genes showing >10 average read counts were chosen and genes showing 1.3 fold change were considered as differentially expressed (DE) between PeM and BPR. DE genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for bioinformatic functional interpretation. The results indicate that 2,464 DE genes were identified in the comparison between PeM and BPR. Interestingly, the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in chicken are significantly biased towards the BPR group, suggesting a lowered mitochondrial content in PeM chicken muscles compared to BPR chicken. This result is inconsistent with more slow muscle fibers bearing a lower mitochondrial content in the PeM. The molecular, cellular and physiological functions of DE genes in the comparison between PeM and BPR include organismal injury, carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth/proliferation, and skeletal muscle system development, indicating that cellular mechanisms in modern broiler lines are tightly associated with rapid growth and differential muscle fiber contents compared to the unselected BPR line. Particularly, PDGF (platelet derived

  7. Combined effect of divergent selection for breast muscle ultimate pH and dietary amino acids on chicken performance, physical activity and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Chabault-Dhuit, M; Bourin, M; Arnould, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2017-02-01

    Responses to changes in dietary Lys and other essential amino acid (AA) concentrations were evaluated in 480 male and female broilers originating from two lines divergently selected for high (pHu+) or low (pHu-) ultimate pH (pHu) of breast muscle. The two genetic lines were fed with two grower isoenergetic diets differing in both true digestible Lys (control=10.2 g/kg and experimental=7.0 g/kg) and amounts of other essential AA calculated in relation to Lys, which were sufficient for the control diet or in excess for the experimental diet. There were six repetitions per treatment. Birds were weighed individually at days 0, 21, 28 and 43. Feed consumption was recorded per pen and feed conversion was calculated over the growing period. The physical activity and walking ability of broilers were recorded during the whole rearing period. Breast and leg yield, and abdominal fat percentage were measured at 43 days of age, as were pHu, color, drip and cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and curing-cooking yield of the breast Pectoralis major and pHu of the thigh Sartorius muscle. Divergent selection greatly affected most breast meat quality traits without significantly changing growth rate or feed efficiency. When subjected to a variation in dietary intake of AA, birds from the two genotypes responded in a similar way in terms of animal's growth, feed efficiency, body composition and meat quality traits. Although line and diet did not affect physical or feeding activities of the broilers, a significant effect of line-by-diet interaction was observed on gait score. Contrary to the pHu- birds, the walking ability of pHu+ birds was impaired when fed the control diet that favored growth and breast muscle development and limited storage of carbohydrate in muscle.

  8. Rapid on-line detection and grading of wooden breast myopathy in chicken fillets by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseth-Kent, Eva; Høst, Vibeke; Løvland, Atle

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to develop a method for rapid and non-destructive detection and grading of wooden breast (WB) syndrome in chicken breast fillets. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was chosen as detection method, and an industrial NIR scanner was applied and tested for large scale on-line detection of the syndrome. Two approaches were evaluated for discrimination of WB fillets: 1) Linear discriminant analysis based on NIR spectra only, and 2) a regression model for protein was made based on NIR spectra and the estimated concentrations of protein were used for discrimination. A sample set of 197 fillets was used for training and calibration. A test set was recorded under industrial conditions and contained spectra from 79 fillets. The classification methods obtained 99.5–100% correct classification of the calibration set and 100% correct classification of the test set. The NIR scanner was then installed in a commercial chicken processing plant and could detect incidence rates of WB in large batches of fillets. Examples of incidence are shown for three broiler flocks where a high number of fillets (9063, 6330 and 10483) were effectively measured. Prevalence of WB of 0.1%, 6.6% and 8.5% were estimated for these flocks based on the complete sample volumes. Such an on-line system can be used to alleviate the challenges WB represents to the poultry meat industry. It enables automatic quality sorting of chicken fillets to different product categories. Manual laborious grading can be avoided. Incidences of WB from different farms and flocks can be tracked and information can be used to understand and point out main causes for WB in the chicken production. This knowledge can be used to improve the production procedures and reduce today’s extensive occurrence of WB. PMID:28278170

  9. A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR based assay for authentication of cell lines or tissues from human, pig and chicken origin

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    MARIO GORENJAK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction based assay was developed for authentication of cell lines or tissues from human, pig and chicken origin. Specificity was achieved by species specific primer design targeting the mitochondrial D-loop sequence. Amplicon sizes were 114 bp, 169 bp and 645-648 bp for chicken, human and pig derived cell lines, respectively. Primers were tested for species specificity and non-specificity between haplogroups of the same organisms using BLAST tool and subsequently for cross amplification DNA extracted from human, chicken and pig venous blood as a positive control. Primers were also amplifying specific products in DNA extracted from individual cell line in both functional cell models and intentionally mixed cell lines consisting functional cell models. The PCR assay developed in this study represents a low-cost species specific end-point PCR based assay of the mitochondrial D-loop for the authentication of the cell line origin.

  10. Error-prone ZW pairing and no evidence for meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the chicken germ line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guioli, Silvana; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Turner, James M A

    2012-01-01

    In the male mouse the X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine within the small pseudoautosomal region. Genes located on the unsynapsed segments of the X and Y are transcriptionally silenced at pachytene by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI). The degree to which MSCI is conserved in other vertebrates is currently unclear. In the female chicken the ZW bivalent is thought to undergo a transient phase of full synapsis at pachytene, starting from the homologous ends and spreading through the heterologous regions. It has been proposed that the repair of the ZW DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is postponed until diplotene and that the ZW bivalent is subject to MSCI, which is independent of its synaptic status. Here we present a distinct model of meiotic pairing and silencing of the ZW pair during chicken oogenesis. We show that, in most oocytes, DNA DSB foci on the ZW are resolved by the end of pachytene and that the ZW desynapses in broad synchrony with the autosomes. We unexpectedly find that ZW pairing is highly error prone, with many oocytes failing to engage in ZW synapsis and crossover formation. Oocytes with unsynapsed Z and W chromosomes nevertheless progress to the diplotene stage, suggesting that a checkpoint does not operate during pachytene in the chicken germ line. Using a combination of epigenetic profiling and RNA-FISH analysis, we find no evidence for MSCI, associated with neither the asynaptic ZW, as described in mammals, nor the synaptic ZW. The lack of conservation of MSCI in the chicken reopens the debate about the evolution of MSCI and its driving forces.

  11. Error-prone ZW pairing and no evidence for meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the chicken germ line.

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    Silvana Guioli

    Full Text Available In the male mouse the X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine within the small pseudoautosomal region. Genes located on the unsynapsed segments of the X and Y are transcriptionally silenced at pachytene by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI. The degree to which MSCI is conserved in other vertebrates is currently unclear. In the female chicken the ZW bivalent is thought to undergo a transient phase of full synapsis at pachytene, starting from the homologous ends and spreading through the heterologous regions. It has been proposed that the repair of the ZW DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is postponed until diplotene and that the ZW bivalent is subject to MSCI, which is independent of its synaptic status. Here we present a distinct model of meiotic pairing and silencing of the ZW pair during chicken oogenesis. We show that, in most oocytes, DNA DSB foci on the ZW are resolved by the end of pachytene and that the ZW desynapses in broad synchrony with the autosomes. We unexpectedly find that ZW pairing is highly error prone, with many oocytes failing to engage in ZW synapsis and crossover formation. Oocytes with unsynapsed Z and W chromosomes nevertheless progress to the diplotene stage, suggesting that a checkpoint does not operate during pachytene in the chicken germ line. Using a combination of epigenetic profiling and RNA-FISH analysis, we find no evidence for MSCI, associated with neither the asynaptic ZW, as described in mammals, nor the synaptic ZW. The lack of conservation of MSCI in the chicken reopens the debate about the evolution of MSCI and its driving forces.

  12. Differential regulation of microRNA transcriptome in chicken lines resistant and susceptible to necrotic enteritis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeong Ho; Dinh, Hue; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Song, Ki-Duk; Oh, Jae-Don

    2014-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a re-emerging disease as a result of increased restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NE are unclear. Small RNA transcriptome analysis was performed using spleen and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from 2 inbred chicken lines selected for resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in an experimentally induced model of avian NE to investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) control the expression of genes associated with host response to pathogen challenge. Unique miRNA represented only 0.02 to 0.04% of the total number of sequences obtained, of which 544 were unambiguously identified. Hierarchical clustering revealed that most of miRNA in IEL were highly expressed in the MD-susceptible line 7.2 compared with MD-resistant line 6.3. Reduced CXCL14 gene expression was correlated with differential expression of several unique miRNA in MD-resistant chickens, whereas TGFβR2 gene expression was correlated with altered gga-miR-216 miRNA levels in MD-susceptible animals. In conclusion, miRNA profiling and deep sequencing of small RNA in experimental models of infectious diseases may be useful for further understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and for providing insights into genetic markers of disease resistance.

  13. Gene expression profiling of the local cecal response of genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni colonization.

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    Xianyao Li

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is one of the most common causes of human bacterial enteritis worldwide primarily due to contaminated poultry products. Previously, we found a significant difference in C. jejuni colonization in the ceca between two genetically distinct broiler lines (Line A (resistant has less colony than line B (susceptible on day 7 post inoculation. We hypothesize that different mechanisms between these two genetic lines may affect their ability to resist C. jejuni colonization in chickens. The molecular mechanisms of the local host response to C. jejuni colonization in chickens have not been well understood. In the present study, to profile the cecal gene expression in the response to C. jejuni colonization and to compare differences between two lines at the molecular level, RNA of ceca from two genetic lines of chickens (A and B were applied to a chicken whole genome microarray for a pair-comparison between inoculated (I and non-inoculated (N chickens within each line and between lines. Our results demonstrated that metabolism process and insulin receptor signaling pathways are key contributors to the different response to C. jejuni colonization between lines A and B. With C. jejuni inoculation, lymphocyte activation and lymphoid organ development functions are important for line A host defenses, while cell differentiation, communication and signaling pathways are important for line B. Interestingly, circadian rhythm appears play a critical role in host response of the more resistant A line to C. jejuni colonization. A dramatic differential host response was observed between these two lines of chickens. The more susceptible line B chickens responded to C. jejuni inoculation with a dramatic up-regulation in lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism, which is undoubtedly for use in the response to the colonization with little or no change in immune host defenses. However, in more resistant line A birds the host defense

  14. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to

  15. Alternative Splicing Variants and DNA Methylation Status of BDNF in Inbred Chicken Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays essential roles in neuronal survival and differentiation, synaptic plasticity, central regulation of energy homeostasis, and neuronal development of the central and peripheral nerve system. Here, we report two new splicing variants of the chicken BDNF g...

  16. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Sa

  17. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  18. Hepatic lipogenesis gene expression in two experimental egg-laying lines divergently selected on residual food consumption

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    Bordas André

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two Rhode Island Red egg-laying lines have been divergently selected on residual food intake (low intake R- line, high intake R+ line for 19 generations. In addition to direct response, correlated responses have altered several other traits such as carcass adiposity and lipid contents of several tissues, the R+ animals being leaner than the R- ones. In a search for the biological origin of the differences observed in fat deposit, the hepatic mRNA amounts of genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. No difference was found between lines for mRNA levels of ATP citrate-lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, a transcription factor acting on several lipogenesis genes. The genes coding for stearoyl-CoA desaturase and apolipoprotein A1 displayed significantly lower mRNA levels in the R+ cockerels compared to the R-. All together these mRNA levels explained 40% of the overall variability of abdominal adipose tissue weight, suggesting an important role of both genes in the fatness variability.

  19. Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

    2013-08-15

    Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus.

  20. Finite Divergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Pandya, P. K.; Chaochen, Zhou

    1995-01-01

    the framework of duration calculus. Axioms and proof rules are given. Patterns of occurrence of divergence are classified into dense divergence, accumulative divergence and discrete divergence by appropriate axioms. Induction rules are given for reasoning about discrete divergence...

  1. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P intake and HP declined by about 38% and 20%, respectively, from P0 to P1 (P intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with a reduction of the activity related HP. The evaporative heat loss represented 30% on the total heat loss on P0, and this proportion significantly increased on P1 (61%; P < 0.001) and remained constant thereafter. In conclusion, our results suggest that thermal heat acclimation in pigs is mainly related to a biphasic reduction of HP rather than a change in the ability of losing heat, and it did not significantly differ between RFI+ and RFI- lines despite a decreased HP in the latter ones.

  2. Impact of hygiene of housing conditions on performance and health of two pig genetic lines divergent for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, A; Gondret, F; Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Friggens, N C; Le Floc'h, N

    2017-06-27

    Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, Pfeed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than in good conditions during Period 1. Immune traits, gain-to-feed ratio, BW gain and feed consumption did not differ during Period 2. Nevertheless, at W12, BW of HRFI previously housed in poor conditions was 13.4 kg lower than BW of HRFI pigs (Pfeed efficient LRFI pigs was less impaired by poor hygiene conditions. This line was able to preserve its

  3. Analysis of JAK-STAT signaling pathway genes and their microRNAs in the intestinal mucosa of genetically disparate chicken lines induced with necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Anh Duc; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Hong, Yeojin; Hoang, Cong Thanh; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2017-05-01

    The JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays a key role in cytokine and growth factor activation and is involved in several cellular functions and diseases. The main objective of this study was to investigate the expression of candidate JAK-STAT pathway genes and their regulators and interactors in the intestinal mucosal layer of two genetically disparate chicken lines [Marek's disease (MD)-resistant line 6.3 and MD-susceptible line 7.2] induced with necrotic enteritis (NE). Through RNA-sequencing, we investigated 116 JAK-STAT signaling pathway-related genes that were significant and differentially expressed between the intestinal mucosa of the two lines compared with respective uninfected controls. About 15 JAK-STAT pathway genes were further verified by qRT-PCR, and the results were in agreement with our sequencing data. All the identified 116 genes were annotated through Gene Ontology and mapped to the KEGG chicken JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to represent the transcriptional analysis of a large number of candidate genes, regulators, and potential interactors in the JAK-STAT pathway of the two chicken lines induced with NE. Several key genes of the interactome, namely, STAT1/3/4, STAT5B, JAK1-3, TYK2, AKT1/3, SOCS1-5, PIAS1/2/4, PTPN6/11, and PIK3, were determined to be differentially expressed in the two lines. Moreover, we detected 68 known miRNAs variably targeting JAK-STAT pathway genes and differentially expressed in the two lines induced with NE. The RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analyses in this study provided an abundance of data that will be useful for future studies on JAK-STAT pathways associated with the functions of two genetically disparate chicken lines induced with NE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R

    2011-08-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis.

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the Padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the Padovana Camosciata local chicken breed (PC; n=59, the slow-growing line Berlanda- Gaina (BG; n=62, and their cross (BGxPC; n=57 for carcass and meat quality features. Animals were reared under the same experimental conditions and slaughtered at 3 different ages. An analysis of variance was performed on carcass and meat traits using a linear model that included fixed effects of genotype, sex, age at slaughter, and interactions between them. The PC local breed was approximately 1 kg lighter (P<0.001 at slaughter and exhibited greater dressing percentage (+1.50%; P<0.05 than BG. Breast skin of PC was bluer (-2.74; P<0.001, and breast muscle was darker (-2.65; P<0.001 and redder (+0.48; P<0.001 than that of BG. The pH (+0.16; P<0.001, thawing (+0.90%; P<0.01 and cooking (+2.28%; P<0.001 losses determined on breast muscle were higher for PC than BG. Crossbred animals performed better than the average of BG and PC chickens for breast weight (+22.81 g; P<0.01 and dressing percentage (+1.38%; P<0.05. Breast skin of BGxPC was darker (-1.74; P<0.05, less red (-0.23; P<0.05, and bluer (-1.54; P<0.01 than the average of BG and PC, and breast muscle was more yellow (+0.64; P<0.05 for BGxPC. Cooking losses were lower (-0.99%; P<0.05 for crossbred than the average of BG and PC chickens. Results confirmed the specificity of meat characteristics of PC local breed and demonstrated the potential benefit of crossbreeding to improve production traits of PC breed without compromising the peculiar quality of its meat.

  6. Heat Stress and Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation of Chicken Macrophage-Like Cell Line Activates Expression of Distinct Sets of Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Anna; Hsieh, John C; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Acute heat stress requires immediate adjustment of the stressed individual to sudden changes of ambient temperatures. Chickens are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to development of insufficient physiological mechanisms to mitigate its effects. One of the symptoms of heat stress is endotoxemia that results from release of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the guts. Heat-related cytotoxicity is mitigated by the innate immune system, which is comprised mostly of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages. The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular responses of the chicken macrophage-like HD11 cell line to combined heat stress and lipopolysaccharide treatment in vitro. The cells were heat-stressed and then allowed a temperature-recovery period, during which the gene expression was investigated. LPS was added to the cells to mimic the heat-stress-related endotoxemia. Semi high-throughput gene expression analysis was used to study a gene panel comprised of heat shock proteins, stress-related genes, signaling molecules and immune response genes. HD11 cell line responded to heat stress with increased mRNA abundance of the HSP25, HSPA2 and HSPH1 chaperones as well as DNAJA4 and DNAJB6 co-chaperones. The anti-apoptotic gene BAG3 was also highly up-regulated, providing evidence that the cells expressed pro-survival processes. The immune response of the HD11 cell line to LPS in the heat stress environment (up-regulation of CCL4, CCL5, IL1B, IL8 and iNOS) was higher than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the peak in the transcriptional regulation of the immune genes was after two hours of temperature-recovery. Therefore, we propose the potential influence of the extracellular heat shock proteins not only in mitigating effects of abiotic stress but also in triggering the higher level of the immune responses. Finally, use of correlation networks for the data analysis aided in discovering subtle differences in the gene expression (i.e. the role

  7. Effects of rearing environment on the gut antimicrobial responses of two broiler chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Vanessa L; Mowbray, Catherine A; Cadwell, Kevin; Niranji, Sherko S; Bailey, Richard; Watson, Kellie A; Ralph, John; Hall, Judith

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the risk of enteric disease in poultry, knowledge of how bird gut innate defences mature with age while also responding to different rearing environments is necessary. In this study the gut innate responses of two phylogenetically distinct lines of poultry raised from hatch to 35days, in conditions mimicing high hygiene (HH) and low hygiene (LH) rearing environments, were compared. Analyses focussed on the proximal gut antimicrobial activities and the duodenal and caecal AvBD1, 4 and 10 defensin profiles. Variability in microbial killing was observed between individual birds in each of the two lines at all ages, but samples from day 0 birds (hatch) of both lines exhibited marked killing properties, Line X: 19±11% (SEM) and Line Y: 8.5±12% (SEM). By day 7 a relaxation in killing was observed with bacterial survival increased from 3 (Line Y (LY)) to 11 (Line X (LX)) fold in birds reared in the HH environment. A less marked response was observed in the LH environment and delayed until day 14. At day 35 the gut antimicrobial properties of the two lines were comparable. The AvBD 1, 4 and 10 data relating to the duodenal and caecal tissues of day 0, 7 and 35 birds LX and LY birds revealed gene expression trends specific to each line and to the different rearing environments although the data were confounded by inter-individual variability. In summary elevated AvBD1 duodenal expression was detected in day 0 and day 7 LX, but not LY birds, maintained in LH environments; Line X and Y duodenal AvBD4 profiles were detected in day 7 birds reared in both environments although duodenal AvBD10 expression was less sensitive to bird age and rearing background. Caecal AvBD1 expression was particularly evident in newly hatched birds. These data suggest that proximal gut antimicrobial activity is related to the bird rearing environments although the roles of the AvBDs in such activities require further investigation.

  8. Entry and survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis PT4 in chicken macrophage and lymphocyte cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Visscher, A.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various leukocytes are involved in the reaction to counter Salmonella infection in chicken. The various leukocyte types react differently after an infection, since some clear the infection while others may cause dissemination of Salmonella throughout the chicken. Therefore, we investigated in vitro

  9. Non-specific activation of CD8α-characterised γδ T cells in PBL cultures of different chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Christina; Weigend, Steffen; Schrader, Lars; Berndt, Angela

    2016-10-15

    Avian γδ T lymphocytes still represent an enigmatic cell population not only regarding their functions but also their activation requirements and subset differentiation. To find a suitable method for non-specific stimulation and multiplication of CD8α-characterised γδ T-cell subsets in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cultures, PBLs of four different chicken lines (WLA, BLA, R11, L68) were treated with a range of commonly used non-specific reagents (PMA, PHA, ConA) and interleukins (IL-2, IL-12, IL-15), and the CD8α(-), CD8α(hi)β(+) and CD8αα(hi+) γδ T-cell subsets examined in relation to activation (CD25 expression) and proliferation by flow cytometry. The culture of avian PBLs with PMA led to an increase of CD25-expression intensity, whereas IL-2 induced proliferation of γδ T-cells. The combinational application of IL-2 plus PMA functioned synergistically and resulted in significantly enhanced numbers of CD25(+) cells, with simultaneous significant increase of the CD25-expression intensity and proliferation in all γδ T-cell subsets of all chicken lines. The four chicken lines revealed only sporadically differences with frequently highest proliferation rates in PBLs of WLA. In conclusion, PMA in combination with IL-2 is the best suitable additive for avian PBL cultures in order to multiply, activate and maintain CD8α-characterised γδ T-cell subsets of different chicken lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Capacidade combinatória, divergência genética entre linhagens de milho e correlação com heterose Combining ability, genetic divergence among maize lines and correlation with heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de híbridos simples de milho (Zea mays L., obtidos de cruzamentos dialélicos entre linhagens divergentes, estimar a capacidade de combinação das linhagens e verificar se a divergência genética entre as linhagens, obtida por marcadores moleculares, é correlacionada com a heterose dos híbridos simples no campo. Trinta e seis híbridos resultantes de um dialelo parcial foram avaliados em Campinas e em Mococa e as 12 linhagens parentais somente em Campinas, a fim de se calcular a heterose dos híbridos. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e 2 testemunhas comerciais. Avaliaram-se os caracteres: altura da planta (AP, altura da espiga (AE e massa de grãos (MG. Análises de variância foram efetuadas, sendo as médias comparadas entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. A capacidade de combinação das linhagens foi obtida de acordo com o método de Geraldi e Miranda Filho. Estimaram-se as correlações entre heterose, produtividade e capacidade específica de combinação com divergência genética obtida por AFLP e SSR. Destacou-se o híbrido PM624 x IP398, e as linhagens VER266 e L105 revelaram efeitos positivos da capacidade de combinação para produtividade. As estimativas de heterose variaram de -559 a 6.320 kg ha-1. Não houve correlação entre heterose, capacidade específica de combinação e produtividade dos híbridos com a distância genética por AFLP e SSR, indicando que não é possível fazer inferências sobre o comportamento dos híbridos de milho a partir da divergência genética entre as linhagens parentais.The objectives of this research were to evaluate single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L. obtained from partial diallel crosses among contrasting inbred lines, to estimate the combining ability of the lines and to verify whether the genetic diversity among those lines assessed by moleculars markers is correlated with single cross hybrid

  11. A molecular analysis of the patterns of genetic diversity in local chickens from western Algeria in comparison with commercial lines and wild jungle fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahammi, F Z; Gaouar, S B S; Laloë, D; Faugeras, R; Tabet-Aoul, N; Rognon, X; Tixier-Boichard, M; Saidi-Mehtar, N

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic variability of village chickens from three agro-ecological regions of western Algeria: coastal (CT), inland plains (IP) and highlands (HL), to reveal any underlying population structure, and to evaluate potential genetic introgression from commercial lines into local populations. A set of 233 chickens was genotyped with a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. Geographical coordinates were individually recorded. Eight reference populations were included in the study to investigate potential gene flow: four highly selected commercial pure lines and four lines of French slow-growing chickens. Two populations of wild red jungle fowls were also genotyped to compare the range of diversity between domestic and wild fowls. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Multivariate redundancy analyses were performed to assess the relative influence of geographical location among Algerian ecotypes. The results showed a high genetic variability within the Algerian population, with 184 alleles and a mean number of 8.09 alleles per locus. The values of heterozygosity (He and Ho) ranged from 0.55 to 0.62 in Algerian ecotypes and were smaller than values found in Jungle fowl populations and higher than values found in commercial populations. Although the structuring analysis of genotypes did not reveal clear subpopulations within Algerian ecotypes, the supervised approach using geographical data showed a significant (p Algeria are characterized by a high genetic diversity and must be safeguarded as an important reservoir of genetic diversity.

  12. Quantitative trait loci identified for blood chemistry components of an advanced intercross line of chickens under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goor, Angelica; Ashwell, Christopher M; Persia, Michael E; Rothschild, Max F; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-04-14

    Heat stress in poultry results in considerable economic losses and is a concern for both animal health and welfare. Physiological changes occur during periods of heat stress, including changes in blood chemistry components. A highly advanced intercross line, created from a broiler (heat susceptible) by Fayoumi (heat resistant) cross, was exposed to daily heat cycles for seven days starting at 22 days of age. Blood components measured pre-heat treatment and on the seventh day of heat treatment included pH, pCO2, pO2, base excess, HCO3, TCO2, K, Na, ionized Ca, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sO2, and glucose. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these traits and their calculated changes was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a 600 K SNP panel. There were significant increases in pH, base excess, HCO3, TCO2, ionized Ca, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and sO2, and significant decreases in pCO2 and glucose after 7 days of heat treatment. Heritabilities ranged from 0.01-0.21 for pre-heat measurements, 0.01-0.23 for measurements taken during heat, and 0.00-0.10 for the calculated change due to heat treatment. All blood components were highly correlated within measurement days, but not correlated between measurement days. The GWAS revealed 61 QTL for all traits, located on GGA (Gallus gallus chromosome) 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12-14, 17, 18, 21-28, and Z. A functional analysis of the genes in these QTL regions identified the Angiopoietin pathway as significant. The QTL that co-localized for three or more traits were on GGA10, 22, 26, 28, and Z and revealed candidate genes for birds' response to heat stress. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of levels and heritabilities of several blood components of chickens under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. Most components responded to heat treatment. Mapped QTL may serve as markers for genomic selection to enhance heat tolerance in poultry. The Angiopoietin pathway is likely involved in the

  13. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM increased cell proliferation (6% at 7 days (p 4.92 nM increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30% at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of  Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell proliferation in human cell lines at concentrations higher than 4.92 n

  14. Gene Expression Analysis of Toll-like Receptor Pathways in Heterophils from Genetic Chicken Lines That Differ In Their Susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKogut

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with toll-like receptor (TLR agonists, heterophils from line A expressed a totally different cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression pattern than heterophils from line B. A large-scale gene expression profile using an Agilent 44K microarray on heterophils isolated from line A and line B also revealed significantly differential expression in many immune-related genes following Salmonella enteritidis (SE stimulation, which included genes involved in the TLR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesize the differences between the lines result from distinctive TLR pathway signaling cascades that mediate heterophil function and, thus, innate immune responsiveness to SE. Using quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA from heterophils isolated from control and SE-stimulated heterophils of each line, we profiled the expression of all chicken homologous genes identified in a reference TLR pathway. Several differentially expressed genes found were involved in the TLR-induced My88-dependent pathway, showing higher gene expression in line A than line B heterophils following SE stimulation. These genes included the toll-like receptor genes TLR4, TLR15, TLR21, MD2, the adaptor proteins toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP, Tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3, the IκB kinases TGF-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1, IKKε and IKKα, the transcription factors NFkB2 and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7, phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p38. These results indicate that higher expression of TLR signaling activation of both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to avian heterophil-mediated innate

  15. Rabies neutralizing antibody detection by indirect immunperoxidase serum neutralization assay performed on chicken embryo related cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the indirect immunoperoxidase virus neutralization (IPVN and mouse neutralization test (MNT to detect antibodies against rabies virus from vaccinated dogs and cattle. The IPVN was set up for the ability to measure 0.5 International Units/ml (IU of antibody required by the World Health Organization and the Office International des Epizooties as the minimum response for proof of rabies immunization. IPVN was developed and standardized in chicken embryo related (CER cell line when 141 dog and 110 cattle sera were applied by serial five-fold dilutions (1:5, 1:25, 1:125 as well as the positive and negative reference controls, all added in four adjacent wells, of 96-well microplates. A 50 µl amount of CVS32 strain dilution containing 50-200 TCID50/ml was mixed to each serum dilution, and after 90 min 50 µl of 3 x 10(5 cells/mlcell suspension added to each well. After five days of incubation, the monolayers were fixed and the IPVN test performed. The correlation coefficient between the MNT and IPVN performed in CER cells was r = 0.9949 for dog sera (n = 100 and r = 0.9307 for cattle sera (n = 99, as well as good specificity (94.7%, sensitivity (87.5%, and agreement (96.6% were also obtained. IPVN technique can adequately identify vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, even from low-responding vaccinated animals, with the advantage of low cost and faster then MNT standard test.

  16. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia associations with gene expression changes in liver and hypothalamus of chickens from lines selected for low or high body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brittany B; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Shiping; Siegel, Paul B; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-11-01

    Chickens selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight for more than 56 generations now have a 10-fold difference in body weight at 56 days of age and correlated responses in appetite and glucose regulation. The LWS chickens are lean and some are anorexic, while the HWS are compulsive feeders and have a different threshold sensitivity of food intake and blood glucose to both central and peripheral insulin, respectively. We previously demonstrated that at 90-days of age, insulin-induced hypoglycemia was associated with reduced glucose transporter expression in the liver of both lines, and differences in expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY receptor sub-type genes between LWS and HWS in the hypothalamus. The objective of this study was to determine effects of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on gene expression in the hypothalamus and liver of early post-hatch LWS and HWS chicks. On day 5 post-hatch chicks from each line were fasted for 3h and injected intraperitoneally with insulin or vehicle. At 1h post-injection, chicks were euthanized, blood glucose was measured, and hypothalamus and liver were removed. Total RNA was isolated and real time PCR performed. Insulin injection was associated with a more pronounced reduction in blood glucose in HWS compared with LWS chicks (two-way interaction; Phypothalamus (Phypothalamus of HWS than LWS (Phypothalamus of both lines (P=0.02). In the liver of both lines, insulin treatment was associated with decreased (P=0.01) GLUT2 mRNA and increased (P=0.01) GLUT1 mRNA, compared to vehicle-treated chicks. Results suggest that NPY-associated factors and glucose transporters are differentially-expressed between LWS and HWS chickens and that HWS chicks display greater sensitivity to exogenous insulin during the early post-hatch period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Down-regulation of promoter methylation level of CD4 gene after MDV infection in MD-susceptible chicken line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in susceptible chickens, and may affect the epigenetic stability of the CD4 gene. The purpose of this study was to find how the effect of MDV infection on DNA methylation status of the CD4 gene differed between MD-resistant (L6...

  18. Comparison of parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels in two chicken lines during sustained infection with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Pleidrup, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly large numbers of poultry are held in production systems with access to outdoor areas. In these systems intestinal helminths are found with flock prevalences of up to 100%. Helminth infections influence chicken health negatively, which is why the following investigation has been...

  19. Very virulent plus strains of MDV induce acute form of transient paralysis in both susceptible and resistant chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  20. Population divergence along lines of genetic variance and covariance in the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colautti, Robert I; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2011-09-01

    Evolution during biological invasion may occur over contemporary timescales, but the rate of evolutionary change may be inhibited by a lack of standing genetic variation for ecologically relevant traits and by fitness trade-offs among them. The extent to which these genetic constraints limit the evolution of local adaptation during biological invasion has rarely been examined. To investigate genetic constraints on life-history traits, we measured standing genetic variance and covariance in 20 populations of the invasive plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) sampled along a latitudinal climatic gradient in eastern North America and grown under uniform conditions in a glasshouse. Genetic variances within and among populations were significant for all traits; however, strong intercorrelations among measurements of seedling growth rate, time to reproductive maturity and adult size suggested that fitness trade-offs have constrained population divergence. Evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained from the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) and the matrix of (co)variance among population means (D), which were 79.8% (95% C.I. 77.7-82.9%) similar. These results suggest that population divergence during invasive spread of L. salicaria in eastern North America has been constrained by strong genetic correlations among life-history traits, despite large amounts of standing genetic variation for individual traits. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  2. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  3. Forty years of solitude: life-history divergence and behavioural isolation between laboratory lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, C R B; McDonald, K; Maitra, S; Ganguly, R

    2003-01-01

    The study of the early stages of speciation can benefit from examination of differences between populations of known history that have been separated for a short time, such as a few thousands of generations. We asked whether two lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were isolated more than 40 years ago have evolved differences in life-history characters, or have begun to evolve behavioural or postzygotic isolation. One line, which is resistant to DDT, showed lower egg production and a shorter lifespan than a susceptible line. These differences are not a pleiotropic effect of resistance because they are not attributable to the chromosome that contains the resistance factors. The two lines have begun to become behaviourally isolated. Again, the isolation is not attributable to genes on the chromosome that contains resistance factors. The lines show only prezygotic isolation; there is no evidence of reduced fitness of F1 or F2 hybrids. These lines and others like them, should be excellent subjects for analyses of genetic changes that could lead to speciation.

  4. Functional genomics in chickens: development of integrated-systems microarrays for transcriptional profiling and discovery of regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogburn, L A; Wang, X; Carre, W; Rejto, L; Aggrey, S E; Duclos, M J; Simon, J; Porter, T E

    2004-01-01

    The genetic networks that govern the differentiation and growth of major tissues of economic importance in the chicken are largely unknown. Under a functional genomics project, our consortium has generated 30 609 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and developed several chicken DNA microarrays, which represent the Chicken Metabolic/Somatic (10 K) and Neuroendocrine/Reproductive (8 K) Systems (http://udgenome.ags.udel.edu/cogburn/). One of the major challenges facing functional genomics is the development of mathematical models to reconstruct functional gene networks and regulatory pathways from vast volumes of microarray data. In initial studies with liver-specific microarrays (3.1 K), we have examined gene expression profiles in liver during the peri-hatch transition and during a strong metabolic perturbation-fasting and re-feeding-in divergently selected broiler chickens (fast vs. slow-growth lines). The expression of many genes controlling metabolic pathways is dramatically altered by these perturbations. Our analysis has revealed a large number of clusters of functionally related genes (mainly metabolic enzymes and transcription factors) that control major metabolic pathways. Currently, we are conducting transcriptional profiling studies of multiple tissues during development of two sets of divergently selected broiler chickens (fast vs. slow growing and fat vs. lean lines). Transcriptional profiling across multiple tissues should permit construction of a detailed genetic blueprint that illustrates the developmental events and hierarchy of genes that govern growth and development of chickens. This review will briefly describe the recent acquisition of chicken genomic resources (ESTs and microarrays) and our consortium's efforts to help launch the new era of functional genomics in the chicken.

  5. Genome-wide SNP scan of pooled DNA reveals nonsense mutation in FGF20 in the scaleless line of featherless chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Kirsty L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaleless (sc/sc chickens carry a single recessive mutation that causes a lack of almost all body feathers, as well as foot scales and spurs, due to a failure of skin patterning during embryogenesis. This spontaneous mutant line, first described in the 1950s, has been used extensively to explore the tissue interactions involved in ectodermal appendage formation in embryonic skin. Moreover, the trait is potentially useful in tropical agriculture due to the ability of featherless chickens to tolerate heat, which is at present a major constraint to efficient poultry meat production in hot climates. In the interests of enhancing our understanding of feather placode development, and to provide the poultry industry with a strategy to breed heat-tolerant meat-type chickens (broilers, we mapped and identified the sc mutation. Results Through a cost-effective and labour-efficient SNP array mapping approach using DNA from sc/sc and sc/+ blood sample pools, we map the sc trait to chromosome 4 and show that a nonsense mutation in FGF20 is completely associated with the sc/sc phenotype. This mutation, common to all sc/sc individuals and absent from wild type, is predicted to lead to loss of a highly conserved region of the FGF20 protein important for FGF signalling. In situ hybridisation and quantitative RT-PCR studies reveal that FGF20 is epidermally expressed during the early stages of feather placode patterning. In addition, we describe a dCAPS genotyping assay based on the mutation, developed to facilitate discrimination between wild type and sc alleles. Conclusions This work represents the first loss of function genetic evidence supporting a role for FGF ligand signalling in feather development, and suggests FGF20 as a novel central player in the development of vertebrate skin appendages, including hair follicles and exocrine glands. In addition, this is to our knowledge the first report describing the use of the chicken SNP array to

  6. Differential recognition of highly divergent downy mildew avirulence gene alleles by RPP1 resistance genes from two Arabidopsis lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmany, Anne P; Gordon, Anna; Rose, Laura E; Allen, Rebecca L; Armstrong, Miles R; Whisson, Stephen C; Kamoun, Sophien; Tyler, Brett M; Birch, Paul R J; Beynon, Jim L

    2005-06-01

    The perception of downy mildew avirulence (Arabidopsis thaliana Recognized [ATR]) gene products by matching Arabidopsis thaliana resistance (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica [RPP]) gene products triggers localized cell death (a hypersensitive response) in the host plant, and this inhibits pathogen development. The oomycete pathogen, therefore, is under selection pressure to alter the form of these gene products to prevent detection. That the pathogen maintains these genes indicates that they play a positive role in pathogen survival. Despite significant progress in cloning plant RPP genes and characterizing essential plant components of resistance signaling pathways, little progress has been made in identifying the oomycete molecules that trigger them. Concluding a map-based cloning effort, we have identified an avirulence gene, ATR1NdWsB, that is detected by RPP1 from the Arabidopsis accession Niederzenz in the cytoplasm of host plant cells. We report the cloning of six highly divergent alleles of ATR1NdWsB from eight downy mildew isolates and demonstrate that the ATR1NdWsB alleles are differentially recognized by RPP1 genes from two Arabidopsis accessions (Niederzenz and Wassilewskija). RPP1-Nd recognizes a single allele of ATR1NdWsB; RPP1-WsB also detects this allele plus three additional alleles with divergent sequences. The Emco5 isolate expresses an allele of ATR1NdWsB that is recognized by RPP1-WsB, but the isolate evades detection in planta. Although the Cala2 isolate is recognized by RPP1-WsA, the ATR1NdWsB allele from Cala2 is not, demonstrating that RPP1-WsA detects a novel ATR gene product. Cloning of ATR1NdWsB has highlighted the presence of a highly conserved novel amino acid motif in avirulence proteins from three different oomycetes. The presence of the motif in additional secreted proteins from plant pathogenic oomycetes and its similarity to a host-targeting signal from malaria parasites suggest a conserved role in pathogenicity.

  7. The ability of genetically lean or fat slow-growing chickens to synthesize and store lipids is not altered by the dietary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Gondret, F; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Gabriel, I; Narcy, A; Lessire, M; Métayer-Coustard, S; Collin, A; Jégou, M; Lagarrigue, S; Duclos, M J

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken's diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and

  8. Inhibition of NF-kB 1 (NF-kBp50 by RNA interference in chicken macrophage HD11 cell line challenged with Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NF-kB pathway plays an important role in regulating the immunity response in animals. In this study, small interfering RNAs (siRNA were used to specifically inhibit NF-kB 1 expression and to elucidate the role of NF-kB in the signal transduction pathway of the Salmonella challenge in the chicken HD11 cell line. The cells were transfected with either NF-kB 1 siRNA, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase siRNA (positive control or the negative control siRNA for 24 h, followed by Salmonella enteritidis (SE challenge or non-challenge for 1 h and 4 h. Eight candidate genes related to the signal pathway of SE challenge were selected to examine the effect of NF-kB 1 inhibition on their expressions by mRNA quantification. The results showed that, with a 36% inhibition of NF-kB 1 expression, gene expression of both Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and interleukin (IL-6 was consistently and significantly increased at both 1 h and 4 h following SE challenge, whereas the gene expression of MyD88 and IL-1β was increased at 1 h and 4 h, respectively. These findings suggest a likely inhibitory regulation by NF-kB 1, and could lay the foundation for studying the gene network of the innate immune response of SE infection in chickens.

  9. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourichon David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three different general immune criteria; high antibody response to Newcastle disease virus 3 weeks after vaccination (ND3, high cell-mediated immune response, using the wing web response to phytohemglutinin (PHA and high phagocytic activity, measured as carbone clearance (CC. Line ND3-L was selected on ND3, line PHA-L was selected on PHA, and line CC-L on CC, but all lines were measured for all three traits. The fourth line was a contemporary random bred control maintained throughout the selection experiment. Principal component analysis was used to distinguish clusters based on the overall set of immune measures. Results In the KLH immunised group, no differences were present between lines for natural antibodies binding to KLH and LPS, and, lines ND3-L and PHA-L had higher titers to LTA and anti-Gal titers measured before the immunisation protocol. The measure of ND3 was correlated positively with LPS titers measured post KLH immunisation and with the difference between LPS titers measured at day 0 and 7 post immunisation. In the M. butyricum immunised group, Line ND3-L showed significantly higher specific antibody response to M. butyricum, and this result agrees well with the hypothesis that the Th-1 pathway was expected to be selected for in this line. Conclusion This study has shown that the two different antigens KLH and M. butyricum gave rise to different responses in the set of selected lines, and that the response was only enhanced for the antigen associated with the same response mechanism as that for the trait (ND3, PHA or CC for which the line was selected. Interactions between innate and acquired immunity have been observed mainly for the

  10. Detection of lymphoid leukosis tumors in white leghorn chickens of line ALV6 that is resistant to subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickens from Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6 that is known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV) were vaccinated at hatch with a Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses, and were maintained under specifi...

  11. Genetic parameters and signatures of selection in two divergent laying hen lines selected for feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Vanessa; Wellmann, Robin; Preuß, Siegfried; Grashorn, Michael A; Kjaer, Jörgen B; Bessei, Werner; Bennewitz, Jörn

    2015-09-30

    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens is a well-known and multi-factorial behaviour with a genetic background. In a selection experiment, two lines were developed for 11 generations for high (HFP) and low (LFP) feather pecking, respectively. Starting with the second generation of selection, there was a constant difference in mean number of FP bouts between both lines. We used the data from this experiment to perform a quantitative genetic analysis and to map selection signatures. Pedigree and phenotypic data were available for the last six generations of both lines. Univariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using mixed linear and generalized mixed linear models assuming a Poisson distribution. Selection signatures were mapped using 33,228 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 41 HFP and 34 LFP individuals of generation 11. For each SNP, we estimated Wright's fixation index (FST). We tested the null hypothesis that FST is driven purely by genetic drift against the alternative hypothesis that it is driven by genetic drift and selection. The mixed linear model failed to analyze the LFP data because of the large number of 0s in the observation vector. The Poisson model fitted the data well and revealed a small but continuous genetic trend in both lines. Most of the 17 genome-wide significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 3 and 4. Thirteen clusters with at least two significant SNPs within an interval of 3 Mb maximum were identified. Two clusters were mapped on chromosomes 3, 4, 8 and 19. Of the 17 genome-wide significant SNPs, 12 were located within the identified clusters. This indicates a non-random distribution of significant SNPs and points to the presence of selection sweeps. Data on FP should be analysed using generalised linear mixed models assuming a Poisson distribution, especially if the number of FP bouts is small and the distribution is heavily peaked at 0. The FST-based approach was suitable to map selection signatures that

  12. Modulation of glycogen and breast meat processing ability by nutrition in chickens: Effect of crude protein level in 2 chicken genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Jlali, Maamer; Gigaud, V.; Metayer-Coustard, Sonia; Sellier, Nadine; Tesseraud, Sophie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Berri, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduc...

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the oviduct of two rabbit lines divergently selected for uterine capacity using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M; Castelló, A; Peiró, R; Argente, M J; Santacreu, M A; Folch, J M

    2013-06-01

    Suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries from oviduct at 62 h post-mating of two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity were generated to identify differentially expressed genes. A total of 438 singletons and 126 contigs were obtained by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 704 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which 54% showed homology to known proteins of the non-redundant NCBI databases. Differential screening by dot blot validated 71 ESTs, of which 47 showed similarity to known genes. Transcripts of genes were functionally annotated in the molecular function and the biological process gene ontology categories using the BLAST2GO software and were assigned to reproductive developmental process, immune response, amino acid metabolism and degradation, response to stress and apoptosis terms. Finally, three interesting genes, PGR, HSD17B4 and ERO1L, were identified as overexpressed in the low line using RT-qPCR. Our study provides a list of candidate genes that can be useful to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences observed in early embryo survival and development traits.

  14. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  15. Identification of quantitative trait loci for body temperature, body weight, breast yield, and digestibility in an advanced intercross line of chickens under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goor, Angelica; Bolek, Kevin J; Ashwell, Chris M; Persia, Mike E; Rothschild, Max F; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2015-12-17

    Losses in poultry production due to heat stress have considerable negative economic consequences. Previous studies in poultry have elucidated a genetic influence on response to heat. Using a unique chicken genetic resource, we identified genomic regions associated with body temperature (BT), body weight (BW), breast yield, and digestibility measured during heat stress. Identifying genes associated with a favorable response during high ambient temperature can facilitate genetic selection of heat-resilient chickens. Generations F18 and F19 of a broiler (heat-susceptible) × Fayoumi (heat-resistant) advanced intercross line (AIL) were used to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Six hundred and thirty-one birds were exposed to daily heat cycles from 22 to 28 days of age, and phenotypes were measured before heat treatment, on the 1st day and after 1 week of heat treatment. BT was measured at these three phases and BW at pre-heat treatment and after 1 week of heat treatment. Breast muscle yield was calculated as the percentage of BW at day 28. Ileal feed digestibility was assayed from digesta collected from the ileum at day 28. Four hundred and sixty-eight AIL were genotyped using the 600 K Affymetrix chicken SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array. Trait heritabilities were estimated using an animal model. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these traits and changes in BT and BW was conducted using Bayesian analyses. Candidate genes were identified within 200-kb regions around SNPs with significant association signals. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.03 to 0.35). We identified QTL for BT on Gallus gallus chromosome (GGA)14, 15, 26, and 27; BW on GGA1 to 8, 10, 14, and 21; dry matter digestibility on GGA19, 20 and 21; and QTL of very large effect for breast muscle yield on GGA1, 15, and 22 with a single 1-Mb window on GGA1 explaining more than 15% of the genetic variation. This is the first study to estimate heritabilities and perform GWAS using this

  16. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianyao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated from broilers with different genetic backgrounds (SE-resistant [line A] and -susceptible [line B] have been shown to be important in defending against SE infections. To dissect the interplay between heterophils and SE infection, we utilized large-scale gene expression profiling. Results The results showed more differentially expressed genes were found between different lines than between infection (SE-treated and non-infection (control samples within line. However, the numbers of expressed immune-related genes between these two comparisons were dramatically different. More genes related to immune function were down-regulated in line B than line A. The analysis of the immune-related genes indicated that SE infection induced a stronger, up-regulated gene expression of line heterophils A than line B, and these genes include several components in the Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathway, and genes involved in T-helper cell activation. Conclusion We found: (1 A divergent expression pattern of immune-related genes between lines of different genetic backgrounds. The higher expression of immune-related genes might be more beneficial to enhance host immunity in the resistant line; (2 a similar TLR regulatory network might exist in both lines, where a possible MyD88-independent pathway may participate in the regulation of host innate immunity; (3 the genes exclusively differentially expressed in line A or line B with SE infection provided strong candidates for further investigating SE resistance and susceptibility. These findings have laid the foundation for future studies of TLR pathway regulation and cellular modulation of SE infection

  17. Effect of Duration of Cold Stress on Plasma Adrenal and Thyroid Hormone Levels and Immune Responses in Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Antibody Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangalapura, B.N.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Buyse, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that stress affects various immune processes. Some of these changes are due to hormonal changes involving corticosterone (CORT), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Effects of stress depend on the nature of specific stressors (e.g., thermal extremes, diet, polluta

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci for body temperature, body weight, breast yield, and digestibility in an advanced intercross line of chickens under heat stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Goor, Angelica; Bolek, Kevin J; Ashwell, Chris M; Persia, Mike E; Rothschild, Max F; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    ...), breast yield, and digestibility measured during heat stress. Identifying genes associated with a favorable response during high ambient temperature can facilitate genetic selection of heat-resilient chickens...

  19. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  20. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  1. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  2. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  4. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  5. Protein and energy metabolism in two lines of chickens selected for growth on high or low protein diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O; Sørensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Genetic adaptation was investigated in broilers selected for seven generations on a normal (A) or a low (B) protein diet. Protein and energy metabolism were studied in males from these selected lines fed on a diet of intermediate protein content. All selected birds retained more nitrogen than those...

  6. Differences in the early response of hatchlings of different chicken breeding lines to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.J.; Peters, T.H.F.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Poultry products are the major source of food-borne Salmonella infection in humans. Broiler lines selected to be more resistant to Salmonella could reduce the transfer of Salmonella to humans. To investigate differences in the susceptibility of newly hatched chicks to oral infection with Salmonella

  7. Diverging Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    – which we define here as a combination of impartial bureaucratic practices, corruption and the rule of law – limits, and in some cases reverses the tendency towards greater divergence linked to trade. Countries with high levels of state capacity – that is, those that have greater government effectiveness......, stronger rule of law and lower corruption – experience lower levels of divergence, as they have the mechanisms to counterbalance the strong centripetal forces linked to openness. This claim is tested on countries that have experienced relatively high levels of increases in levels of economic and political...... globalisation – European Union (EU) member states – using aggregated regional-level data from 1995 to 2008. Strong and robust empirical evidence is found for this claim....

  8. Pathology of a H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, in two Indian native chicken breeds and a synthetic broiler line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, S; Nagarajan, S; Saxena, V K; Kumar, M; Vanamayya, P R; Rajukumar, K; Gowthaman, V; Jain, V; Singh, D P; Dubey, S C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, susceptibility to H5N1 virus infection was studied in two Indian native chicken breeds viz. Kadaknath and Aseel (Peela) and an Indian synthetic broiler strain (Synthetic dam line (SDL-IC). Fifty birds from each genetic group were infected intra-nasally with 1000 EID50 of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/chicken/Navapur/India/7972/ 06 (H5N1) and observed for a period of 10 days. Significant differences in severity of clinical signs, gross lesions and time for onset of symptoms were observed. The overall severity of clinical signs and gross lesions was less in SDL-IC broilers as compared to the other two genetic groups. The mortality percentages were 100, 98 and 92% with Mean Death Time (MDT) of 3.12, 5.92 and 6.96 days, respectively for the two native breeds Kadaknath and Aseel (Peela), the and SDL-IC broiler strain. Comparison of histological lesions revealed differences in disease progression among the genetic groups. Vascular lesions such as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) were predominant on 3 days post infection (dpi) in Kadaknath, and on 5 and 6 dpi in Aseel (Peela) and SDL-IC broiler. The mean log2 HA titres of the re-isolated virus from various organs of H5N1 AIV infected birds of the three genetic groups ranged from 2.32 (lung, trachea and bursa) to 5.04 (spleen) in Kadaknath; 2.32 (lung) to 6.68 (brain) in Aseel (Peela); and 2.06 (liver) to 7.01 (lungs and kidney) in SDL-IC broiler. These results suggest that the susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection differed among the three breeds; Kadaknath being highest followed by Aseel (Peela) and synthetic SDL-IC broiler. This is possibly the first report on the differences in the susceptibility of the India native breeds to H5N1 virus infection and its severity.

  9. Investigation of Leptin gene in broiler and layer chicken lines Investigação do gene da Leptina em linhagens de aves de corte e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Ninov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a polypeptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, plays an important role in feed intake regulation, energy metabolism and reproduction in several species. Its function has been intensively studied in mammals; however, in birds limited information is available. The cDNA sequence for chicken leptin has been reported, and high hepatic expression levels of leptin were associated with fat deposition in selected bird lines. However, controversies still remain concerning to the chicken leptin gene and several authors failed to amplify this gene from genomic DNA or cDNA. In view of this controversy and the importance of this gene, the present study aimed to investigate the leptin gene in a population of birds developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center (Brazil. First of all, the sequences of Gallus gallus leptin gene (GenBank AF012727 and Mus musculus (GenBank NM_008493 were aligned with the objective of designing primers in conserved regions among the two species, since 94.6% of similarity is described in the literature in those species. For all four pairs of primers designed, several amplification tests were performed with both DNA and cDNA, but neither unique fragment nor expected band size was ever achieved. The leptin sequence in GenBank does not represent the sequence of the chicken leptin gene.A leptina, hormônio polipeptídico secretado principalmente pelo tecido adiposo, tem um papel importante na regulação da ingestão de alimentos, metabolismo de energia e reprodução em mamíferos. A função do gene da leptina tem sido intensamente estudada em mamíferos, porém, em aves, ainda é pouco conhecida. O cDNA deste gene foi identificado em galinhas, e a alta expressão hepática e os níveis de leptina no plasma foram associados à alta deposição de gordura presente em linhagens de aves selecionadas. Entretanto, permanecem controvérsias sobre o gene da leptina em galinhas, pois diversos autores não conseguiram

  10. Overview and future perspectives of studies on the mechanisms underlying appetite regulation in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    本田, 和久

    2017-01-01

     Broiler chickens eat more feed than layer chickens. As a result, broiler chickens grow faster than layer chickens. However, excessive accumulation of body fat in broiler chickens has been a serious problem in the poultry industry in recent decades. Therefore, the appetite regulatory system of chickens has been a focus of research among poultry scientists. Lines of evidence suggest that the physiological role of peripheral adiposity hormones, such as leptin and insulin, and gut hormones, such...

  11. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  12. Genetic aspects of auto-immune profiles of healthy chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Henk K; van der Vaart, Priscilla S; Nieuwland, Mike G B; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2017-09-01

    Auto-antibody profiles binding liver antigens differed between chicken lines divergently selected for specific antibody responses to SRBC, and were affected by ageing suggesting both genetic and environmental effects. Presence and levels of IgM and IgG antibodies binding chicken liver cell lysate (CLL) fragments in plasma at 5 weeks of age from 10 individual full sibs and their parents from 5 Hsrbc and 5 Lsrbc line families was studied to reveal genetic relations. Non-genetic maternal effects were studied by comparing auto-antibody profiles of 36 weeks old hens from 2 other unrelated lines with the profiles from their chicks at hatch. IgM and IgG antibodies from parents and progeny from both Hsrbc and Lsrbc lines bound CLL fragments. Significant line and generation differences and their interactions were found for both isotypes. Higher staining of CLL fragments was usually found for Hsrbc line birds. Lines were clustered by auto-antibody profiles, but staining by birds of both lines in both generations was very individual for IgG and IgM. The current data with full sibs therefore not supported a genetic basis for auto-antibody profiles. IgG but not IgM auto-antibody profiles of chicks correlated with maternal auto-antibody profiles. The results suggest that the auto-antibody repertoire of healthy chickens is largely stochastically initiated and may be affected by environmental challenges during ageing, but genetic mechanisms may underlie staining intensity of individual bound CLL fragments. The present results suggest that identification of fragments or profiles to be used at early age for genetic selection for health traits is not feasible yet. Secondly, the IgM profile of neonatal chickens seems non-organised independent of the maternal profile, but the neonatal IgG profile is much more related with the maternal profile. Consequences of these findings for disease susceptibility or breeding for optimal health are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  14. Japanese domesticated chickens have been derived from Shamo traditional fighting cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2004-10-01

    With the aim of elucidating the evolutionary origin of Japanese domesticated chickens, this study evolutionarily analyzed 85 chicken mtDNA sequences. Thirty-four various ornamental chickens, 42 fighting cocks (Shamo), and nine long-crowing chickens (Naganakidori) were included. Of the Shamo, 18 were sampled from Okinawa, while the remaining 24 were collected in other islands around Japan. In addition, three Southeast Asian Junglefowls were used as a reference to determine the common ancestor of Japanese domesticated chickens. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the 88 mtDNA sequences revealing that the Shamo group from Okinawa clearly diverged from the other Japanese domesticated chickens studied. This strongly suggests that all Japanese domesticated chickens, including the ornamental varieties and Naganakidori, derived from the ancestors of the Shamo in Okinawa. To create novel varieties of ornamental chickens, intensive artificial selection is imposed on ancestral Shamo populations, resulting in profoundly differentiated Japanese domesticated chickens.

  15. Bacterial toxin-inducible gene expression of cathelicidin-B1 in the chicken bursal lymphoma-derived cell line DT40: functional characterization of cathelicidin-B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Asuna; Tsubaki, Takashi; Sagae, Nozomi; Onda, Yumiko; Inada, Yuri; Mochizuki, Takuya; Okumura, Kazuo; Kikuyama, Sakae; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2014-09-01

    Chicken cathelicidin-B1 (chCATH-B1) is a major host defense peptide of the chicken bursa of Fabricius (BF). To investigate the mechanisms of chCATH-B1 gene expression in the BF, we focused on the DT40 cell line derived from chicken bursal lymphoma as a model for analysis. A cDNA encoding chCATH-B1 precursor was cloned from DT40 cells. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was identical with that of the BF chCATH-B1. A broth dilution analysis showed that the synthetic chCATH-B1 exhibited a significant defensive activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. A scanning microscopic analysis demonstrated that chCATH-B1 inhibited bacterial growth through membrane destruction with formation of blebs and spheroplasts. Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and electromobility shift assay results revealed that chCATH-B1 bound to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are the surface substances of the E. coli and S. aureus cell, respectively. A chemotactic assay results revealed that chCATH-B1 showed mouse-derived P-815 mastocytoma migrating activity dose-dependently but with a higher concentration, resulting in a loss of the activity. A semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that LPS stimulated chCATH-B1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and that the LPS-inducible chCATH-B1 gene expression was inhibited by the administration of dexamethasone. The chCATH-B1 mRNA levels in DT40 cells were also increased by the administration of bacterial LTA. The results indicate that bacterial toxins induce chCATH-B1 gene expression in the chicken BF and the peptide expressed in the organ would act against pathogenic microorganisms not only directly but also indirectly by attracting mast cells.

  16. Structural variation in the chicken genome identified by paired-end next-generation DNA sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okimoto Ron

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation within individual genomes ranges from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to kilobase, and even megabase, sized structural variants (SVs, such as deletions, insertions, inversions, and more complex rearrangements. Although much is known about the extent of SVs in humans and mice, species in which they exert significant effects on phenotypes, very little is known about the extent of SVs in the 2.5-times smaller and less repetitive genome of the chicken. Results We identified hundreds of shared and divergent SVs in four commercial chicken lines relative to the reference chicken genome. The majority of SVs were found in intronic and intergenic regions, and we also found SVs in the coding regions. To identify the SVs, we combined high-throughput short read paired-end sequencing of genomic reduced representation libraries (RRLs of pooled samples from 25 individuals and computational mapping of DNA sequences from a reference genome. Conclusion We provide a first glimpse of the high abundance of small structural genomic variations in the chicken. Extrapolating our results, we estimate that there are thousands of rearrangements in the chicken genome, the majority of which are located in non-coding regions. We observed that structural variation contributes to genetic differentiation among current domesticated chicken breeds and the Red Jungle Fowl. We expect that, because of their high abundance, SVs might explain phenotypic differences and play a role in the evolution of the chicken genome. Finally, our study exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective approach for identifying structural variation in sequenced genomes.

  17. Severe necrotic dermatitis in the combs of line 6-3 chickens is associated with Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens is characterized by bursal–thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves. Marek’s disease virus (MDV), the etiological agent of MD, is a highly cel...

  18. Development of Local Chicken Production Based on Local Feed Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of local chicken production based on local feed ingredient is in line with the vision of Indonesian goverment to fulfill meat and egg national requirement based on local resources. There are two big problem which become stumblingblock in developing local chicken production. The first problem is the difficulty to get day old chick of local chicken. This problem can be solved by integrating breeder institutions belong to goverment with research institution and with local chicken producer association. The second problem is the low performance of local chicken. To improve local chicken performance, it can be done by improving the breed, feed and management. Several research results show that good performance of local chicken were obtained by inclusion of local feed ingredients in the ration. Therefore, development of local chicken production based an local feed resources can be applied.

  19. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  20. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....

  1. Fatores de estresse associados à criação de linhagens de avós de frangos de corte Environmental influence on the performance of parental lines of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Neves da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a variabilidade entre linhagens de avós de frangos de corte criadas em diferentes ambientes, considerando a interação genótipo x ambiente. Foram conduzidos 12 experimentos (quatro em ambiente de criação de frangos de corte, quatro em ambiente de criação sob condições de estresse e quatro em ambiente de granja de pedigree utilizando-se 36.000 pintos (3.000 por experimento de seis linhagens de avós de frangos de corte (quatro de linha fêmea e duas de linha macho, criados até a idade de 42 dias para avaliação de variáveis zootécnicas e morfométricas. Foram utilizados índices de conforto térmico (índice de temperatura e umidade e entalpia para avaliação do microclima interno das instalações a que as aves foram expostas. Realizaram-se comparações de médias das características zootécnicas (peso vivo e rendimento de carcaça e morfométricas (empenamento das linhagens criadas nos diferentes ambientes. As respostas das linhagens para as características avaliadas variaram conforme o ambiente de criação utilizado. As linhagens da linha macho apresentaram maiores pesos vivos e rendimentos de carcaça eviscerada em comparação às da linha fêmea, que apresentaram melhor empenamento do dorso e da perna.The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and the variability between parental lines of broiler chicken reared in different environments, considering the genotype and environment interaction. Performance and morphometric traits of parental lines of commercial broiler chicken reared up to the age of 42 days in a complete-controlled environment of a breeding farm, in usual conditions of broiler chicken production system and in stress environment conditions were evaluated. Indexes of thermal comfort (temperature and humidity and enthalpy were used to evaluate the internal microclimate of the instalations, where the birds were reared. Comparison of averages of performance (body

  2. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  3. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  4. Divergence and long-distance overseas dispersals of island populations of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus (Scincidae: Squamata), in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the historical biogeography of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus, and related species (P. stimpsonii and P. elegans). Our specific aims were to reveal the origin, tim- ing, and route of the colonization to three volcanic islands in the northern Tokara Group of the northern Ryukyus: Kuchinoshima, Nakanoshima, and Suwanosejima. We conducted phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimation using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for P. marginatus collected from across its whole range (the northern and central Ryukyus), and for P. stimpsonii (from the Yaeyama Group of the southern Ryukyus) and P. elegans (from Taiwan). Our results suggest three major clades (A, B, and C). Clades A and B consist of P. marginatus, excluding the Kuchinoshima population, and Clade C consisted of the Kuchinoshima population, P. stimpsonii, and P. elegans. These clades are estimated to have diverged during the Late Miocene to the Late Pliocene. Among the three examined northern Tokara populations, the Kuchinoshima population was shown to be a sister group of P. stimpsonii. The two other populations from Nakanoshima and Suwanosejima Islands were closely related to P. marginatus from the northern part of the Okinawa Group and that from Kodakarajima Island in the southern Tokara Group, respectively. These populations are estimated to have diverged from their respective related spe cies in various ages of the Early to Late Pleistocene, suggesting that they colonized the islands by independent overseas dispersals of approximately 50-850 km via the Kuroshio Current. Taxonomic implications for P. marginatus are also discussed.

  5. Reproductive soundness is higher in chickens selected for low as compared with high antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H N; Siegel, P B; Pierson, F W; McGilliard, M L; Lewis, R M

    2012-08-01

    White Leghorn chickens were selected for 36 generations for high (HAS) or low (LAS) antibody response to SRBC 5 d after an intravenous challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in reproductive soundness resulting from that selection. Age and BW at onset of lay (first egg), along with weight of the first egg, were recorded on 45 hens from each line. Intensity of lay was measured as the number of ovulations within a 15-d period over 15 sequential intervals (total 225 d). Three cycles of fertility also were assessed, coinciding with early, middle, and late production stages. For fertility of males and females within a line to be independently evaluated, roosters and hens were mated by artificial insemination to an unrelated control line of White Plymouth Rocks. Twenty roosters from each antibody line were considered, as well as the 45 hens. Pooled semen from the control line was used for mating the hens from the antibody lines. Hens from the LAS line commenced lay at a younger age (11.67±3.53 d; Phens of the antibody lines during the first cycle (3.35±0.85 d; P=0.002) and between roosters during the first (3.58±1.06 d; P=0.02) and second (3.38±1.07 d; P=0.03) cycles, with chickens from the LAS line having the longer length of fertility in both sexes. A correlated response in reproductive soundness to divergent selection for antibody response was observed. This may in part be due to differences in resource allocations, with particular impact on duration of fertility.

  6. Endothelin B Receptors on Primary Chicken Müller Cells and the Human MIO-M1 Müller Cell Line Activate ERK Signaling via Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Konjusha, Dardan; Galindo-Romero, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the eye or retina triggers Müller cells, the major glia cell of the retina, to dedifferentiate and proliferate. In some species they attain retinal progenitor properties and have the capacity to generate new neurons. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling are key regulators of these processes in Müller cells. The extracellular signals that modulate and control these processes are not fully understood. In this work we studied whether endothelin receptor signaling can activate EGFR and ERK signaling in Müller cells. Endothelin expression is robustly upregulated at retinal injury and endothelin receptors have been shown to transactivate EGFRs in other cell types. We analyzed the endothelin signaling system in chicken retina and cultured primary chicken Müller cells as well as the human Müller cell line MIO-M1. The Müller cells were stimulated with receptor agonists and treated with specific blockers to key enzymes in the signaling pathway or with siRNAs. We focused on endothelin receptor mediated transactivation of EGFRs by using western blot analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that chicken Müller cells and the human Müller cell line MIO-M1 express endothelin receptor B. Stimulation by the endothelin receptor B agonist IRL1620 triggered phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and autophosphorylation of (Y1173) EGFR. The effects could be blocked by Src-kinase inhibitors (PP1, PP2), EGFR-inhibitor (AG1478), EGFR-siRNA and by inhibitors to extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (GM6001), consistent with a Src-kinase mediated endothelin receptor response that engage ligand-dependent and ligand-independent EGFR activation. Our data suggest a mechanism for how injury-induced endothelins, produced in the retina, may modulate the Müller cell responses by Src-mediated transactivation of EGFRs. The data give support to a view in which endothelins

  7. Endothelin B Receptors on Primary Chicken Müller Cells and the Human MIO-M1 Müller Cell Line Activate ERK Signaling via Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Konjusha, Dardan; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Hallböök, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the eye or retina triggers Müller cells, the major glia cell of the retina, to dedifferentiate and proliferate. In some species they attain retinal progenitor properties and have the capacity to generate new neurons. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling are key regulators of these processes in Müller cells. The extracellular signals that modulate and control these processes are not fully understood. In this work we studied whether endothelin receptor signaling can activate EGFR and ERK signaling in Müller cells. Endothelin expression is robustly upregulated at retinal injury and endothelin receptors have been shown to transactivate EGFRs in other cell types. We analyzed the endothelin signaling system in chicken retina and cultured primary chicken Müller cells as well as the human Müller cell line MIO-M1. The Müller cells were stimulated with receptor agonists and treated with specific blockers to key enzymes in the signaling pathway or with siRNAs. We focused on endothelin receptor mediated transactivation of EGFRs by using western blot analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that chicken Müller cells and the human Müller cell line MIO-M1 express endothelin receptor B. Stimulation by the endothelin receptor B agonist IRL1620 triggered phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and autophosphorylation of (Y1173) EGFR. The effects could be blocked by Src-kinase inhibitors (PP1, PP2), EGFR-inhibitor (AG1478), EGFR-siRNA and by inhibitors to extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (GM6001), consistent with a Src-kinase mediated endothelin receptor response that engage ligand-dependent and ligand-independent EGFR activation. Our data suggest a mechanism for how injury-induced endothelins, produced in the retina, may modulate the Müller cell responses by Src-mediated transactivation of EGFRs. The data give support to a view in which endothelins

  8. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  9. Ray pencils of general divergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available That a thin refracting element can have a dioptric power which is asymmetric immediately raises questions at the fundamentals of linear optics.  In optometry the important concept of vergence, in particular, depends on the concept of a pencil of rays which in turn depends on the existence of a focus.  But systems that contain refracting elements of asymmetric power may have no focus at all.  Thus the existence of thin systems with asym-metric power forces one to go back to basics and redevelop a linear optics from scratch that is sufficiently general to be able to accommodate suchsystems.  This paper offers an axiomatic approach to such a generalized linear optics.  The paper makes use of two axioms: (i a ray in a homogeneous medium is a segment of a straight line, and (ii at an interface between two homogeneous media a ray refracts according to Snell’s equation.  The familiar paraxial assumption of linear optics is also made.  From the axioms a pencil of rays at a transverse plane T in a homogeneous medium is defined formally (Definition 1 as an equivalence relation with no necessary association with a focus.  At T the reduced inclination of a ray in a pencil is an af-fine function of its transverse position.  If the pencilis centred the function is linear.  The multiplying factor M, called the divergency of the pencil at T, is a real  2 2×  matrix.  Equations are derived for the change of divergency across thin systems and homogeneous gaps.  Although divergency is un-defined at refracting surfaces and focal planes the pencil of rays is defined at every transverse plane ina system (Definition 2.  The eigenstructure gives aprincipal meridional representation of divergency;and divergency can be decomposed into four natural components.  Depending on its divergency a pencil in a homogeneous gap may have exactly one point focus, one line focus, two line foci or no foci.Equations are presented for the position of a focusand of its

  10. Modulation of glycogen and breast meat processing ability by nutrition in chickens: effect of crude protein level in 2 chicken genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlali, M; Gigaud, V; Métayer-Coustard, S; Sellier, N; Tesseraud, S; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduced abdominal fatness at slaughter regardless of genotype (P muscle glycogen (P muscle glycogen content observed in LL receiving the low-CP diet compared with the high-CP diet occurred concomitantly with greater phosphorylation amount for the α-catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase. This was consistent with the reduced muscle glycogen content observed in LL fed the low-CP diet because adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibits glycogen synthesis through its action on glycogen synthase. Our results demonstrated that nutrition is an effective means of modulating breast meat properties in the chicken. The results also highlighted the need to take into account interaction with the genetic background of the animal to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits in poultry.

  11. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine specif

  12. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Hulsegge, B.; Schokker, D.J.; Smits, M.A.; Fife, M.; Zoorob, R.; Endale, M.L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness.

  13. Establishment of transgenic lines to monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity in zebrafish reveals both evolutionarily conserved and divergent functions of the Hippo pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesfeld, Joel B; Link, Brian A

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the role of Hippo pathway signaling during vertebrate development transgenic zebrafish lines were generated and validated to dynamically monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity. Spatial and temporal analysis of Yap/Taz-Tead activity suggested the importance of Hippo signaling during cardiac precursor migration and other developmental processes. When the transcriptional co-activators, Yap and Taz were restricted from interacting with DNA-binding Tead transcription factors through expression of a dominant negative transgene, cardiac precursors failed to migrate completely to the midline resulting in strong cardia bifida. Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters also allowed us to investigate upstream and downstream factors known to regulate Hippo signaling output in Drosophila. While Crumbs mutations in Drosophila eye disc epithelia increase nuclear translocation and activity of Yorkie (the fly homolog of Yap/Taz), zebrafish crb2a mutants lacked nuclear Yap positive cells and down-regulated Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters in the eye epithelia, despite the loss of apical-basal cell polarity in those cells. However, as an example of evolutionary conservation, the Tondu-domain containing protein Vestigial-like 4b (Vgll4b) was found to down-regulate endogenous Yap/Taz-Tead activity in the retinal pigment epithelium, similar to Drosophila Tgi in imaginal discs. In conclusion, the Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters revealed the dynamics of Yap/Taz-Tead signaling and novel insights into Hippo pathway regulation for vertebrates. These studies highlight the utility of this transgenic tool-suite for ongoing analysis into the mechanisms of Hippo pathway regulation and the consequences of signaling output.

  14. Divergences in holographic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan; Ross, Simon F.

    2017-05-01

    We study the UV divergences in the action of the ‘Wheeler-de Witt patch’ in asymptotically AdS spacetimes, which has been conjectured to be dual to the computational complexity of the state of the dual field theory on a spatial slice of the boundary. We show that including a surface term in the action on the null boundaries which ensures invariance under coordinate transformations has the additional virtue of removing a stronger than expected divergence, making the leading divergence proportional to the proper volume of the boundary spatial slice. We compare the divergences in the action to divergences in the volume of a maximal spatial slice in the bulk, finding that the qualitative structure is the same, but subleading divergences have different relative coefficients in the two cases.

  15. A high recombination frequency within the chicken major histocompatibility (B) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepkema, B G; Tilanus, M G; Blankert, H J; Albers, G A; Grosfeld-Stulemeyer, M C; Hensen, E J

    1993-10-01

    Chickens of a commercial pure White Leghorn line were typed for B-F and B-G by serological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Amongst 287 typed animals of one particular line, three animals with recombinant haplotypes were identified. Compared to earlier reports this revealed a statistically significant (P recombination frequency in this chicken line.

  16. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  17. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  18. Type-dependent differential expression of neuropeptide Y in chicken hypothalamus (Gallus domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important orexigenic agents in central regulation of feeding behavior, body weight and energy homeostasis in domestic chickens. To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior and body weight, we detected mRNA levels of NPY in hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (IN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area(LHA) of these two types of chickens using one-step real time RT-PCR. The meat-type chicken had more food daily (about 1.7 folds) and greater body weights (about 1.5 folds) and brain weights than the layer-type chicken at the age of 14 d. In the meat-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels of the IN and PVN were significantly greater than those of the LHA, and were not significantly different between the IN and PVN. However, in the layer-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels were significantly greater in the IN than those in the LHA and PVN, and were not significantly different between the PVN and LHA. In all these hypothalamic regions,the layer-type of chicken had significantly higher NPY mRNA levels than the meat-type chicken did. These results suggest the expression of NPY in the hypothalamus has a type-dependent pattern in domestic chickens.

  19. Targeted gene knockout in chickens mediated by TALENs

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Hong Jo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2014-01-01

    Targeted gene knockout by editing specific loci in genome has revolutionized the field of functional genomics. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are representative next-generation platforms for customized genomic editing in transgenic animals, as well as cultured cells in vitro. In this study, in combination with chicken primordial germ cell line with germ-line transmission capacity, we generated the ovalbumin gene knockout chickens by TALEN-mediated gene targeting. Our...

  20. 二郎山山地鸡品系间孵化效果的比较分析%Comparing Analysis of Incubation Effects between Lines in Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小玲; 刘虹霞; 舒刚; 张姚; 刘益平; 王彦; 朱庆

    2012-01-01

    为指导二郎山山地鸡品种选育,本试验选用SD02、SD03品系第2世代54个家系、2个批次的种蛋进行孵化试验,比较批次间、品系间和品系内家系间的种蛋孵化效果差异.结果显示,SD03的各家系人孵蛋数(47枚)显著高于SD02(40枚)(P<0.05),SD02各家系的健雏率(99.5%)显著高于SD03 (98.4%) (P<0.05).SD03的死精率和死胎率低于SD02,受精率、受精蛋孵化率高于SD02,但差异不显著(P>0.05).第1批次的受精蛋孵化率和健雏率高于第2批次,死精率和死胎率低于第2批次(P<0.05).试验表明孵化效果SD03优于SD02,第1批次好于第2批次;SD02品系内家系3、30和48与SD03品系内家系13和49的各孵化指标远低于相应的品系均值,家系选种时应避免选用上述家系种鸡.%In order to provide the basic information for further breeding work in Erlang mountainous chickens, we hatched two hatches eggs from lines SD02 and SD03 and compared the incubation effects between hatches, lines and families. The results showed that average egg number of line SD03 was more than line SD02, however the percentage of healthy chick of line SD02 was higher than line SD03(P<0. 05). Though the percentage of dead fertile egg and dead embryo of line SD03 was lower than line SD02, and the percentages of fertility and hatchability of fertile egg in SD03 was higher than in SD02, these differences were not significant (P>0. 05). The percentage of healthy chick and hatchability of fertile egg in the first hatch was higher than in the second hatch while the percentage of dead fertile egg and dead embryo in the first hatch was lower than in the second hatch. Generally, incubation effects of SD03 were better than SD02 and its effect in the first hatch was better than the second hatch. Incubation effects of family 3, 30, and 48 in line SD02 and family 13 and 49 in line SD03 were far poorer than average values of their corresponding lines. So, females from these families

  1. Development, characterization, and optimization of a new suspension chicken-induced pluripotent stem cell line for the production of Newcastle disease vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, substrates for production of vaccines have been embryonated eggs or adherent cell culture. The daunting challenge of scaling up these technologies in the face of an outbreak has been a limitation for industrial applicability. Suspension cell lines are better suited in many ways to e...

  2. Regulator of complement activation (RCA) locus in chicken: identification of chicken RCA gene cluster and functional RCA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Shida, Kyoko; Goitsuka, Ryo; Kimura, Yuko; Katoh, Jun; Ohba, Shinya; Tamaki, Yuichiroh; Hattori, Takashi; Yamada, Nozomi; Inoue, Norimitsu; Matsumoto, Misako; Mizuno, Shigeki; Seya, Tsukasa

    2005-08-01

    A 150-kb DNA fragment, which contains the gene of the chicken complement regulatory protein CREM (formerly named Cremp), was isolated from a microchromosome by screening bacterial artificial chromosome library. Within 100 kb of the cloned region, three complete genes encoding short consensus repeats (SCRs, motifs with tandemly arranged 60 aa) were identified by exon-trap method and 3'- or 5'-RACE. A chicken orthologue of the human gene 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2, which exists in close proximity to the regulator of complement activation genes in humans and mice, was located near this chicken SCR gene cluster. Moreover, additional genes encoding SCR proteins appeared to be present in this region. Three distinct transcripts were detected in RNA samples from a variety of chicken organs and cell lines. Two novel genes named complement regulatory secretory protein of chicken (CRES) and complement regulatory GPI-anchored protein of chicken (CREG) besides CREM were identified by cloning corresponding cDNA. Based on the predicted primary structures and properties of the expressed molecules, CRES is a secretory protein, whereas CREG is a GPI-anchored membrane protein. CREG and CREM were protected host cells from chicken complement-mediated cytolysis. Likewise, a membrane-bound form of CRES, which was artificially generated, also protected host cells from chicken complement. Taken together, the chicken possesses an regulator of complement activation locus similar to those of the mammals, and the gene products function as complement regulators.

  3. Quantum skew divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: koenraad.audenaert@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  4. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  5. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  6. Energy utilization and growth performance of chickens fed novel wheat inbred lines selected for different pentosan levels with and without xylanase supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Pellny, T; Amerah, A M; Wickramasinghe, M; Ulker, M; Rakszegi, M; Bedo, Z; Shewry, P R; Lovegrove, A

    2015-02-01

    Different F5 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Yumai 34×Ukrainka were grown in replicated trials on a single site in one harvest year at Rothamsted Research. A total of 10 samples from those lines were harvested and used in a broiler experiment. Twenty nutritionally complete meal-form diets that had 630 g/kg of wheat with different amounts of pentosan, with and without exogenous xylanase supplementation, were used to compare broiler growth performance and determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for N retention (AMEn). We examined the relationship between the nutritive value of the wheat samples and their chemical compositions and results of quality tests. The amounts of total and water soluble pentosans in wheat samples ranged from 36.7 to 48.0 g/kg DM, and 6.7 to 11.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The mean crude oil and protein contents of the wheat samples were 10.5 and 143.9 g/kg DM, respectively. The average determined value for the kinematic viscosity was 0.0018 mPa.s, and 2.1 mPa.s for the dynamic viscosity. The AMEn of the wheat-based diets had a maximum range of 0.47 MJ/kg DM within the ten wheat samples that were tested. Xylanase supplementation improved (Ppentosan content. There was a negative relationship between the total pentosan content in the wheat and broiler growth performance. An increase by 10 g of pentosan per kg of wheat reduced (Ppentosan content. Supplementary xylanase improved energy and nutrient availability of all wheat samples that was independent of differences in pentosan content.

  7. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  8. Divergence on the Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Kupferman, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Black hole entropy has been shown by t'Hooft to diverge at the horizon, whereas entanglement entropy in general does not. We show that because the region near the horizon is a thermal state, entropy is linear to energy, and energy at a barrier is inversely proportional to barrier slope, and diverges at an infinitely sharp barrier as a result of position/momentum uncertainty. We show that t'Hooft's divergence at the black hole is also an example of momentum/position uncertainty, as seen by the fact that the "brick wall" which corrects it in fact smooths the sharp boundary into a more gradual slope. This removes a major obstacle to identification of black hole entropy with entanglement entropy.

  9. Elucidation of the nucleotide sequence of chicken calcitonin mRNA: direct evidence for the expression of a lower vertebrate calcitonin-like gene in man and rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasmoles, F.; Jullienne, A; Day, F; Minvielle, S.; Milhaud, G; Moukhtar, M S

    1985-01-01

    Calcitonin shows considerable divergence in amino acid sequence between lower vertebrates and higher vertebrates. Immunoreactive salmon-like calcitonin molecules are present in the thyroid of man and rat. Elucidation of the almost complete sequence of chicken calcitonin mRNA revealed that the calcitonin precursor in chickens had the same organisation as in higher vertebrates (man and rat) but showed considerable differences in amino acid sequence. cDNA probes specific for chicken calcitonin m...

  10. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  11. Heritable retroviral transgenes are highly expressed in chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Briskin, M J; Hsu, R Y; Boggs, T; Schultz, J. A.; Rishell, W; Bosselman, R A

    1991-01-01

    This report describes expression of heritable reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) vector ME111 in 20 independent lines of transgenic chickens. The results are strikingly different from studies of Moloney virus in transgenic mice, where restricted expression of inherited proviruses has led to their use primarily as insertional mutagens rather than general agents for gene transfer. In contrast, the REV ME111 provirus is actively transcribed in a variety of tissues from transgenic chickens, is exp...

  12. Decoherence and infrared divergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kupsch

    2002-08-01

    The dynamics of a particle which is linearly coupled to a boson field is investigated. The boson field induces superselection rules for the momentum of the particle, if the field is infrared divergent. Thereby the Hamiltonian of the total system remains bounded from below.

  13. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  15. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  16. Genomic organization, annotation, and ligand-receptor inferences of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptor genes based on comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in host defense, organogenesis, hematopoiesis, and neuronal communication. Forty-two chemokines and 19 cognate receptors have been found in the human genome. Prior to this report, only 11 chicken chemokines and 7 receptors had been reported. The objectives of this study were to systematically identify chicken chemokines and their cognate receptor genes in the chicken genome and to annotate these genes and ligand-receptor binding by a comparative genomics approach. Results Twenty-three chemokine and 14 chemokine receptor genes were identified in the chicken genome. All of the chicken chemokines contained a conserved CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC motif, whereas all the chemokine receptors had seven conserved transmembrane helices, four extracellular domains with a conserved cysteine, and a conserved DRYLAIV sequence in the second intracellular domain. The number of coding exons in these genes and the syntenies are highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken although the amino acid sequence homologies are generally low between mammalian and chicken chemokines. Chicken genes were named with the systematic nomenclature used in humans and mice based on phylogeny, synteny, and sequence homology. Conclusion The independent nomenclature of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptors suggests that the chicken may have ligand-receptor pairings similar to mammals. All identified chicken chemokines and their cognate receptors were identified in the chicken genome except CCR9, whose ligand was not identified in this study. The organization of these genes suggests that there were a substantial number of these genes present before divergence between aves and mammals and more gene duplications of CC, CXC, CCR, and CXCR subfamilies in mammals than in aves after the divergence.

  17. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  18. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  19. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  20. Assessing Chicken Meat Freshness through Measurement of Radio-Frequency Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Change in freshness of chicken meat was assessed through measurement of the dielectric properties with a vector network analyzer and an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at 23 oC. Chicken meat samples were stored in a refrigerator for 8 days at 4 oC. Changes in dielectric cons...

  1. Localization to chicken chromosome 5 of a novel locus determining salmonellosis resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariana, P.; Barrow, P.A.; Cheng, H.H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Negrini, R.; Bumstead, N.

    2001-01-01

    Clear genetic differences in the susceptibility of chickens to visceral infection by Salmonella have been observed and it has been possible to identify resistant and susceptible lines of inbred chickens. We report here the results of experiments to map directly the gene(s) controlling this trait in

  2. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens has been shown to be widespread in the broiler chicken hatchery, grow-out, and processing operations. In a previous study, ribotypes of certain strains of C. perfringens isolated from processed chicken carcasses were shown to match ribotypes isolated from paper pad lining tra...

  3. Localization to chicken chromosome 5 of a novel locus determining salmonellosis resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariana, P.; Barrow, P.A.; Cheng, H.H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Negrini, R.; Bumstead, N.

    2001-01-01

    Clear genetic differences in the susceptibility of chickens to visceral infection by Salmonella have been observed and it has been possible to identify resistant and susceptible lines of inbred chickens. We report here the results of experiments to map directly the gene(s) controlling this trait in

  4. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  5. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  6. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison and analysis of Wuding and avian chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H Q; Jiang, Z Q; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Xu, Z Q; Liu, L X; Gu, D H; Rong, H; Huang, Y; Chen, X B; Jois, M; Te Pas, M F W; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-10-05

    Chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of mature muscle fibers. Avian broilers have been genetically selected based on their high growth velocity and large muscle mass. The Wuding chicken is a famous local chicken in Yunnan Province that undergoes non-selection breeding and is slow growing. In this study, we aimed to explore differences in the proliferation and differentiation properties of satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. Using immunofluorescence, hematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we analyzed the in vitro characteristics of proliferating and differentiating satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. The growth curve of satellite cells was S-shaped, and cells from Wuding chickens entered the logarithmic phase and plateau phase 1 day later than those from Avian chicken. The results also showed that the two skeletal muscle satellite cell lines were positive for Pax7, MyoD and IGF-1. The expression of Pax7 followed a downward trend, whereas that of MyoD and IGF-1 first increased and subsequently decreased in cells isolated from the two chickens. These data indicated that the skeletal muscle satellite cells of Avian chicken grow and differentiate faster than did those of Wuding chickens. We suggest that the methods of breeding selection applied to these breeds regulate the characteristics of skeletal muscle satellite cells to influence muscle growth.

  8. Selection for immunoresponsiveness in chickens : effects of the major histocompatibility complex and resistance to Marek's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinard, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Improving genetic disease resistance may be an attractive preventive measure in the control of infectious diseases in livestock production. Chickens were selected for high and low antibody response to sheep red blood cells for ten generations. Divergent selection was successfully achieved

  9. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  10. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  11. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-08-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler's architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler's walking ability and propose that these factors

  12. Acoustic propagation in partially choked converging-diverging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study acoustic propagation in converging-diverging hard walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The influences of the liner admittance, boundary layer thickness, spinning mode number, and mean Mach number are considered. The numerical results indicate that the diverging portion of the duct can have a strong reflective effect for partially choked flows.

  13. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  14. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  15. Immunomodulating Lactobacilli in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Koenen (Marjorie)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of a chicken starts with the beak, followed by the esophagus and crop, proventriculus (glandular stomach), gizzard (muscular stomach), duodenum, ileum, a pair of blind elongated caeca, colon and ending in the cloaca. The GI-tract

  16. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  17. BMP15外显子1 SNPs检测及其与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状的关联性分析%Detection of SNPs of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Gene Exon1 and Its Association with Egg Production Traits in Female Line of Shaobo Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春苗; 黎寿丰; 赵振华; 黄华云; 薛龙岗

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在阐明骨形态发生蛋自15(Bone morphogenetic protein l5,BMP15)基因多态性与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状之间的关系,为鸡繁殖性状的标记辅助选择提供科学依据.采用PCR-RFLP技术检测261只邵伯鸡母系BMP15的基因多态性,用最小二乘法分析该基因多态性与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状的关系.发现BMP15基因外显子1序列中存在3个多态位点C397T、A474G和C594T,其中C397T位点C→T的突变使亮氨酸变为苯丙氨酸,经RFLP检测,3个多态位点均发现3种基因型.x2检验表明,邵伯鸡母系在这3个位点均处于Hardy-Weinberg平衡.用最小二乘法分析这3个位点的多态性与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状之间的关系,结果发现,C397T位点TT基因型个体的开产日龄显著早于CT型个体(P<0.05),TT型个体的300日龄产蛋数显著高于CT型个体(P<0.05) ;A474G位点AA、AG和GG型个体间的各性状差异均不显著(P>0.05) ;C594T位点CC型个体的开产日龄显著早于CT与TT型个体.3个位点的合并基因型TTAATT对开产日龄、开产体质量、开产蛋质量、300日龄平均蛋质量、300日龄产蛋数均有显著影响(P<0.05).对于邵伯鸡母系而言,TTAATT是最有利基因型,本研究结果初步表明,BMP 15基因合并基因型TTAATT可以作为邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状潜在的DNA分子标记.%The objective of the present study were to elucidate the relationship between polymorphisms of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) gene and egg production traits in female line of Shaobo chicken and to provide a scientific basis for marker-assisted selection for reproductive traits of chicken. Polymorphisms of exonl of BMP15 gene were detected in 261 female line of Shaobo chicken by PCR-RFLP. The relationship between polymorphisms of BMP15 gene and egg production traits in female line of Shaobo chicken was analyzed by least squares linear model. Three polymorphic sites C397T, A474G and C594T were found in exonl of BMP15, and C

  18. Identification of candidate genes and mutations in QTL regions for chicken growth using bioinformatic analysis of NGS and SNP-chip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAhsan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of chromosomal regions harboring genetic polymorphisms that regulate complex traits is usually followed by a search for the causative mutations underlying the observed effects. This is often a challenging task even after fine mapping, as millions of base pairs including many genes will typically need to be investigated. Thus to trace the causative mutation(s there is a great need for efficient bioinformatic strategies. Here, we searched for genes and mutations regulating growth in the Virginia chicken lines – an experimental population comprising two lines that have been divergently selected for body weight at 56 days for more than 50 generations. Several QTL regions have been mapped in an F2 intercross between the lines, and the regions have subsequently been replicated and fine mapped using an Advanced Intercross Line. We have further analyzed the QTL regions where the largest genetic divergence between the High-Weight selected (HWS and Low-Weight selected (LWS lines was observed. Such regions, covering about 37% of the actual QTL regions, were identified by comparing the allele frequencies of the HWS and LWS lines using both individual 60K SNP chip genotyping of birds and analysis of read proportions from genome resequencing of DNA pools. Based on a combination of criteria including significance of the QTL, allele frequency difference of identified mutations between the selected lines, gene information on relevance for growth, and the predicted functional effects of identified mutations we propose here a subset of candidate mutations of highest priority for further evaluation in functional studies. The candidate mutations were identified within the GCG, IGFBP2, GRB14, CRIM1, FGF16, VEGFR-2, ALG11, EDN1, SNX6 and BIRC7 genes. We believe that the proposed method of combining different types of genomic information increases the probability that the genes underlying the observed QTL effects are represented among the candidate mutations

  19. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines.

  20. Characterization of the expression profile of calpain-3 (CAPN3) gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeng-Rong; Zhu, Qing; Yao, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Du, Hua-Rui; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Calpain-3 is a skeletal muscle-specific protease and participates in the regulation of myogenesis. In this study, we quantified the expression of calpain-3 (CAPN3) mRNA in a Chinese local chicken breed (Sichuan Mountainous Black-boned chicken [MB]), to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern. Meanwhile, we compared the CAPN3 mRNA expression pattern in MB chicken at 10 weeks with a commercial meat type chicken line (S01) of the same age to identify the unique expression pattern under different genetic background. A real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for an accurate measurement of its expression in various tissues from chickens at different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Expression of the CAPN3 mRNA was detected in the selected tissues, regardless of age. The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had a significantly higher expression than the other tissues from the same individual (P chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN3 mRNA in detected tissues than the MB chicken at 10 weeks. The present expression data of chicken CAPN3 gene may provide some information to shed light on the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern during chicken development.

  1. Serological Screening for MHC (B)-Polymorphism in Indigenous Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a series of studies to characterize innate and specific immune responses of indigenous chicken lines, birds from Bolivia and India were screened serologically for MHC class IV (BG) polymorphism by direct haemagglutination using haplotype-specific antisera (B2, B4, B12, B13, B14, B15, B19,

  2. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence.

  3. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  4. NGS analysis identified differentially expressed coding and microRNA genes in ALV-like spontaneous tumors potentially contributing to tumorigenicity in susceptible chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is documented that some experimental and commercial lines of chickens develop spontaneous ALV-like tumors. It is also documented that MDV-2 or ALV-E or both escalate the incidence of such tumors. In one ADOL chicken line, known as rapid feathering susceptible (RFS), the observed tumor incidence w...

  5. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  6. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  7. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  8. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  9. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between two chicken populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooijmans Richard PMA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several genetic linkage maps of the chicken genome have been published, the resolution of these maps is limited and does not allow the precise identification of recombination hotspots. The availability of more than 3.2 million SNPs in the chicken genome and the recent advances in high throughput genotyping techniques enabled us to increase marker density for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the chicken genome. This high-resolution linkage map allowed us to study recombination hotspots across the genome between two chicken populations: a purebred broiler line and a broiler × broiler cross. In total, 1,619 animals from the two different broiler populations were genotyped with 17,790 SNPs. Results The resulting linkage map comprises 13,340 SNPs. Although 360 polymorphic SNPs that had not been assigned to a known chromosome on chicken genome build WASHUC2 were included in this study, no new linkage groups were found. The resulting linkage map is composed of 31 linkage groups, with a total length of 3,054 cM for the sex-average map of the combined population. The sex-average linkage map of the purebred broiler line is 686 cM smaller than the linkage map of the broiler × broiler cross. Conclusions In this study, we present a linkage map of the chicken genome at a substantially higher resolution than previously published linkage maps. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between the two mapping populations were observed in several chromosomes near the telomere of the p arm; the sex-specific analysis revealed that these regional differences were mainly caused by female-specific recombination hotspots in the broiler × broiler cross.

  10. Genotypic characterization of microsatellite markers in broiler and layer selected chicken lines and their reciprocal F1s Caracterização genotípica de linhagens selecionadas de galinha de corte e postura e seus F1s recíprocos usando marcadores microssatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chicken experimental populations have been developed worldwide for QTL mapping, but their genotypic characterizations are not usually discussed. The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically two F1 reciprocal generations and their parental lines based on the estimation of genotypic parameters. These F1 generations originated two Brazilian reference populations to map QTL. The evaluated parameters were polymorphic information content (PIC, observed and expected heterozygosities and number of alleles at microsatellite loci on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4. All parental and F1 chickens from both populations were used totalling of 83 chickens: 14 from a broiler (TT and 14 from a layer line (CC and 55 from their reciprocal F1 generations. The chicken lines and the resource populations were developed at the National Research Center for Swine and Poultry (EMBRAPA, Brazil. Genotypes from all animals were obtained from 34 loci on chromosomes 1 (13, 3 (12 and 4 (9. Based on the sampling, we found that the two lines exhibited a total of 163 different alleles, of which 31 (31.1% and 44 (33.0% alleles were unique in CC and TT lines, respectively, with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.03 to 0.82. The observed heterozygosity was higher (0.68-0.71 in both F1 generations than in their founder lines due to linkage disequilibrium. Finally, the two chicken lines used as founders created two F1 reciprocal generations with high levels of PIC (0.50-0.52 and observed heterozygosity, as well as satisfactory number of alleles per locus (4.06-4.32. Our results will allow to compare and select families with highly informative microsatellite markers for QTL studies, reducing genotyping costs.Populações experimentais de frangos tem sido desenvolvidas pelo mundo para mapeamento de QTLs, mas a caracterização genotípica delas não é normalmente apresentada. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar genotipicamente duas gerações F1 recíprocas e suas linhagens

  11. Genetic analysis of local Vietnamese chickens provides evidence of gene flow from wild to domestic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi C Vu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens. This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï. Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60 was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9. No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively

  12. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  13. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S.; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A.; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Stephen; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data.RESULTS: An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integr...

  14. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  15. Numerical Optimization of converging diverging miniature cavitating nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Kanchan; Bhingole, B.; Raut, J.; Pandit, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The work focuses on the numerical optimization of converging diverging cavitating nozzles through nozzle dimensions and wall shape. The objective is to develop design rules for the geometry of cavitating nozzles for desired end-use. Two main aspects of nozzle design which affects the cavitation have been studied i.e. end dimensions of the geometry (i.e. angle and/or curvature of the inlet, outlet and the throat and the lengths of the converging and diverging sections) and wall curvatures(concave or convex). Angle of convergence at the inlet was found to control the cavity growth whereas angle of divergence of the exit controls the collapse of cavity. CFD simulations were carried out for the straight line converging and diverging sections by varying converging and diverging angles to study its effect on the collapse pressure generated by the cavity. Optimized geometry configurations were obtained on the basis of maximum Cavitational Efficacy Ratio (CER)i.e. cavity collapse pressure generated for a given permanent pressure drop across the system. With increasing capabilities in machining and fabrication, it is possible to exploit the effect of wall curvature to create nozzles with further increase in the CER. Effect of wall curvature has been studied for the straight, concave and convex shapes. Curvature has been varied and effect of concave and convex wall curvatures vis-à-vis straight walls studied for fixed converging and diverging angles.It is concluded that concave converging-diverging nozzles with converging angle of 20° and diverging angle of 5° with the radius of curvature 0.03 m and 0.1530 m respectively gives maximum CER. Preliminary experiments using optimized geometry are indicating similar trends and are currently being carried out. Refinements of the CFD technique using two phase flow simulations are planned.

  16. The relationship between gene isoform multiplicity, number of exons and protein divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Morata

    Full Text Available At present we know that phenotypic differences between organisms arise from a variety of sources, like protein sequence divergence, regulatory sequence divergence, alternative splicing, etc. However, we do not have yet a complete view of how these sources are related. Here we address this problem, studying the relationship between protein divergence and the ability of genes to express multiple isoforms. We used three genome-wide datasets of human-mouse orthologs to study the relationship between isoform multiplicity co-occurrence between orthologs (the fact that two orthologs have more than one isoform and protein divergence. In all cases our results showed that there was a monotonic dependence between these two properties. We could explain this relationship in terms of a more fundamental one, between exon number of the largest isoform and protein divergence. We found that this last relationship was present, although with variations, in other species (chimpanzee, cow, rat, chicken, zebrafish and fruit fly. In summary, we have identified a relationship between protein divergence and isoform multiplicity co-occurrence and explained its origin in terms of a simple gene-level property. Finally, we discuss the biological implications of these findings for our understanding of inter-species phenotypic differences.

  17. A genomic analysis of chicken cytokines and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Pete; Poh, Tuang Yeow; Rothwell, Lisa; Avery, Stuart; Balu, Sucharitha; Pathania, Uday S; Hughes, Simon; Goodchild, Marianne; Morrell, Shaun; Watson, Michael; Bumstead, Nat; Kaufman, Jim; Young, John R

    2005-08-01

    As most mechanisms of adaptive immunity evolved during the divergence of vertebrates, the immune systems of extant vertebrates represent different successful variations on the themes initiated in their earliest common ancestors. The genes involved in elaborating these mechanisms have been subject to exceptional selective pressures in an arms race with highly adaptable pathogens, resulting in highly divergent sequences of orthologous genes and the gain and loss of members of gene families as different species find different solutions to the challenge of infection. Consequently, it has been difficult to transfer to the chicken detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the mammalian immune system and, thus, to enhance the already significant contribution of chickens toward understanding the evolution of immunity. The availability of the chicken genome sequence provides the opportunity to resolve outstanding questions concerning which molecular components of the immune system are shared between mammals and birds and which represent their unique evolutionary solutions. We have integrated genome data with existing knowledge to make a new comparative census of members of cytokine and chemokine gene families, distinguishing the core set of molecules likely to be common to all higher vertebrates from those particular to these 300 million-year-old lineages. Some differences can be explained by the different architectures of the mammalian and avian immune systems. Chickens lack lymph nodes and also the genes for the lymphotoxins and lymphotoxin receptors. The lack of functional eosinophils correlates with the absence of the eotaxin genes and our previously reported observation that interleukin- 5 (IL-5) is a pseudogene. To summarize, in the chicken genome, we can identify the genes for 23 ILs, 8 type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-gamma, 1 colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), 2 of the 3 known transforming growth factors (TGFs), 24 chemokines (1 XCL, 14 CCL, 8 CXCL, and 1 CX

  18. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  19. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  20. Genome-wide effects of long-term divergent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Johansson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic mechanisms leading to phenotypic differentiation, it is important to identify genomic regions under selection. We scanned the genome of two chicken lines from a single trait selection experiment, where 50 generations of selection have resulted in a 9-fold difference in body weight. Analyses of nearly 60,000 SNP markers showed that the effects of selection on the genome are dramatic. The lines were fixed for alternative alleles in more than 50 regions as a result of selection. Another 10 regions displayed strong evidence for ongoing differentiation during the last 10 generations. Many more regions across the genome showed large differences in allele frequency between the lines, indicating that the phenotypic evolution in the lines in 50 generations is the result of an exploitation of standing genetic variation at 100s of loci across the genome.

  1. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  2. Impact of the genetic background on the composition of the chicken plasma MiRNome in response to a stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Endale Ahanda

    Full Text Available Circulating extra-cellular microRNAs (miRNAs have emerged as promising minimally invasive markers in human medicine. We evaluated miRNAs isolated from total plasma as biomarker candidates of a response to an abiotic stress (feed deprivation in a livestock species. Two chicken lines selected for high (R+ and low (R- residual feed intake were chosen as an experimental model because of their extreme divergence in feed intake and energy metabolism. Adult R+ and R- cocks were sampled after 16 hours of feed deprivation and again four hours after re-feeding. More than 292 million sequence reads were generated by small RNA-seq of total plasma RNA. A total of 649 mature miRNAs were identified; after quality filtering, 148 miRNAs were retained for further analyses. We identified 23 and 19 differentially abundant miRNAs between feeding conditions and between lines respectively, with only two miRNAs identified in both comparisons. We validated a panel of six differentially abundant miRNAs by RT-qPCR on a larger number of plasma samples and checked their response to feed deprivation in liver. Finally, we evaluated the conservation and tissue distribution of differentially abundant miRNAs in plasma across a variety of red jungle fowl tissues. We show that the chicken plasma miRNome reacts promptly to the alteration of the animal physiological condition driven by a feed deprivation stress. The plasma content of stress-responsive miRNAs is strongly influenced by the genetic background, with differences reflecting the phenotypic divergence acquired through long-term selection, as evidenced by the profiles of conserved miRNAs with a regulatory role in energy metabolism (gga-miR-204, gga-miR-let-7f-5p and gga-miR-122-5p. These results reinforce the emerging view in human medicine that even small genetic differences can have a considerable impact on the resolution of biomarker studies, and provide support for the emerging interest in miRNAs as potential novel and

  3. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  4. Turkey Astrovirus Type 1 (TAstV-1) and Chicken Astrovirus (CAstV) Detection in Brazilian Chicken Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Luis Luna; Beserra, Laila A R; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gregori, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Astrovirus is a common cause of enteritis in humans and domestic animals. Here we report the detection of turkey astrovirus type 1 (TAstV-1) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in avian farms. Sixty fecal sample pools (five or six birds of the same flock), from chickens without apparent clinical symptoms of enteric disease from farms located in six Brazilian states, were screened by an ORF1b PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing of amplified products and phylogenetic analysis. Six samples tested positive for TAstV-1 and two for CAstV. One positive sample of each detected virus (TAstV-1 and CAstV) had the complete ORF2 sequenced. Data for the ORF2 sequence indicate that Brazilian TAstV-1 was divergent from TAstV-1 (United States), previously described infecting turkeys, and Brazilian CAstV clustered together with the U.K. group, subgroup B-II, associated with enteritis and growth retardation in chicks. This study provides updated information about CAstV and the first report of detection of TAstV-1 in Brazilian chickens, supporting the diagnostic of enteritis and epidemiologic surveillance in poultry health.

  5. Influence of heat stress, sex and genetic groups on reference genes stability in muscle tissue of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedraz de Oliveira, Haniel; Pinto Garcia, Antonio Amandio; Gonzaga Gromboni, Juliana Gracielle; Vasconcelos Farias Filho, Ronaldo; Souza do Nascimento, Carlos; Arias Wenceslau, Amauri

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR is an important technique for assessing gene expression. However, a proper normalization of reference genes prior to expression analyses of target genes is necessary. The best normalizer is that gene which remains stable in all samples from different treatments. The aim of this study was to identify stable reference genes for normalization of target genes in muscle tissue from three genetically divergent chickens groups (Peloco, Cobb 500® and Caneluda) under environmental (heat stress and comfort) and sex influence. Expressions of ten reference genes were tested for stability in breast muscular tissue (Pectoralis major muscle). Samples were obtained from 36 males and females of two backyard breeds (Caneluda and Peloco) and one commercial line (Cobb 500®) under two environments. The heat stress and comfort temperature were 39 and 23°C, respectively. Animals were housed in the Animal Science Department at Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. We analyzed the expression data by four statistical tools (SLqPCR, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and Comparative CT). According to these tools, genes stability varied according to sex, genetic group and environment, however, some genes remained stable in all analyzes. There was no difference between the most stable genes for sex effect, being MRPS27 more stable for both males and females. In general, MRPS27 was the most stable gene. Within the three genetic groups, the most stable genes were RPL5, HMBS and EEF1 to Cobb 500®, Peloco and Caneluda, respectively. Within the environment, the most stable gene under comfort and heat stress conditions was HMBS and MRPS27, respectively. BestKeeper and Comparative Ct were less correlated (28%) and SLqPCR and NormFinder were the most correlated (98%). MRPS27, RPL5 and MRPS30 genes were considered stable according the overall ranking and can be used as normalizer of relative expression of target genes in muscle tissue of chickens under heat stress.

  6. "Divergent" Ramanujan-type supercongruences

    CERN Document Server

    Guillera, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    "Divergent" Ramanujan-type series for $1/\\pi$ and $1/\\pi^2$ provide us with new nice examples of supercongruences of the same kind as those related to the convergent cases. In this paper we manage to prove three of the supercongruences by means of the Wilf--Zeilberger algorithmic technique.

  7. Major histocompatibility complex-linked immune response of young chickens vaccinated with an attenuated live infectious bursal disease virus vaccine followed by an infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the MHC on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine response in chickens was investigated in three different chicken lines containing four different MHC haplotypes. Two MHC haplotypes were present in all three lines with one haplotype (1319) shared between the lines. Line I...... further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red jungle Fowl. Line 131 further contains the B131 haplotype isolated from a meat-type chicken, Finally, Line 21 further contains the international B21 haplotype. The chickens were vaccinated with live attenuated commercial IBDV vaccine at 3 wk of age...... (mean 5,243), B21 (5,570), and B131 (5,333) at 8 d postinfection, How-ever, a virus-neutralizing antibody test did not reflect this result. Nevertheless, the MHC haplotype-associated protective immunity was further supported by the bursa of Fabricius (bursa) recovery from the disease, as measured...

  8. Downregulation of chicken interleukin-17 receptor A during Eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-09-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection.

  9. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  10. Composição proximal e qualidade da carne de frangos das linhagens Paraíso Pedrês e Pescoço Pelado Physical-chemical characteristics of meat in chickens of the Paraíso Pedrês and Label Rouge lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bitencourt Faria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas da carne de frangos de duas linhagens (Paraíso Pedrês e Pescoço Pelado criados em sistema semiextensivo, machos e fêmeas, abatidos aos 65, 75, 85 e 95 dias. As características analisadas nos cortes peito e coxa foram umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo, cinzas, cor (CIEL*a*b*, pH final e perda de peso por cocção. As fêmeas da linhagem Paraíso Pedrês apresentaram no peito mais gordura (0,86% em comparação aos machos das linhagens Paraíso Pedrês (0,63% e Pescoço Pelado (0,57%. A coxa das aves da linhagem Pescoço Pelado aos 85 dias apresentou maior umidade e menor porcentagem de gordura em comparação à linhagem Paraíso Pedrês, e aos 95 dias, as fêmeas Paraíso Pedrês apresentaram mais gordura que os machos. A cor amarela (b* no peito foi mais intensa nas aves Pescoço Pelado (6,24 que nas aves Paraíso Pedrês (5,41. Também foi mais intensa nas fêmeas (6,47 que nos machos (5,18. A cor da coxa nas aves Pescoço Pelado foi mais amarelada aos 95 dias (6,87 que aos 85 dias (5,90. Aves da linhagem Pescoço Pelado podem fornecer cortes mais magros, no caso dos machos, e com coloração mais amarelada, no caso das fêmeas, que aves da linhagem Pescoço Pelado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of chicken meat from two lines (Paraíso Pedrês or Label Rouge and Pescoço Pelado, raised in a semi-extensive system, and slaughtered at 65, 75, 85 and 95 days of age. The variables assessed in the breast and leg of experimental animals were moisture, protein, fat, ashes, objective colour (CIEL*a*b* system, final pH and cooking loss. The breast of Paraíso Pedrês females showed a higher fat content (0.86% than in males of the Paraíso Pedrês (0.63% or Pescoço Pelado (0.57% lines. In the leg, Pescoço Pelado chicken slaughtered at 85 days showed higher moisture and lower fat than the Paraíso Pedrês line, while Para

  11. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... Conclusion: Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) harbor Pathogenic ... diseases from domestic Chickens for example avian ... emerged as the major cause of death in HIV/AIDS .... The mechanism by which the birds' excreta get.

  12. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in. Four Areas of ... were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken ..... Canis lupus familiaris in Mueang district ...

  13. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  14. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  15. Differential expression of L-FABP and L-BABP between fat and lean chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Shi, H; Liu, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Q; Li, H

    2013-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and liver bile acid-binding protein (L-BABP), in the liver intra-cytoplasm of chicken, are members of the fatty acid-binding protein subfamily. This study was designed to analyze and compare L-FABP and L-BABP expression levels between fat and lean lines in chicken liver tissue, and to determine the relationship between their expression and lipid metabolism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression in liver tissue between the lean and fat lines. Real-time PCR showed that L-FABP mRNA expression in fat male chickens was higher than that in lean male chickens at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 weeks of age (P L-FABP protein expression in fat male chickens was higher than that in lean male chickens at 3, 5, 6, and 7 weeks of age (P L-FABP and L-BABP affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in their expression level, and the possible mechanism is that a high expression level of L-FABP and L-BABP leads to a high lipogenesis rate and, ultimately, to lipid deposition.

  16. Relationship Between Combined Genotypes of UCP Gene and Growth Traits in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leng Li; Li Hui

    2012-01-01

    The uncoupling protein (UCP) is a member of the mitochondrial membrane transporter family, which plays an important role in energy metabolism. In the present study, the UCP gene was considered as a candidate gene for chicken growth traits, and the association of UCP gene SNPs with growth rate was investigated in the eighth generation of NEAUHLF broiler lines. Two SNPs were found in chicken UCP gene, and the association analysis results showed that both the individual and combination of chicken UCPgene SNPs were significantly associated with body weight of 7 weeks (BW7) and carcass weight (CW) (P〈0.05), and the combination had much significant effects than the single SNP. This research suggested that the UCP gene could be a candidate gene or linked to a major gene which affected growth traits in chicken

  17. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Immunohistochemistry of Harder's Glands of Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; GAO Guisheng; SHI Qiumei; LI Min

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of Chinese herbal medicine, the immunocells of Harder's glands were observed.The healthy Hy-Line Brown chickens of 12-day-old were divided into three groups randomly. The chickens in group 1 and 2 drank the water with 0.5% and 1% Chinese herbal medicine immunopromoter every day. The chickens in group 3 as control drank pure water. The Harder's glands of the chickens from 0.5% group, 1% group and control group at 24, 36 and 48 d after drinking medicine respectively were made into histological section. And then the histological sections were observed histologically. The results showed that Chinese herbal medicine could increase the quantity of the immunocells in glandular organs conspicuously. Immunopotentiator of Chinese herbal medicine could promote the amount and growth of secreted immunoglobuline and elevate the immune level of the organism, and the effect of 1% group was higher than that of 0.5% group.

  18. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  19. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-03-16

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  20. Divergences in spinfoam quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Smerlak, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we study the flat model, the main buidling block for the spinfoam approach to quantum gravity, with an emphasis on its divergences. Besides a personal introduction to the problem of quantum gravity, the manuscript consists in two part. In the first one, we establish an exact powercounting formula for the bubble divergences of the flat model, using tools from discrete gauge theory and twisted cohomology. In the second one, we address the issue of spinfoam continuum limit, both from the lattice field theory and the group field theory perspectives. In particular, we put forward a new proof of the Borel summability of the Boulatov-Freidel-Louapre model, with an improved control over the large-spin scaling behaviour. We conclude with an outlook of the renormalization program in spinfoam quantum gravity.

  1. Mercury retention, a trait of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; Bearse, G.E.; Hammermeister, K.E.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments were performed in order to gain further information on the mercury retention of two strains of chickens, the reciprocal crosses of these lines and sex differences in retention. White Leghorns were selected for resistance and susceptibility to the avian leukosis complex. Approximately 6 males and 6 females from each of the strains and reciprocal crosses were injected in the breast muscle with phenylmercury acetate at the rate of 3.0 mg. mercury per kg. body weight. The kidneys were excised and analyzed for total mercury. Results indicate that the first generation cross chicks resembled the parent that retained mercury poorly more closely than they did the one retaining large amounts of mercury. There was no significant differences between sexes in mercury retention. 4 references, 1 table.

  2. Unphysical divergences in response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Shane M.; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp

    2016-10-01

    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  3. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  4. Boiling flow through diverging microchannel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Duryodhan; S G Singh; Amit Agrawal

    2013-12-01

    An experimental study of flow boiling through diverging microchannel has been carried out in this work, with the aim of understanding boiling in nonuniform cross-section microchannel. Diverging microchannel of 4° of divergence angle and 146 m hydraulic diameter (calculated at mid-length) has been employed for the present study with deionised water as working fluid. Effect of mass flux (118–1182 kg/m2-s) and heat flux (1.6–19.2 W/cm2) on single and two-phase pressure drop and average heat transfer coefficient has been studied. Concurrently, flow visualization is carried out to document the various flow regimes and to correlate the pressure drop and average heat transfer coefficient to the underlying flow regime. Four flow regimes have been identified from the measurements: bubbly, slug, slug–annular and periodic dry-out/rewetting. Variation of pressure drop with heat flux shows one maxima which corresponds to transition from bubbly to slug flow. It is shown that significantly large heat transfer coefficient (up to 107 kW/m2-K) can be attained for such systems, for small pressure drop penalty and with good flow stability.

  5. Ultraviolet and Infrared Divergences in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2015-01-01

    Superstring theory is known to be free from ultraviolet divergences but suffers from the usual infrared divergences that occur in quantum field theories. After briefly reviewing the origin of ultraviolet finiteness of superstring theory we describe recent progress towards the understanding of infrared divergences in superstring theory.

  6. Expression pattern of genes of RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in different-breed chicken response to Marek's disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  7. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  8. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  9. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  10. Clostridial necrotic enteritis in chicken associated with growth rate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.

  11. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  12. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  13. Niche Divergence versus Neutral Processes: Combined Environmental and Genetic Analyses Identify Contrasting Patterns of Differentiation in Recently Diverged Pine Species

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier; Alejandra Ortíz-Medrano; Daniel Piñero

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental ...

  14. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  15. The consequence of low mannose-binding lectin plasma concentration in relation to susceptibility to Salmonella Infantis in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie Louise; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Norup, Liselotte R.;

    2015-01-01

    to Salmonella, but knowledge in relation to chicken MBL and Salmonella is lacking. In order to study this relation day-old chickens from two selected lines L10H and L10L, differing in MBL serum concentration, were either orally infected with S. Infantis (S.123443) or kept as non-infected controls....... The differences between healthy L10H and L10L chicken sublines were more profound than differences caused by the S. Infantis infection. The average daily body weight was higher for L10H than for L10L, regardless of infection, indicating beneficial effects of MBL selection on growth. Salmonella was detected...

  16. CRISPR/Cas9 Targets Chicken Embryonic Somatic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo and generates Phenotypic Abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah; Dongcheng Zhang; Newgreen, Donald F

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects de...

  17. Log-Determinant Divergences Revisited: Alpha-Beta and Gamma Log-Det Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cichocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews and extends a family of log-determinant (log-det divergences for symmetric positive definite (SPD matrices and discusses their fundamental properties. We show how to use parameterized Alpha-Beta (AB and Gamma log-det divergences to generate many well-known divergences; in particular, we consider the Stein’s loss, the S-divergence, also called Jensen-Bregman LogDet (JBLD divergence, Logdet Zero (Bhattacharyya divergence, Affine Invariant Riemannian Metric (AIRM, and other divergences. Moreover, we establish links and correspondences between log-det divergences and visualise them on an alpha-beta plane for various sets of parameters. We use this unifying framework to interpret and extend existing similarity measures for semidefinite covariance matrices in finite-dimensional Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS. This paper also shows how the Alpha-Beta family of log-det divergences relates to the divergences of multivariate and multilinear normal distributions. Closed form formulas are derived for Gamma divergences of two multivariate Gaussian densities; the special cases of the Kullback-Leibler, Bhattacharyya, Rényi, and Cauchy-Schwartz divergences are discussed. Symmetrized versions of log-det divergences are also considered and briefly reviewed. Finally, a class of divergences is extended to multiway divergences for separable covariance (or precision matrices.

  18. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  19. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  20. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  1. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  2. Development of a cDNA array for chicken gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt David

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of microarray technology to functional genomic analysis in the chicken has been limited by the lack of arrays containing large numbers of genes. Results We have produced cDNA arrays using chicken EST collections generated by BBSRC, University of Delaware and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. From a total of 363,838 chicken ESTs representing 24 different adult or embryonic tissues, a set of 11,447 non-redundant ESTs were selected and added to an existing collection of clones (4,162 from immune tissues and a chicken bursal cell line (DT40. Quality control analysis indicates there are 13,007 useable features on the array, including 160 control spots. The array provides broad coverage of mRNAs expressed in many tissues; in addition, clones with expression unique to various tissues can be detected. Conclusions A chicken multi-tissue cDNA microarray with 13,007 features is now available to academic researchers from genomics@fhcrc.org. Sequence information for all features on the array is in GenBank, and clones can be readily obtained. Targeted users include researchers in comparative and developmental biology, immunology, vaccine and agricultural technology. These arrays will be an important resource for the entire research community using the chicken as a model.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F; Michalek, Ryan D; Lee, William R

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  4. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  5. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-05

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  6. Enrichment of brain-related genes on the mammalian X chromosome is ancient and predates the divergence of synapsid and sauropsid lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemkemer, Claus; Kohn, Matthias; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Fundele, Reinald H; Hameister, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an enrichment of reproduction- and brain-related genes on the human X chromosome. In the present study, we investigated the evolutionary history that underlies this functional specialization. To do so, we analyzed the orthologous building blocks of the mammalian X chromosome in the chicken genome. We used Affymetrix chicken genome microarrays to determine tissue-selective gene expression in several tissues of the chicken, including testis and brain. Subsequently, chromosomal distribution of genes with tissue-selective expression was determined. These analyzes provided several new findings. Firstly, they showed that chicken chromosomes orthologous to the mammalian X chromosome exhibited an increased concentration of genes expressed selectively in brain. More specifically, the highest concentration of brain-selectively expressed genes was found on chicken chromosome GGA12, which shows orthology to the X chromosomal regions with the highest enrichment of non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (MRX) genes. Secondly, and in contrast to the first finding, no enrichment of testis-selective genes could be detected on these chicken chromosomes. These findings indicate that the accumulation of brain-related genes on the prospective mammalian X chromosome antedates the divergence of sauropsid and synapsid lineages 315 million years ago, whereas the accumulation of testis-related genes on the mammalian X chromosome is more recent and due to adaptational changes.

  7. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  8. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  9. 矮小型品系(S3系)种蛋孵化减量规律研究%Study on Weight Loss of S3 Line Chicken Eggs during Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎寿丰; 赵振华; 黄华云; 张静

    2011-01-01

    In order to discover weight loss of S3 line eggs during incubation, 21 000 eggs were involved.The results showed that average rate of egg weight loss was 13.56%, and die embryos of weight loss rate is higher than living embryos eggs (P<0.05).The rate of egg weight loss was positively related with egg weight (P<0.01).Egg weight was positively correlated with embryos in egg weight that in different incubation stage (P<0.05).The bigger the egg weight was, the bigger the birth weight.Early selection classification is helpful to improve the chicks hatching.%以矮小型品系(S3系)21000枚种蛋为材料对种蛋孵化期减量情况进行系统测定.结果显示,种蛋的平均减量率为13.56%,死胚蛋的减量率高于活胚蛋(P<0.05);种蛋减量率与蛋质量太小有关,各个阶段的减量和减量率呈极显著正相关(P<0.01);人孵蛋质量与不同阶段胚蛋质量呈强正相关(P<0.01),且与雏鸡的出雏质量呈显著正相关(P<0.05).早期种蛋分级孵化,有利于提高雏鸡整齐度.

  10. The development and characterization of a 60K SNP chip for chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection. To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and populations, the success rate of the SNP genotyping assay, the distribution of the SNP across the genome and the minor allele frequencies (MAF of the SNPs used are extremely important. Results We describe the design of a moderate density (60k Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting of SNPs known to be segregating at high to medium minor allele frequencies (MAF in the two major types of commercial chicken (broilers and layers. This was achieved by the identification of 352,303 SNPs with moderate to high MAF in 2 broilers and 2 layer lines using Illumina sequencing on reduced representation libraries. To further increase the utility of the chip, we also identified SNPs on sequences currently not covered by the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-2.1. This was achieved by 454 sequencing of the chicken genome at a depth of 12x and the identification of SNPs on 454-derived contigs not covered by the current chicken genome assembly. In total we added 790 SNPs that mapped to 454-derived contigs as well as 421 SNPs with a position on Chr_random of the current assembly. The SNP chip contains 57,636 SNPs of which 54,293 could be genotyped and were shown to be segregating in chicken populations. Our SNP identification procedure appeared to be highly reliable and the overall validation rate of the SNPs on the chip was 94%. We were able to map 328 SNPs derived from the 454 sequence contigs on the chicken genome. The majority of these SNPs map to chromosomes that are already represented in genome build Gallus_gallus-2.1.0. Twenty-eight SNPs were used to construct two new linkage groups most likely representing two micro-chromosomes not covered by the

  11. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  12. Ramanujan summation of divergent series

    CERN Document Server

    Candelpergher, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to give a detailed exposition of the summation method that Ramanujan uses in Chapter VI of his second Notebook. This method, presented by Ramanujan as an application of the Euler-MacLaurin formula, is here extended using a difference equation in a space of analytic functions. This provides simple proofs of theorems on the summation of some divergent series. Several examples and applications are given. For numerical evaluation, a formula in terms of convergent series is provided by the use of Newton interpolation. The relation with other summation processes such as those of Borel and Euler is also studied. Finally, in the last chapter, a purely algebraic theory is developed that unifies all these summation processes. This monograph is aimed at graduate students and researchers who have a basic knowledge of analytic function theory.

  13. Dissipative Divergence of Resonant Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g. 2:1, 3:2, 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  14. DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro, E-mail: kbatygin@gps.caltech.edu [Departement Cassiopee, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  15. Divergence of optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P

    2015-01-01

    We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analysed by using the width ($w(z)$) of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane ($z=0$) as defined in \\textit{Optics Letters \\textbf{39,} 4364-4367 (2014)}. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance, and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at zero propagation distance. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication.

  16. Divergence operator and related inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.

  17. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L., E-mail: adriano@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R., E-mail: arvieira@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte@teor.fis.uc.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Baêta Scarpelli, A.P., E-mail: scarpelli.apbs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Técnico-Científico, Departamento de Polícia Federal, Rua Hugo D’Antola, 95 - Lapa, São Paulo (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos, E-mail: marcos.sampaio@durham.ac.uk [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  18. Regulatory Divergence among Beta-Keratin Genes during Bird Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Maloyjo Joyraj; Yu, Chun-Ping; Lin, Jinn-Jy; Ng, Chen Siang; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-11-01

    Feathers, which are mainly composed of α- and β-keratins, are highly diversified, largely owing to duplication and diversification of β-keratin genes during bird evolution. However, little is known about the regulatory changes that contributed to the expressional diversification of β-keratin genes. To address this issue, we studied transcriptomes from five different parts of chicken contour and flight feathers. From these transcriptomes we inferred β-keratin enriched co-expression modules of genes and predicted transcription factors (TFs) of β-keratin genes. In total, we predicted 262 TF-target gene relationships in which 56 TFs regulate 91 β-keratin genes; we validated 14 of them by in vitro tests. A dual criterion of TF enrichment and "TF-target gene" expression correlation identified 26 TFs as the major regulators of β-keratin genes. According to our predictions, the ancestral scale and claw β-keratin genes have common and unique regulators, whereas most feather β-keratin genes show chromosome-wise regulation, distinct from scale and claw β-keratin genes. Thus, after expansion from the β-keratin gene on Chr7 to other chromosomes, which still shares a TF with scale and claw β-keratin genes, most feather β-keratin genes have recruited distinct or chromosome-specific regulators. Moreover, our data showed correlated gene expression profiles, positive or negative, between predicted TFs and their target genes over the five studied feather regions. Therefore, regulatory divergences among feather β-keratin genes have contributed to structural differences among different parts of feathers. Our study sheds light on how feather β-keratin genes have diverged in regulation from scale and claw β-keratin genes and among themselves. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Regulatory Differences in Natal Down Development between Altricial Zebra Finch and Precocial Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Kuan; Ng, Chen Siang; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Cheng, Po-Liang; Wu, Ping; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Di-Rong; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-08-01

    Birds can be classified into altricial and precocial. The hatchlings of altricial birds are almost naked, whereas those of precocial birds are covered with natal down. This regulatory divergence is thought to reflect environmental adaptation, but the molecular basis of the divergence is unclear. To address this issue, we chose the altricial zebra finch and the precocial chicken as the model animals. We noted that zebra finch hatchlings show natal down growth suppressed anterior dorsal (AD) skin but partially down-covered posterior dorsal (PD) skin. Comparing the transcriptomes of AD and PD skins, we found that the feather growth promoter SHH (sonic hedgehog) was expressed higher in PD skin than in AD skin. Moreover, the data suggested that the FGF (fibroblast growth factor)/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in natal down growth suppression and that FGF16 is a candidate upstream signaling suppressor. Ectopic expression of FGF16 on chicken leg skin showed downregulation of SHH, upregulation of the feather growth suppressor FGF10, and suppression of feather bud elongation, similar to the phenotype found in zebra finch embryonic AD skin. Therefore, we propose that FGF16-related signals suppress natal down elongation and cause the naked AD skin in zebra finch. Our study provides insights into the regulatory divergence in natal down formation between precocial and altricial birds.

  20. Temperature Dependence of the Radio-Frequency Dielectric Properties of Chicken Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperature ranging from -20 oC to +25 oC. At a given frequency, the temperature dependence reveals a sharp increase of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor a...

  1. Functional identification of an exon 1 substitution in the myostatin gene and its expression in breast and leg muscle of the Bian chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G X; Zhang, T; Wei, Y; Ding, F X; Zhang, L; Wang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to verify the functional effects of the c.234G>A substitution in the myostatin (MSTN) gene and ascertain the mechanism by which the variant affects growth traits in the Bian chicken. 2. The c.234G>A substitution was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis in the 7th-generation Bian chickens and three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were identified. Results showed that the substitution was significantly associated with all studied growth traits, except first-d-weight, in female Bian chickens. 3. Based on these results, the substitution was used in gene-assisted selection for growth traits and thus fast-growth (AA genotype) and slow-growth (GG genotype) lines were successfully established. Significant differences in growth traits were detected between the fast-growth and slow-growth lines from 6 to 16 weeks of age. Furthermore, all slaughter traits, except leg muscle rate, were significantly different between the fast-growth and slow-growth lines. 4. Expression analysis showed that the relative expression level of MSTN in chickens with GG and AG genotypes were significantly higher than that in chickens with an AA genotype, both in breast and leg muscle. Chickens in the slow-growth line had significantly higher relative expression level of MSTN compared to chickens in the fast-growth line, both in breast and leg muscle. 5. The results suggest that the c.234G>A substitution in the myostatin (MSTN) gene negatively regulates the expression of MSTN in the Bian chicken and that it may be used in marker-assisted selection to accelerate the chicken breeding process.

  2. A divergence-cleaning scheme for cosmological SPMHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Stasyszyn, F A; Beck, A M

    2012-01-01

    In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the magnetic field is evolved by the induction equation and coupled to the gas dynamics by the Lorentz force. We perform numerical smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (Spmhd) simulations and study the influence of a numerical magnetic divergence. For instabilities arising from divergence B related errors, we find the hyperbolic/parabolic cleaning scheme suggested by Dedner et al. 2002 to give good results and prevent numerical artifacts from growing. Additionally, we demonstrate that certain current Spmhd implementations of magnetic field regularizations give rise to unphysical instabilities in long-time simulations. We also find this effect when employing Euler potentials (divergenceless by definition), which are not able to follow the winding-up process of magnetic field lines properly. Furthermore, we present cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation at extremely high resolution including the evolution of magnetic fields. We show synthetic Faraday rotation maps ...

  3. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  4. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  5. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Göbel, Thomas W; Viertlboeck, Birgit C

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50-70%.

  6. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Turowski

    Full Text Available Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1 and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50-70%.

  7. Evolution of the chicken Toll-like receptor gene family: A story of gene gain and gene loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paton Ian R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs perform a vital role in disease resistance through their recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Recent advances in genomics allow comparison of TLR genes within and between many species. This study takes advantage of the recently sequenced chicken genome to determine the complete chicken TLR repertoire and place it in context of vertebrate genomic evolution. Results The chicken TLR repertoire consists of ten genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that six of these genes have orthologs in mammals and fish, while one is only shared by fish and three appear to be unique to birds. Furthermore the phylogeny shows that TLR1-like genes arose independently in fish, birds and mammals from an ancestral gene also shared by TLR6 and TLR10. All other TLRs were already present prior to the divergence of major vertebrate lineages 550 Mya (million years ago and have since been lost in certain lineages. Phylogenetic analysis shows the absence of TLRs 8 and 9 in chicken to be the result of gene loss. The notable exception to the tendency of gene loss in TLR evolution is found in chicken TLRs 1 and 2, each of which underwent gene duplication about 147 and 65 Mya, respectively. Conclusion Comparative phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate TLR genes provides insight into their patterns and processes of gene evolution, with examples of both gene gain and gene loss. In addition, these comparisons clarify the nomenclature of TLR genes in vertebrates.

  8. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  9. Inequalities among New Non-Symmetric Divergence and Chi-Square Divergence Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Naresh Saraswat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information divergence measures and their bounds are well known in the literature of Information Theory. In this research paper, we shall consider a new non-symmetric information divergence measure. Upper and lower bounds of new non-symmetric divergence measure are also considered.

  10. Inequalities among New Non-Symmetric Divergence and Chi-Square Divergence Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Naresh Saraswat

    2015-01-01

    Information divergence measures and their bounds are well known in the literature of Information Theory. In this research paper, we shall consider a new non-symmetric information divergence measure. Upper and lower bounds of new non-symmetric divergence measure are also considered.

  11. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  12. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  13. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  14. Chicken leukemia inhibitory factor maintains chicken embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Tategaki, Airo; Yamashita, Yusuke; Hisamatsu, Hikaru; Ogawa, Mari; Noguchi, Takashi; Aosasa, Masayoshi; Kawashima, Tsuyoshi; Akita, Sachiko; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Mitsui, Naoko; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2004-06-04

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained in an undifferentiated state in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family. In other mammals, this is not possible with LIF alone. Chicken ES-like cells (blastodermal cells) have only been cultured with mouse LIF because chicken LIF was not available. However the culture system is imperfect and chicken ES-like cells equivalent to mouse ES cells were not observed. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA-encoding chicken LIF using mRNA subtraction and RACE methodology. The chicken LIF cDNA encodes a protein with approximately 40% sequence identity to mouse LIF. It has 211 amino acids including a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 24 residues. Chicken blastodermal cells were cultured in the presence of bacterially expressed chicken LIF or mouse LIF. The expression of alkaline phosphatase and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 and the activation of STAT3 were examined, all of which are indices of the undifferentiated state. Exposure in the blastodermal cells to recombinant chicken LIF but not to mouse LIF maintained the expression of these various markers. After 9 days of incubation, the blastodermal cells formed cystic embryoid bodies in the presence of mouse LIF but not in the presence of recombinant chicken LIF. We conclude that chicken LIF is able to maintain chicken ES cell cultures in the undifferentiated state.

  15. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  16. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chicken embryo fibroblasts from chickens resistant and susceptible to Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the innate immune defense mechanisms against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the role of TLR in non-MHC genetic resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the chicken is yet to be elucidated. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from MD susceptible and resistant lines were infected either with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or treated with polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of dsRNA, and the expression of TLR and pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied at 8 and 36 h posttreatment by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Findings of the present study reveal that MDV infection and polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment significantly elevated the mRNA expression of TLR3, IL6, and IL8 in both susceptible and resistant lines. Furthermore, basal expression levels in uninfected CEF for TLR3, TLR7, and IL8 genes were significantly higher in resistant chickens compared with those of susceptible chickens. Our results suggest that TLR3 together with pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a significant role in genetic resistance to MD.

  17. Divergent thermopower without a quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W

    2014-08-22

    A general principle of modern statistical physics is that divergences of either thermodynamic or transport properties are only possible if the correlation length diverges. We show by explicit calculation that the thermopower in the quantum XY model d = 1 + 1 and the Kitaev model in d = 2 + 1 can (i) diverge even when the correlation length is finite and (ii) remain finite even when the correlation length diverges, thereby providing a counterexample to the standard paradigm. Two conditions are necessary: (i) the sign of the charge carriers and that of the group velocity must be uncorrelated and (ii) the current operator defined formally as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to the gauge field does not describe a set of excitations that have a particle interpretation, as in strongly correlated electron matter. Recent experimental and theoretical findings on the divergent thermopower of a 2D electron gas are discussed in this context.

  18. Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence

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    Shinto Eguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.

  19. Collinearity, convergence and cancelling infrared divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Lavelle, M; Lavelle, Martin; Mullan, David Mc

    2006-01-01

    The Lee-Nauenberg theorem is a fundamental quantum mechanical result which provides the standard theoretical response to the problem of collinear and infrared divergences. Its argument, that the divergences due to massless charged particles can be removed by summing over degenerate states, has been successfully applied to systems with final state degeneracies such as LEP processes. If there are massless particles in both the initial and final states, as will be the case at the LHC, the theorem requires the incorporation of disconnected diagrams which produce connected interference effects at the level of the cross-section. However, this aspect of the theory has never been fully tested in the calculation of a cross-section. We show through explicit examples that in such cases the theorem introduces a divergent series of diagrams and hence fails to cancel the infrared divergences. It is also demonstrated that the widespread practice of treating soft infrared divergences by the Bloch-Nordsieck method and handlin...

  20. Convergences and divergences in mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdel Omran's 1971 theory of "Epidemiologic Transition" was the first attempt to account for the extraordinary advances in health care made in industrialized countries since the 18th century. In the framework of the Demographic Transition, it implied a general convergence of life expectancies toward a limit imposed by the new epidemiological features of modern societies. However, important failures, occurred in the past decades (mainly the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa, seem to have stopped that process of convergence. In fact such failures do not really contradict the theory. The latter is much more ruined by the unexpected dramatic improvement in the field of cardiovascular disease experienced since the seventies, which results in a new step of a more general process. On the basis of the broader concept of "Health Transition" initiated by Julio Frenk et al., the present paper tries to rethink the full process in term of divergence/convergence sequences inferred by successive major changes in health technologies and strategies.

  1. Complete association between a retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase gene and the recessive white mutation in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulmouden Ahmad

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chickens, three mutant alleles have been reported at the C locus, including the albino mutation, and the recessive white mutation, which is characterized by white plumage and pigmented eyes. The albino mutation was found to be a 6 bp deletion in the tyrosinase (TYR gene. The present work describes an approach to identify the structural rearrangement in the TYR gene associated with the recessive white mutation. Results Molecular analysis of the chicken TYR gene has revealed a major structural difference (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP in the genomic DNA of the recessive white chicken. A major size difference of 7.7 kb was found in intron 4 of the TYR gene by long-range PCR. Molecular cloning and sequencing results showed the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence of the Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV family. Several aberrant transcripts of the tyrosinase gene were found in 10 week old recessive white chickens but not in the homozygous wild type colored chicken. We established a rapid genotyping diagnostic test based on the discovery of this retroviral insertion. It shows that all homozygous carriers of this insertion had a white plumage in various chicken strains. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish heterozygous carriers from homozygous normal chickens in a segregating line. Conclusion In this study, we conclude that the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence in intron 4 of the tyrosinase gene is diagnostic of the recessive white mutation in chickens. This insertion causes aberrant transcripts lacking exon 5, and we propose that this insertion is the causal mutation for the recessive white allele in the chicken.

  2. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  3. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  4. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  5. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  6. The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3), transforming growth factor β4 (TGFβ4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGFβ3-BsrI, TGFβ4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens.

  7. Delineating hierarchy of selenotranscriptome expression and their response to selenium status in chicken central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-Qing; Cao, Chang-Yu; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Lin, Jia; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jing-Long

    2017-04-01

    Selenium (Se) incorporated in selenoproteins as selenocysteine and supports various important cellular and organismal functions. We recently reported that chicken brain exhibited high priority for Se supply and retention under conditions of dietary Se deficiency and supernutrition Li et al. (2012) . However, the selenotranscriptome expressions and their response to Se status in chicken central nervous system (CNS) are unclear. To better understand the relationship of Se homeostasis and selenoproteins expression in chicken CNS, 1day-old HyLine White chickens were fed a low Se diet (Se-L, 0.028mg/g) supplemented with 4 levels of dietary Se (0 to 5.0mgSe/kg) as Na2SeO3 for 8weeks. Then chickens were dissected for getting the CNS, which included cerebral cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, bulbus cinereus and marrow. The expressions of selenoproteome which have 24 selenoproteins were detected by the quantitative real-time PCR array. The concept of a selenoprotein hierarchy was developed and the hierarchy of different regions in chicken CNS was existence, especially cerebral cortex and bulbus cinereus. The expression of selenoproteins has a hierarch while changing Se content, and Selenoprotein T (Selt), Selenoprotein K (Selk), Selenoprotein W (Selw), Selenoprotein U (Selu), Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), Selenoprotein P (Sepp1), Selenoprotein O (Selo), Selenoprotein 15 (Sel15), Selenoprotein N (Seln), Glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2) and Selenoprotein P 2 (Sepp2) take more necessary function in the chicken CNS. Therefore, we hypothesize that hierarchy of regulated the transcriptions of selenoproteome makes an important role of CNS Se metabolism and transport in birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  9. Whey protein solution coating for fat-uptake reduction in deep-fried chicken breast strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragich, Ann M; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of whey protein, as an additional coating, in combination with basic, well-described predust, batter, and breading ingredients, for fat-uptake reduction in fried chicken. Chicken breasts were cut into strips (1 x 5 x 10 cm) and coated with wheat flour (WF) as a predust, dipped in batter, coated with WF as a breading, then dipped in 10% denatured whey protein isolate (DWPI) aqueous solution (wet basis). A WF-batter-WF treatment with no DWPI solution dip was included as a control. Coated chicken strips were deep-fried at 160 degrees C for 5 min. A Soxhlet-type extraction was performed to determine the fat content of the meat fraction of fried samples, the coating fraction of fried samples, raw chicken, and raw coating ingredients. The WF-batter-WF-10% DWPI solution had significantly lower fat uptake than the WF-batter-WF control, by 30.67% (dry basis). This article describes applied research involving fat reduction in coated deep-fried chicken. The methods used in this article were intended to achieve maximized fat reduction while maintaining a simple procedure applicable to actual food processing lines.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm=4.622.

  11. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled from a colony of wild quail origin. Ninety-eight markers were polymorphic with an average of 3.7 alleles per locus and a mean heterozygosity of 0.423. To determine the utility of these markers for comparative genome mapping in Phasianidae, cross-species amplification of all the markers was tested with chicken and guinea fowl DNA. Amplification products similar in size to the orthologous loci in quail were observed in 42 loci in chicken and 20 loci in guinea fowl. Of the cross-reactive markers, 57.1% in chicken and 55.0% in guinea fowl were polymorphic when tested in 20 birds from their respective populations. Five of 15 markers that could cross-amplify Japanese quail, chicken, and guinea fowl DNA were polymorphic in all three species. Amplification of orthologous loci was confirmed by sequencing 10 loci each from chicken and guinea fowl and comparing with them the corresponding quail sequence. The microsatellite markers reported would serve as a useful resource base for genetic mapping in quail and comparative mapping in Phasianidae.

  12. Functional characterization and evolution of PTH/PTHrP receptors: insights from the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Pedro LC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parathyroid hormone (PTH-family consists of a group of structurally related factors that regulate calcium and bone homeostasis and are also involved in development of organs such as the heart, mammary gland and immune system. They interact with specific members of family 2 B1 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, which have been characterised in teleosts and mammals. Two PTH/PTHrP receptors, PTH1R and PTH2R exist in mammals and in teleost fish a further receptor PTH3R has also been identified. Recently in chicken, PTH-family members involved in calcium transport were characterized and specific PTHRs are suggested to exist although they have not yet been isolated or functionally characterized. The aim of this study is to further explore the evolution and function of the vertebrate PTH/PTHrP system through the isolation, phylogenetic analysis and functional characterization of the chicken receptors. Results Two PTHRs were isolated in chicken and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the chicken receptors correspond to PTH1R and PTH3R, which emerged prior to the teleost/tetrapod divergence since they are present in cartilaginous fish. The vertebrate PTH2R receptor and its ligand TIP39 have been lost from bird genomes. Chicken PTH1R and PTH3R have a divergent and widespread tissue expression and are also evident in very early embryonic stages of development. Receptor stimulation studies using HEK293 cells stably expressing the chicken PTH1R and PTH3R and monitoring cAMP production revealed they are activated by chicken 1–34 N-terminal PTH-family peptides in a dose dependent manner. PTH-L and PTHrP were the most effective peptides in activating PTH1R (EC50 = 7.7 nM and EC50 = 22.7 nM, respectively. In contrast, PTH-L (100 nM produced a small cAMP accumulation on activation of PTH3R but PTHrP and PTH (EC50 = 2.5 nM and EC50 = 22.1 nM, respectively readily activated the receptor. PTHr

  13. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  14. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  15. Expression Pattern of Genes of RLR-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in Different-Breed Chicken Response to Marek’s Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qing Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that the chicken’s resistance to disease was affected by chicken’s genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  16. Simultaneous analysis 26 mineral element contents from highly consumed cultured chicken overexposed to arsenic trioxide by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Sun, Bonan; Li, Siwen; Sun, Xiao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Guangshun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the impacts of dietary arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on 26 mineral element contents in the liver and kidney of chicken. A total of 100 male Hy-line cocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 chickens in each group), including an arsenic-treated group (basic diet supplemented with As2O3 at 30 mg/kg) and a control group (basal diet). The feeding experiment lasted for 90 days and the experimental animals were given free access to feed and water. We determined 26 mineral elements in the liver and kidney by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that nine element levels (Al, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Ba, and Pb) were significantly decreased (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where three element levels (Ni, As, and Hg) increased significantly (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where four element levels (Mo, As, Cd, and Hg) increased significantly (P chicken, and the effects vary from organ to organ. The aim of this study is to provide references for further study of heavy metal poisoning by detecting the contents of minerals induced by arsenic in chicken.

  17. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch...

  18. Niche divergence versus neutral processes: combined environmental and genetic analyses identify contrasting patterns of differentiation in recently diverged pine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species boundaries and relationships of the species complex of Pinus flexilis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus strobiformis. METHODS: Mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences were combined with previously obtained microsatellite data and contrasted with environmental information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species complex. Ecological niche models were compared to test if ecological divergence is significant among species. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Separately, both genetic and ecological evidence support a clear differentiation of all three species but with different topology, but also reveal an ancestral contact zone between P. strobiformis and P. ayacahuite. The marked ecological differentiation of P. flexilis suggests that ecological speciation has occurred in this lineage, but this is not reflected in neutral markers. The inclusion of environmental traits in phylogenetic reconstruction improved the resolution of internal branches. We suggest that combining environmental and genetic information would be useful for species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in other recently diverged species complexes.

  19. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Yu, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Wang, Xing-Man; Li, Jin-Pei; Hu, Tao; Hu, Yong; Wang, Ming-Li; Shen, Yong-Zhou; Xu, Jing-Dong; Han, Guo-Xiang; Chen, Jason

    2017-02-14

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 10(6) IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent.

  20. A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I

    2005-02-20

    We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.

  1. Gene Expression and Polymorphism of Myostatin Gene and its Association with Growth Traits in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushyanth, K; Bhattacharya, T K; Shukla, R; Chatterjee, R N; Sitaramamma, T; Paswan, C; Guru Vishnu, P

    2016-10-01

    Myostatin is a member of TGF-β super family and is directly involved in regulation of body growth through limiting muscular growth. A study was carried out in three chicken lines to identify the polymorphism in the coding region of the myostatin gene through SSCP and DNA sequencing. A total of 12 haplotypes were observed in myostatin coding region of chicken. Significant associations between haplogroups with body weight at day 1, 14, 28, and 42 days, and carcass traits at 42 days were observed across the lines. It is concluded that the coding region of myostatin gene was polymorphic, with varied levels of expression among lines and had significant effects on growth traits. The expression of MSTN gene varied during embryonic and post hatch development stage.

  2. Zero modes and divergence of entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Mallayya, Krishnanand; Shankaranarayanan, S; Padmanabhan, T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the cause of the divergence of the entanglement entropy for the free scalar fields in $(1+1)$ and $(D + 1)$ dimensional space-times. In a canonically equivalent set of variables, we show explicitly that the divergence in the entanglement entropy in $(1 + 1)-$ dimensions is due to the accumulation of large number of near-zero frequency modes as opposed to the commonly held view of divergence having UV origin. The feature revealing the divergence in zero modes is related to the observation that the entropy is invariant under a hidden scaling transformation even when the Hamiltonian is not. We discuss the role of dispersion relations and the dimensionality of the space-time on the behavior of entanglement entropy.

  3. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Várilly, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  4. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  5. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  6. Marker-aided genetic divergence analysis in Brassica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Arunachalam; Shefali Verma; V. Sujata; K. V. Prabhu

    2005-08-01

    Genetic divergence was evaluated in 31 breeding lines from four Brassica species using Mahalanobis’ $D^{2}$. A new method of grouping using $D^{2}$ values was used to group the 31 lines, based on diagnostic morphological traits (called morphoqts). Isozyme variation of the individual enzymes esterase and glutamate oxaloacetate was quantified by five parameters (called isoqts) developed earlier. Grouping by the same method was also done based on the isoqts, and the grouping by isozymes was compared with that by morphoqts. Overall, there was an agreement of 73% suggesting that isoqts can be used in the choice of parents and also first stage selection of segregants in the laboratory. It was suggested that such an exercise would help to take care of season-bound and field-related problems of breeding. The new isozyme QTs, within lane variance of relative mobility and relative absorption, accounted for about 50% of the total divergence. The utility of the new method and isoqts in cost-effective breeding were highlighted.

  7. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  8. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihu Lu

    Full Text Available Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  9. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  10. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using

  11. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  12. Selection of lactobacilli for chicken probiotic adjuncts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriga; Pascual; Monfort; Hugas

    1998-01-01

    ...: their ability to inhibit all the indicator strains; a high adhesion efficiency to the epithelial cells of chickens and also their resistance to a number of antibiotics, monensin, bile salts and pH 3·0...

  13. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... 1College of Animal Science and Technology, Beijing University of ... After being screened by yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) containing high concentrations of Zeocin ... nucleic acid vaccine of the chicken infectious bronchial.

  14. Divergência genética entre linhagens de melão do grupo Inodorus Genetic divergence among lineages of melon of the group Inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique de Sousa Nunes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a divergência genética entre linhagens Pele de Sapo e entre linhagens Honey Dew. Foram avaliadas dez linhagens de melão Pele de Sapo e dez linhagens de melão Honey Dew, em experimentos separados, conduzidos em blocos casualizados com três repetições. A divergência genética foi estimada pela distância de Mahalanobis. Foram utilizados os métodos de Tocher e UPGMA para o agrupamento das linhagens. Para as linhagens Pele de Sapo, constatou-se divergência genética com a formação de quatro e cinco grupos conforme os métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA, respectivamente. Sugere-se cruzamento das linhagens PS-01, PS-05 e PS-7 entre si ou com as demais linhagens do grupo I. Para as linhagens Honey Dew, verificou-se a formação dos mesmos três grupos nos métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O grupo II formado pelas linhagens OF-01 e OF-02; o grupo III pela linhagem OF-03 e o primeiro grupo pelas demais linhagens. Com relação às linhagens Honey Dew, recomenda-se os cruzamentos das linhagens OF-01 ou OF-02, com as demais linhagens avaliadas. A linhagem OF-03, com características semelhantes às linhagens OF-01 ou OF-02 pode ser cruzada com as linhagens do grupo I.The objective of this work was to study the genetic divergence among lines of Pele de Sapo melon and among lines of Honey Dew melon. Ten lines of Pele de Sapo melon and ten lines of Honey Dew melon were evaluated, in separate experiments, both carried in a randomized block design with three replications. The divergence was estimated by the Mahalanobis distance. The methods of Tocher and UPGMA were used for the grouping of the lineages. For the lineages Pele de Sapo, genetic divergence was verified with the formation of four five groups according to the methods of grouping of Tocher and UPGMA, respectively. Must be made crosses among lines PS-01, PS-05 and PS-07 or between theses and other lines of group I. For the

  15. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  16. Glucagon-related peptides and the regulation of food intake in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa

    2016-09-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying food intake in chickens have been a focus of research in recent decades to improve production efficiency when raising chickens. Lines of evidence have revealed that a number of brain-gut peptides function as a neurotransmitter or peripheral satiety hormone in the regulation of food intake both in mammals and chickens. Glucagon, a 29 amino acid peptide hormone, has long been known to play important roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals and birds. However, the glucagon gene encodes various peptides that are produced by tissue-specific proglucagon processing: glucagon is produced in the pancreas, whereas oxyntomodulin (OXM), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 are produced in the intestine and brain. Better understanding of the roles of these peptides in the regulation of energy homeostasis has led to various physiological roles being proposed in mammals. For example, GLP-1 functions as an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain and as a postprandial satiety hormone in the peripheral circulation. There is evidence that OXM and GLP-2 also induce anorexia in mammals. Therefore, it is possible that the brain-gut peptides OXM, GLP-1 and GLP-2 play physiological roles in the regulation of food intake in chickens. More recently, a novel GLP and its specific receptor were identified in the chicken brain. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of glucagon-related peptides in the regulation of food intake in chickens. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Effects of crossbreeding on slaughter traits and breast muscle chemical composition in chinese chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-xia Huang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of crossbreeding on slaughter traits and the chemical composition of chicken breast muscle. Trials were conducted using 120 broilers from four lines: Xiao-Shan chicken (XS, Xian-Ju chicken (XJ, Xiao-Shan chicken♂♂ × Xian-Ju chicken♀♀ (Zhenan 1, ZNY1 and Xiao-Shan chicken♂♂ × (Guang-Xi Yellow chicken♂♂×Xian-Ju chicken♀♀ ♀♀ (Zhenan 2, ZNY2. The birds were slaughtered at 120 days of age and the slaughter traits were measured. Breast muscles were sampled to determine chemical composition. The slaughter traits of hybrid chickens were improved. Both hybrid strains had higher intramuscular fat (IMF and inosine-5'-monophosphate (inosinic acid, IMP. Concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in breast muscles from the two hybrids were significantly higher than in the other two breeds (p < 0.05. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the breast muscles of the two hybrids was significantly lower than in the other two breeds (p < 0.05. ZNY2 had significantly lower (p < 0.05 concentrations of myristic acid (C14:0. The breast muscle of ZNY1 had significantly higher palmitic acid (C16:0 concentrations than XS, XJ, or ZNY2 (p < 0.05. The concentrations of oleic acid (C18:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA in breast muscle from the two hybrid lines were significantly higher than the other two breeds (p < 0.05. Breast muscles from XS and XJ chickens contained significantly higher docosahexenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA than the two hybrid lines (p < 0.05. The XS and XJ chickens had lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the two hybrids (p < 0.05. Breast muscles from ZNY1 and ZNY2 contained higher concentrations of essential amino acids (p < 0.05, total amino acids (p < 0.05, and some individual amino acids (p < 0.05. In conclusion, crossbreeding improved the slaughter traits of chickens and increased intramuscular fat and inosinic acid content in breast muscle. The fatty acid and amino acid

  18. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  19. Persistence of avian oncoviruses in chicken macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzolo, L; Moscovici, C; Moscovici, M G

    1979-01-01

    Inoculation of avian oncoviruses into 1- to 2-month old chickens led to a rapid production of antiviral humoral antibodies. Under these conditions it was found that avian leukosis viruses are sequestered in macrophages of peripheral blood, in which they can persist for a long period of time (up to about 3 years). In contrast, avian sarcoma viruses were never found in macrophages from chickens during the progression of sarcomas or after regression of the tumors. PMID:217827

  20. MX1 exon 13 polymorphisms in broiler breeder chickens and associations with commercial traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livant, E J; Avendano, S; McLeod, S; Ye, X; Lamont, S J; Dekkers, J C M; Ewald, S J

    2007-04-01

    The Mx1 gene in mice is induced by type I interferons and is the major determinant of resistance to influenza virus and related orthomyxoviruses. It has been previously shown that a SNP in exon 13 of the chicken MX1 gene determines differential antiviral activity of the protein. We evaluated this SNP and two additional SNPs in elite broiler lines by PCR amplification and sequence analysis. Associations between MX1 exon 13 SNPs and several traits of economic interest were evaluated. Significant associations were found between the SNP determining antiviral activity and mortality in one line and leg defects in another line.

  1. Deeper insight into maternal genetic assessments and demographic history for Egyptian indigenous chicken populations using mtDNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Eltanany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study principally sought to reveal the demographic expansion of Egyptian indigenous chickens (EIC using representative breeds: Sinai (North, Fayoumi (Middle and Dandarawi (South of Egypt as well as to deeply clarify their genetic diversity, possible matrilineal origin and dispersal routes. A total of 33 partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from EIC and compared with a worldwide reference dataset of 1290 wild and domestic chicken sequences. Study populations had 12 polymorphic variable sites and 7 haplotypes. A lack of maternal substructure between EIC was detected (FST = 0.003. The unimodal mismatch distribution and negative values of Tajima’s D (−0.659 and Fu’s Fs (−0.157 indicated demographic expansion among EIC and pointed to Fayoumi as the oldest EIC population. Egyptian haplotypes were clustered phylogenetically into two divergent clades. Their phylogeography revealed an ancient single maternal lineage of Egyptian chickens likely derived from Indian-Subcontinent. Moreover, a recent maternal commercial heritage possibly originated in Yunnan-Province and/or surrounding areas was admixed restrictedly into Sinai. It is implied that Egypt was an entry point for Indian chicken into Africa and its further dispersal route to Europe. This study provides a clue supporting the previous assumption that urged utilizing consistent founder populations having closely related progenitors for synthetizing a stabilized homogenous crossbreed as a sustainable discipline in breeding program.

  2. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  4. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  5. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    or complement activation via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP) -1 and -2. Thus, MBL plays a major role in the first-line innate defense against pathogens. We investigated the MBL concentrations in serum during experimental infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in chickens. The results showed...

  6. Structural divergence of plant TCTPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Galeano, Diego F.; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Calderón-Pérez, Berenice; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein at the level of sequence, considered to play an essential role in the regulation of growth and development in eukaryotes. However, this function has been inferred from studies in a few model systems, such as mice and mammalian cell lines, Drosophila and Arabidopsis. Thus, the knowledge regarding this protein is far from complete. In the present study bioinformatic analysis showed the presence of one or more TCTP genes per genome in plants with highly conserved signatures and subtle variations at the level of primary structure but with more noticeable differences at the level of predicted three-dimensional structures. These structures show differences in the “pocket” region close to the center of the protein and in its flexible loop domain. In fact, all predictive TCTP structures can be divided into two groups: (1) AtTCTP1-like and (2) CmTCTP-like, based on the predicted structures of an Arabidopsis TCTP and a Cucurbita maxima TCTP; according to this classification we propose that their probable function in plants may be inferred in principle. Thus, different TCTP genes in a single organism may have different functions; additionally, in those species harboring a single TCTP gene this could carry multiple functions. On the other hand, in silico analysis of AtTCTP1-like and CmTCTP-like promoters suggest that these share common motifs but with different abundance, which may underscore differences in their gene expression patterns. Finally, the absence of TCTP genes in most chlorophytes with the exception of Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, indicates that other proteins perform the roles played by TCTP or the pathways regulated by TCTP occur through alternative routes. These findings provide insight into the evolution of this gene family in plants. PMID:25120549

  7. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  8. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  9. Vibhakti Divergence between Sanskrit and Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Preeti; Shukl, Devanand; Kulkarni, Amba

    Translation divergence at various levels between languages arises due to the different conventions followed by different languages for coding the information of grammatical relations. Though Sanskrit and Hindi belong to the same Indo-Aryan family and structurally as well as lexically Hindi inherits a lot from Sanskrit, yet divergences are observed at the level of function words such as vibhaktis. Pāṇini in his Aṣṭādhyāyī has assigned a default vibhakti to kārakas alongwith many scopes for exceptions. He handles these exceptions either by imposing a new kāraka role or by assigning a special vibhakti. However, these methods are not acceptable in Hindi in toto. Based on the nature of deviation, we propose seven cases of divergences in this paper.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  11. The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Heather; Daley, Monica A; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-09-01

    One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics of the modern broiler and its two pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (A and B) in order to clarify how changes in basic morphology are associated with the way these chickens walk. We collected force plate and kinematic data from 25 chickens (market age), over a range of walking speeds, to quantify the three-dimensional dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) and determine how these birds modulate the force and mechanical work of locomotion. Common features of their gait include extremely slow walking speeds, a wide base of support and large lateral motions of the CoM, which primarily reflect changes to cope with their apparent instability and large body mass. These features allowed the chickens to keep their peak vertical forces low, but resulted in high mediolateral forces, which exceeded fore-aft forces. Gait differences directly related to morphological characteristics also exist. This was particularly evident in Pureline B birds, which have a more crouched limb posture. Mechanical costs of transport were still similar across all lines and were not exceptional when compared with more wild-type ground-running birds. Broiler chickens seem to have an awkward gait, but some aspects of their dynamics show rather surprising similarities to other avian bipeds.

  12. Enhancing Divergent Search through Extinction Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in evolutionary computation is to create representations as evolvable as those in natural evolution. This paper hypothesizes that extinction events, i.e. mass extinctions, can significantly increase evolvability, but only when combined with a divergent search algorithm, i.e. a search...... for the capacity to evolve. This hypothesis is tested through experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains. The results show that combining extinction events with divergent search increases evolvability, while combining them with convergent search offers no similar benefit. The conclusion is that extinction...

  13. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M

    2008-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  14. Diverging Fluctuations of the Lyapunov Exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M; Politi, Antonio

    2016-07-15

    We show that in generic one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices the diffusion coefficient of the maximum Lyapunov exponent diverges in the thermodynamic limit. We trace this back to the long-range correlations associated with the evolution of the hydrodynamic modes. In the case of normal heat transport, the divergence is even stronger, leading to the breakdown of the usual single-function Family-Vicsek scaling ansatz. A similar scenario is expected to arise in the evolution of rough interfaces in the presence of suitably correlated background noise.

  15. Universal portfolios generated by the Bregman divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Kuang, Kee Seng

    2017-04-01

    The Bregman divergence of two probability vectors is a stronger form of the f-divergence introduced by Csiszar. Two versions of the Bregman universal portfolio are presented by exploiting the mean-value theorem. The explicit form of the Bregman universal portfolio generated by a function of a convex polynomial is derived and studied empirically. This portfolio can be regarded as another generalized of the well-known Helmbold portfolio. By running the portfolios on selected stock-price data sets from the local stock exchange, it is shown that it is possible to increase the wealth of the investor by using the portfolios in investment.

  16. Structural and functional divergence of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors in early sarcopterygians: lungfish and Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice K V Tam

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trajectories of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH receptor remain enigmatic since the discovery of physiologically functional GHRH-GHRH receptor (GHRHR in non-mammalian vertebrates in 2007. Interestingly, subsequent studies have described the identification of a GHRHR(2 in chicken in addition to the GHRHR and the closely related paralogous receptor, PACAP-related peptide (PRP receptor (PRPR. In this article, we provide information, for the first time, on the GHRHR in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians by the cloning and characterization of GHRHRs from lungfish (P. dolloi and X. laevis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated structural resemblance of lungfish GHRHR to their mammalian orthologs, while the X. laevis GHRHR showed the highest homology to GHRHR(2 in zebrafish and chicken. Functionally, lungfish GHRHR displayed high affinity towards GHRH in triggering intracellular cAMP and calcium accumulation, while X. laevis GHRHR(2 was able to react with both endogenous GHRH and PRP. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both lungfish GHRHR and X. laevis GHRHR(2 had the highest expression in brain, and interestingly, X. laevis(GHRHR2 also had high abundance in the reproductive organs. These findings, together with previous reports, suggest that early in the Sarcopterygii lineage, GHRHR and PRPR have already established diverged and specific affinities towards their cognate ligands. GHRHR(2, which has only been found in xenopus, zebrafish and chicken hitherto, accommodates both GHRH and PRP.

  17. Host factors determine anti-GM1 response following oral challenge of chickens with Guillain-Barre syndrome derived Campylobacter jejuni strain GB11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wim Ang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-ganglioside antibodies with a pathogenic potential are present in C. jejuni-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS patients and are probably induced by molecular mimicry. Immunization studies in rabbits and mice have demonstrated that these anti-ganglioside antibodies can be induced using purified lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS from C. jejuni in a strong adjuvant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether natural colonization of chickens with a ganglioside-mimicking C. jejuni strain induces an anti-ganglioside response, and to investigate the diversity in anti-ganglioside response between and within genetically different chicken lines, we orally challenged chickens with different C. jejuni strains. Oral challenge of chickens with a C. jejuni strain from a GBS patient, containing a LOS that mimics ganglioside GM1, induced specific IgM and IgG anti-LOS and anti-GM1 antibodies. Inoculation of chickens with the Penner HS:3 serostrain, without a GM1-like structure, induced anti-LOS but no anti-ganglioside antibodies. We observed different patterns of anti-LOS/ganglioside response between and within the five strains of chickens. CONCLUSIONS: Natural infection of chickens with C. jejuni induces anti-ganglioside antibodies. The production of antibodies is governed by both microbial and host factors.

  18. EFFECTS OF VERAPAMIL ON CHICKEN BIVENTER - CERVICIS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Farokhy

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available - Verapamil produces a sustained contraction in isolated biventer-cervicis muscle of chickens between 2-8 days old. From cumulative dose-response curves, ED50 of was calculated for this effect of verapamil. when isolated chicken biventer-cervicis muscle was electrically stimulated, verapamil had no effect on twitch contractures but increased the base line tone of the muscle. Glycerol treatment of the muscle reduced the responses to acetylcholine and KCl but had little effect on contracture produced by verapamil, and no effect on contracture produced by caffeine. Incubation of the muscles with calcium-free Krcbs solution omitted the responses of the muscle to acetylcholine and reduced the response to caffeine. Again, the responses to caffeine and verapamil were less affected compared to KCL. Addition of ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA (2.5 mM abolished the responses of muscle to all compounds. It was concluded that verapamil produces contracture of the muscle by release of calcium from intracellular stores.

  19. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  20. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  1. Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary foods for ... on weight basis according to predetermined proportions of the raw ingredients. ... the chicken powder (an animal source quality protein) in their children's diet, if not ...

  2. Potential probiotic of Lactobacillus johnsonii LT171 for chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... chicken nutrition. Hamidreza ... probiotic properties of L. johnsonii LT171 for chicken nutrition. Hence this ..... resistance to pathogens and performance in animals.

  3. Detection of breed specific copy number variations in domestic chicken genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Saeed S; Mohammadabadi, Mohammadreza; Wu, Dong-Dong; Esmailizadeh, Ali

    2017-09-29

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are important large scale variants that are widespread in the genome and may contribute to phenotypic variation. Detection and characterization of CNVs can provide new insights into the genetic basis of important traits. Here, we performed whole genome short read sequence analysis to identify CNVs in two indigenous and commercial chicken breeds and evaluate the impact of the identified CNVs on breed specific traits. After filtration, a total of 12955 CNVs spanning (on average) about 9.42% of the chicken genome were found that made up 5467 CNV regions (CNVRs). Chicken quantitative trait loci (QTL) datasets and Ensembl gene annotations were used as resources for the estimation of potential phenotypic effects of our CNVRs on breed specific traits. In total, 34% of our detected CNVRs were also detected in earlier CNV studies. These CNVRs partly overlap with several previously reported QTL and gene ontology terms associated with some important traits, including shank length QTL in Creeper specific CNVRs and body weight and egg production characteristics as well as growth of muscles and body organs gene terms in the Arian commercial breed. Our findings provide new insights into the genomic structure of the chicken genome for an improved understanding of the potential roles of CNVRs in differentiating between breeds or lines.

  4. Biased distributions and decay of long interspersed nuclear elements in the chicken genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusán, György; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Junier, Thomas; Giordano, Joti; Warburton, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    The genomes of birds are much smaller than mammalian genomes, and transposable elements (TEs) make up only 10% of the chicken genome, compared with the 45% of the human genome. To study the mechanisms that constrain the copy numbers of TEs, and as a consequence the genome size of birds, we analyzed the distributions of LINEs (CR1's) and SINEs (MIRs) on the chicken autosomes and Z chromosome. We show that (1) CR1 repeats are longest on the Z chromosome and their length is negatively correlated with the local GC content; (2) the decay of CR1 elements is highly biased, and the 5'-ends of the insertions are lost much faster than their 3'-ends; (3) the GC distribution of CR1 repeats shows a bimodal pattern with repeats enriched in both AT-rich and GC-rich regions of the genome, but the CR1 families show large differences in their GC distribution; and (4) the few MIRs in the chicken are most abundant in regions with intermediate GC content. Our results indicate that the primary mechanism that removes repeats from the chicken genome is ectopic exchange and that the low abundance of repeats in avian genomes is likely to be the consequence of their high recombination rates.

  5. Population genetic structure of Ascaridia galli of extensively raised chickens of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatji, D P; Tsotetsi, A M; van Marle-Koster, E; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-01-30

    Ascaridia galli is one of the most common nematode affecting chickens. This study characterized A. galli parasites collected from South African village chickens of Limpopo (n=18) and KwaZulu-Natal (n=22) provinces using the 510bp sequences of cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA. Fourteen and 12 polymorphic sites were observed for Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal sequences, respectively. Six haplotypes were observed in total. Haplotype diversity was high and ranged from 0.749 for Limpopo province to 0.758 for KwaZulu-Natal province isolates. There was no genetic differentiation between A. galli from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. The six South African haplotypes were unique compared to those published in the GeneBank sampled from Hy-line chickens raised under organic farming in Denmark. The utility of cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene as a potential genetic marker for studying A. galli in village chicken populations is presented.

  6. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi T Sunkara

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance.

  7. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liheng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ, high concentration of glucose (high-glucose, or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT. In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.

  8. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  9. EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA Y VELOCIDAD DE LA LÍNEA DE COLGADO, EN EL PORCENTAJE DE PLUMA Y DESPIGMENTACIÓN DE AVES BLANCA Y CAMPESINA, DURANTE EL PROCESO DE ESCALDADO EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA E LINHA DE VELOCIDADE DE SUSPENSÃO DO PERCENTUAL DE PENA DE AVES E BRANCAS DESPIGMENTAÇÃO CAMPONESES DURANTE O PROCESSO ESCALDAGEM EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND SPEED OF THE HANGING LINE ON THE PERCENTAGE OF FEATHER AND DEPIGMENTATION OF WHITE AND PEN CHICKENS, DURING THE SCALDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEYANIRA MUÑOZ M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reporta el efecto de la temperatura y velocidad de la línea de colgado, en el porcentaje de pluma y despigmentación de aves blanca y campesina, durante el proceso de escaldado. Los valores de operación de temperatura de escaldado y velocidad encontrados y acordes a los estándares de calidad reglamentados por el INVIMA, fueron para pollo blanco temperatura entre 54 a 58°C y velocidades de 110 a 130 unidades por minuto, mientras en campesino se obtuvieron temperaturas de 51 a 53°C y velocidad de 90 unidades por minuto. En estas condiciones en ambos tipos de pollo se generan menos del 10% de pluma, 1% de grados de sobre-escaldado y porcentajes de despigmentación inferiores al 26%.Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o efeito da temperatura e da velocidade da linha de suspensão, na percentagem de penas e despigmentação de aves brancas e camponesas, durante o procedimento de escaldado. Os resultados da temperatura de escaldado e da velocidade obtidos foram consistentes com os padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pelo INVIMA. A temperatura para o frango "branco" foi de 54-58°C e a velocidade de 110 a 130 unidades por minuto, enquanto que a temperatura para o frango "camponês" foi de 51 a 53°C e a velocidade de 90 unidades por minuto. Sob estas condições em ambos tipos de carne de frango são obtidos valores inferiores a 10 de penas, 1% de graus de sobre-escaldado e percentagens de despigmentação menores a 26%.This research aims at analyzing the effect of temperature and speed of the hanging line on the percentage of feather and depigmentation of white and pen chickens during the scalding process. The operation values of scalding temperature of and speed in accordance with the standards of quality stipulated by INVIMA, were 54 to 58°C and 110 to 130 units per minute for white chickens, and 51 to 53°C and 90 units per minute for pen chicken. Under these conditions, less than of 10% of feather, 1% of over scalding

  10. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  11. Taming Infrared Divergences in the Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Miro, J; Konstandin, T

    2014-01-01

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective ...

  12. Divergence of imprinted genes during mammalian evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helms Volkhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to the majority of mammalian genes, imprinted genes are monoallelically expressed with the choice of the active allele depending on its parental origin. Due to their special inheritance patterns, maternally and paternally expressed genes might be under different evolutionary pressure. Here, we aimed at assessing the evolutionary history of imprinted genes. Results In this study, we investigated the conservation of imprinted genes in vertebrate genomes and their exposition to natural selection. In a genome-wide comparison, orthologs of imprinted genes show a stronger divergence on cDNA and protein level in mammals. This pattern is most pronounced for maternally expressed genes in rodents in comparison to their non-rodent orthologs. The divergence is not attributable to increased mutation of CpG positions. It is contrasted by strong conservation of paternally expressed genes in mouse and rat. Interestingly, we found that the early divergence of imprinted genes was accompanied by an unusually strict conservation of their paralogs. Conclusions The apparent degeneration of maternally expressed genes may reflect a relaxation of selective pressure due to counteracting effects on maternal and embryonic fitness. Functional redundancy provided by the presence of highly conserved (non-imprinted paralogs may have facilitated the divergence. Moreover, intensification of imprinting in modern rodents seems to have shifted the evolutionary fate of imprinted genes towards strong purifying selection.

  13. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  14. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  15. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  16. Do the same genes underlie parallel phenotypic divergence in different Littorina saxatilis populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westram, A M; Galindo, J; Alm Rosenblad, M; Grahame, J W; Panova, M; Butlin, R K

    2014-09-01

    Parallel patterns of adaptive divergence and speciation are cited as powerful evidence for the role of selection driving these processes. However, it is often not clear whether parallel phenotypic divergence is underlain by parallel genetic changes. Here, we asked about the genetic basis of parallel divergence in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has repeatedly evolved coexisting ecotypes adapted to either crab predation or wave action. We sequenced the transcriptome of snails of both ecotypes from three distant geographical locations (Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom) and mapped the reads to the L. saxatilis reference genome. We identified genomic regions potentially under divergent selection between ecotypes within each country, using an outlier approach based on F(ST) values calculated per locus. In line with previous studies indicating that gene reuse is generally common, we expected to find extensive sharing of outlier loci due to recent shared ancestry and gene flow between at least two of the locations in our study system. Contrary to our expectations, we found that most outliers were country specific, suggesting that much of the genetic basis of divergence is not shared among locations. However, we did find that more outliers were shared than expected by chance and that differentiation of shared outliers is often generated by the same SNPs. We discuss two mechanisms potentially explaining the limited amount of sharing we observed. First, a polygenic basis of divergent traits might allow for multiple distinct molecular mechanisms generating the same phenotypic patterns. Second, additional, location-specific axes of selection that we did not focus on in this study may produce distinct patterns of genetic divergence within each site.

  17. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  18. Genome evolution in Reptilia: in silico chicken mapping of 12,000 BAC-end sequences from two reptiles and a basal bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Scott V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the publication of the draft chicken genome and the recent production of several BAC clone libraries from non-avian reptiles and birds, it is now possible to undertake more detailed comparative genomic studies in Reptilia. Of interest in particular are the genomic events that transformed the large, repeat-rich genomes of mammals and non-avian reptiles into the minimalist chicken genome. We have used paired BAC end sequences (BESs from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, painted turtle (Chrysemys picta and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae to investigate patterns of sequence divergence, gene and retroelement content, and microsynteny between these species and chicken. Results From a total of 11,967 curated BESs, we successfully mapped 725, 773 and 2597 sequences in alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, to sites in the draft chicken genome using a stringent BLAST protocol. Most commonly, sequences mapped to a single site in the chicken genome. Of 1675, 1828 and 2936 paired BESs obtained for alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, a total of 34 (alligator, 2%, 24 (turtle, 1.3% and 479 (emu, 16.3% pairs were found to map with high confidence and in the correct orientation and with BAC-sized intermarker distances to single chicken chromosomes, including 25 such paired hits in emu mapping to the chicken Z chromosome. By determining the insert sizes of a subset of BAC clones from these three species, we also found a significant correlation between the intermarker distance in alligator and turtle and in chicken, with slopes as expected on the basis of the ratio of the genome sizes. Conclusion Our results suggest that a large number of small-scale chromosomal rearrangements and deletions in the lineage leading to chicken have drastically reduced the number of detected syntenies observed between the chicken and alligator, turtle, and emu genomes and imply that small deletions occurring widely throughout the

  19. Identification of chicken eNOS gene and differential expression in highland versus lowland chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J F; Ling, Y; Gou, W Y; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is synthesized from l-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium. The objective of the present study was to preliminarily illuminate the expression of the eNOS gene in hypoxic adaptation of chicken embryonic development. The eNOS expression profiles between the Tibet and Shouguang chickens incubated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR. In this study, the chicken eNOS gene was found by both in silico cloning and RACE approaches. From the eNOS gene, we obtained a 3,310-bp mRNA sequence and a 10,666-bp DNA sequence and discovered that it was located on chicken chromosome 2 and had 7 unique transcripts. eNOS mRNA was detected in abundant amounts in some chick embryo organs (i.e., heart, liver, chorio-allantoic membrane, and lung), and expressed stably with the lowest levels in the brain. We observed that when exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) different embryo organ tissues had various sensitivities to hypoxia as determined by their eNOS expression profiles. Compared with the Shouguang chicken, the eNOS expression in the Tibet chicken was higher in the lung and liver, lower in the heart, and similar in the brain. In chorio-allantoic membranes, eNOS expression was higher in the Shouguang chicken than the Tibet chicken under hypoxic conditions, but not markedly different under normoxic conditions. The differences of eNOS expression between the 2 breeds may be relative to the hypoxic adaptation ability in Tibet chickens during embryonic development. This work will provide reference for future studies on the role of eNOS in hypoxic adaptation and response.

  20. Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runemark, Anna; Sagonas, Kostas; Svensson, Erik I

    2015-08-01

    Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite force, and realized and available diets to address this. Several lines of evidence suggest that diet has contributed to the island gigantism. The larger islet lizards have relatively wider heads and higher bite performance in relation to mainland lizards than would be expected from size differences alone. The proportions of consumed and available hard prey are higher on islets than mainland localities, and lizard body size is significantly correlated with the proportion of hard prey. Furthermore, the main axis of divergence in head shape is significantly correlated with dietary divergence. Finally, a model with only diet and one including diet and predation regime explain body size divergence equally well. Our results suggest that diet is an important ecological factor behind insular body size divergence, but could be consistent with an additional role for predation.

  1. Correlation analysis of relationships between polymorphisms of high quality chicken myogenin gene and slaughter and meat quality traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong WANG; Chaowu YANG; Yiping LIU; Xiaosong JIANG; Huarui DU; Mohan QIU; Qing ZHU

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-SSCP technique was de-signed to investigate the effect of the myogenin (MyoG) gene on quality of chicken meat (developed by Sichuan Dahen Poultry Breeding Company using local breeds). Four muta-tions at base position in the promoter region were detected among individuals in each line, i.e. T/C in locus A, and T/A, T/C and A/G in locus B. Least squares analysis showed that there was a significant difference between genotype and breast muscle percentage and some carcass traits (P0.05) was detected in the other traits. It was concluded that the MyoG gene is the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or it links with the candidate gene, and the mutation can be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chickens for meat quality traits.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  3. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  4. Endogenous retroviruses of the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan I King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence to search for previously uncharacterized endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences using ab initio and combined evidence approaches. We discovered 11 novel families of ERVs that occupy more than 21 million base pairs, approximately 2%, of the chicken genome. These novel families include a number of recently active full-length elements possessing identical long terminal repeats (LTRs as well as intact gag and pol open reading frames. The abundance and diversity of chicken ERVs we discovered underscore the utility of an approach that combines multiple methods for the identification of interspersed repeats in vertebrate genomes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Igor Zhulin and Itai Yanai.

  5. Replication and explorations of high-order epistasis using a large advanced intercross line pedigree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Pettersson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of the genetic architecture of complex traits persists as a major challenge in biology; despite considerable efforts, much remains unclear including the role and importance of genetic interactions. This study provides empirical evidence for a strong and persistent contribution of both second- and third-order epistatic interactions to long-term selection response for body weight in two divergently selected chicken lines. We earlier reported a network of interacting loci with large effects on body weight in an F(2 intercross between these high- and low-body weight lines. Here, most pair-wise interactions in the network are replicated in an independent eight-generation advanced intercross line (AIL. The original report showed an important contribution of capacitating epistasis to growth, meaning that the genotype at a hub in the network releases the effects of one or several peripheral loci. After fine-mapping of the loci in the AIL, we show that these interactions were persistent over time. The replication of five of six originally reported epistatic loci, as well as the capacitating epistasis, provides strong empirical evidence that the originally observed epistasis is of biological importance and is a contributor in the genetic architecture of this population. The stability of genetic interaction mechanisms over time indicates a non-transient role of epistasis on phenotypic change. Third-order epistasis was for the first time examined in this study and was shown to make an important contribution to growth, which suggests that the genetic architecture of growth is more complex than can be explained by two-locus interactions only. Our results illustrate the importance of designing studies that facilitate exploration of epistasis in populations for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the genetics underlying a complex trait.

  6. Correlation Analysis on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of CAPN1 Gene and Meat Quality and Carcass Traits in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zeng-rong; ZHU Qing; LIU Yi-ping

    2007-01-01

    The selection of meat quality has received considerable focus in chicken breeding. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of CAPN1 gene on meat quality traits in chicken populations. Primer pairs for 3'UTR in CAPN1 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. A mutation at position 9 950 nt (G/A, locus A) was found among individuals in each population. The allele and genotype frequencies significantly differed among eight lines with higher frequencies of allele A2 and genotype A1A2 (P<0.01). The least square analysis showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in muscle fiber density and some carcass traits among genotypes and that the breast muscle fiber density (BFD) of birds of A1A1 genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of birds of A2A2 genotype. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene was the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or was linked with the major gene. These results were useful for studying the molecular mechanism that influences meat traits and were used as the base of molecular-assisted selection to meat quality traits. So, this site may be a potential marker affecting the muscle traits of chickens.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 Targets Chicken Embryonic Somatic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo and generates Phenotypic Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bonsrah, Kwaku Dad; Zhang, Dongcheng; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved. We also achieved targeted modification by homology-directed repair (HDR), producing MEN2A and MEN2B mutations of the RET gene. We also targeted DGCR8 in neural cells of the chicken embryo by in vivo electroporation. After FACS isolation of transfected cells, we observed appropriate sequence changes in DGCR8. Wholemount and frozen section antibody labelling showed reduction of DGCR8 levels in transfected cells. In addition, there was reduced expression levels of DGCR8-associated genes DROSHA, YPEL1 and NGN2. We also observed morphological differences in neural tissue and cardiac-related tissues of transfected embryos. These findings demonstrate that precisely targeted genetic manipulation of the genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be extended to the highly adaptable in vivo chicken embryo model. PMID:27694906

  8. Production of germline transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein using a MoMLV-based retrovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Choi, Bok Ryul; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Cho, Seong-Keun; Sohn, Sea Hwan; Cho, Eun Jung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Chang, Wonkyung; Jeon, Iksoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jae Bok; Kim, Teoan

    2006-11-01

    The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) -based retrovirus vector system has been used most often in gene transfer work, but has been known to cause silencing of the imported gene in transgenic animals. In the present study, using a MoMLV-based retrovirus vector, we successfully generated a new transgenic chicken line expressing high levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). The level of eGFP expression was conserved after germline transmission and as much as 100 microg of eGFP could be detected per 1 mg of tissue protein. DNA sequencing showed that the transgene had been integrated at chromosome 26 of the G1 and G2 generation transgenic chickens. Owing to the stable integration of the transgene, it is now feasible to produce G3 generation of homozygous eGFP transgenic chickens that will provide 100% transgenic eggs. These results will help establish a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies of embryonic development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors.

  9. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  10. Temporal transcriptome changes induced by MDV in marek's disease-resistant and -susceptible inbred chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ying

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek's disease (MD is a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV and characterized by T cell lymphoma and infiltration of lymphoid cells into various organs such as liver, spleen, peripheral nerves and muscle. Resistance to MD and disease risk have long been thought to be influenced both by genetic and environmental factors, the combination of which contributes to the observed outcome in an individual. We hypothesize that after MDV infection, genes related to MD-resistance or -susceptibility may exhibit different trends in transcriptional activity in chicken lines having a varying degree of resistance to MD. Results In order to study the mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to MD, we performed genome-wide temporal expression analysis in spleen tissues from MD-resistant line 63, susceptible line 72 and recombinant congenic strain M (RCS-M that has a phenotype intermediate between lines 63 and 72 after MDV infection. Three time points of the MDV life cycle in chicken were selected for study: 5 days post infection (dpi, 10dpi and 21dpi, representing the early cytolytic, latent and late cytolytic stages, respectively. We observed similar gene expression profiles at the three time points in line 63 and RCS-M chickens that are both different from line 72. Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA showed that MDV can broadly influence the chickens irrespective of whether they are resistant or susceptible to MD. However, some pathways like cardiac arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease were found to be affected only in line 72; while some networks related to cell-mediated immune response and antigen presentation were enriched only in line 63 and RCS-M. We identified 78 and 30 candidate genes associated with MD resistance, at 10 and 21dpi respectively, by considering genes having the same trend of expression change after MDV infection in lines 63 and RCS-M. On the other hand, by

  11. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  12. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  13. Divergent differentiation in malignant soft tissue neoplasms: the paradigm of liposarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Peter; Taxy, Jerome B; Krausz, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In tumors clonality does not always translate into morphologic uniformity. While most sarcomas exhibit only one line of histologic differentiation, a minority may display a strikingly diverse phenotype in addition to the main lineage. This phenomenon not only presents a diagnostic problem but also raises questions about the commitment of tumor cells toward a specific phenotype. Among sarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma are two entities in which divergent differentiation is a relatively frequent event. Diagnostically it is crucial to recognize the "primary" sarcoma in such tumors correctly and distinguish it from the "secondary" divergent elements. The presence of the latter could be the first morphologic clue to a specific sarcoma type. Even though it may be difficult to explain the pathogenesis of divergent differentiation, divergence still illustrates that the phenotype of a tumor cell is not set in stone but can be modulated or switched by a number of factors.

  14. Resolving the Azimuthal Ambiguity in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: Implementations for Disambiguating Each Height Independently

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, Ashley D

    2015-01-01

    We continue the investigation of how to use the divergence-free condition to resolve the azimuthal ambiguity present in vector magnetogram data. In previous articles, by Crouch, Barnes, and Leka (Solar Physics, 260, 271, 2009) and Crouch (Solar Physics, 282, 107, 2013), all methods used an expression for the divergence of the magnetic field that involves differentiation of quantities that depend on the choice of azimuthal angle. As a result, all heights used to approximate line-of-sight derivatives should generally be disambiguated simultaneously. In this article, we investigate a set of methods that use an expression for the divergence that involves differentiation of quantities that do not depend on the choice of azimuthal angle. This results in an expression for the divergence that can be used to disambiguate each height independently. We test two methods using synthetic and find that the two-step, hybrid method, adapted to disambiguate each height independently, generally produces reasonable results. More...

  15. Pathogenesis of two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Madhuri; Xiao, Sa; Khattar, Sunil K; Dias, Flavia Militino; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-09-01

    Nine serologic types of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) have been recognized. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized virus, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two strains of APMV-2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks, and 4-wk-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was more than 168 hr for both strains, and their intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) was zero, indicating that these viruses are nonpathogenic in chickens. When inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old chicks, neither strain caused disease or replicated detectably in the brain. This suggests that the zero ICPI value of APMV-2 reflects the inability of the virus to grow in neural cells. Groups of twelve 4-wk-old SPF chickens and turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with either strain, and three birds per group were euthanatized on days 2, 4, 6, and 14 postinoculation for analysis. There were no overt clinical signs of illnesses, although all birds seroconverted by day 6. The viruses were isolated predominantly from the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of a large amount of viral antigens in epithelial linings of respiratory and alimentary tracts. There also was evidence of systemic spread even though the cleavage site of the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin protease cleavage site.

  16. Determination of Moisture Levels, Protein and Water Absorption of Chicken Giblets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Scaratti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed at evaluating the levels of moisture, protein, water to protein ratio, and water absorption during chilling of chicken giblets (heart, liver, and gizzard to set legal limits of water absorption during this process. The survey was conducted in the southern Brazil, the largest broiler-producing region of this country. Giblets (heart, liver, and gizzard were collected fresh from the processing line after evisceration and at the exit of the chiller after the immersion process from two processing plants. One of the plants (PP1 processes small chickens (1,100g live weight and PP2 processes chickens with 2,800g live weight. In total, 448 samples were collected. Laboratory tests were performed in duplicate for each parameter measured. The results show that moisture levels of fresh giblets were higher in the gizzard, followed by the liver and the heart, whereas in chilled giblets, the gizzard still maintained the highest moisture level, but was followed by the heart and then the liver. Both in fresh and chilled samples, the liver presented the highest protein content, followed by the gizzard and the heart. Water to protein ratios were higher in chilled than in fresh samples, and was highest in the heart, followed by the gizzard and the liver. After immersion in the chiller, the heart presented the highest water absorption rate (6.59%, which was significantly higher compared with those of the liver (4.16% and the gizzard (4.51%. Considering that the water absorption rates obtained both in fresh and chilled chicken giblets were below 8.00%, the following upper limits of water absorption are suggested for chicken giblet processing in Brazil: 7.0% for the heart, and 5.0% for the gizzard and the liver.

  17. 14 CFR 29.629 - Flutter and divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.629 Flutter and divergence. Each aerodynamic surface of the rotorcraft must be free from flutter and divergence under...

  18. Black hole entropy divergence and the uncertainty principle

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Black hole entropy has been shown by 't Hooft to diverge at the horizon. The region near the horizon is in a thermal state, so entropy is linear to energy which consequently also diverges. We find a similar divergence for the energy of the reduced density matrix of relativistic and non-relativistic field theories, extending previous results in quantum mechanics. This divergence is due to an infinitely sharp boundary, and it stems from the position/momentum uncertainty relation in the same way that the momentum fluctuations of a precisely localized quantum particle diverge. We show that when the boundary is smoothed the divergence is tamed. We argue that the divergence of black hole entropy can also be interpreted as a consequence of position/momentum uncertainty, and that 't Hooft's brick wall tames the divergence in the same way, by smoothing the boundary.

  19. Higgsed Stueckelberg vector and Higgs quadratic divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Ali Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we show that, a hidden vector field whose gauge invariance is ensured by a Stueckelberg scalar and whose mass is spontaneously generated by the Standard Model Higgs field contributes to quadratic divergences in the Higgs boson mass squared, and even leads to its cancellation at one-loop when Higgs coupling to gauge field is fine-tuned. In contrast to mechanisms based on hidden scalars where a complete cancellation cannot be achieved, stabilization here is complete in that the hidden vector and the accompanying Stueckelberg scalar are both free from quadratic divergences at one-loop. This stability, deriving from hidden exact gauge invariance, can have important implications for modeling dark phenomena like dark matter, dark energy, dark photon and neutrino masses. The hidden fields can be produced at the LHC.

  20. Adaptive Mixture Methods Based on Bregman Divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Donmez, Mehmet A; Kozat, Suleyman S

    2012-01-01

    We investigate adaptive mixture methods that linearly combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters running in parallel to model a desired signal. We use "Bregman divergences" and obtain certain multiplicative updates to train the linear combination weights under an affine constraint or without any constraints. We use unnormalized relative entropy and relative entropy to define two different Bregman divergences that produce an unnormalized exponentiated gradient update and a normalized exponentiated gradient update on the mixture weights, respectively. We then carry out the mean and the mean-square transient analysis of these adaptive algorithms when they are used to combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters. We illustrate the accuracy of our results and demonstrate the effectiveness of these updates for sparse mixture systems.

  1. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  2. Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)

  3. PUBLIC INTEGRITY AND THE DIVERGENCE FROM IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public Integrity is one of the public sector’s essential objectives to attain. In contradiction, as a divergence from it, corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. All nations complain of corruption and, as it is observed in the Corruption Perception Index 2012, no country has a maximum score which shows that a country is totally clean. In this context, the study of the most important elements of the public integrity concept, the identification of what causes the divergence from it and the solutions detection become a relevant option for economic literature. In this context, the main objective of this paper is to emphasize the public integrity concept and its main aspects and to make a comparison between countries to achieve a large perspective of the world’s public integrity juncture.

  4. The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nils Amsteus PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  5. Rousseau and Marx: Convergence or divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rousseau and Marx represent two paradigmatic variants of a radical opposition to the world. Without a doubt, there are significant moments of convergence between these thinkers, for instance in terms of division of labour, or in respect to the self-commandment. However, it is our contention that despite certain currents in literature, the tendencies of divergence are stronger than convergence, therefore, we argue that these thinkers signify two different variants of radical thought. We base these differences in a reading of Rousseau that focuses on collective authenticity, justice, self-presentation of people and protest against envy. Marx cannot be read from the perspective of the intensified crisis of non-authenticity, in fact, his critique of political economy generates a reflexive field (overcoming of the wage labour, etc., which is deeply divergent compared to Rousseau.

  6. Multiple Source Adaptation and the Renyi Divergence

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Yishay; Rostamizadeh, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical study of the general problem of multiple source adaptation using the notion of Renyi divergence. Our results build on our previous work [12], but significantly broaden the scope of that work in several directions. We extend previous multiple source loss guarantees based on distribution weighted combinations to arbitrary target distributions P, not necessarily mixtures of the source distributions, analyze both known and unknown target distribution cases, and prove a lower bound. We further extend our bounds to deal with the case where the learner receives an approximate distribution for each source instead of the exact one, and show that similar loss guarantees can be achieved depending on the divergence between the approximate and true distributions. We also analyze the case where the labeling functions of the source domains are somewhat different. Finally, we report the results of experiments with both an artificial data set and a sentiment analysis task, showing the p...

  7. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day......-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown...... to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  9. PUBLIC INTEGRITY AND THE DIVERGENCE FROM IT

    OpenAIRE

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN

    2013-01-01

    Public Integrity is one of the public sector’s essential objectives to attain. In contradiction, as a divergence from it, corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. All nations complain of corruption and, as it is observed in the Corruption Perception Index 2012, no country has a maximum score which shows that a countr...

  10. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  11. Automated leukocyte recognition using fuzzy divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Madhumala; Das, Devkumar; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K

    2010-10-01

    This paper aims at introducing an automated approach to leukocyte recognition using fuzzy divergence and modified thresholding techniques. The recognition is done through the segmentation of nuclei where Gamma, Gaussian and Cauchy type of fuzzy membership functions are studied for the image pixels. It is in fact found that Cauchy leads better segmentation as compared to others. In addition, image thresholding is modified for better recognition. Results are studied and discussed.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity and divergence in gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Timothy M; Schulte, Patricia M

    2015-07-01

    The extent to which phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes in different environments, impedes or promotes genetic divergence has been a matter of debate within evolutionary biology for many decades (see, for example, Ghalambor et al. ; Pfennig et al. ). Similarly, the role of evolution in shaping phenotypic plasticity remains poorly understood (Pigliucci ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dayan et al. () provide empirical data relevant to these questions by assessing the extent of plasticity and divergence in the expression levels of 2272 genes in muscle tissue from killifish (genus Fundulus) exposed to different temperatures. F. heteroclitus (Fig. A) and F. grandis are minnows that inhabit estuarine marshes (Fig. B) along the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico in North America. These habitats undergo large variations in temperature both daily and seasonally, and these fish are known to demonstrate substantial phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature change (e.g. Fangue et al. ). Furthermore, the range of F. heteroclitus spans a large latitudinal gradient of temperatures, such that northern populations experience temperatures that are on average ~10°C colder than do southern populations (Schulte ). By comparing gene expression patterns between populations of these fish from different thermal habitats held in the laboratory at three different temperatures, Dayan et al. () address two important questions regarding the interacting effects of plasticity and evolution: (i) How does phenotypic plasticity affect adaptive divergence? and (ii) How does adaptive divergence affect plasticity?

  13. Influence of turkey herpesvirus vaccination on the B-haplotype effect on Marek's disease resistance in 15.B-congenic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1992-01-01

    Eight recently developed 15.B congenic lines of chickens were tested for Marek's disease (MD) resistance by intra-abdominal injection of cell-associated preparations of MD virus of a virulent strain (JM), a very virulent strain (Md5), or Md5 after vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) strain FC126. Chickens of the 15.N congenic line (B15B21 or B21B21) were very resistant to JM-induced MD, in contrast to chickens homozygous for the B-haplotypes 2, 5, 12, 13, 15, or 19. After Md5 infection, more than 88% of the chickens in all of the congenic lines developed MD. However, when chickens were vaccinated with HVT before being inoculated with Md5, the B5 and B12 homozygotes were more resistant to MD than were the B2, B13, or B19 homozygotes, and B15 and B21 homozygotes had intermediate resistance. B5B5 and B2B5 F2 chicks inoculated with HVT and Md5 had a lower prevalence of MD than B2B2 sibs. These results demonstrate that a protocol involving HVT vaccination of chicks followed by infection with very virulent MD virus will allow the detection of B-haplotypes determining MD resistance, some of which are not detectable in unvaccinated chicks challenged with virulent MD.

  14. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  16. Mechanisms of protein sequence divergence and incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Wellner

    Full Text Available Alignments of orthologous protein sequences convey a complex picture. Some positions are utterly conserved whilst others have diverged to variable degrees. Amongst the latter, many are non-exchangeable between extant sequences. How do functionally critical and highly conserved residues diverge? Why and how did these exchanges become incompatible within contemporary sequences? Our model is phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, where lysine 219 is an essential active-site residue completely conserved throughout Eukaryota and Bacteria, and serine is found only in archaeal PGKs. Contemporary sequences tested exhibited complete loss of function upon exchanges at 219. However, a directed evolution experiment revealed that two mutations were sufficient for human PGK to become functional with serine at position 219. These two mutations made position 219 permissive not only for serine and lysine, but also to a range of other amino acids seen in archaeal PGKs. The identified trajectories that enabled exchanges at 219 show marked sign epistasis - a relatively small loss of function with respect to one amino acid (lysine versus a large gain with another (serine, and other amino acids. Our findings support the view that, as theoretically described, the trajectories underlining the divergence of critical positions are dominated by sign epistatic interactions. Such trajectories are an outcome of rare mutational combinations. Nonetheless, as suggested by the laboratory enabled K219S exchange, given enough time and variability in selection levels, even utterly conserved and functionally essential residues may change.

  17. Polygamy slows down population divergence in shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Josephine D'Urban; dos Remedios, Natalie; Maher, Kathryn; Zefania, Sama; Haig, Susan M.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Blomqvist, Donald; Burke, Terry; Bruford, Michael W.; Székely, Tamás; Küpper, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection may act as a promotor of speciation since divergent mate choice and competition for mates can rapidly lead to reproductive isolation. Alternatively, sexual selection may also retard speciation since polygamous individuals can access additional mates by increased breeding dispersal. High breeding dispersal should hence increase gene flow and reduce diversification in polygamous species. Here, we test how polygamy predicts diversification in shorebirds using genetic differentiation and subspecies richness as proxies for population divergence. Examining microsatellite data from 79 populations in 10 plover species (Genus: Charadrius) we found that polygamous species display significantly less genetic structure and weaker isolation-by-distance effects than monogamous species. Consistent with this result, a comparative analysis including 136 shorebird species showed significantly fewer subspecies for polygamous than for monogamous species. By contrast, migratory behavior neither predicted genetic differentiation nor subspecies richness. Taken together, our results suggest that dispersal associated with polygamy may facilitate gene flow and limit population divergence. Therefore, intense sexual selection, as occurs in polygamous species, may act as a brake rather than an engine of speciation in shorebirds. We discuss alternative explanations for these results and call for further studies to understand the relationships between sexual selection, dispersal, and diversification.

  18. Genetic divergence predicts reproductive isolation in damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Cordero-Rivera, A; Wellenreuther, M

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is the defining characteristic of a biological species, and a common, but often untested prediction is a positive correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Here, we test for this correlation in odonates, an order characterized by strong sexual selection. First, we measure reproductive isolation and genetic divergence in eight damselfly genera (30 species pairs) and test for a positive correlation. Second, we estimate the genetic threshold preventing hybrid formation and empirically test this threshold using wild populations of species within the Ischnura genus. Our results indicate a positive and strong correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic distance using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes cytochrome oxidase II (COII: r = 0.781 and 18S-28S: r = 0.658). Hybridization thresholds range from -0.43 to 1.78% for COII and -0.052-0.71% for 18S-28S, and both F1 -hybrids and backcrosses were detected in wild populations of two pairs of Ischnura species with overlapping thresholds. Our study suggests that threshold values are suitable to identify species prone to hybridization and that positive isolation-divergence relationships are taxonomically widespread.

  19. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    line-height: normal; text-align: justify; mso-layout-grid-align: none;"> Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  20. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  1. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  2. Characterization of unique truncated prolactin receptor transcripts, corresponding to the intracellular domain, in the testis of the sexually mature chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J N; Burnside, J; Li, L; Tang, J; Davolos, C; Cogburn, L A

    1999-03-01

    We have examined expression of the chicken PRL receptor (cPRLR) gene in different tissues of the chicken by Northern blot analysis. Most tissues examined (ovary, testis, oviduct, kidney, and fat) possess a prominent full-length (4.6-kb) cPRLR transcript. A larger (11.7-kb) transcript is also detected in ovary, oviduct, testis, and kidney after longer exposure. A unique pattern of cPRLR expression was found in the testis of sexually mature chickens, which have an unusually high abundance of three small transcripts (1.2, 1.7, and 2 kb) in addition to the 4.6-kb transcript found in other tissues. Three domain-specific complementary DNA (cDNA) probes were constructed that correspond to the first and second ligand-binding regions in the extracellular domain and the transmembrane-intracellular domain. With these probes, Northern blot analysis of polyadenylated RNA prepared from the testes of a mature (22-week-old) chicken indicates that the highly abundant (1.2- and 1.7-kb) and less abundant (2.0-kb) cPRLR transcripts in testis hybridize only to the intracellular domain probe. Two types of truncated testis-specific cPRLR transcripts were identified using 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis of polyadenylated RNA from the testis of a 22-week-old chicken. The predominant truncated cDNA sequence contains the highly conserved box 1 motif [(+)box 1 cDNA] and diverges (at nucleotide 1396) from that of the cPRLR cDNA, just downstream of the transmembrane domain. The other truncated cDNA lacks the box 1 motif [(-)box 1 cDNA], which is replaced by 39 bases that could encode a hydrophobic N-terminus with a putative 5'-untranslated region of 131 bases. Young chickens predominately express the full-length cPRLR messenger RNA (4.6 kb) in the testis. At the onset of sexual maturity, there is a dramatic increase in abundance of the testis-specific (+)box 1 transcript, whereas expression of the full-length cPRLR is depressed. The presence of truncated [(+) or (-)box 1] c

  3. [Whole cDNA sequence cloning and expression of chicken L-FABP gene and its relationship with lipid deposition of hybrid chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is closely related to intracellular transportation and deposition of lipids. A positive differential displayed fragment was found in the liver tissue among Silkie (CC), CAU-brown chicken (CD), and their reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) at 8 weeks-old using differential display RT-PCR techniques (DDRT-PCR). Through recycling, sequencing, and alignment analysis, the fragment was identified as chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (L-FABP, GenBank accession number AY321365). Reverse Northern dot blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the avian L-FABP gene was over-expressed in the liver tissue of the reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) compared to their parental lines (CC and DD), which was consistent with the fact that higher abdomen fat weight and wider inter-muscular fat width observed in the reciprocal hybrids. Considering the higher expression of L-FABP may contribute to the increased lipid deposition in the hybrid chickens, the functional study of avian L-FABP is warranted in future.

  4. Phylogenomic investigation of CR1 LINE diversity in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Andrew M

    2006-12-01

    It is unlikely that taxonomically diverse phylogenetic studies will be completed rapidly in the near future for nonmodel organisms on a whole-genome basis. However, one approach to advancing the field of "phylogenomics" is to estimate the structure of poorly known genomes by mining libraries of clones from suites of taxa, rather than from single species. The present analysis adopts this approach by taking advantage of megabase-scale end-sequence scanning of reptilian genomic clones to characterize diversity of CR1-like LINEs, the dominant family of transposable elements (TEs) in the sister group of mammals. As such, it helps close an important gap in the literature on the molecular systematics and evolution of retroelements in nonavian reptiles. Results from aligning more than 14 Mb of sequence from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), painted turtle (Chrysemys picta), Bahamian green anole (Anolis smaragdinus), Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) against a comprehensive library approximately 3000 TE-encoding peptides reflect an increasing abundance of LINE and non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon repeat types with the age of common ancestry among exemplar reptilian clades. The hypothesis that repeat diversity is correlated with basal metabolic rate was tested using comparative methods and a significant nonlinear relationship was indicated. This analysis suggests that the age of divergence between an exemplary clade and its sister group as well as metabolic correlates should be considered in addition to genome size in explaining patterns of retroelement diversity. The first phylogenetic analysis of the largely unexplored chicken repeat 1 (CR1) 3' reverse transcriptase (RT) conserved domains 8 and 9 in nonavian reptiles reveals a pattern of multiple lineages with variable branch lengths, suggesting presence of both old and young elements and the existence of several

  5. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  6. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  7. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  8. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  9. Expression analysis of cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway genes in the intestinal mucosal layer of necrotic enteritis-induced chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Truong, Anh Duc; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2016-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a serious problem to the poultry farms, which report NE outbreaks more than once per year, as a result of the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the feed. The NE affected bird die rapidly as a result of various pathophysiological complications in the intestine and immune system. Also, several studies have reported that the genes exclusively related to intestine and immune functions are significantly altered in response to NE. In this study, NE was induced in two genetically disparate chicken lines that are resistant (line 6.3) and sensitive (line 7.2) to avian leukosis and Marek's disease. The intestinal mucosal layer was collected from NE-induced and control chickens, and subjected to RNA-sequencing analysis. The involvement of differentially expressed genes in the intestinal mucosal layer of line 6.3 and 7.2 with the immune system-related pathways was investigated. Among the identified immune system-related pathways, a candidate pathway known as chicken cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway (CDS pathway) was selected for further investigation. RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis identified a total of 21 genes that were involved in CDS pathway and differentially expressed in the intestinal mucosal layer of lines 6.3 and 7.2. The expression of CDS pathway genes was further confirmed by real-time qPCR. In the results, a majority of the CDS pathway genes were significantly altered in the NE-induced intestinal mucosal layer from lines 6.3 and 7.2. In conclusion, our study indicate that NE seriously affects several genes involved in innate immune defense and foreign DNA sensing mechanisms in the chicken intestinal mucosal layer. Identifying the immune genes affected by NE could be an important evidence for the protective immune response to NE-causative pathogens.

  10. Resolving the Azimuthal Ambiguity in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: Theoretical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A.; Barnes, G.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the azimuthal ambiguity that is present in solar vector magnetogram data can be resolved with line-of-sight and horizontal heliographic derivative information by using the divergence-free property of magnetic fields without additional assumptions. We discuss the specific derivative information that is sufficient to resolve the ambiguity away from disk center, with particular emphasis on the line-of-sight derivative of the various components of the magnetic field. Conversely, we also show cases where ambiguity resolution fails because sufficient line-of-sight derivative information is not available. For example, knowledge of only the line-of-sight derivative of the line-of-sight component of the field is not sufficient to resolve the ambiguity away from disk center.

  11. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  12. Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Nordgren, R

    1995-03-01

    Cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD11 line cells produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate derived from the Aloe vera plant. Neither cell type produced detectable amounts of NO in response to similar concentrations of yeast mannan, another complex carbohydrate. Nitric oxide production was dose dependent and inhibitable by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine. In addition, the production of NO was inhibited by preincubation of ACM with concanavalin A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ACM-induced NO synthesis may be mediated through macrophage mannose receptors, and macrophage activation may be accountable for some of the immunomodulatory effects of ACM in chickens.

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes in chickens differing in muscle glycogen content and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthey Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The processing ability of poultry meat is highly related to its ultimate pH, the latter being mainly determined by the amount of glycogen in the muscle at death. The genetic determinism of glycogen and related meat quality traits has been established in the chicken but the molecular mechanisms involved in variations in these traits remain to be fully described. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays (20 K were used to compare muscle gene expression profiles of chickens from Fat (F and Lean (L lines that exhibited high and low muscle glycogen content, respectively, and of individuals exhibiting extremely high (G+ or low (G- muscle glycogen content originating from the F2 cross between the Fat and Lean lines. Real-time RT-PCR was subsequently performed to validate the differential expression of genes either selected from the microarray analysis or whose function in regulating glycogen metabolism was well known. Results Among the genes found to be expressed in chicken P. major muscle, 197 and 254 transcripts appeared to be differentially expressed on microarrays for the F vs. L and the G+ vs. G- comparisons, respectively. Some involved particularly in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were selected for further validation studies by real-time RT-PCR. We confirmed that, as in mammals, the down-regulation of CEBPB and RGS2 coincides with a decrease in peripheral adiposity in the chicken, but these genes are also suggested to affect muscle glycogen turnover through their role in the cAMP-dependent signalling pathway. Several other genes were suggested to have roles in the regulation of glycogen storage in chicken muscle. PDK4 may act as a glycogen sensor in muscle, UGDH may compete for glycogen synthesis by using UDP-glucose for glucoronidation, and PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PHKD may impact on glycogen turnover in muscle, through AMP-activated signalling pathways. Conclusions This study is the first stage in the understanding of molecular

  14. Gene finding in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonarakis Stylianos E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods.

  15. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Veenendaal, T.; Ovcharenko, I.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Gordon, L.; Stubbs, L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodoinov, A.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the economically important traits in chicken are multifactorial and governed by multiple genes located at different quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The optimal marker density to identify these QTLs in linkage and association studies is largely determined by the extent of linkage

  16. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  17. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  18. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  19. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  20. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  1. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  2. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  3. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry si...... reserved....

  4. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found.

  5. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    revealed that the average flock size was 8.5 chickens (95% CI=7.98 – 9.08). The average number ... by low input and output system, and scavenging was the dominant form of feeding of ... A pair-wise ranking method was used to identify major ...

  6. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G Dyomin

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5'ETS (1836 bp, 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp, ITS1 (2530 bp, 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp, ITS2 (733 bp, 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp and 3'ETS (343 bp. The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region. The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity.

  7. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... In this study, we investigated the function of recombinant chicken GM-CSF (rchGM-CSF). ... The recombinant Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZαA-rchGM-CSF was constructed by inserting the reformed ...

  8. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  9. Characterization of the innate and adaptive immunity to Salmonella enteritidis PT1 infection in four broiler lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Visscher, A.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Boonstra Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Four broiler lines were inoculated orally with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 1 at the age of 7 days (experiment A: lines 1 and 2) and at the age of 1 day (experiment B: lines 3 and 4). At various days post-infection chickens were sacrificed and the number of Salmonella in the caeca, liver, and s

  10. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  11. Century-scale methylome stability in a recently diverged Arabidopsis thaliana lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Hagmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much excitement about the possibility that exposure to specific environments can induce an ecological memory in the form of whole-sale, genome-wide epigenetic changes that are maintained over many generations. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, numerous heritable DNA methylation differences have been identified in greenhouse-grown isogenic lines, but it remains unknown how natural, highly variable environments affect the rate and spectrum of such changes. Here we present detailed methylome analyses in a geographically dispersed A. thaliana population that constitutes a collection of near-isogenic lines, diverged for at least a century from a common ancestor. Methylome variation largely reflected genetic distance, and was in many aspects similar to that of lines raised in uniform conditions. Thus, even when plants are grown in varying and diverse natural sites, genome-wide epigenetic variation accumulates mostly in a clock-like manner, and epigenetic divergence thus parallels the pattern of genome-wide DNA sequence divergence.

  12. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  13. Macrophages from chickens selected for high antibody response produced more nitric oxide and have greater phagocytic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes; Guillermo, Landi Veivi Costilla; Matta, Marcos Fernando de Rezende; Soares, Sandro Gomes; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2011-04-15

    Macrophages are fundamental cells of the innate immune system, which, through phagocytosis and nitric oxide production, eliminate pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine if macrophages from chicken families divergently selected to high and low antibodies response differ in nitric oxide production and phagocytic capacity. Blood monocytes derived macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide and supernatant from chicken spleen lymphocytes cultured with Concanavalin A (containing chicken interferon). Nitric oxide production was evaluated in culture supernatants. Phagocytic capacity of activated and non-activated macrophages was assayed using yeasts and IgY opsonized sheep red blood cells. Activated and non-activated macrophages from the high antibodies response family produced higher nitric oxide levels, internalized more yeast and significantly more opsonized sheep red blood cells than macrophages from the low antibodies response family. Moreover, activated macrophages became more elongated and widely spread. These findings indicate that macrophages from the high antibodies response family were more active suggesting that the differences in antibody response also depend on macrophage function.

  14. Genomic Comparison of Indigenous African and Northern European Chickens Reveals Putative Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance Related to Environmental Selection Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Weigend, Steffen; Simianer, Henner; Weigend, Annett; Rothschild, Max; Schmidt, Carl; Ashwell, Chris; Persia, Mike; Reecy, James; Lamont, Susan J

    2017-05-05

    Global climate change is increasing the magnitude of environmental stressors, such as temperature, pathogens, and drought, that limit the survivability and sustainability of livestock production. Poultry production and its expansion is dependent upon robust animals that are able to cope with stressors in multiple environments. Understanding the genetic strategies that indigenous, noncommercial breeds have evolved to survive in their environment could help to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying biological traits of environmental adaptation. We examined poultry from diverse breeds and climates of Africa and Northern Europe for selection signatures that have allowed them to adapt to their indigenous environments. Selection signatures were studied using a combination of population genomic methods that employed FST , integrated haplotype score (iHS), and runs of homozygosity (ROH) procedures. All the analyses indicated differences in environment as a driver of selective pressure in both groups of populations. The analyses revealed unique differences in the genomic regions under selection pressure from the environment for each population. The African chickens showed stronger selection toward stress signaling and angiogenesis, while the Northern European chickens showed more selection pressure toward processes related to energy homeostasis. The results suggest that chromosomes 2 and 27 are the most diverged between populations and the most selected upon within the African (chromosome 27) and Northern European (chromosome 2) birds. Examination of the divergent populations has provided new insight into genes under possible selection related to tolerance of a population's indigenous environment that may be baselines for examining the genomic contribution to tolerance adaptions. Copyright © 2017 Fleming et al.

  15. Measure Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  16. Projection Pursuit Through ϕ-Divergence Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In his 1985 article (“Projection pursuit”, Huber demonstrates the interest of his method to estimate a density from a data set in a simple given case. He considers the factorization of density through a Gaussian component and some residual density. Huber’s work is based on maximizing Kullback–Leibler divergence. Our proposal leads to a new algorithm. Furthermore, we will also consider the case when the density to be factorized is estimated from an i.i.d. sample. We will then propose a test for the factorization of the estimated density. Applications include a new test of fit pertaining to the elliptical copulas.

  17. The Eurozone Dynamic Cohesion: Convergence or Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Rusek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The long term economic dynamics of the Eurozone’s original 12 countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Finland, France is analyzed and compared. It is today increasingly recognized that the diverging competitiveness between the Eurozone members is at the root of the current crisis. But the competitiveness dynamics and its impact on the crucial fiscal and financial variables during the common currency existence is seldom analyzed and compared, especially as far as the different groups of countries (and/or different areas within the Eurozone are concerned.

  18. Convergent and Divergent Adaptations of Subterranean Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Xiaodong

    ) have evolved convergent and divergent traits in many of their morphological, physiological, and/or behavioral characteristics, which facilitate their adaptions to a similar underground burrowing life style. For example, all these three rodents show degenerate visual acuity and advanced sensory systems...... in the dark; they display remarkable tolerance to a living environment with an excess of carbon dioxide and ammonia, but lack of oxygen; they exhibit extraordinarily long lives, and keep a fantastic resistance to cancer and other aging-associated diseases. In this study, we reported the genomic...

  19. More on divergences in brane world models

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N

    2013-01-01

    In this note a model in a space-time with compact extra dimension, describing five-dimensional fermion fields interacting with electromagnetic field localized on a brane, is presented. This model can be considered as a toy model for examining possible consequences of localization of gauge fields on a brane. It is shown that in the limit of infinite extra dimension the lowest order amplitudes of some processes in the resulting four-dimensional effective theory are divergent. Such a "localization catastrophe" can be inherent to more realistic bane world models with infinite extra dimension.

  20. Lindstedt series, ultraviolet divergences and Moser's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetto, F; Gentile, G; Mastropietro, V

    1995-01-01

    Moser's invariant tori for a class of nonanalytic quasi integrable even hamiltonian systems are shown to be analytic in the perturbation parameter. We do so by exhibiting a summation rule for the divergent series (``Lindstedt series") that formally define them. We find additional cancellations taking place in the formal series, besides the ones already known and necessary in the analytic case (\\ie to prove convergence of Lindtsedt algorithm for Kolmogorov's invariant tori). The method is interpreted in terms of a non renormalizable quantum field theory, considerably more singular than the one we pointed out in the analytic case.

  1. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  2. Immunological Competence of Different Domestic Chicken Breeds Against Avian Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Ulrike; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for high laying performance on the capacity to respond to an infection with avian influenza virus (AIV), four different chicken lines were tested: A white layer and a brown layer breed originating from a commercial breeding program, and a white layer and a brown layer line maintained as a conservation flock for decades without any selection. The different chicken breeds were infected with AIV of different pathotypes (low pathogenic to high pathogenic) to evaluate and compare their immunological competence. Morbidity and mortality rates, as well as viral shedding, were investigated as parameters of virus infection. Immune cells in blood samples collected after different time points following inoculation were identified. In general, the chickens of the two phylogenetically related brown layer lines (irrespective of the performance type) were more resistant to infection with the selected AIVs, reflected by a lower mortality rate (low virulent AIV) or a prolonged length of survival before succumbing to the disease (highly virulent AIV). Corresponding to these results, CD8-positive cell counts were reduced in both white layer lines. This observation was also confirmed in an in vivo allogenic transfer experiment, in which brown layers eliminated the transferred cells in a shorter time period. In conclusion, our results do not support the theory of reduced immunological competence of high-performance layer breeds, at least against AIV infection. Instead, brown layer strains had a faster CD8-positive immune cell response after viral or allogenic stimulus than the phylogenetically distant white layers, resulting in better resistance against AIV infection.

  3. Diet-induced thermogenesis and glucose oxidation in broiler chickens: influence of genotype and diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J; Collin, A; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Verbeke, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2006-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to explore the role of diet-induced thermogenesis in the regulation of voluntary feed intake and to determine the glucose oxidation of broiler chicken strains, known to differ in glucose-insulin balance. From 2 to 7 wk of age, male broiler chickens of a fat and a lean line were reared on 1 of 2 isoenergetic diets with constant gross energy and carbohydrate levels but with substitutions between fat and protein. The low protein (LP/HF) diet contained 126 g of protein/kg and 106 g of fat/kg, whereas the low fat (LF/HP) diet contained 242 g of protein/kg and 43 g of fat/kg. There was no significant effect of the genetic background of the broilers on the glucose oxidation rate (as measured by stable isotope breath test) or protein oxidation (as measured by plasma uric acid levels). Considering the difference in carcass composition (fat content) of both lines, this leads to the hypothesis that the lines differ predominantly in fat metabolism. Although there was no line effect on plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations, it was hypothesized that there might be differences in fat oxidation or de novo lipogenesis, or both, between the genotypes. Diet-induced thermogenesis per metabolic body weight (kg of BW0.75) per 24 h, expressed per gram of feed intake, was not significantly influenced by genetic background or by diet composition. Therefore, a model linking feed intake to diet-induced thermogenesis, as postulated for adult mammals, could not be corroborated for growing broiler chickens.

  4. Expression of interferon gamma by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus decreases its pathogenicity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Cornax, Ingrid; Diel, Diego G; Garcia, Stivalis Cardenas; Miller, Patti J; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-01-01

    The role of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chickens is unknown. Infection of chickens with highly virulent NDV results in rapid death, which is preceded by increased expression of IFN-γ in target tissues. IFN-γ is a cytokine that has pleiotropic biological effects including intrinsic antiviral activity and immunomodulatory effects that may increase morbidity and mortality during infections. To better understand how IFN-γ contributes to NDV pathogenesis, the coding sequence of the chicken IFN-γ gene was inserted in the genome of the virulent NDV strain ZJ1 (rZJ1-IFNγ), and the effects of high levels of IFN-γ expression during infection were determined in vivo and in vitro. IFN-γ expression did not significantly affect NDV replication in fibroblast or in macrophage cell lines. However, it affected the pathogenesis of rZJ1-IFNγ in vivo. Relative to the virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP) or lacking the IFN-γ insert (rZJ1-rev), expression of IFN-γ by rZJ1-IFNγ produced a marked decrease of pathogenicity in 4-week-old chickens, as evidenced by lack of mortality, decreased disease severity, virus shedding, and antigen distribution. These results suggest that early expression of IFN-γ had a significant protective role against the effects of highly virulent NDV infection in chickens, and further suggests that the level and timing of expression of this cytokine may be critical for the disease outcome. This is the first description of an in vivo attenuation of a highly virulent NDV by avian cytokines, and shows the feasibility to use NDV for cytokine delivery in chicken organs. This approach may facilitate the study of the role of other avian cytokines on the pathogenesis of NDV.

  5. Effect of divergent selection for intramuscular fat on sensory traits and instrumental texture in rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvaroi, M; Penalba, V; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2016-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the main parameters affecting meat quality. This work analyzes the effect of selection for IMF on sensory attributes and instrumental texture parameters in rabbit meat. A total of 115 rabbits after 6 generations of divergent selection for IMF were slaughtered at 9 or 13 wk (57 and 58 animals, respectively). For each animal, the left longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) was analyzed by near-infrared spectroscopy to measure IMF whereas the right LD was used for the sensory or instrumental texture analysis. Sensory attributes measured were rabbit odor, liver odor, rabbit flavor, liver flavor, aniseed flavor, hardness, juiciness, and fibrousness. The instrumental texture parameters maximum shear force, shear firmness, and total work to cut the sample were measured by a Warner-Bratzler shear test. The line selected for high IMF showed 58% greater IMF than the line selected for low IMF. This divergence affected firmness that was 9.9% greater in the low-IMF line, although no effect was found for the other instrumental texture traits. No effect of selection was observed in any odor or flavor, except for aniseed flavor, which was greater in the high-IMF line than in the low-IMF line. Age had an effect on IMF, instrumental texture parameters, and sensory attributes. Rabbits at 13 wk showed greater IMF and instrumental and sensory hardness and more intense odor and flavor and lower juiciness than rabbits at 9 wk.

  6. Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Molecular Characteristics of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Including Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers in Retail Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in 100 chicken carcass samples from five integrated broiler operation brands in Korea. Serotypes, antibiotic resistance patterns, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, and clonal divergence using multilocus sequence typing of the isolated strains were analyzed. A total of 42 chicken samples were contaminated with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates: 16 isolates (38%) were Salmonella Virchow, 9 (21%) were Salmonella Bareilly, and 8 (19%) were Salmonella Infantis. A multidrug resistance (MDR; resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics) phenotype was observed in 29% of the isolates, which were resistant to five or more classes of antibiotics. The dominant MDR type was resistance to classes of penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. All the MDR isolates were positive for ESBL producers, and all but one (with the CTX-M-1 genotype) had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed ST16 as the dominant sequence type; Salmonella Virchow, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Richmond were all ST16, indicating a close genetic relationship between these serovars. This is the first study in Korea showing the CTX-M-1 type of NTS and the prevalence of ESBL-producing strains among NTS isolated from retail chicken meat. Our findings suggest that MDR Salmonella contamination is widely prevalent in retail chicken meat, and consumption of inadequately cooked products could lead to dissemination of NTS, which is hazardous to human health.

  7. Supersonic two-phase flow of CO{sub 2} through converging-diverging nozzles for the ejector refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Masafumi [Department of Mechanical and Structural System Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi City, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Berana, Menandro Serrano [Department of Mechanical and Structural System Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi City, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Kishine, Akinori [Machine Tool Division, Murata Machinery, Ltd., 2 Nakajima, Hashizume, Inuyama City, Aichi 484-8502 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    CO{sub 2} is environmentally friendly, safe and more suitable to ejector refrigeration cycle than to vapor compression cycle. Supersonic two-phase flow of CO{sub 2} in the diverging sections of rectangular converging-diverging nozzles was investigated. The divergence angles with significant variation of decompression were 0.076 , 0.153 , 0.306 and 0.612 . This paper presents experimental decompression phenomena which can be used in designing nozzles and an assessment of Isentropic Homogeneous Equilibrium (IHE). Inlet conditions around 6-9 MPa, 20-37 C were used to resemble ejector nozzles of coolers and heat pumps. For inlet temperature around 37 C, throat decompression boiling from the saturated liquid line, supersonic decompression and IHE solution were obtained for the two large divergence angles. For divergence angles larger than 0.306 , decompression curves for inlet temperature above 35 C approached IHE curves. For divergence angles smaller than 0.306 or for nozzles with inlet temperature below 35 C, IHE had no solution. (author)

  8. Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucek, K; Sivasundar, A; Kristjánsson, B K; Skúlason, S; Seehausen, O

    2014-09-01

    When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism in ecotypic divergence between parapatric lake and stream populations and compare the observed patterns to an ancestral-like marine population. We find strong and consistent phenotypic divergence, both among lake and stream populations and between our freshwater populations and the marine population. Interestingly, ecotypic divergence in low-dimensional phenotype space (i.e. single traits) is rapid and seems to be often completed within 100 years. Yet, the dimensionality of ecotypic divergence was highest in our oldest systems and only there parallel evolution of unrelated ecotypes was strong enough to overwrite phylogenetic contingency. Moreover, the dimensionality of divergence in different systems varies between trait complexes, suggesting different constraints and evolutionary pathways to their resolution among freshwater systems.

  9. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  10. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed

    OpenAIRE

    Heres, L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jong, de, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantif...

  11. Genetic diversity and haplogroups distributions of Kampung chickens using hypervariable-I mitochondrial DNA control region

    OpenAIRE

    M. Syamsul Arifin Zein; S. Sulandari

    2012-01-01

    Until now no studies evaluating the position of Kampung chickens in chicken clade of Asia. Thus studies based on molecular DNA sequence hipervariable-I on Kampung chicken is needed. Molecular studies based on DNA sequences hyper variable-I of Kampong chicken was done to confirm the results of previous evaluations conducted on 15 families of local chickens of Indonesia. An analysis of 210 individuals Kampung chicken (Aceh, North Sumatra, Lampung, Banten, Central Java, Lombok, Sulawesi, Ternate...

  12. Phylogeny of the Highly Divergent Echinosteliales (Amoebozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Martin; Kuhnt, Andreas; Bonkowski, Michael; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria

    2016-07-01

    Myxomycetes or plasmodial slime molds are widespread and very common soil amoebae with the ability to form macroscopic fruiting bodies. Even if their phylogenetic position as a monophyletic group in Amoebozoa is well established, their internal relationships are still not entirely resolved. At the base of the most intensively studied dark-spored clade lies the order Echinosteliales, whose highly divergent small subunit ribosomal (18S) RNA genes represent a challenge for phylogenetic reconstructions. This is because they are characterized by unusually long variable helices of unknown secondary structure and a high inter- and infraspecific divergence. Current classification recognizes two families: the monogeneric Echinosteliaceae and the Clastodermataceae with the genera Barbeyella and Clastoderma. To better resolve the phylogeny of the Echinosteliales, we obtained three new small subunit ribosomal (18S) RNA gene sequences of Clastoderma and Echinostelium corynophorum. Our phylogenetic analyses suggested the polyphyly of the family Clastodermataceae, as Barbeyella was more closely related to Echinostelium arboreum than to Clastoderma, while Clastoderma debaryanum was the earliest branching clade in Echinosteliales. We also found that E. corynophorum was the closest relative of the enigmatic Semimorula liquescens, a stalkless-modified Echinosteliales. We discuss possible evolutionary pathways in dark-spored Myxomycetes and propose a taxonomic update. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  13. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  14. World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p chickens.

  16. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  17. Study on immunofunction and immunoregulation post newcastle disease vaccination of chickens infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV) at one-day-old and vaccinated with La Sota vaccine 8 days later. Meanwhile, uninfected chickens were vaccinated as controls. At 7, 14 and 28 days post vaccination, the content of IgG,IgM,IgA and HI titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T、B cells, the inductive activity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon (IFN) in thymus and spleen were tested. The results showed that the content of IgG, IgM, IgA and hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T cells and B cells as well as the inductive activity of IL-2 and IFN in thymus and spleen of infected-vaccinated chickens significantly decreased compared with the control. These results indicated that the immunofunction and immunoregulation were dropped post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  18. Thinking chickens: a review of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.

  19. Identification of an alternative splicing isoform of chicken Lmbr1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Chen, Wen; Li, Ning; Deng, Xuemei; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2011-10-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene for limb development. Until now, at least five and four alternative splicing isoforms of Lmbr1 gene have been found in human and mouse, respectively. However, only two alternative splicing isoforms of this homologous gene have been reported in chicken. In the present study, one novel chicken Lmbr1 transcript variant (designated Lmbr1-1) was identified by 5' RACE and RT-PCR. Chicken Lmbr1-1 possesses one novel transcription start site different from Lmbr1-N, and was predicted to encode one 192 amino acid protein with length variation in comparison with chicken LMBR1-N protein, which was produced by 5' spliced site variation of chicken Lmbr1-N exon 10. Comparing with Lmbr1-N transcript, chicken Lmbr1-1 exhibited restricted tissue distribution of the expression. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a highly conservative intron element between chicken and mammalians from the intron 9 of chicken Lmbr1-N, indicating their possible importance as intronic elements in the regulation of alternative splicing of Lmbr1 in vertebrates. By direct PCR sequencing the exon 10 and its flanking sequences in chicken Lmbr1-N, four variation sites/haplotypes were identified from six chicken breeds. One 797A/G nonsynonymous mutation (266Arg/Gln) locating in exon 10 of chicken Lmbr1-N was predicted to affect the exon splice enhancer motif for serine/arginine-rich protein recognition. These data demonstrated that chicken Lmbr1 was alternatively spliced to generate multiple splice forms, as was the case in mammals and each of the alternative splicing isoforms might function differentially.

  20. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;

    2014-01-01

    in the pathogenesis of IBV infection and the production of IBV-specific antibodies, which may be exploited in optimising IBV vaccine strategies. The present study shows that MBL has the capability to bind to IBV in vitro. Chickens from two inbred lines (L10H and L10L) selected for high or low MBL serum concentrations...

  1. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  2. Role of endogenous avian leukosis virus and serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus in enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid-leukosis-like tumors in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of endogenous subgroup E avian Leukosis virus (ALV-E) and strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV) on the enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like tumors was studied in chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line named 0.TVB*S1, or RFS. This...

  3. Spontaenous Avian Leukosis Virus-like lymphomas in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated with serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6, known to develop spontaneous avian leukosis virus (ALV)-like lymphomas at two years of age or older, were inoculated either in-ovo, or at 1 day of age with strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Inoculated and uninoc...

  4. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  5. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  6. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  7. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  8. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  9. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  10. Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP belong to a family of endocrine factors that share a highly conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-34 and play key roles in calcium homeostasis, bone formation and skeletal development. Recently, PTH-like peptide (PTH-L was identified in teleost fish raising questions about the evolution of these proteins. Although PTH and PTHrP have been intensively studied in mammals their function in other vertebrates is poorly documented. Amphibians and birds occupy unique phylogenetic positions, the former at the transition of aquatic to terrestrial life and the latter at the transition to homeothermy. Moreover, both organisms have characteristics indicative of a complex system in calcium regulation. This study investigated PTH family evolution in vertebrates with special emphasis on Xenopus and chicken. Results The PTH-L gene is present throughout the vertebrates with the exception of placental mammals. Gene structure of PTH and PTH-L seems to be conserved in vertebrates while PTHrP gene structure is divergent and has acquired new exons and alternative promoters. Splice variants of PTHrP and PTH-L are common in Xenopus and chicken and transcripts of the former have a widespread tissue distribution, although PTH-L is more restricted. PTH is widely expressed in fish tissue but from Xenopus to mammals becomes largely restricted to the parathyroid gland. The N-terminal (1-34 region of PTH, PTHrP and PTH-L in Xenopus and chicken share high sequence conservation and the capacity to modify calcium fluxes across epithelia suggesting a conserved role in calcium metabolism possibly via similar receptors. Conclusions The parathyroid hormone family contains 3 principal members, PTH, PTHrP and the recently identified PTH-L. In teleosts there are 5 genes which encode PTHrP (2, PTH (2 and PTH-L and in tetrapods there are 3 genes (PTHrP, PTH and PTH-L, the exception is placental mammals which

  11. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  12. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaad T. Bakir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better biodiesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v. The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  13. Chicken QTL mapping by multiplex PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate rapid determination of the chromosomal location of quantitative trait loci, the current approaches to gene mapping are improved using a multiplex PCR technique. The high-throughput linkage analysis method described here allows selection of 178 from 328 microsatellite markers through the multiplex PCR method combined with the semi-automatic fluorescence-labeled DNA analysis technology. Those polymorphism markers are distributed on 23 autosomes and one sex chromosome (chromosome Z), covering 3080cM genetic distance. The average marker density is 18cM, dispersed into 30 different sets. These selected polymorphism microsatellite markers segregate with the family members, following the Mendel's heritage laws, and are very useful for chicken linkage map analysis as well as for the research on some important economic quantitative characters of chicken.

  14. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  15. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV) power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a "mass" counterterm in the auxiliary $z$-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  16. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Wei Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a “mass” counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and residues of enrofloxacin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, A; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Díaz, M J; Bringas, P; Martínez, M A; Fernàndez-Cruz, M L; Fernández, M C; Fernández, R

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of enrofloxacin were determined in broiler chickens after single IV and orally administered doses of 10 mg/kg of body weight. After IV and oral administrations, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life and the mean +/- SEM residence time of enrofloxacin for plasma were 10.29 +/- 0.45 and 9.65 +/- 0.48 hours, respectively, after IV administration and 14.23 +/- 0.46 and 15.30 +/- 0.53 hours, respectively, after oral administration. After single oral administration, enrofloxacin was absorbed slowly, with time to reach maximal plasma concentration of 1.64 +/- 0.04 hours. Maximal plasma concentration was 2.44 +/- 0.06 micrograms/ml. Oral bioavailability was found to be 64.0 +/- 0.2%. Statistically significant differences between the 2 routes of administration were found for the pharmacokinetic variables--half-lives of the distribution and elimination phase and apparent volume of distribution and volume of distribution at steady state. In chickens, enrofloxacin was extensively metabolized into ciprofloxacin. Residues of enrofloxacin and the major metabolite ciprofloxacin in fat, kidney, liver, lungs, muscles, and skin were measured in chickens that received an orally administered dose of 10 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. The results indicate that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues were cleared slowly. Mean muscle, liver, and kidney concentrations of the metabolite ciprofloxacin ranging between 0.020 and 0.075 micrograms/g persisted on day 12 in chickens after dosing. However, at the time of slaughter (12 days), enrofloxacin residues were only detected in liver and mean +/- SEM concentration was 0.025 +/- 0.003 micrograms/g.

  18. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  19. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  20. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure and promoter regulation by estrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandini Vasudevan; Urvashi Bahadur; Paturu Kondaiah

    2001-03-01

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by estrogen, the chicken RCP gene including 1 kb of the 5′ flanking region has been isolated. Characterization of the gene structure shows that it contains six exons and five introns, including an intron in the 5′ untranslated region. Sequence analysis of the 5′ flanking region does not show the presence of any classical, palindromic estrogen response element (ERE). However, there are six half site ERE consensus elements. Four deletion constructs of the 5′ flanking region with varying number of ERE half sites were made in pGL3 basic vector upstream of the luciferase-coding region. Transient transfection of these RCP promoter deletion constructs into a chicken hepatoma cell line (LMH2A) showed 6-12-fold transcriptional induction by a stable estrogen analogue, moxesterol. This suggests that the RCP gene is induced by estrogen even in the absence of a classical ERE and the half sites of ERE in this promoter may be important for estrogen induction.