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Sample records for chicken fecal samples

  1. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity of...... the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific...

  2. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected in...... and compared to conventional culturing using selective enrichment. There was no statistically significant difference in performance between real-time PCR and culture by selective enrichment, and the diagnostic specificity was 0.96 with an agreement of 0.92. Therefore, the assay should be useful for...... less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 CFU/ml, in a fecal suspension. A bacterial internal control was added before DNA extraction to control both DNA isolation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The assay was performed on 111 swab samples from a Danish surveillance program...

  3. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus in chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic capture reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    this study, magnetic beads were applied for immunoseparation and purification of AIV from spiked chicken fecal sample. The beads were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies against the AIV nucleoprotein, which is conserved in all the AIV. The bead-captured virus was detected by reverse transcriptase...

  4. Detection of the VP6 gene of group F and G rotaviruses in broiler chicken fecal samples from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Joana D P; Bezerra, Delana A M; Silva, René R; Silva, Mayara J M; Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa; Soares, Luana S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to detect rotavirus F (RVF) and rotavirus G (RVG) in fecal specimens of broiler chickens in Brazil. During 2008 and 2011, a total of 85 fecal samples were collected. The viral genome was extracted, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nucleotide sequencing. Samples were screened for rotaviruses by PAGE, and RVF and RVG genome banding patterns were not seen. Using RT-PCR, it was found that 9.4 % (8/85) of the pools contained RVF, whereas 10.6 % (9/85) contained RVG. The predicted amino acid sequences of RVF and RVG from Brazilian samples were 94.4-95.7 % and 96.8-96.9 % identical, respectively, to those of prototypes from Germany. The detection of RVF and RVG in this study provides important epidemiological data about the simultaneous circulation of rotaviruses affecting broiler flocks in the Amazon region of Brazil. PMID:27154557

  5. Direct Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Fecal Samples Using Real-Time PCR: Evaluation of Six Rapid DNA Extraction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Kamara, Judy N.; Vigre, Håkan;

    2013-01-01

    Direct and accurate quantification of Campylobacter in poultry is crucial for the assessment of public health risks and the evaluation of the effectiveness of control measures against Campylobacter in poultry. The aim of this study was to assess several rapid DNA extraction methods for their...... DNA extraction methods were compared based on their limit of detection, efficiency, reproducibility, and precision. Standard curves were designed for all the methods tested in order to assess their performance on the direct quantification of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. As a result of this...... efficiency was not optimal (AE = 139.5 %). DNA extraction methods Easy-DNA Invitrogen, MiniMAG® and NucleoSpin® Tissue produced good real-time PCR reproducibility generating standard deviations from 0.3 to 0.8 between replicates....

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  7. Strategies for the inclusion of an internal amplification control in conventional and real time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conventional PCR assays the internal control was genomic DNA from Yersinia ruckeri, which is not found in chicken faeces. This internal control was also used in one of the set LIPS in real time PCR. In the three other set-ups different DNA fragments of 109 bp length prepared from two oligos of each 66 bp by a......To illustrate important issues in optimization of a PCR assay with an internal control four different primer combinations for conventional PCR, two non-competitive and two competitive set-ups for real time PCR were used for detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken faecal samples. In the...... against faecal inhibitors to ensure that the internal control and the target PCR had the same sensitivity towards inhibitors....

  8. Genetic markers for rapid PCR-based identification of gull, Canada goose, duck, and chicken fecal contamination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Hyatt C; Dick, Linda K; Gilpin, Brent; Samadpour, Mansour; Field, Katharine G

    2012-01-01

    Avian feces contaminate waterways but contribute fewer human pathogens than human sources. Rapid identification and quantification of avian contamination would therefore be useful to prevent overestimation of human health risk. We used subtractive hybridization of PCR-amplified gull fecal 16S RNA genes to identify avian-specific fecal rRNA gene sequences. The subtracters were rRNA genes amplified from human, dog, cat, cow, and pig feces. Recovered sequences were related to Enterobacteriaceae (47%), Helicobacter (26%), Catellicoccus (11%), Fusobacterium (11%), and Campylobacter (5%). Three PCR assays, designated GFB, GFC, and GFD, were based on recovered sequence fragments. Quantitative PCR assays for GFC and GFD were developed using SYBR green. GFC detected down to 0.1 mg gull feces/100 ml (corresponding to 2 gull enterococci most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). GFD detected down to 0.1 mg chicken feces/100 ml (corresponding to 13 Escherichia coli MPN/100 ml). GFB and GFC were 97% and 94% specific to gulls, respectively. GFC cross-reacted with 35% of sheep samples but occurred at about 100,000 times lower concentrations in sheep. GFD was 100% avian specific and occurred in gulls, geese, chickens, and ducks. In the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, the three markers differed in their geographic distributions but were found across the range tested. These assays detected four important bird groups contributing to fecal contamination of waterways: gulls, geese, ducks, and chickens. Marker distributions across North America and in New Zealand suggest that they will have broad applicability in other parts of the world as well. PMID:22081573

  9. Salmonella fecal excretion control in broiler chickens by organic acids and essential oils blend feed added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.

  10. Noninvasive methods for estradiol recovery from infant fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmandaL Thompson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available While the activation of the infant hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis and the existence of a postnatal gonadotrophin surge were first documented in the early 1970s, study of the longitudinal development of gonadal hormones in infancy, and the potential physiological and behavioral correlates of this development, have been hampered by reliance on infrequent serum sampling. The present study reports the validation of a noninvasive method for repeated assessment of steroid hormones in infant fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected in, and excised from cotton diaper liners, and extracted using methanol. Extracts were analyzed for estradiol using a diluted assay modification. Method validity was supported by a steroid recovery rate of at least 80%, a sensitivity of 0.35 pg/ml, and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variations of less than 10% and 20%, respectively. Variation in estradiol concentration was assessed across (1 sample type (scraped vs. cut from diaper liner, (2 time of day (morning vs. afternoon/evening samples, (3 time interval between samples and (4 time to assay (1 day vs. 489 days after collection. Of these characteristics, only the time interval between samples within an individual was significantly associated with estradiol concentration. This is the first report of human infant fecal estradiol levels. The results support fecal recovery as a novel and powerful noninvasive tool for longitudinal studies of human infants, expanding research opportunities for investigating development of sex-specific behaviors in infancy, and the potential effects of endocrine disruptors on development.

  11. Microbial community analysis and identification of alternative host-specific fecal indicators in fecal and river water samples using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju-Yong; Park, Hee-Deung; Lee, Kyong-Hee; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2011-08-01

    It is important to know the comprehensive microbial communities of fecal pollution sources and receiving water bodies for microbial source tracking. Pyrosequencing targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate the characteristics of bacterial and Bacteroidales communities in major fecal sources and river waters. Diversity analysis indicated that cow feces had the highest diversities in the bacterial and Bacteroidales group followed by the pig sample, with human feces having the lowest value. The Bacteroidales, one of the potential fecal indicators, totally dominated in the fecal samples accounting for 31%-52% of bacterial sequences, but much less (0.6%) in the river water. Clustering and Venn diagram analyses showed that the human sample had a greater similarity to the pig sample in the bacterial and Bacteroidales communities than to samples from other hosts. Traditional fecal indicators, i.e., Escherichia coli, were detected in the human and river water samples at very low rates and Clostridium perfringens and enterococci were not detected in any samples. Besides the Bacteroidales group, some microorganisms detected in the specific hosts, i.e., Parasutterella excrementihominis, Veillonella sp., Dialister invisus, Megamonas funiformis, and Ruminococcus lactaris for the human and Lactobacillus amylovorus and Atopostipes sp. for the pig, could be used as potential host-specific fecal indicators. These microorganisms could be used as multiple fecal indicators that are not dependent on the absence or presence of a single indicator. Monitoring for multiple indicators that are highly abundant and host-specific would greatly enhance the effectiveness of fecal pollution source tracking. PMID:21887641

  12. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared...... readings (R-2 = 0.99 and R-2 = 1.00). In conclusion, silica-membrane, columns can provide a more convenient and less hazardous alternative to the conventional phenol-based method. The results have implication for further improvement of sensitive amplification methods for laboratory diagnosis....

  13. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  14. Comparison of Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.R.; Voytek, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  15. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. PMID:26059109

  16. A cautionary note on fecal sampling and molecular epidemiology in predatory wild great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nys, Hélène Marie; Madinda, Nadège Freda; Merkel, Kevin; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian Hubertus; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Fecal samples are an important source of information on parasites (viruses, prokaryotes, or eukaryotes) infecting wild great apes. Molecular analysis of fecal samples has already been used for deciphering the origins of major human pathogens such as HIV-1 or Plasmodium falciparum. However, for apes that hunt (chimpanzees and bonobos), detection of parasite nucleic acids may reflect either true infection of the host of interest or ingestion of an infected prey, for example, another non-human primate. To determine the potential magnitude of this issue, we estimated the prevalence of prey DNA in fecal samples obtained from two wild chimpanzee communities. We observed values >15%, which are higher than or close to the fecal detection rates of many great ape parasites. Contamination of fecal samples with parasite DNA from dietary origin may therefore occasionally impact non-invasive epidemiological studies. This problem can be addressed (at least partially) by monitoring the presence of prey DNA. PMID:26031302

  17. DNA Hybridization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Uteri and Fecal Samples of Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    SANCAK, Aziz Arda

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium that has been isolated from the bacterial culture of uterine and fecal samples of dogs with pyometra. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this organism could be relevant to the pathogenesis of pyometra in dogs. Fecal and uterine samples were collected from 17 bitches with pyometra. E. coli strains were isolated in all samples. Representative colonies of E. coli from each sample were analyzed for pathogenicity determinants by h...

  18. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phung

    2005-01-01

    Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

  19. Pooling of porcine fecal samples for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Johansen, Markku; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    2014-01-01

    obtained by averaging test results from individual fecal samples in relation to a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test for Lawsonia intracellularis. Ten diarrheic and 10 normal fecal samples were submitted from each of 43 Danish swine herds (n = 860 fecal samples). Pools (n = 43), each...

  20. The Determination of Fecal Contamination of Strawberry Flavored and Plain Ice Cream Samples Sold In Tekirdag

    OpenAIRE

    F. Coskun

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fecal contamination of strawberry flavored and plain icecream samples sold in Tekirdağ province. In addition, the pH of the samples were determined and the effectof pH on number of microorganisms were investigated. 25 plain and 25 strawberry flavored ice creamsamples were used as research material. Coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli and fecalstreptococci counts were determined in the ice cream samples. The microbial counts were found...

  1. Evaluation of alkali fusion and acid leaching methods for the separation of plutonium in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational radiation workers of Fuel reprocessing and Fuel fabrication facilities are monitored for the assessment of intakes of actinide radionuclides and evaluation of effective dose. The determination of the internally deposited radionuclides is carried out, by in-vivo technique, by analyzing the bioassay materials like urine and feaces. Urine samples are selected for the analysis of soluble (Type M) Pu/U isotopes while fecal samples are analyzed for the determination insoluble Pu/U isotopes (Type S). The strategy involves the analysis of both fecal as well as urine samples for assessing the possible nature of compound. This paper presents the investigation of analytical methods for fecal sample processing. Generally, separation of Pu isotopes in fecal sample is carried out by alkali fusion followed by standard radioanalytical technique

  2. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis antimicrobial peptide resistance genes aid in defense against chicken innate immunity, fecal shedding, and egg deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Jessica A; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian β-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens. PMID:25267840

  3. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  4. The effect of sampling and storage on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy and diseased subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyta I Tedjo

    Full Text Available Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80 °C, -20 °C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80 °C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p < 0.001 but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (unweighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80 °C versus the other methods and -80 °C samples (p < 0.009. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80 °C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p < 0.05. Storage up to 24 hours (at +4 °C or room temperature or freezing at -20 °C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Design aspects of automation system for initial processing of fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for initial handling of the fecal samples at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is as follows: overnight fecal samples are collected from the worker in a kit consisting of a polythene bag placed in a wide mouth polythene container closed with an inner lid and a screw cap. Occupational worker collects the sample in the polythene bag. On receiving the sample, the polythene container along with the sample is weighed, polythene bag containing fecal sample is lifted out of the container using a pair of tongs placed inside a crucible and ashed inside a muffle furnace at 450℃. After complete ashing, the crucible containing white ash is taken-up for further radiochemical processing. This paper describes the various steps in developing a prototype automated system for initial handling of fecal samples. The proposed system for handling and processing of fecal samples is proposed to automate the above. The system once developed will help eliminate manual intervention till the ashing stage and reduce the biological hazard involved in handling such samples mentioned procedure

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis in Fecal Samples from Greenhouse Workers after Exposure to B. thuringiensis-Based Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Gert B.; Larsen, Preben; Jacobsen, Bodil L.; Madsen, Bodil; Smidt, Lasse; Andrup, Lars

    2002-01-01

    In a study of occupational exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis, 20 exposed greenhouse workers were examined for Bacillus cereus-like bacteria in fecal samples and on biomonitoring filters. Bacteria with the following characteristics were isolated from eight individuals: intracellular crystalline inclusions characteristic of B. thuringiensis, genes for and production of B. cereus enterotoxins, and positivity for cry11 as determined by PCR. DNA fingerprints of the fecal isolates were identical t...

  7. The use of the radioimmunoassay for detection of diethylstilbestrol in fecal samples of fattened calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fecal samples of fattened calves is described. The antibody used in this test showed no cross reactions with natural estrogens or other steroids. Blank values (fecal samples without DES) varied between 0 an 4,9 ng DES-equivalent/g sample. The distribution of blank values shows the significant proof of existence of DES in concentrations above 10 ng/g sample. The method has been applied for the control of living calves at the producer. Examples of illegal DES applications are given. The described radioimmunoassay is suitable for routine analysis as a control for illegal estrogen treatment. (orig.)

  8. Isolation and identification of Shigella spp. from human fecal samples collected from Pantnagar, India

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    Abhishek Gaurav

    Full Text Available Aim: To isolate and identify Shigella species from faecal samples based on cultural and biochemical tests. Material and Methods: For the isolation of Shigella spp., faecal samples from cattle, poultry and humans were collected from various locations of Pantnagar. Fecal specimens were processed according to standard protocols. Results: Out of 511 fecal samples (311 human, 100 cattle and 100 poultry faecal samples analyzed, 8 isolates of Shigella species were confirmed on the basis of Gram stain, morphology, cultural identification and biochemical characters. All the 8 Shigella isolates were obtained from human stool samples giving a prevalence rate of 2.57%. Conclusion: Under the conditions of the current study, Shigella species were prevalent in human population although in small numbers, whereas it was not isolated from cattle and poultry samples. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 376-379

  9. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Zutphen, van L.; Hoek, D.; Yaya, F.O.; Roelfsema, J.; Pinelli, E.; Knapen, van F.; Kortbeek, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in the Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples wer

  10. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Zutphen, L.; Hoek, D.; Yaya, F.O.; Roelfsema, J.; Pinelli, E.; van Knapen, F.; Kortbeek, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in The Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples wer

  11. Application of a 5 ' nuclease assay for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in fecal samples from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R. H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Andersen, P. H.; Møller, Kristian

    2002-01-01

    fecal samples derived from a herd known to be free from infection with L. intracellularis all tested negative, with a Ct value of 40. By using a Ct value of 36 as the cutoff limit, the detection limit of the assay was 1 L. intracellularis cell per PCR tube. In conclusion, the 5' nuclease assay that has...

  12. The Determination of Fecal Contamination of Strawberry Flavored and Plain Ice Cream Samples Sold In Tekirdag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coskun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fecal contamination of strawberry flavored and plain icecream samples sold in Tekirdağ province. In addition, the pH of the samples were determined and the effectof pH on number of microorganisms were investigated. 25 plain and 25 strawberry flavored ice creamsamples were used as research material. Coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli and fecalstreptococci counts were determined in the ice cream samples. The microbial counts were found to be lowerin many of the strawberry flavored ice cream samples with lower pH values than the others. As a result, thisstudy showed that hygenic quality of the investigated the samples had generally inadequate and they mightbe dangerous in health of consumer.

  13. High frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes in infants’ meconium and early fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosalbes, M. J.; Vallès, Y.; Jiménez-Hernández, N.;

    2016-01-01

    before birth. We have used culture-independent genetic screenings to explore whether ARGs are already present in the meconium accumulated in the GIT during fetal life and in feces of 1-week-old infants. We have analyzed resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (BLr) and tetracycline (Tcr), screening for a......The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota has been identified as an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can be horizontally transferred to pathogenic species. Maternal GIT microbes can be transmitted to the offspring, and recent work indicates that such transfer starts...... variety of genes conferring each. To evaluate whether ARGs could have been inherited by maternal transmission, we have screened perinatal fecal samples of the 1-week-old babies’ mothers, as well as a mother–infant series including meconium, fecal samples collected through the infant’s 1st year, maternal...

  14. Rapid detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples by an improved reverse dot blot method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ming Xing; Su Zhang; Ying Du; Dan Bi; Li-Hui Yao

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new, rapid and accurate reverse dot blot (RDB) method for the detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples.METHODS:The 12 intestinal pathogens tested were Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7,Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus,Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae,Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.The two universal primers were designed to amplify two variable regions of bacterial 16S and 23S rDNA genes from all of the 12 bacterial species tested. Five hundred and forty fecal samples from the diarrhea patients were detected using the improved RDB assay.RESULTS:The methods could identify the 12 intestinal pathogens specifically, and the detection limit was as low as 103 CFUs. The consistent detection rate of the improved RDB assay compared with the traditional culture method was up to 88.75%.CONCLUSION:The hybridization results indicated that the improved RDB assay developed was a reliable method for the detection of intestinal pathogen in fecal samples.

  15. A total integrated Lab-on-a-chip-system for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken feaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Høgberg, Jonas; Agirregabiria, Maria;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a pre-validation of a portable LOC based system for real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from packed chicken at supermarkets, Chicken fecal sample at slaughters and chicken farms. The LOC system performs DNA purification and real-time PCR detection within 30...

  16. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis in fecal samples from dogs and cats in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    McDowall, Rebeccah M.; Peregrine, Andrew S.; Leonard, Erin K.; Lacombe, Christopher; Lake, Mary; Rebelo, Ana R.; Cai, Hugh Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the distribution and zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis assemblage types among canine and feline fecal samples from Ontario. The effectiveness of Giardia assemblage typing methods by sequencing the genes of small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA), β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) was evaluated simultaneously. From 2008 to 2010, 118 canine and 15 feline Giardia positive fecal samples were tested. The ssu-rRNA sequenc...

  17. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human bocavirus in respiratory and fecal samples from children in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, SKP; Yip, CCY; Lau, YL; Woo, PCY; Yuen, KY; Que, TL; Lee, RA; AuYeung, RKH; Zhou, B.; So, LY; Chan, KH

    2007-01-01

    Background. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus associated with respiratory tract infections in children. We conducted the first systematic prospective clinical and molecular study using nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) and fecal samples. Methods. NPAs negative for influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and coronavirus and fecal samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis were included. On the basis of results from a pilot stu...

  18. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from milk and milk samples. The highest streptomycin resistance was detected in isolates from rectal swabs of chicken. After identification, we determined that S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, which was isolated from rectal swabs of chicken showed the most multi-resistance from all identificated strains of Enterobacteriaceae. The most isolates bacterial strain was E. coli, which showed resistance against four antibiotics from rectal swabs of chicken. Also our results showed that the higher resistance level is in rectal swabs of chicken like in milk samples.

  19. Salmonella enterica in commercial swine feed and subsequent isolation of phenotypically and genotypically related strains from fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Bayleyegn; Sterman, Allyson; Mathews, Jennifer; Artuso-Ponte, Valeria; Abley, Melanie; Farmer, William; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Morrow, W E Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples in commercial swine production units. Of 275 feed samples, Salmonella was detected in 10 feed samples that originated from 8 of 36 (22.2%) barns, with a prevalence of 3.6% (10/275 samples). In fecal samples, a prevalence of 17.2% was found at the early finishing stage (1,180/6,880 samples), with a significant reduction in prevalence (7.4%) when pigs reached market age (392/5,321 samples). Of the 280 Salmonella isolates systematically selected for further characterization, 50% of the feed isolates and 55.3% of the isolates of fecal origin showed similar phenotypes based on antimicrobial resistance patterns and serogrouping. About 44% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping grouped the 46 representative isolates into five genotypic clusters, of which four of the clusters consisted of genotypically related isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples. The occurrence of genotypically related and, in some cases, clonal strains, including multidrug-resistant isolates in commercially processed feed and fecal samples, suggests the high significance of commercial feed as a potential vehicle of Salmonella transmission. PMID:20851969

  20. Comparison of individual, pooled, and composite fecal sampling methods for detection of Salmonella on U.S. dairy operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella for individual, pooled, and composite fecal samples and to compare culture results from each sample type for determining herd Salmonella infection status and identifying Salmonella serotype(s). The USDA’s National Animal Hea...

  1. Identifying Sources of Fecal Pollution in Water as Function of Sampling Frequency Under Low and High Stream Flow Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Alexandria Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Sources of fecal pollution were evaluated as a function of sampling frequency with stream samples from Mill Creek, Montgomery County, VA. Samples were collected monthly for one year, plus weekly for four consecutive weeks during seasonal high flows (March), and seasonal low flows (September-October), plus daily for seven consecutive days within the weekly schedules. Thirty stream samples were collected from each of two sites (60 total) in Mill Creek, and 48 isolates of E. coli per sample (to...

  2. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Nachman, Keeve E.; Baron, Patrick A; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were colle...

  3. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Dhanani, Naila; Markel, Melissa E; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been suspected as an enteropathogen in dogs. However, its exact role in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in dogs remains unknown. Recent studies suggest the importance of an altered intestinal microbiota in the activation of virulence factors of enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between diarrhea, dysbiosis, and the presence of C. perfringens and its enterotoxin (CPE). Fecal samples were collected prospectively from 95 healthy control dogs and 104 dogs with GI disease and assessed for bacterial abundances and the presence of CPE using quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. C. perfringens was detected in all dogs. Potentially enterotoxigenic C. perfringens were detected in 33.7% (32/95) of healthy control dogs and 48.1% (50/104) diseased dogs, respectively. CPE was detected by ELISA in 1.0% (1/95) of control dogs and 16.3% (17/104) of diseased dogs. Abundances of Fusobacteria, Ruminococcaceae, Blautia, and Faecalibacterium were significantly decreased in diseased dogs, while abundances of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli were significantly increased compared to control dogs. The microbial dysbiosis was independent of the presence of the enterotoxigenic C. perfringens or CPE. In conclusion, the presence of CPE as well as fecal dysbiosis was associated with GI disease. However, the presence of C. perfringens was not indicative of GI disease in all cases of diarrhea, and the observed increased abundance of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens may be part of intestinal dysbiosis occurring in GI disease. The significance of an intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with GI disease deserves further attention. PMID:25458422

  4. Mesquite seed density in fecal samples of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus x Hereford cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was part of a larger project investigating breed-related differences in feeding habits of Raramuri Criollo (RC) versus Angus x Hereford (AH) cows. Seed densities in fecal samples collected in July and August 2015 were analyzed to compare presumed mesquite bean consumption of RC and AH cow...

  5. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-01-01

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...

  6. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...

  7. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211, Isolated from a Fecal Sample from a Healthy Korean ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunghee; Cho, Yong-Joon; Lee, Anne Hayoung; Chun, Jongsik; Ha, Nam-Joo; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity against emerging pathogens. Here we present the draft genomic sequence of L. ruminis SPM0211, isolated from a fecal sample from a healthy Korean and describe both the common and unique features of this strain.

  8. Comparison of methods of sampling for Toxocara species and fecal coliforms in an outdoor day care environment

    OpenAIRE

    Carabin, Hélène; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Payment, Pierre; Joseph, Lawrence; Soto, Julio

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC) counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment.DESIGN: The sand samples were obtained from the play area and the sandbox of a day care centre and examined for the presence of FC and Toxocara species, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. The sampling methods included random selection and two types of judgement methods. The latter included one method wher...

  9. Characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from human fecal samples and retail meat from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Jyotika B; Very, Katherine J; Williams, Jen L; Hegarty, John P; Stewart, David B; Lumadue, Jeanne; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and characterize C. difficile isolates from human stool and retail grocery meat samples. Human stool samples (n=317) were obtained from a clinical laboratory and meat samples (n=303) were collected from 8 retail grocery stores from October 2011 through September 2012 from Centre County of Pennsylvania and were examined for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from 16.7% of stool samples (n=317) and 6.9%, 11.5%, 14.5%, and 7.8% of beef (n=72), pork (n=78), turkey (n=76), and chicken (n=77) samples, respectively. Six different toxin gene profiles were detected in all human and meat isolates of C. difficile based on the presence or absence of toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA and cdtB. Interestingly, 75.6% of the human C. difficile isolates lacked any deletion in the tcdC gene (139-bp), whereas a 39-bp deletion was observed in 61.3% of the C. difficile strains isolated from meat samples. C. difficile from meat samples were more susceptible to clindamycin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and metronidazole than C. difficile isolates from human samples. Twenty-five different ribotypes were identified in human and meat C. difficile isolates. In conclusion, significant genotypic and phenotypic differences were observed between human and meat isolates of C. difficile; however, a few C. difficile isolates from meat-in particular ribotypes 078, PA01, PA05, PA16, and PA22 with unique profiles (toxin gene, tcdC gene size and antimicrobial resistance profiles)-were similar to human C. difficile isolates. PMID:25269079

  10. Characterization of the Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome in Fecal Samples from Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lauren Foster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and phylogenetic description of fungal organisms and their role as part of the intestinal ecosystem have not yet been studied extensively in dogs. This study evaluated the fungal microbiome of 19 dogs (12 healthy dogs and 7 dogs with acute diarrhea using fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. Five distinct fungal phyla were identified, with Ascomycota (medians: 97.9% of obtained sequences in healthy dogs and 98.2% in diseased dogs and Basidiomycota (median 1.0% in healthy dogs and median 0.5% in diseased dogs being the most abundant fungal phyla. A total of 219 fungal genera were identified across all 19 dogs with a median (range of 28 (4–69 genera per sample. Candida was the most abundant genus found in both the diseased dogs (median: 1.9%, range: 0.2%–38.5% of sequences and healthy dogs (median: 5.2%, range: 0.0%–63.1% of sequences. Candida natalensis was the most frequently identified species. No significant differences were observed in the relative proportions of fungal communities between healthy and diseased dogs. In conclusion, fecal samples of healthy dogs and dogs with acute diarrhea harbor various fungal genera, and their role in gastrointestinal health and disease warrants further studies.

  11. Non-invasive Sampling Strategy for Monitoring Free-ranging Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla berengi berengi) Fecal Corticoid Excretion in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    J.B. Nizeyi; S.L. Monfort, N.M. Taha, M. Cranfield and K. Gilardi

    2011-01-01

    Health monitoring of the critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla berengei berengei) as one of the strategies for their conservation requires establishment of non-invasive methods that do not interfere with their natural behaviors. Therefore a fecal sampling strategy was established for use in assessing their adrenocortical activity non-invasively by investigating corticoid distribution along the fecal strand, possible existence of fecal corticoid excretion rhythms and environmental ef...

  12. Non-invasive Sampling Strategy for Monitoring Free-ranging Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla berengi berengi Fecal Corticoid Excretion in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Nizeyi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Health monitoring of the critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla berengei berengei as one of the strategies for their conservation requires establishment of non-invasive methods that do not interfere with their natural behaviors. Therefore a fecal sampling strategy was established for use in assessing their adrenocortical activity non-invasively by investigating corticoid distribution along the fecal strand, possible existence of fecal corticoid excretion rhythms and environmental effect. Fecal samples were collected from nests and along the trails, preserved in 99.7% ethanol and analyzed using validated ICN RIA. The results revealed that gorilla fecal corticoid concentrations increased till 72 h after defecation and thereafter began to decline towards the original levels. At 60 h the corticoid levels began showing significant difference (p0.05, SC; p = 0.65. There was a strong similarity (SC = 0.79 and ICC = 0.75 between corticoid concentrations of previous night nest and morning trail fecals; supporting the assumption among field workers that gorillas defecate in the nests early morning just before they leave their nests. No difference (S; p>0.05 in corticoid levels among the fecal strand sections was observed. Thus corticoids measured from any section of the firm fecal strand up to 60 h post-defecation effectively represent the non rhythmic fecal corticoid excretory profile, offering the best non-invasive and non-intrusive sampling strategy for study of corticoids in this species.

  13. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  14. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes. PMID:26295964

  15. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibbert, Hunter B; Ku, Seockmo; Li, Xuan; Liu, Xingya; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Ladisch, Michael R; Deering, Amanda J; Gehring, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration by adding endopeptidase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to chicken extracts or chicken rinse, prior to microfiltration with fluid flow on both retentate and permeate sides of 0.2 μm cutoff polysulfone and polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. After treatment with this protease, the distribution of micron, submicron, and nanometer particles in chicken extracts changes so that the size of the remaining particles corresponds to 0.4-1 μm. Together with alteration of dissolved proteins, this change helps to explain how membrane fouling might be minimized because the potential foulants are significantly smaller or larger than the membrane pore size. At the same time, we found that the presence of protein protects Salmonella from protease action, thus maintaining cell viability. Concentration and recovery of 1-10 CFU Salmonella/mL from 400 mL chicken rinse is possible in less than 4 h, with the microfiltration step requiring less than 25 min at fluxes of 0.028-0.32 mL/cm(2) min. The entire procedure-from sample processing to detection by polymerase chain reaction-is completed in 8 h. PMID:26400739

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2010-01-01

    in 2007. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (4%) Salmonella isolates were obtained from human blood and 70 (11%) from chicken fecal samples. The human isolates revealed nine different serovars; 82% were non-typhoidal Salmonella and......BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms....... Mouschaui, S. Jukestown, S. Oritamerin, and S. Onireke were isolated from both humans and chickens. Identical serovars were not found among human and chicken isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that chickens are not a reservoir of Salmonella causing bacteraemia among humans in Ibadan, Nigeria...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis of Human and Chicken Origin

    OpenAIRE

    GONCAGÜL, Gülşen; GÜNAYDIN, Elçin; ÇARLI, K. Tayfun

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between antibiotic resistance patterns among Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis isolates (Salmonella Enteritidis) of human and poultry origin. Antibiotic resistance of 97 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 25 chicken meat, 25 chicken intestine and 47 human fecal samples was examined using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 1997) disk diffusion method. Resistance patterns of the isolates ...

  18. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.; De Medici, D.; Croci, L.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Fach, P.; Karpiskova, R.; Aymerich, T.; Kwaitek, K.; Kuchta, T.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method......As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse...... or positive. Outlier results caused, for example, by gross departures from the experimental protocol, were omitted from the analysis. For both the chicken rinse and the pig swab samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was 100%, with 100% accordance (repeatability) and concordance (reproducibility). The...

  19. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC MICROBIAL GENETIC MARKERS IN COW FECAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  20. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN CATTLE FECAL SAMPLES - ABSTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  1. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Zachery T.; Davis, Jasmine C.C.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization) offers a cost-ef...

  2. Common methods for fecal sample storage in field studies yield consistent signatures of individual identity in microbiome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Tang, Karen; Archie, Elizabeth A; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Kohn, Jordan; Yuan, Michael L; Gesquiere, Laurence; Grieneisen, Laura E; Tung, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Field studies of wild vertebrates are frequently associated with extensive collections of banked fecal samples-unique resources for understanding ecological, behavioral, and phylogenetic effects on the gut microbiome. However, we do not understand whether sample storage methods confound the ability to investigate interindividual variation in gut microbiome profiles. Here, we extend previous work on storage methods for gut microbiome samples by comparing immediate freezing, the gold standard of preservation, to three methods commonly used in vertebrate field studies: lyophilization, storage in ethanol, and storage in RNAlater. We found that the signature of individual identity consistently outweighed storage effects: alpha diversity and beta diversity measures were significantly correlated across methods, and while samples often clustered by donor, they never clustered by storage method. Provided that all analyzed samples are stored the same way, banked fecal samples therefore appear highly suitable for investigating variation in gut microbiota. Our results open the door to a much-expanded perspective on variation in the gut microbiome across species and ecological contexts. PMID:27528013

  3. LUMINEX DETECTION OF FECAL INDICATORS IN RIVER SAMPLES, MARINE RECREATIONAL WATER, AND BEACH SAND

    OpenAIRE

    Iliana B. Baums; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Kiesling, Traci; Wanless, David; Fell, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Research to understand and remediate coastal pollution is moving toward a multitiered approach in which traditional enumeration of fecal indicators is accompanied by molecular analysis of a variety of targets. Technology that rapidly detects multiple microbial contaminants would benefit from such an approach. The Luminex® 100™ system is a suspension array that assays multiple analytes rapidly in a single well of a microtiter plate. The ability of the system to simultaneously detect multiple f...

  4. The approach to sample acquisition and its impact on the derived human fecal microbiome and VOC metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Robin D; Navarro, Karl; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Pat; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the importance of the microbiota in maintaining a healthy state, as well as promoting disease states. The intestinal microbiota exerts its effects primarily through its metabolites, and metabolomics investigations have begun to evaluate the diagnostic and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isolated from human feces, enabled by specialized sampling methods such as headspace solid-phase microextraction (hSPME). The approach to stool sample collection is an important consideration that could potentially introduce bias and affect the outcome of a fecal metagenomic and metabolomic investigation. To address this concern, a comparison of endoscopically collected (in vivo) and home collected (ex vivo) fecal samples was performed, revealing slight variability in the derived microbiomes. In contrast, the VOC metabolomes differ widely between the home collected and endoscopy collected samples. Additionally, as the VOC extraction profile is hyperbolic, with short extraction durations more vulnerable to variation than extractions continued to equilibrium, a second goal of our investigation was to ascertain if hSPME-based fecal metabolomics studies might be biased by the extraction duration employed. As anticipated, prolonged extraction (18 hours) results in the identification of considerably more metabolites than short (20 minute) extractions. A comparison of the metabolomes reveals several analytes deemed unique to a cohort with the 20 minute extraction, but found common to both cohorts when the VOC extraction was performed for 18 hours. Moreover, numerous analytes perceived to have significant fold change with a 20 minute extraction were found insignificant in fold change with the prolonged extraction, underscoring the potential for bias associated with a 20 minute hSPME. PMID:24260553

  5. Fluoroscence in situ hybridization of chicken intestinal samples with bacterial rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Francesch, M.; Christensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    338, Probe D and Non-EUB338 according to previous publications. Cultures of 38 bacterial strains representing type strains within the genera Bacillus, Listeria, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Salmonella and Lactobacillus were used for optimization of......RNA of genera Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Enterococcus-Streptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella, Clostridium and Bacteriodes were around 1 ×108 bacterial cells per g of gut material. As for the EUB338 probe, huge variations were observed between the six different samples analysed even though each...... sample was obtained from a pool of six chickens allocated in the same cage. The technique will be used to investigate the effect of antimicrobials, feed additive, rearing conditions and Salmonella - and Campylobacter status on the bacterial composition of the chicken intestine....

  6. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš Hleba; Jana Petrová; Attila Kántor; Juraj Čuboň; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from mi...

  7. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick A.; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were collected from grocery stores in 10 U.S. metropolitan areas from December 2010 through June 2011. We tested 116 raw and 142 cooked chicken samples for total arsenic, and we determined arsenic species in 65 raw and 78 cooked samples that contained total arsenic at ≥ 10 µg/kg dry weight. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of total arsenic in cooked chicken meat samples was 3.0 µg/kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.6). Among the 78 cooked samples that were speciated, iAs concentrations were higher in conventional samples (GM = 1.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) than in antibiotic-free (GM = 0.7 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) or organic (GM = 0.6 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) samples. Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. iAs concentrations in roxarsone-positive samples (GM = 2.3 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.1) were significantly higher than those in roxarsone-negative samples (GM = 0.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0). Cooking increased iAs and decreased roxarsone concentrations. We estimated that consumers of conventional chicken would ingest an additional 0.11 µg/day iAs (in an 82-g serving) compared with consumers of organic chicken. Assuming lifetime exposure and a proposed cancer slope factor of 25.7 per milligram per kilogram of body weight per day, this increase in arsenic exposure could result in 3.7 additional lifetime bladder and lung cancer cases per 100,000 exposed persons. Conclusions: Conventional chicken meat had higher i

  8. Polymorphisms in the innate immune IFIH1 gene, frequency of enterovirus in monthly fecal samples during infancy, and islet autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witsø, Elisabet; Tapia, German; Cinek, Ondrej;

    2011-01-01

    (HLA-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2) as well as 375 children without this genotype were included for monthly fecal collections from 3 to 35 months of age, and genotyped for the IFIH1 polymorphisms. A total of 7,793 fecal samples were tested for presence of enterovirus RNA using real time reverse transcriptase PCR.......We found no association with frequency of enterovirus in the gut for the common IFIH1 polymorphism rs1990760, or either of the rare variants of rs35744605, rs35667974, rs35337543, while the enterovirus prevalence marginally differed in samples from the 8 carriers of a rare allele of rs35732034 (26.1%, 18....../69 samples) as compared to wild-type homozygotes (12.4%, 955/7724 samples); odds ratio 2.5, p = 0.06. The association was stronger when infections were restricted to those with high viral loads (odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.4, p = 0.01). The lack of association between enterovirus frequency and islet...

  9. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of microbiota isolated from infant fecal samples after in vitro fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    ileum and in colon can be expected to selectively modulate the growth rate and hereby the composition of the microbiota. In earlier studies, we have shown that this concentration is dependent on the type of emulsification of the triglycerides, which deviates between breast milk and formula milk. Here......, we have determined effects of selected combinations of FFA and MAG on microbial composition during a 24-hour anaerobic in vitro fermentation in microbiota obtained from infant fecal samples (age 2-5 months). PCR-based quantification of 11 different bacterial taxa revealed that the growth of...

  10. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  11. Adenovirus, calicivirus and astrovirus detection in fecal samples of hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sueli Assis Andreasi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed fecal samples from hospitalized children up to three years of age with acute gastroenteritis at Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from May 2000-January 2004. Astrovirus and calicivirus were detected by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction and adenovirus was detected using the Rotavirus and Adenovirus combined immunoenzyme assay. Astrovirus, adenovirus and calicivirus were detected at rates of 3.1%, 3.6% and 7.6%, respectively. These results re-emphasize the need for the establishment of regional vigilance systems to evaluate the impact of enteric viruses on viral gastroenteritis.

  12. New Real-Time Quantitative PCR Procedure for Quantification of Bifidobacteria in Human Fecal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Tölkkö, Satu; Korpimäki, Teemu; Salminen, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    The application of a real-time quantitative PCR method (5′ nuclease assay), based on the use of a probe labeled at its 5′ end with a stable, fluorescent lanthanide chelate, for the quantification of human fecal bifidobacteria was evaluated. The specificities of the primers and the primer-probe combination were evaluated by conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. The results obtained by real-time PCR were compared with those obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization, the current ...

  13. Isolation and maintenance of Balantidium coli (Malmsteim, 1857) cultured from fecal samples of pigs and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Uchôa, Claudia M Antunes; Pissinatti, Alcides; Ferreira Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Dib, Lais Verdan; Azevedo, Eduarda Peixoto; de Siqueira, Mayara Perlingeiro; Cardozo, Matheus Lessa; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2015-06-15

    Balantidium coli is a protozoa that can determine dysentery in humans, pigs and non-human primates having zoonotic potential. The lack of standardization in isolation and maintenance hinders the development of research on its biology and epidemiology. This study is aimed to standardize the isolation and maintenance of this parasite from animal feces, in culture medium, Pavlova modified. From 2012 to 2014, 1905 fecal samples were collected from captive animals of Rio de Janeiro. Were selected for isolation samples with a minimum of 10 trophozoites and/or 30 cysts of B. coli, totaling 88 pigs, 26 Cynomolgus and 90 rhesus macaques. In the presence of cysts, the sample was homogenized in saline solution, 500 μL was removed and inoculated into culture medium. The material that contained trophozoites the inoculum was made from 240 μL of fecal solution. All inoculate tubes with the subcultures were kept at 36°C, and sterile rice starch was always added to the medium. The parasites isolate from pigs, 34%, and from Cynomolgus 38.4% were maintained in vitro for a period of more than 24 months. These procedures proved to be adequate for isolation and maintenance of B. coli from different animals, they were found to be inexpensive and easy to perform. PMID:25920329

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Chicken samples from delta of Egypt using ELISA, histopathology and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hany M; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Osman, Gamalat Y; El-Shourbagy, Safinaz H; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Khattab, Reham A

    2016-06-01

    Estimates of the zoonotic diseases are helpful for monitoring and improving public health. Laboratory-based surveillance provides crucial information for assessing zoonotic disease trends and developments. Toxoplasmosis is considered as a zoonotic disease and has both medical and veterinary importance since it leads to abortion in humans and several animal species. In view of the worldwide importance of T. gondii, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from the Delta of Egypt. A total of 304 blood and brain samples were collected from Egyptian chickens from Gharbiya, Qalyoubiya, Minufiya, Beheira, Kafr EL-Shaykh and Dakahlia Provinces. In order to determine the serological and histopathological prevalence of T. gondii, the samples were examined by ELISA, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The prevalence of T. gondii was 11.18, 6.91, 6.91 % by ELISA, histopathology and IHC, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of T. gondii were observed on the basis of season, sex and habitat. These data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of T. gondii infections in Egyptian chickens, which can be employed in developing efficient strategies for disease management and control. PMID:27413325

  15. Comparison of conventional culture methods and two commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of Salmonella in porcine fecal samples and cecal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1997-01-01

    Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, designated EIA-1 and EIA-2, for the detection of salmonella in feces and cecal contents were compared to conventional culture methods. Out of 362 cecal content samples, 35 were positive by EIA-1 and 30 were positive by EIA-2 and conventional methods. Out of 189...... fecal samples, 41 were positive by EIA-1, 30 were positive by EIA-2, and 24 were positive by conventional culture methods. The EIA-1 assay method detected more positive samples overall, although only comparison of the fecal samples was statistically significant. The results indicate that the EIA-1...... method is rapid, requiring only 24 hours, and may he more sensitive than the EIA-2 assay and conventional culture techniques. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection elf salmonella in fecal samples or cecal contents provide a reasonable alternative to conventional culture techniques....

  16. Rapid sample preparation for detection and identification of avian influenza virus from chicken faecal samples using magnetic bead microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bu, Minqiang; Handberg, Kurt;

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an infectious agent of birds and mammals. AIV is causing huge economic loss and can be a threat to human health. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used as a method for the detection and identification of AIV virus. Although RT-PCR is a...... sensitive method for detection of AIV, it requires sample preparation including separation and purification of AIV and concentrate viral RNA. It is laborious and complex process especially for diagnosis using faecal sample. In this study, magnetic beads were used for immunoseparation of AIV in chicken...... faecal sample by a magnetic microsystem. Using this system, all the 16 hemagglutinin (H) and 9 neuraminidase (N) subtypes of AIV were separated and detected in spiked faecal samples using RT-PCR, without an RNA extraction step. This rapid sample preparation method can be integrated with a total analysis...

  17. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Xiaojuan; Zhang Xin; Zhou Jiyong; Wu Yongping; Jiang Xuetao; Shi Lixue; Yin Wei; Wang Junhua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF), a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with viru...

  18. EVALUATION OF A RAPID SCREENING ASSAY FOR BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION (DOT-ELISA IN FECAL SAMPLES FROM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCCATTO Etelvina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of standardizing a Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA to detect antigens of fecal bacterial enteropathogens, 250 children, aged under 36 months and of both sexes, were studied; of which 162 had acute gastroenteritis. The efficacy of a rapid screening assay for bacterial enteropathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli "EPEC", enteroinvasive Escherichia coli "EIEC", Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was evaluated. The fecal samples were also submitted to a traditional method of stool culture for comparison. The concordance index between the two techniques, calculated using the Kappa (k index for the above mentioned bacterial strains was 0.8859, 0.9055, 0.7932 and 0.7829 respectively. These values express an almost perfect degree of concordance for the first two and substantial concordance for the latter two, thus enabling this technique to be applied in the early diagnosis of diarrhea in infants. With a view to increasing the sensitivity and specificity of this immunological test, a study was made of the antigenic preparations obtained from two types of treatment: 1 deproteinization by heating; 2 precipitation and concentration of the lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS using an ethanol-acetone solution, which was then heated in the presence of sodium EDTA

  19. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  20. Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence? Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  1. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.;

    2004-01-01

    As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse......) and PCR assay (gel electrophoresis detection) were performed by the receiving laboratories. Aliquots of BPW enrichment cultures were sent to the participants, who analyzed them using a thermal lysis procedure followed by a validated Salmonella-specific PCR assay. The results were reported as negative...... and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method...

  2. Comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct microscopy for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis in fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Giardiasis is one of the most common nonviral infections causing diarrheal illness worldwide. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the RIDASCREEN ® Giardia kit for detection of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples and compared the results with direct microscopy. Materials and methods: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected. They were then processed by wet film, iodine preparation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit to determine the presence of Giardia trophozoites and cysts. Statistical analysis was performed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 360 cases, 17.2% samples were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy and 23.6% were found to be positive by ELISA (sensitivity ~97%, but specificity was ~92% only. Because of less specificity, we need to perform ELISA in congruence with direct microscopy, etc. Further studies need to be performed on a larger sample size using other molecular tests in order to get more accurate estimations.

  3. Effects of DNA Extraction Procedures on Bacteroides Profiles in Fecal Samples From Various Animals Determined by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major assumption in microbial source tracking is that some fecal bacteria are specific to a host animal, and thus provide unique microbial fingerprints that can be used to differentiate hosts. However, the DNA information obtained from a particular sample may be biased dependi...

  4. Detection and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in direct quantitative PCR positive fecal samples by the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Satoko; Nagata, Reiko; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system combined with rapid confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) growth in the broth culture was established and evaluated for the detection of viable MAP in direct quantitative PCR (QPCR) positive bovine feces. Manually detected fluorescence emissions from MGIT tubes were analyzed objectively using an open source software, ImageJ. For molecular confirmation of MAP growth, DNA samples harvested by simply boiling the broth, an inexpensive and time- and labor-saving DNA preparation method, yielded adequate results. The sheep strain of MAP required longer incubation time relative to the cattle strain, suggesting that the MGIT system may not support well the growth of ovine isolates as described previously. Of 61 direct QPCR positive bovine feces, the recovery rate of MAP in the MGIT system (62.3%) was significantly higher (Pculture by the MGIT system was several weeks earlier compared to solid media. In MGIT culture positive samples, the time to detect fluorescence was correlated with the DNA quantity detected in fecal QPCR. As a positive result in the direct fecal QPCR test does not mean fecal excretion of viable MAP, bacterial isolation by fecal culture could be conducted to verify the QPCR result. For this purpose, the manual MGIT system is a sensitive and rapid culture method at least for bovine samples. PMID:24065085

  5. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in Fecal Samples from Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Gramley, William A.; Asghar, Ali; Frierson, Henry F; Powell, Steven M

    1999-01-01

    Stool, gastric biopsy, and serum samples were collected from 22 subjects. DNA from stool was extracted, amplified, and hybridized with primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori. DNA from gastric biopsy specimens was analyzed similarly for comparison. Universal primers were used to confirm successful extraction of DNA from samples. Histologic, serologic, and DNA analyses were scored in a blinded fashion. Universal primer amplification verified successful DNA extraction from...

  6. Detection of Helicobacter spp. in gastric, fecal and saliva samples from swine affected by gastric ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Proietti, Patrizia Casagrande; BIETTA, Annalisa; Brachelente, Chiara; Lepri, Elvio; Davidson, Irit; FRANCIOSINI, Maria Pia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter (H.) spp. in swine affected by gastric ulceration. Stomachs from 400 regularly slaughtered swine were subjected to gross pathological examination to evaluate the presence of gastric ulcers. Sixty-five samples collected from ulcerated pars esophagea and 15 samples from non-ulcerated pyloric portions were submitted to histopathological and molecular analyses, to detect Helicobacter spp., H. suis and H. pylori by PCR. Feces and s...

  7. Pathogenicity of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from a wild bird fecal specimen and a chicken in Japan in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Taichiro; Kanehira, Katsushi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-04-01

    Poultry outbreaks caused by H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) occurred in Japan between December 2014 and January 2015. During the same period; H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated from wild birds and the environment in Japan. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates were found to belong to clade 2.3.4.4 and three sub-groups were distinguishable within this clade. All of the Japanese isolates from poultry outbreaks belonged to the same sub-group; whereas wild bird isolates belonged to the other sub-groups. To examine whether the difference in pathogenicity to chickens between isolates of different HA sub-groups of clade 2.3.4.4 could explain why the Japanese poultry outbreaks were only caused by a particular sub-group; pathogenicities of A/chicken/Miyazaki/7/2014 (Miyazaki2014; sub-group C) and A/duck/Chiba/26-372-48/2014 (Chiba2014; sub-group A) to chickens were compared and it was found that the lethality of Miyazaki2014 in chickens was lower than that of Chiba2014; according to the 50% chicken lethal dose. This indicated that differences in pathogenicity may not explain why the Japanese poultry outbreaks only involved group C isolates. PMID:26916882

  8. Fecal Carriage and Shedding Density of CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle, Chickens, and Pigs: Implications for Environmental Contamination and Food Production▿

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, R. A.; Randall, L.P.; Snary, E. L.; Cockrem, H.; S. Lotz; Wearing, H.; Duncan, D; RABIE, A.; McLaren, I.; Watson, E.; La Ragione, R.M.; Coldham, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    The number and proportion of CTX-M positive Escherichia coli organisms were determined in feces from cattle, chickens, and pigs in the United Kingdom to provide a better understanding of the risk of the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteria to humans from food animal sources. Samples of bovine (n = 35) and swine (n = 20) feces were collected from farms, and chicken cecal contents (n = 32) were collected from abattoirs. There was wide variation in the number of CTX-M-p...

  9. Development of a real-time multiplex PCR assay for the detection of multiple Salmonella serotypes in chicken samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whyte Paul

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A real-time multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of multiple Salmonella serotypes in chicken samples. Poultry-associated serotypes detected in the assay include Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Typhimurium, Kentucky and Dublin. The traditional cultural method according to EN ISO 6579:2002 for the detection of Salmonella in food was performed in parallel. The real-time PCR based method comprised a pre-enrichment step in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW overnight, followed by a shortened selective enrichment in Rappaport Vasilliadis Soya Broth (RVS for 6 hours and subsequent DNA extraction. Results The real-time multiplex PCR assay and traditional cultural method showed 100% inclusivity and 100% exclusivity on all strains tested. The real-time multiplex PCR assay was as sensitive as the traditional cultural method in detecting Salmonella in artificially contaminated chicken samples and correctly identified the serotype. Artificially contaminated chicken samples resulted in a detection limit of between 1 and 10 CFU per 25 g sample for both methods. A total of sixty-three naturally contaminated chicken samples were investigated by both methods and relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the real-time PCR method were determined to be 89, 94 and 87%, respectively. Thirty cultures blind tested were correctly identified by the real-time multiplex PCR method. Conclusion Real-time PCR methodology can contribute to meet the need for rapid identification and detection methods in food testing laboratories.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter spp. in gastric, fecal and saliva samples from swine affected by gastric ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Bietta, Annalisa; Brachelente, Chiara; Lepri, Elvio; Davidson, Irit; Franciosini, Maria Pia

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter (H.) spp. in swine affected by gastric ulceration. Stomachs from 400 regularly slaughtered swine were subjected to gross pathological examination to evaluate the presence of gastric ulcers. Sixty-five samples collected from ulcerated pars esophagea and 15 samples from non-ulcerated pyloric portions were submitted to histopathological and molecular analyses, to detect Helicobacter spp., H. suis and H. pylori by PCR. Feces and saliva swabs were also collected from 25 animals in order to detect in vivo the presence of Helicobacter spp.. Gastric ulcers were detected in 373 cases (93%). The presence of ulcers in association with inflammatory processes was further confirmed by histological examination. Forty-nine percent (32/65) of the ulcerated esophageal portions as well as 53% (8/15) of the non-ulcerated pyloric portions were positive for Helicobacter spp. by PCR. The Helicobacter spp. positive samples were also positive for H. suis, while H. pylori was not detected. These results were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. With regard to feces and saliva samples, 15/25 (60%) and 16/25 (64%) were positive for Helicobacter spp. PCR, respectively but all were negative in H. suis and H. pylori specific PCR. PMID:20706029

  11. Impact of Diversity of Colonizing Strains on Strategies for Sampling Escherichia coli from Fecal Specimens ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Bilker, Warren B.; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel N.

    2008-01-01

    Of 49 subjects, 21 were colonized with more than one strain of Escherichia coli and 12 subjects had at least one strain present in fewer than 20% of colonies. The ability to accurately characterize E. coli strain diversity is directly related to the number of colonies sampled and the underlying prevalence of the strain.

  12. Impact of Diversity of Colonizing Strains on Strategies for Sampling Escherichia coli from Fecal Specimens ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Bilker, Warren B.; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel N.

    2008-01-01

    Of 49 subjects, 21 were colonized with more than one strain of Escherichia coli and 12 subjects had at least one strain present in fewer than 20% of colonies. The ability to accurately characterize E. coli strain diversity is directly related to the number of colonies sampled and the underlying prevalence of the strain. PMID:18650357

  13. Potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species in plankton and fecal samples of Eubalaena australis from Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Valeria C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Sastre, Viviana; Degrati, Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Península Valdés (PV) in Argentina is an important calving ground for the southern right whale Eubalaena australis. However, a high mortality of calves has been observed in the last years, which could be associated with phycotoxin exposure. During a sampling program conducted late in the calving seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2010, potentially toxic species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia were observed to be an important component of the phytoplankton community and they were also found in fecal samples of two live whales and three stranded whales. In line with this, in the present study Pseudo-nitzschia australis, Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens and the complex Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima were identified in fecal samples and phytoplankton samples by light and electron microscopy. Although no toxin analysis was carried out in the present study, our findings suggest that E. australis could be exposed to domoic acid in their calving ground.

  14. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD CULTURE AND REAL-TIME PCR TO DETECT CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN RETAIL CHICKEN SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of poultry by Campylobacter is a significant source of human diarrheal illness. Conventional bacteriological methods to detect and speciate Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) from chicken samples are labor-intensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare standard c...

  15. Isolation of a reassortant H13N2 virus from a mallard fecal sample in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hyun-Mi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus subtype H13N2, A/mallard/Kr/SH38-45/2010 (H13N2, was first isolated from a mallard fecal sample in South Korea. Results Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes revealed that this virus emerged by genetic mixing between Eurasian and North American gene pools, and possibly between wild ducks and gulls. The H13 and N2 surface genes clustered together in a group with Eurasian isolates from gulls and wild birds, respectively. The PB2, PA, NP, M and NS segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage, whereas the PB1 gene clustered in the North American lineage. Furthermore, they showed a bird-dependent pattern in phylogenetic analysis: the M gene was similar to subtype H13 viruses within gulls, whereas other segments were similar to avian influenza viruses of other subtypes from wild ducks. Conclusions The data suggests that the novel reassortant H13N2 virus isolated in South Korea might have emerged by genetic reassortment between intercontinental and interspecies transmission in wild birds.

  16. A new protoparvovirus in human fecal samples and cutaneous T cell lymphomas (mycosis fungoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Dreno, Brigitte; da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Li, Linlin; Orlandi, Patricia; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Siqueira, Juliana; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Halary, Franck; Dantal, Jacques; Alexander, Kathleen A; Pesavento, Patricia A; Delwart, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We genetically characterized seven nearly complete genomes in the protoparvovirus genus from the feces of children with diarrhea. The viruses, provisionally named cutaviruses (CutaV), varied by 1-6% nucleotides and shared ~76% and ~82% amino acid identity with the NS1 and VP1 of human bufaviruses, their closest relatives. Using PCR, cutavirus DNA was found in 1.6% (4/245) and 1% (1/100) of diarrhea samples from Brazil and Botswana respectively. In silico analysis of pre-existing metagenomics datasets then revealed closely related parvovirus genomes in skin biopsies from patients with epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL or mycosis fungoides). PCR of skin biopsies yielded cutavirus DNA in 4/17 CTCL, 0/10 skin carcinoma, and 0/21 normal or noncancerous skin biopsies. In situ hybridization of CTCL skin biopsies detected viral genome within rare individual cells in regions of neoplastic infiltrations. The influence of cutavirus infection on human enteric functions and possible oncolytic role in CTCL progression remain to be determined. PMID:27393975

  17. An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, R; Ling, W H; Hänninen, O.; Eerola, E

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an uncooked extreme vegan diet on fecal microflora was studied by direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of bacterial cellular fatty acids and by quantitative bacterial culture by using classical microbiological techniques of isolation, identification, and enumeration of different bacterial species. Eighteen volunteers were divided randomly into two groups. The test group received an uncooked vegan diet for 1 month and a conventional diet of mixed Western type for t...

  18. Modified technique to recover microsporidian spores in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples by light microscopy and correlation with transmission electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, P L; MacPherson, D. W.; McKenzie, R A

    1996-01-01

    Microsporidia are an emerging cause of significant disease, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Until recently, the diagnosis of enteric infections has required invasive sampling, the use of expensive technology, and considerable technological expertise. The purpose of the present study was to examine three modifications to the processing of fecal specimens for light microscopy (LM) examination for microsporidian spores: the use of pretreatment with potassium hydroxide, modified centr...

  19. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe; Olufunmilayo Adewumi; Gbolabo Odewale; Olusola Ojurongbe; Olusolabomi Jose Adefioye

    2015-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV,...

  20. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method: easyMag DNA extraction compared to QIAamp DNA stool mini kit extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten; Andersen, Lee O B; Petersen, Andreas M.; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Findin...

  1. Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C.; Fling, Russell R.; Terry, Paul D.; Menn, Fu-Min; Chen, Jiangang; Borman, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g) with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals. PMID:26184276

  2. Extraction of 3,4,4'-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C; Fling, Russell R; Terry, Paul D; Menn, Fu-Min; Chen, Jiangang; Borman, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g) with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals. PMID:26184276

  3. Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C. Kennedy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Triclocarban (3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals.

  4. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test for...... in detecting S. enterica as the 60 faecal samples. In broiler flocks, 5 pairs of socks were used both in the routine samples taken at about 3 weeks of age for the establishment of infection of the flock, and as one of the follow-up samples taken shortly before slaughter age, which means that the only...

  5. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  6. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microspor-idia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Con-tact to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab ASKARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can in­fect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas world­wide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infec­tion particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoono­tic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with close – contact to human.Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-con­tact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced.Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopi­cally in 15 (10.56% samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15% small white mice and 1 (10% laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%. Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10% samples of sheep, 2 (5.12% cattle, 1 (10% rabbit, 3 (11.53% cats and 2 (11.76% ownership dogs (totally 7.74%. Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with close – contact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis.

  7. Comparison of conventional culture methods and two commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of Salmonella in porcine fecal samples and cecal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1997-01-01

    Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, designated EIA-1 and EIA-2, for the detection of salmonella in feces and cecal contents were compared to conventional culture methods. Out of 362 cecal content samples, 35 were positive by EIA-1 and 30 were positive by EIA-2 and conventional methods. Out of 189...... method is rapid, requiring only 24 hours, and may he more sensitive than the EIA-2 assay and conventional culture techniques. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection elf salmonella in fecal samples or cecal contents provide a reasonable alternative to conventional culture techniques....

  8. Isolation and Identification of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis from Milk, Manure and Fecal Samples of Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    M. Seyyedin; T.Z. Salehi; H. Tadjbakhsh; M.F. Najafi; Rabbani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was detection of subclinical forms of Johne’s disease on dairy farms which were suspected of having Johne’s disease or history of it and confirmatory paraclinical of paratuberculosis in them. Also, the isolated bacteria will be used for genotyping and molecular epidemiology of paratuberculosis in the next studies. Samples were gathered of 137 farms in different parts of Razavi Khorasan Province of Iran. There were 505 fresh-fecal and manure samples and 148 raw milk ...

  9. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based......-15% more total fatty acids and a 30-50% increase in some of the PUFA compared with the official EU method. Thus, besides being much more efficient for extraction of fatty acids, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer method is much faster, and allows inclusion of an internal standard from the beginning of the sample...

  10. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xiaojuan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF, a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several differentially expressed protein spots selected were cut from 2-DE gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results An extraction buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% (w/v 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT, 0.2% Bio-Lyte 3/10, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 20 U/ml Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I, and 0.25 mg/ml Ribonuclease A (RNase A, combined with sonication and vortex, yielded the best 2-DE data. Relative to non-frozen immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips, frozen IPG strips did not result in significant changes in the 2-DE patterns after isoelectric focusing (IEF. When the optimized protocol was used to analyze the spleen and thymus, as well as avibirnavirus-infected bursa, high quality 2-DE protein expression profiles were obtained. 2-DE maps of BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus were visibly different and many differentially expressed proteins were found. Conclusion These results showed that method C, in concert extraction buffer IV, was the most favorable for preparing samples for IEF and subsequent protein separation and yielded the best quality 2-DE patterns. The optimized protocol is a useful sample preparation method for comparative proteomics analysis of chicken BF tissues.

  11. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Timothy R.; Pickering, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the prese...

  12. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infections caused by Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E has rapidly increased during the past 15 years. Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and long-term intestinal carriage is considered important for the spread of ESBL and as a source of clinical infections. Oral biofilm such as supragingival plaque is known to contain numerous antibiotic resistance determinants and may also represent a poorly investigated site for ESBL carriage and further spread. Objective: To investigate possible carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria in supragingival plaque of known fecal carriers of these bacteria. Design: We screened for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic ESBL-producing bacteria and blaCTX-M in supragingival plaque samples from healthy human adults with culture-verified fecal carriage of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. The presence or absence of Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL-producing bacteria in plaque samples was evaluated using culture-based methods and consensus CTX-M PCR. Results: Oral samples were obtained from 17 participants with known previous carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. One colony of Rahnella aquatilis harboring the class A ESBL gene bla RAHN-1/2 was identified in an oral sample from one of the participants. Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that the presence of CTX-M-producing bacteria is uncommon in oral plaque of healthy human adult fecal carriers. Due to the limited number of persons tested, a low prevalence of oral ESBL-carriage in healthy adults or carriage in selected groups of patients cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an R. aquatilis with the RAHN-1/2 gene in the oral cavity.

  13. Optimization of the RNA extraction method for transcriptome studies of Salmonella inoculated on commercial raw chicken breast samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthaiyan Arunachalam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased interest in the study of molecular survival mechanisms expressed by foodborne pathogens present on food surfaces. Determining genomic responses of these pathogens to antimicrobials is of particular interest since this helps to understand antimicrobial effects at the molecular level. Assessment of bacterial gene expression by transcriptomic analysis in response to these antimicrobials would aid prediction of the phenotypic behavior of the bacteria in the presence of antimicrobials. However, before transcriptional profiling approaches can be implemented routinely, it is important to develop an optimal method to consistently recover pathogens from the food surface and ensure optimal quality RNA so that the corresponding gene expression analysis represents the current response of the organism. Another consideration is to confirm that there is no interference from the "background" food or meat matrix that could mask the bacterial response. Findings Our study involved developing a food model system using chicken breast meat inoculated with mid-log Salmonella cells. First, we tested the optimum number of Salmonella cells required on the poultry meat in order to extract high quality RNA. This was analyzed by inoculating 10-fold dilutions of Salmonella on the chicken samples followed by RNA extraction. Secondly, we tested the effect of two different bacterial cell recovery solutions namely 0.1% peptone water and RNAprotect (Qiagen Inc. on the RNA yield and purity. In addition, we compared the efficiency of sonication and bead beater methods to break the cells for RNA extraction. To check chicken nucleic acid interference on downstream Salmonella microarray experiments both chicken and Salmonella cDNA labeled with different fluorescent dyes were mixed together and hybridized on a single Salmonella array. Results of this experiment did not show any cross-hybridization signal from the chicken nucleic acids. In

  14. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  15. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  16. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Sorbitol Negative Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia Coli in Chicken from Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Mokarizadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractShiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are food-borne pathogens primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated ground beef and are an important food safety concern worldwide. STEC has been found to produce a family of related cytotoxins known as Shiga toxins (Stxs. Shiga toxins have been classified into two major classes, Stx1 and Stx2. A single strains of STEC can produce Stx1, Stx2 (or its variants or both. The aims of this project were to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of STEC isolates from chicken flocks in Northwest of Iran. A total of 350 fecal samples from 28 broiler farms were screened for the presence of STEC by conventional culture methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All samples were initially subjected to phenotypical analysis using the Sorbitol MacConkey agar plate for the detection of the sorbitol negative E. coli, and then for genotypic analysis, by multiplex PCR for detection of stx1and stx2 genes. STEC were isolated from 14 (4 % chicken fecal samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of STEC from poultry in Iran. To conclude, this work revealed the presence STEC strains harboring stx1 and stx2 gene in healthy chicken fecal samples in Northwest of Iran suggesting they can play as an important potential source of contamination for people working on broiler farms or are in contact with chicken carcasses at meat processing plants.

  17. Effect of Rinse Volume and Sample Time on Recovery of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, and Enterobacteriaceae from Post-Chill Chicken Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The FSIS HACCP and baseline microbiological sampling of chickens uses a 400 mL whole carcass rinse. Other studies suggest that smaller rinse volumes are equal to or more efficient than the 400 mL rinse. Pick-up time for overnight shipping requires day-shift sampling which FSIS is con...

  18. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples reveals high diversity of hindgut microflora in horses and potential links to chronic laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steelman Samantha M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutrition and health of horses is closely tied to their gastrointestinal microflora. Gut bacteria break down plant structural carbohydrates and produce volatile fatty acids, which are a major source of energy for horses. Bacterial communities are also essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and have been hypothesized to contribute to various diseases including laminitis. We performed pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA bacterial genes isolated from fecal material to characterize hindgut bacterial communities in healthy horses and those with chronic laminitis. Results Fecal samples were collected from 10 normal horses and 8 horses with chronic laminitis. Genomic DNA was extracted and the V4-V5 segment of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the 454 platform generating a mean of 2,425 reads per sample after quality trimming. The bacterial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (69.21% control, 56.72% laminitis and Verrucomicrobia (18.13% control, 27.63% laminitis, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes. We observed more OTUs per individual in the laminitis group than the control group (419.6 and 355.2, respectively, P = 0.019 along with a difference in the abundance of two unassigned Clostridiales genera (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01. The most abundant bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and Treponema spp.; along with unassigned genera from Subdivision 5 of Verrucomicrobia, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae, which together constituted ~ 80% of all OTUs. There was a high level of individual variation across all taxonomic ranks. Conclusions Our exploration of the equine fecal microflora revealed higher bacterial diversity in horses with chronic laminitis and identification of two Clostridiales genera that differed in abundance from control horses. There was large individual variation in bacterial communities that was not explained in our study. The core hindgut microflora was

  19. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1μm) to be collected over a 30min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFUmL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFUmL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  20. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  1. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes was carried out using standard molecular method. One hundred and fourteen E. coli isolates were recovered from the 350 samples processed, out of which 72 (63.2% isolates were positive for ESBLs with multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Eighty-one (71% isolates were positive for ESBL by combination disc test, 90 (78.9% were positive for double disc synergism test, and 93 (81.6% were positive for ESBL brilliance agar. TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in 48 (42.1% and 51 (44.7% isolates, respectively. SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates while TEM and CTX-M were detected in 33 (28.9% isolates. This study showed high resistance of E. coli to antibiotics, particularly to the third generation cephalosporins. Regular monitoring and regulated use of antibiotics in livestock should be encouraged.

  2. Evaluation of a real-time multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./EIEC, and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lint, P; De Witte, E; De Henau, H; De Muynck, A; Verstraeten, L; Van Herendael, B; Weekx, S

    2015-03-01

    Conventional diagnosis of infectious diarrhea caused by bacteria is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and has a suboptimal sensitivity. We have therefore developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples. No cross reactivity between the different pathogens was observed, and the multiplex setup of the assay did not have an impact on the sensitivity of the PCR. The analytical sensitivity was 87 CFU/mL for C. jejuni, 61 CFU/mL for Shigella spp./EIEC, 5,528 CFU/mL for Salmonella spp., and 1,306 CFU/mL for Y. enterocolitica. An extensive validation of the assay was performed by testing 1,687 patient samples by both PCR and with conventional techniques. The use of PCR increased the overall clinical sensitivity from 78 to 100 % (p < 0.0001), the specificity was 99.4 % for the PCR, compared with 99.9 % for conventional culture. The novel PCR assay allows for rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, and high-throughput testing of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis. PMID:25326870

  3. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. β-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514 bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage. PMID:26524628

  4. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. PMID:27373751

  5. Multiresidue determination of penicillins in environmental waters and chicken muscle samples by means of capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón-Pérez, M Isabel; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo Iruela, Monsalud; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; Gámiz Gracia, Laura

    2009-05-01

    A new analytical method based on CZE coupled with tandem MS detection (CE-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine penicillins of human and veterinary use (nafcillin, dicloxacillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, penicillin V and piperacillin), whose levels are regulated by the EU Council regulation No. 2377/90 in animal edible tissues. CE separation conditions, sheath liquid composition and electrospray parameters have been carefully optimized to reach high sensitivity and precision. Separation was carried out in a 96 cm total length fused-silica capillary (50 microm id, 360 microm od) using 60 mM ammonium acetate at pH 6.0 as running buffer. Lomefloxacin was used as internal standard. MS/MS experiments were carried out using an IT as analyzer operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode to achieve the minimum number of identification points established by the 2002/657/EC European Decision. The use of an SPE procedure in two steps, combining Oasis hydrophilic-liphophilic balance and Alumina N cartridges provide a satisfactory preconcentration and clean up treatment for meat samples after extraction of the compounds with ACN. Only Oasis hydrophilic-liphophilic balance cartridges were necessary in water samples to obtain adequate recoveries. The method has been characterized for its use in meat and water samples, using matrix-matched calibrations. For chicken muscle samples, LODs between 8 and 12 microg/kg have been obtained, in all cases lower than the maximum residue limits permitted. For water samples LODs from 0.18 to 0.26 microg/L could ensure its satisfactory application in aquatic samples. PMID:19391147

  6. DETECTION OF GIARDIA MURIS AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN ANIMAL TISSUES AND FECAL SAMPLES SUBJECTED TO CYCLES OF FREEZING AND THAWING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). iardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellet...

  7. Advantages of using fecal samples for stable isotope analysis in bats : evidence from a triple isotopic experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Salvarina, Ioanna; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Siemers, Björn M.; Koselj, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis in ecological studies is usually conducted on biomaterials, e.g. muscle and blood,that require catching the animals. Feces are rarely used for stable isotope analysis, despite the possibility of non-invasive sampling and short-term responsiveness to dietary changes. This promising method is neglected due to a lack of calibration experiments and unknown diet-feces isotopic difference (Δdiet-feces.METHODS: To fill this gap, we simulated trophic changes occurri...

  8. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  9. Does the effect of pelleting depend on the wheat sample when fed to chickens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgozliev, V; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P

    2016-04-01

    Experimental comparisons of the nutritional value of different wheat cultivars commonly use feeds in meal form even though the large-scale broiler producers use steam pelleted feeds. The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of steam pelleting on the performance, dietary N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), total tract dry matter retention (DMR), nitrogen retention (NR) and fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and digestive tract development of broilers fed four different wheat samples in complete diets. Four European wheat samples, with different chemical composition and endosperm characteristics, were used in a broiler experiment. The wheat samples were milled through a 5 mm screen and four basal feeds containing 670 g/kg of each selected wheat sample were mixed. The basal feeds were then split into two batches and one of them was steam pelleted resulting in eight experimental diets. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight pens of two male Ross 308 broilers from 10 to 24 days of age. Feeding pelleted diets improved (P0.05). Feeding different wheat types and pelleting did not (P>0.05) change the development of the gastrointestinal tract of the birds. The study showed that there were differences between four wheat samples when they were fed in pelleted complete feed, but no differences were observed when fed in mash form complete diets. Research on the interaction between pelleting and wheat chemical and quality characteristics is warranted. PMID:26538484

  10. PCR-RFLP method to detect zoonotic and host-specific Giardia duodenalis assemblages in dog fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Wu, Sheng; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Yu, Xinggang; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Shi, Xianli; Li, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan that parasitizes the upper small intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To develop a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for typing zoonotic (A, B) and host-specific (C, D) assemblages of G. duodenalis from dog, β-giardin gene was amplified with design primer pairs B3 and B4. The PCR products were digested with restriction enzyme Afa I and Msp I; then, PCR-RFLP method was compared with HRM genotyping and sequencing method for G. duodenalis from dog. The results showed that each of assemblages A-D had unique restriction pattern, which was consistent with the predictive results. Among 21 samples tested by PCR-RFLP, 1 human-derived and 8 dog-derived G. duodenalis were identified as assemblage A; 5 dog-derived G. duodenalis as assemblage C; 7 dog-derived G. duodenalis as assemblage D, which were coincided with the HRM genotyping and sequencing results. It is concluded that the PCR-RFLP is quick, easy, and accurate method for the sequence typing of G. duodenalis zoonotic and specific assemblages from dogs. PMID:26852125

  11. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (chicken and high scores (>2+) were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%), E. maxima (12%), and E. acervulina (1.5%). Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country.

  12. The performance of three-sample qualitative immunochemical fecal test to detect colorectal adenoma and cancer in gastrointestinal outpatients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated qualitative fecal immunochemical test (qlFIT is a clinical strategy widely used to detect lower gastrointestinal lesions, but its diagnostic power has not been assessed in opportunistic screening for colorectal neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the performance of three-sample qlFIT in screening for colorectal cancer and its precursors in high-risk participants. METHODS: 513 gastrointestinal outpatients yielded three qlFITs before a standard colonoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of one, two, and three positive qlFITs serving as the positivity threshold. The risk factors of colorectal neoplasia to yield positive qlFITs were also determined. RESULTS: 52 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 70 with advanced adenomatous polyp. For colorectal cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of one positive qlFIT were 90.4% and 53.8%, of two were 80.8% and 75.1%, and of three were 53.9% and 88.5%, respectively. For advanced adenomatous polyp, the sensitivity and specificity of one positive qlFIT were 81.4% and 54.2%, of two were 50.0% and 72.5%, and of three were 28.6% and 86.2%. Left-sided location (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.26-4.95 and advanced histology of tumors (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.58-6.01 were independently associated with positive qlFITs. CONCLUSIONS: Three-sample qlFIT is a reasonably good method to detect colorectal neoplasia in high-risk population. Tumors in the left side or with advanced pathological features are more likely to produce positive qlFITs.

  13. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples using multiplex PCR and qPCR-MCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebardast, Nozhat; Yeganeh, Farshid; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Abadi, Alireza; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Haghighi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common causes of diarrheal and intestinal diseases all over the world. Microscopic methods are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites (IPs), but their sensitivity was assessed approximately 60 percent. Recently, molecular techniques have been used increasingly for the identification and characterization of the parasites. Among those, in this study we have used multiplex PCR and Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples. Twenty DNA samples from 12 E. histolytica and 8 E. dispar samples and twenty stool samples confirmed positive for G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. were analyzed. After DNA extraction from the samples, multiplex PCR was done for detection and differentiation of above mentioned parasites. QPCR-MCA was also performed for the detection and differentiation of 11 isolates of above mentioned parasite in a cycle with a time and temperature. Multiplex PCR was able to simultaneous detect and differentiate of above mentioned parasite in a single reaction. QPCR-MCA was able to differentiate genus and species those five protozoa using melting temperature simultaneously at the same time and temperature programs. In total, qPCR-MCA diagnosed 7/11 isolation of E. histolytica, 6/8 isolation of E. dispar, 1/1 E. moshkovskii Laredo, 10/11 G. Lamblia and 6/11 Cryptosporidium spp. Application of multiplex PCR for detection of more than one species in a test in developing countries, at least in reference laboratories has accurate diagnosis and plays a critical role in differentiation of protozoan species. Multiplex PCR assay with a template and multi template had different results and it seems that using a set of primers with one template has higher diagnostic capability in compare with multi template. The results of this study

  14. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (<0.2, <2, <20, <100, <200 mu m) and total (unfractionated). We determined fecal pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  15. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Griffiths, Mansel; Rådström, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Real-time PCR is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between DNA originating from viable, viable nonculturable (VNC), and dead cells. For this reason, real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 x 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture enrichment and amounts as low as 2.6 x 10(3) CFU/ml could be quantified. Furthermore, subjecting viable cells and dead cells to flotation showed that viable cells were recovered after flotation treatment but that dead cells and/or their DNA was not detected. Also, when samples containing VNC cells mixed with dead cells were treated with flotation after storage at 4 or 20 degrees C for 21 days, a similar percentage resembling the VNC cell fraction was detected using real-time PCR and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining (20% +/- 9% and 23% +/- 4%, respectively, at 4 degrees C; 11% +/- 4% and 10% +/- 2%, respectively, at 20 degrees C). This indicated that viable and VNC Campylobacter cells could be positively selected and quantified using the flotation method. PMID:16204485

  16. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  17. Fecal calprotectin concentration in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jung Min; Park, Ju Yi; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Among the many factors associated with acute intestinal mucosal infection, numerous studies have proposed the usefulness of fecal calprotectin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods We collected 154 stool samples from 16 very low birth weight and premature newborns at the Konyang University Hospital neonatal intensive care unit or neonatal nursery. The stool samples were collected using t...

  18. Screening and Rapid Identification of Campylobacter Spp. DNA by FlaA PCR Based Method on Chicken and Human Fecal Samples in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which has a potential public health concern worldwide. Due to discriminatory problems encountered by conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp. and its genetic similarities, rapid molecular techniques for its genetic characterization are useful. In this study,...

  19. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  20. Analysis of transcriptional responses of chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using paraffin embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcriptional response of several cytokines in the spleen of chicken naturally infected by Newcastle Disease velogenic viscerotropic viruses was compared to the responses of atypical velogenic, velogenic neurotropic, and mesogenic strains during the first five days after infection. The ribonuc...

  1. Fecal calprotectin concentration in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Yi; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Among the many factors associated with acute intestinal mucosal infection, numerous studies have proposed the usefulness of fecal calprotectin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods We collected 154 stool samples from 16 very low birth weight and premature newborns at the Konyang University Hospital neonatal intensive care unit or neonatal nursery. The stool samples were collected using the Calprest device, and the fecal calprotectin level was measured with the BÜHLMANN Calprotectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Fecal calprotectin levels were significantly higher in the NEC group than in the non-NEC group (P=0.02). There was a significant positive linear relationship between the fecal calprotectin level and number of days after birth (P=0.00) in the gestational age <26 weeks group. There was a significant negative linear relationship between the calprotectin level and number of days after birth (P=0.03) in the gestational age ≥26 weeks and <30 weeks group. There was no difference in the calprotectin levels according to the type and method of feeding between the NEC and non-NEC groups. Conclusion Fecal calprotectin levels were significantly increased in premature infants with NEC. The fecal calprotectin test is a noninvasive, easy, and useful tool for the diagnosis of NEC. PMID:25210522

  2. Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Rebekah C.; Russell R. Fling; Terry, Paul D; Fu-Min Menn; Jiangang Chen; Borman, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC...

  3. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples reveals high diversity of hindgut microflora in horses and potential links to chronic laminitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steelman Samantha M; Chowdhary Bhanu P; Dowd Scot; Suchodolski Jan; Janečka Jan E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The nutrition and health of horses is closely tied to their gastrointestinal microflora. Gut bacteria break down plant structural carbohydrates and produce volatile fatty acids, which are a major source of energy for horses. Bacterial communities are also essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and have been hypothesized to contribute to various diseases including laminitis. We performed pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA bacterial genes isolated from fecal material to character...

  4. Diagnóstico de criptosporidiose em amostras fecais de bezerros por imunofluorescência direta e microscopia de contraste de fase Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in fecal samples of calves using direct immunofluorescence and phase contrast microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar as técnicas de imunofluorescência direta (IFD e a microscopia de contraste de fase em solução de Sheather (MCF, para detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras fecais de bezerros. A determinação dos limiares detecção da IFD e da MCF foi realizada utilizando cinco alíquotas de uma amostra fecal de bezerro, comprovadamente negativa para Cryptosporidium spp., adicionadas com diferentes quantidades de oocistos de Cryptosporidium parvum. Ao exame das 5 alíquotas, a IFD e a MCF apresentaram, respectivamente, limiares de detecção de 3,3x104 (duas alíquotas positivas e 3,3x105 oocistos (1 alíquota positiva por grama de fezes. Foram também realizadas a comparação entre a positividade obtida e uma análise semiquantitativa do número de oocistos observados por campo de microscopia, em ambos os métodos, em 300 amostras fecais de bezerros. Entre as 300 amostras, 19,7% (59/300 foram positivas pela IFD, com diferença estatisticamente significante (P=0,0098 quando comparada com a positividade obtida pela MCF, que foi de 11,7% (35/300. As amostras positivas foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase para amplificação de fragmentos da subunidade 18S do rRNA, com posterior sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados, o que permitiu a identificação de Cryptosporidium andersoni em 11,9% (7/59 e de C.parvum em 88,1% (52/59 das amostras. Os resultados observados comprovam que a IFD foi mais eficiente que a MCF para detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras fecais de bezerros.This study aimed to compare the direct immunofluorescence assay (DIF and the phase contrast microscopy in Sheather solution (PCM for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal samples from calves. The determination of the thresholds of detection of DIF and PCM was performed using five aliquots of a fecal sample from a calf negative for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, spiked with

  5. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Kaboudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (2+ were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%, E. maxima (12%, and E. acervulina (1.5%. Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 among infection rates, age groups, season, diarrhea, and type of chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country.

  6. 模拟粪便标本中的单增李斯特菌的分离和检测%Isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes in artificial fecal samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 陈强; 李爱华; 叶长芸

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the isolation and identification assay of Listeria monocytogenes in fecal sample, increase the detection rate and investigate the infection rate of Listeria monocytogenes in population in China. Methods Real-time PCR and traditional detections of Usteria monocytogenes were conducted after tow enrichments of artificial fecal samples, Results When Listeria monocytogenes concentration was 7 CFU /g in artificial fecal sample, the realtime PCR and culture results were positive. Conclusion The result of this study provides laboratory evidence for the isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes from fecal samples and etiological survey of food poisoning caused by Listeria monocytogenes, which would facilitate the survey of carriage or infection status of Listeria monocytogenes in population in China.%目的 建立针对粪便标本中单增李斯特菌的分离鉴定方法,评价方法的检测下限,以提高感染人群标本中单增李斯特菌的检出率,了解我国人群中该菌的携带及感染情况.方法 对模拟人粪便标本进行二次增菌,采用Real-time PCR检测,并同时分离培养获得该病原菌.结果 当每克模拟粪便标本中含有7 cfu的单增李斯特菌时,经过增菌后的标本用Real-time PCR方法可检测出阳性结果,并能够通过单增李斯特菌的选择培养基分离得到病原菌.结论 本研究为从粪便标本中分离单增李斯特菌和由单增李斯特菌引起的食物中毒事件的病原学调查提供了技术支持,有利于对我国人群中单增李斯特菌的携带或感染状况进行调查分析.

  7. Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em amostras fecais de felinos no município de Andradina, São Paulo Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of cats in Andradina City, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em amostras fecais de felinos do Município de Andradina, SP. Este trabalho foi realizado no período de março a novembro de 2007, sendo utilizados 51 gatos de procedências diversas, endereçados ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do referido Município. Para o diagnóstico coproparasitológico foram associadas as técnicas de Willis e Faust, observando-se ocorrência de Ancylostoma spp. em 96,1% dos animais; Toxocara spp. em 43,1%; Cystoisospora spp. em 43,1%; Dipylidium caninum em 21,6% e Giardia spp. em 5,9% dos animais. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 3,9% das amostras pela técnica de coloração negativa com verde malaquita. Não foi verificada associação significativa entre a ocorrência de endoparasitos e a consistência das amostras fecais. Os resultados obtidos confirmam que esses felinos são importantes hospedeiros de parasitos, alguns com alto potencial zoonótico.The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from cats of the Andradina city, SP. This work was carried out from March to November of 2007, and used 51 cats delivered to the Center of Zoonoses Control of that city. Techniques of Willis and Faust were used in the fecal examination and resulted in detection of Ancylostoma spp. in 96.1% of the animals; Toxocara spp. in 43.1%; Cystoisospora spp. in 43.1%; Dipylidium caninum in 21.6% and Giardia spp. in 5.9% samples. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 3.9% fecal samples by the use of malachite green negative stain. There was no significant association between the occurrence of endoparasites and consistency of fecal samples. The results confirm that these cats represent important hosts of parasites, some of those with high zoonotic potential.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from humans, retail chicken meat, and cattle feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Fraser J; Strachan, Norval J C; Reay, Kenneth; MacKenzie, Fiona M; Ogden, Iain D; Dallas, John F; Forbes, Ken J

    2010-09-01

    We determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter isolates from cases of sporadic human infection (n = 119), retail chicken meat (n = 105), and cattle feces (n = 105). Ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was highest in human isolates (32% and 29%, respectively) and retail chicken isolates (25% and 25%, respectively), whereas nalidixic acid resistance was highest in cattle fecal isolates (20%). We found that the antimicrobial resistance profiles were more similar in human and chicken meat isolates than those observed when comparing human and cattle fecal isolates. When we analyzed the distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations for each antibiotic, in each host, the distribution was similar between human and chicken meat isolates, whereas cattle fecal isolates remained highly distinct from the other two hosts. This study suggests that chicken may be a major source of human Campylobacter infection and that the antimicrobial resistances found in the Campylobacter from this source will therefore also be prevalent in clinical isolates. PMID:20528465

  9. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Zungur; Berker Nacak; Meltem Serdaroglu

    2015-01-01

    Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking ...

  10. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  11. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  13. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nutritional deficiencies in, for example, iron or vitamin B12 . A qualitative fecal fat may be ordered as ... Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic cancer Cystic fibrosis (affects the function of the pancreas) Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Diseases and ...

  14. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a causal relationship could not be demonstrated. We conclude that nematode egg excretion through chicken feces in both natural and experimental infections shows repeatable diurnal fluctuations, which may indicate adaptive strategies by nematodes and eventually favor parasite spread. Since analytic sensitivity of fecal egg counts suffers from low egg concentrations in feces, samples taken during the daytime have a higher diagnostic value. PMID:25700938

  15. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  16. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  17. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (pcattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  18. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for sampl...

  19. Trophic interactions of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in a Chilean Ramsar wetland inferred from prey sampling, fecal analysis, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Correa, Loreto; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains (spraints), and the use of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in otter spraints ( n = 262) and prey in a wetland ecosystem of southern Chile (39°49'S, 73°15'W). Fecal and isotopic analyses suggest that the otter diet is restricted to a few prey items, particularly the less-mobile, bottom-living, and larger prey such as crayfish ( Samastacus spinifrons, 86.11 %) and crabs ( Aegla spp., 32.45 %), supplemented opportunistically by cyprinids ( Cyprinus carpio, 9.55 %) and catfish ( Diplomystes camposensis, 5.66 %). The results suggest that the river otter is highly specialized in bottom foraging. Isotopic signatures of food sources and feces revealed a mid-upper trophic position for the Southern river otter, with either higher or lower δ15N values than their potential prey items. δ13C values for river otters were less enriched than their potential food resources. We suggest that due to their narrow trophic niche and possible dependence on only a few food items, this species may be highly vulnerable to the reduction in its prey populations. Finally, maintaining the ecological interactions between Southern river otters and their prey is considered a central priority for the survival of this endangered carnivore mammal.

  20. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken tracheal samples using an impedance aptasensor with gold nanoparticles for signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Sardar; Wang, Ronghui; Kelso, Lisa; Lu, Huaguang; Huang, Tony Jun; Li, Yanbin

    2016-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 is a continuous threat to public health and poultry industry. The recurrence of the H5N1 led us to develop a robust, specific, and rapid detection method for the virus. In this study, an impedance aptasensor was developed for the virus detection using specific H5N1 aptamer and a gold interdigitated microelectrode. Streptavidin was immobilized on the microelectrode surface and biotin labeled H5N1 aptamer was bound to the immobilized streptavidin. The microelectrode was blocked with the polyethylene glycol and the bound aptamer captured the virus. The impedance change caused by the captured virus was measured using an impedance analyzer. To enhance impedance signal, a nanoparticle-based amplifier was designed and implemented by forming a network-like gold nanoparticles/H5N1-aptamer/thiocyanuric acid. The detection limit of the impedance aptasensor was 0.25 HAU for the pure virus and 1 HAU for the tracheal chicken swab samples spiked with the H5N1 virus. The detection time of aptasensor without employing the amplifier was less than an hour. The amplifier increased impedance by a 57-fold for the 1 HAU samples. Only negligible impedance change was observed for non-target viruses such as H5N2, H5N3, H7N2, H1N1, and H2N2. This aptasensor provides a foundation for the development of a portable aptasensor instrument. PMID:27452670

  1. The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Sullivan, K.; Oakley, B.; Berrang, M.; Meinersmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FIB and pathogens in stream water and sediment based on three land management-affected categories: agricultural, forest, and waters receiving treated municipal wastewater. Two synoptic sampling events were conducted under baseflow conditions (Campylobacter and Listeria spp. were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected at 15 locations (six agricultural (AG); six forested (FORS); and three receiving discharge from water pollution control plants (WPCP)) in the S. Fork Broad River watershed located in northeast Georgia, USA. Mean E. coli and E. faecalis concentrations were highest in the AG stream water samples (3.08 log MPN 100 mL -1 for E. coli and 3.07 log CFU 100 mL -1 for E. faecalis ) and lowest in the FORS water samples for E. coli (2.37 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) and WPCP water samples for E. faecalis (2.53 log CFU 100 mL -1 ). E. coli concentrations (2.74 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) in the WPCP streams were intermediate. Similar to water samples, E. coli concentrations were highest in the AG sediments (4.31 log MPN g -1 ), intermediate in the WPCP sediments (4.06 log MPN g -1 ), and lowest in the FORS sediments (3.46 log MPN g -1 ). In contrast to E. coli, E. faecalis concentrations were lower (1.10 to 1.31 log CFU g -1 ) and relatively more constant than E. coli in sediments over the three land management categories. Campylobacter was detected in 27% of the water samples and 8% of the sediment samples. The highest occurrence of Campylobacter detection was in the AG streams (15% of the water samples; 5% of the sediment samples). Listeria was detected in 76% of the water samples and

  2. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels. PMID:25002548

  3. Efficacy of bacterin-, outer membrane protein- and fimbriae extract-based vaccines for the control of Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of three vaccines was evaluated in chickens for the control of experimental infection with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4. The vaccines were produced with bacterin, outer membrane proteins (OMP) and fimbriae crude extract (FE). The chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly with two doses of each vaccine at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The chickens were then orally challenged with 10(9) CFU/chicken Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 at 18 weeks of age. Fecal swabs were perfor...

  4. First genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned calves, broiler chickens and children in Syria by PCR-RFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouha, Morshed; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Alkhaled, Abdulkarim

    2016-07-30

    In this study, PCR-RFLP was used for the first time in Syria for genotyping Cryptosporidium species of man, calves and chickens. The total of 391 fecal samples included 213 from children with diarrhea (<5years), 67 from pre-weaned calves with diarrhea and 111 from broiler chicken farms. All samples were collected and examined with acid fast stain to detect the positive samples. Subsequently a nested-PCR test was performed on 35 positive samples (17 from calves, 11 from chicken, and 7 from children) targeting SSU rRNA gene, and was followed by RFLP analysis using three restriction enzymes SspI, VspI and MboII. Results showed that C. parvum was the only identified species in children and calves, on the other hand C. baileyi was identified in broilers in addition to another species with unknown RFLP profile in comparison to those which have been described in chicken. Further studies using more genes are needed to sequence and detect subtypes of this parasite. PMID:27369580

  5. Discrepancy between the occurrence of Arcobacter in chickens and broiler carcass contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driessche, E; Houf, K

    2007-04-01

    Both Campylobacter and Arcobacter are commonly present on broiler carcasses. For Campylobacter, the superficial contamination originates predominantly from fecal contamination during slaughter. In contrast with Campylobacter, the source of the Arcobacter contamination is not clear. In several studies, arcobacters have been isolated in poultry processing plants from the carcasses and slaughter equipment, but not from the intestinal content. In literature, contradictory reports about the Arcobacter colonization of the chicken gut have been published. In most of those studies, arcobacters were not isolated from cecal content nor from litter or the feathers, though some studies reported the isolation of arcobacters from cloacal swab samples. The present study assessed if arcobacters are part of the chicken intestine, skin, or feather flora. Because no isolation protocol has been validated for poultry intestinal content, a previously developed Arcobacter isolation procedure for feces from livestock animals was first validated. With this method, a good repeatability, in-lab reproducibility and sensitivity, and a good suppression of the chicken fecal accompanying flora were achieved when 125 mg/L of 5-fluorouracil, 10 mg/L of amphotericine B, 100 mg/L of cycloheximide, 16 mg/L of cefoperazone, 64 mg/L of novobiocine, and 64 mg/L of trimethoprim were applied. The validated method was used to examine the presence of arcobacters in and on living chickens of 4 flocks at slaughter age. Because arcobacters were not isolated from the intestinal tract nor from the skin or feathers of the birds, this study was not able to identify arcobacters as part of the intestinal or skin flora, nor could confirm the role of process water as reservoir. However, the results clearly demonstrated that the time period for processing the samples and the way of sample collection are crucial in the interpretation of epidemiological studies. As the reservoir of the carcass contamination remains

  6. Retrospective Species Identification of Microsporidian Spores in Diarrheic Fecal Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Patients by Multiplexed Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    OpenAIRE

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Johansson, Michael A.; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Moura, Laci S.; DaSilva, Alexandre J.; Girouard, Autumn S.; Matos, Olga

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive...

  7. Imaging fecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. E-mail: michael.fuchsjaeger@univie.ac.at; Maier, Andrea G

    2003-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is the inability to defer release of gas or stool from the anus and rectum by mechanisms of voluntary control. It is an important medical disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population above 65 years. The most common contributing factors include previous vaginal deliveries, pelvic or perineal trauma, previous anorectal surgery, and rectal prolapse. Many physicians lack experience and knowledge related to pelvic floor incontinence disorders, but advancing technology has improved this knowledge. Increased experience with endoanal ultrasound and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging have given us a better understanding not only of the anatomy of the anal canal but also of the underlying morphological defects in fecal incontinence. Current imaging methods are emphasized and recent literature is reviewed.

  8. Comparison of BD Max Cdiff and GenomEra C. difficile molecular assays for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from stools in conventional sample containers and in FecalSwabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J J; Kaukoranta, S-S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the usability and performance of GenomEra™ C. difficile and BD Max™ Cdiff nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile were investigated in comparison with toxigenic culture and C. difficile toxin A- and toxin B-detecting immunochromatographic antigen (IA) test, the Tox A/B QuikChek®. In total, 302 faecal specimens were collected, 113 of which were in parallel to conventional sample containers and FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) tubes. Seventy-nine specimens were considered true-positives for toxigenic C. difficile. The sensitivity and specificity were 97.5 % and 99.6 % and 93.7 % and 98.7 % for the GenomEra and BD Max assays respectively. Toxigenic culture and Tox A/B QuikChek had sensitivity and specificity of 91.1 % and 100 % and 34.2 % and 100 % respectively. Hands-on time for analysing 1 to 24 specimens using NAATs was 1 to 15 min. The rate of PCR inhibition was 0 % for both NAATs with faeces in LBM tubes, while with faeces in conventional sample containers the respective inhibition rates were 5.3 % and 4.4 % for the GenomEra and the BD Max assays. The NAATs demonstrated an excellent analytical performance, reducing significantly the overall workload of laboratory personnel compared with culture and IA test. PMID:25616552

  9. Management of Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common condition that often impairs quality of life. It is generally caused by a variety of conditions that are associated with anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction and/or diarrhea. A detailed characterization of symptoms, particularly bowel habits, is useful for assessing symptom severity and guiding management. A careful digital rectal examination is invaluable for gauging anal resting and squeeze pressures and anorectal evacuation. Tests should be tailored to age, sym...

  10. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  11. Detection and Confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Direct Quantitative PCR Positive Fecal Samples by the Manual Fluorescent MGIT Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAJI, Satoko; Nagata, Reiko; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An efficient protocol for the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system combined with rapid confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) growth in the broth culture was established and evaluated for the detection of viable MAP in direct quantitative PCR (QPCR) positive bovine feces. Manually detected fluorescence emissions from MGIT tubes were analyzed objectively using an open source software, ImageJ. For molecular confirmation of MAP growth, DNA samples harvested ...

  12. [Blastocystis hominis in Canavese: a retrospective study of samples received for fecal parasitological examination at the Ivrea- Castellamonte Hospital over 42 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistono, P G; Dusi, M P; Ronchetto, F; Cestonaro, G; Guasco, C

    1991-01-01

    In the last ten years the interest in the controversial Blastocystis hominis microorganism of the intestine has greatly increased. The authors conducted a retrospective study of feces for parasitology investigations at the Ivrea-Castellamonte hospital. These investigations lasted 42 months (1/1/1988-31/6/1991) and the authors focused their attention on samples with 5 or more Blastocystis hominis at the microscopically examination with a 40X phase objective. During the study 2,138 samples of feces (belonging to 1552 patients) arrived. 284 samples (13.3%), corresponding to 200 patients (12.9%), proved to be positive for one or more parasites. In 155 samples (7.2%) regarding 109 patients (7.0%)--53 males, 56 females--Blastocystis was present. These patients were between 2 and 78 years of age. In 19 (17.4%) of these patients other parasites were associated, parasites such as Giardia lamblia (in 6 cases), Entamoeba coli (in 4 cases), Entamoeba spp. (in 2 cases), Entamoeba histolytica (in one case), Entamoeba hartmanni (in one case), Iodamoeba butschlii (in one case), Hymenolepis nana (in one case); helminths (in 3 cases). The most effect proved to be those patients between 21 and 50 years of age (53 of 98 patients). Few infants were affected. The greatest incidence of Blastocystis hominis infection occurred during the months of January to June. The authors conclude by considering how the incidence data of such parasitosis in the Canavese region can be superimposed on as much as has been observed in territories which are very different regarding social-economic and geoclimatic conditions. The authors think it is necessary to start a prospective clinical-epidemiological investigation in the Canavese region with a view to defining the clinical approach to the parasite under discussion in a better way. PMID:1844921

  13. Analysis of sample preparation procedures for enumerating fecal coliforms in coarse southwestern U.S. bottom sediments by the most-probable-number method.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Kramer, R E; Brickler, S K

    1984-01-01

    The determination of bacterial densities in aquatic sediments generally requires that a dilution-mixing treatment be used before enumeration of organisms by the most-probable-number fermentation tube method can be done. Differential sediment and organism settling rates may, however, influence the distribution of the microbial population after the dilution-mixing process, resulting in biased bacterial density estimates. For standardization of sample preparation procedures, the influence of set...

  14. Characterization of Escherichia coli-Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) Isolated from Chicken Slaughterhouses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Soo; Choi, Da-Som; Kim, Young-Jo; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Park, Hyun-Jung; Moon, Jin-San; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    In South Korea, few reports have indicated the occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in food-producing animals, particularly in poultry slaughterhouses. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of ESBL-producing E. coli from whole chicken carcasses (n=156) and fecal samples (n=39) of chickens obtained from 2 slaughterhouses. Each sample enriched in buffered peptone water was cultured on MacConkey agar with 2 mg/L cefotaxime and ESBL agar. ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility were determined using the Trek Diagnostics system. The ESBL genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the bla(SHV), bla(TEM), and bla(CTX-M) gene sequences. Subtyping using a repetitive sequence-based PCR system (DiversiLab™) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to assess the interspecific biodiversity of isolates. Sixty-two ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained from 156 samples (39.7%). No bla(SHV) genes were detected in any of the isolates, whereas all contained the bla(TEM) gene. Twenty-five strains (40.3%) harbored the CTX-M group 1 gene. The most prevalent MLST sequence type (ST) was ST 93 (14.5%), followed by ST 117 (9.7%) and ST 2303 (8.1%). This study reveals a high occurrence and β-lactams resistance rate of E. coli in fecal samples and whole chickens collected from slaughterhouses in South Korea. PMID:26219023

  15. Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

    2009-12-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

  16. Research on the Effective Storage Period and Sample Quantity for Fecal Steroids of Giant Pandas%大熊猫粪便类固醇激素的保存时效性及检测准确性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕温磊; 齐敦武; 杨志松; 陈鹏; 陈超; 冯菲菲; Jacob R Owens; 侯蓉; 张志和; 李明喜

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring fecal steroid metabolites helps us understand the breeding ecology of wildlife,and,as a result, can improve the conservation and management of endangered species.However,the precision of the analyses used to detect-and the effective storage period of-fresh fecal steroids remain unclear.To determine the influence of sample mass on the results of steroid metabolite analyses,we compared between samples of 0.2 g and 0.5 g.To test the in-fluence of time on the results,we collected feces from 25 pandas at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding,which we studied under simulated field conditions(13 ±2℃),and tested steroid hormone daily for 360 hours.Our results showed that there were significantly different cortisol values between the 0.2g and 0.5g subsam-ples (p =0.000),and that the 0.5 g subsamples were more stable.The results of the fecal age sampling analysis indicate that the cortisol of the male panda was viable for 48 hours,however testosterone did not change significantly over the 360-hour period(F =0.813,P >0.05).For females,cortisol was viable for 72 hours(F =5.96,p <0.05), while progesterone remained stable for 48 hours(F =2.365,P <0.05 ).However,for the not fresh samples,we should detect the fecal steroid hormone in the effective period.%对大熊猫类固醇激素的监测有助于了解其生存环境的状况,然而,野外采集的粪便样品的时间尚缺乏准确估计,因此,样品中有效保存的时间与分析量是否对检测结果具有影响尚不得而知。为评估样品分析量和保存时间对野生大熊猫粪便样品类固醇激素结果的影响,我们设置0.5g 和0.2g 两种样品分析量,以及模拟野外温度(13±2℃)环境下,进行连续360 h 的检测分析。结果表明:不同样品分析量(即0.5g 和0.2g)间差异显著(p =0.000),且分析量越大检测结果越准确。雄性大熊猫的皮质醇可稳定保存48h(F =6.08,P <0.05),睾酮

  17. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Richmond

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.

  18. Fecal 13C analysis for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of 14CO2 breath tests and fecal analyses for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption has been extensively documented in adult subjects. The use of radioisotopes has extended the range of breath test applications to include pediatric and geriatric subjects. Here we report a fecal 13C analysis that can be used in conjunction with 14CO2 breath tests. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected before and after the administration of a labeled substrate. Simultaneous cholyglycine 13CO2 breath tests and fecal assays were performed in five children. One child with bacterial overgrowth had an abnormal breath test and a normal fecal test. Of three children with ileal dysfunction, only one had an abnormal breath test, whereas the fecal test was abnormal in all three. Both the breath test and fecal test were abnormal for a child who had undergone an ileal resection. Both tests were normal for a child with ulcerative colitis

  19. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay for Detection of Multiple Diarrheal Pathogens in Fecal Samples in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu Thuy; Phat, Voong Vinh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Trung, Pham Duc; Minh, Pham Van; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Campbell, James I; Le Phuc, Hoang; Ha, Ton Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Huong, Dang Thao; Xang, Nguyen Van; Dong, Nguyen; Phuong, Le Thi; Hung, Nguyen Van; Phu, Bui Duc; Phuc, Tran My; Thwaites, Guy E; Vi, Lu Lan; Rabaa, Maia A; Thompson, Corinne N; Baker, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. Multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. We evaluated the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) assay for the detection of common enteric bacterial and viral pathogens in Vietnam. Microbiological culture and real-time PCR were used as gold standards. The tests were performed on 479 stool samples collected from people admitted to the hospital for diarrheal disease throughout Vietnam. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the xTAG GPP for the seven principal diarrheal etiologies. The sensitivity and specificity for the xTAG GPP were >88% forShigellaspp.,Campylobacterspp., rotavirus, norovirus genotype 1/2 (GI/GII), and adenovirus compared to those of microbiological culture and/or real-time PCR. However, the specificity was low (∼60%) forSalmonellaspecies. Additionally, a number of important pathogens that are not identified in routine hospital procedures in this setting, such asCryptosporidiumspp. andClostridium difficile, were detected with the GPP. The use of the Luminex xTAG GPP for the detection of enteric pathogens in settings, like Vietnam, would dramatically improve the diagnostic accuracy and capacity of hospital laboratories, allowing for timely and appropriate therapy decisions and a wider understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens associated with severe diarrheal disease in low-resource settings. PMID:26865681

  20. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay for Detection of Multiple Diarrheal Pathogens in Fecal Samples in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu Thuy; Phat, Voong Vinh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Trung, Pham Duc; Minh, Pham Van; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Campbell, James I.; Le Phuc, Hoang; Ha, Ton Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Huong, Dang Thao; Xang, Nguyen Van; Dong, Nguyen; Phuong, Le Thi; Hung, Nguyen Van; Phu, Bui Duc; Phuc, Tran My; Thwaites, Guy E.; Vi, Lu Lan; Rabaa, Maia A.; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. Multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. We evaluated the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) assay for the detection of common enteric bacterial and viral pathogens in Vietnam. Microbiological culture and real-time PCR were used as gold standards. The tests were performed on 479 stool samples collected from people admitted to the hospital for diarrheal disease throughout Vietnam. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the xTAG GPP for the seven principal diarrheal etiologies. The sensitivity and specificity for the xTAG GPP were >88% for Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., rotavirus, norovirus genotype 1/2 (GI/GII), and adenovirus compared to those of microbiological culture and/or real-time PCR. However, the specificity was low (∼60%) for Salmonella species. Additionally, a number of important pathogens that are not identified in routine hospital procedures in this setting, such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Clostridium difficile, were detected with the GPP. The use of the Luminex xTAG GPP for the detection of enteric pathogens in settings, like Vietnam, would dramatically improve the diagnostic accuracy and capacity of hospital laboratories, allowing for timely and appropriate therapy decisions and a wider understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens associated with severe diarrheal disease in low-resource settings. PMID:26865681

  1. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [3H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, we found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 ...

  2. Dietary effects on human fecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of microbial populations in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract is a complex process, involving microbial and host interactions eventually resulting in a dense and stable population. Recently, the identification of microbial species from fecal samples has become more accurate with the use of 16S RNA gene-based methods. However, although these molecular-based detection methods have apparent benefits over culture-based techniques, they involve potential pitfalls that should be tak...

  3. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of nine potential sources of fecal contamination by analysis of mitochondrial Cytochrome b targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, W.B.; Mathes, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We designed and tested real-time PCR probe/primer sets to detect and quantify Cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from nine vertebrate species of pet (dog), farm (cow, chicken, sheep, horse, pig), wildlife (Canada goose, white-tailed deer), and human. Linear ranges of the assays were from 101 to 108 copies/??l. To formally test the performance of the assays, twenty blinded fecal suspension samples were analyzed by real-time PCR to identify the source of the feces. Sixteen of the twenty samples were correctly and unambiguously identified. Average sensitivity was calculated to be 0.850, while average specificity was found to be 0.994. One beef cow sample was not detected, but mtDNA from 11 other beef cattle of both sexes and varying physiological states was found in concentrations similar (3.45 ?? 107 copies/g) to thatfound in human feces (1.1 ?? 107 copies/g). Thus, environmental conditions and sample handling are probably important factors for successful detection of fecal mtDNA. When sewage samples were analyzed, only human mtDNA (7.2 ?? 104 copies/100 mL) was detected. With a detection threshold of 250 copies/reaction, an efficient concentration and purification method resulted in a final detection limit for human feces of 1.8 mg/100 mL water.

  4. Measuring fecal progestogens as a tool to monitor reproductive activity in captive female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, B; Da Dalt, L; Lacave, G; Romagnoli, S; Gabai, G

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to develop and test radioimmunoassays (RIAs) to measure fecal progestogens (P) and estrogens (E) to monitor ovarian activity in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Fecal samples were collected at least once a week for 20 mo from three peripubertal female bottlenose dolphins. Blood samples were collected at least once a month to compare serum and fecal steroid concentrations. Moreover, random fecal samples from three pregnant females, one lactating female, and one sexually mature female receiving oral altrenogest treatment were also collected. Fecal samples were collected behaviorally with a probe to avoid water contamination and extracted with petroleum ether (for P analysis) or diethyl ether (for E analysis). When possible, vaginal cytology and ovarian ultrasonography were used to monitor the estrous cycle. The RIA for fecal P had good reproducibility and negligible matrix effect. In addition, when fecal samples (N=25) were extracted with ethanol, the results with the two methods of extraction were highly correlated (r=0.923). Therefore, extraction of fecal samples with petroleum ether represented a valid alternative to other, more time-consuming methods of determining fecal P concentrations. In the absence of luteal activity, fecal P concentrations were consistently dolphin, as in other mammalian species. Additional HPLC-MS studies should be performed to identify predominant P metabolites to be used as fecal indicators of luteal activity in this species. PMID:19783290

  5. Factors Affecting Willingness to Pay for Chicken from Biosecure Farms

    OpenAIRE

    sri lestari, veronica; Natsir, Asmuddin; Karim, Hasmida; Patrick, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know factors affecting willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms. This research was conducted in Makassar regency, South Sulawesi province. Sample were choosed through random sampling at two supermarkets namely Lotte Mart and Gelael. Total sample were 50 respondents which consisted of chicken meat consumers. To know the willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms, contingent valuation method was used. Data were collected through int...

  6. 2, 4 and 6 kGy effect on the microbiological characteristics of chicken hamburgers stored at 2±2 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decimal reduction dose (D10) of S. typhimurium irradiated in Casoy broth (TSB) and inoculated in chicken burger was found to be 0,425 and 0,547 kGy respectively being the second value 22,3 % higher than the first one. Then, chicken burger previously radiosterilized at 15 kGy was inoculated with S. typhimurium, irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and kept under storage for 57 days at 2± 2 oC and HR 90 5%. Another batch of chicken burger without radiosterilization was irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored under the same conditions than the previous one in order to study the natural bacterial flora. It was observed that there is a synergic effect between irradiation dose and time of storage (α=5%) in the counting of S. typhimurium. In unirradiated chicken burger, the number of total coliforms increased from 29 NMP/g at the beginning to 4250 NMP/g at day 22 and fecal coliforms from 4 to 240 NMP/g; subsequently the number of these bacteria dropped again at the end of the storage time, while in irradiated samples no coliforms were found. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria diminished its ability of growing up and making colonies, proportionally to the applied irradiation doses. However, as the storage time advanced these bacteria recovered its ability to grow up and of cause spoilage. (authors)

  7. Low-cost monitoring of campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2014-01-01

    approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain......The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two...... standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100...

  8. NMR metabolomic analysis of fecal water from subjects on a vegetarian diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Jenny; Karlsson, Pernilla Christina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Rafter, Joseph James; Bohlin, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A vegetarian diet rich in phytochemicals may prevent colon carcinogenesis by affecting biochemical processes in the colonic mucosa. Compounds passing the digestive system reaching the colon could potentially be detected in fecal water. We previously reported that intact fecal water samples from human volunteers significantly decreased prostaglandin production and COX-2 protein expression in colonic cells. The aim with the present study was to further study the composition of the fecal waters,...

  9. The Relationship Between Land Management, Fecal Indicator Bacteria, and the Occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria Spp. in Water and Sediments During Synoptic Sampling In The South Fork Broad River Watershed, Northeast Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathog...

  10. Polymorphism of the glucosyltransferase gene (ycjM) in Escherichia coli and its use for tracking human fecal pollution in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Daiyong; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Dong; Reed, Mary; Liu, Fengjing; Zheng, Guolu

    2015-12-15

    This study examined polymorphism of the glucosyltransferase gene (ycjM) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates and evaluated the use of the sequence polymorphism for measuring human fecal pollution in water. Significant nucleotide variations were observed through comparative analysis of the ycjM sequences of 70 E. coli strains isolated from the feces of humans, domestic livestock, and wild animals. Three distinct types of ycjM sequences were found: universal-ycjM, human/chicken-ycjM, and human-ycjM. Using the human-ycjM sequences, both a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Hycj-PCR and a quantitative PCR, Hycj-qPCR, were developed. As shown by the Hycj-PCR amplification, the human-ycjM marker appeared to be highly associated with the E. coli strains isolated from human feces, based on the analysis of 370 E. coli strains isolated from humans and seven other animal species. Similarly, the human-ycjM marker was highly linked with human feces, as demonstrated by the Hycj-PCR assay, when using 337 fecal DNA samples from 16 host animal sources, including both domestic and wild animals. Overall, the specificity and sensitivity of the human-ycjM marker for differentiating between the feces of humans and those of nonhuman groups were 99.7% and 100%, respectively; the prevalence of the marker appeared to be greater than 50% in the human-feces-associated E. coli population. In addition, our study showed that the quantification of human E. coli by the Hycj-qPCR was linearly correlated with the anthropogenic activity within a watershed. Our study suggests that this novel human-ycjM marker and the resulting PCR-based methods developed should be useful for measuring human-associated E. coli and human fecal pollution in water. PMID:26282760

  11. Sequencing and analyses of the adenovirus polymerase gene in fecal samples of captively bred rhesus macaques%恒河猴肠道腺病毒聚合酶基因片段的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建溪; 曹红; 钱师宇; 王强; 李刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究非人灵长类动物猴腺病毒的分子多样性。方法 采集圈养的57只恒河猴粪便样本,以腺病毒聚合酶基因为目的基因,用PCR方法进行扩增,对PCR阳性产物进行克隆、测序,并进行系统进化分析。结果 57只恒河猴粪便样本有12份样本中存在腺病毒DNA,系统进化分析提示这些序列主要可分为两大组:类SAdV-6组(2个非重复序列)和类SAdV-7组(9个非重复序列)。此外,有三个克隆,其最相似序列分别为:SAdV-1,SAdV-3和HAdV-52。结论 我们的研究证实了腺病毒的确在非人灵长类粪便中普遍存在,揭示了本研究所涉及动物肠道内腺病毒的多样性以及系统进化情况。%Objective In an attempt to study the moleculr characterization and epidemiology of simian adenoviruses in nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. MethodsWe examined a colony of captively bred rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ) in China for the presence of adenoviral DNA in stool samples. This was done by using the PCR method that targeted the adenovirus polymerase gene, and the PCR positive fragments were cloned for sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. ResultsAmong the 57animals analyzed, fecal samples from 12 animals were positive for the presence of adenoviral DNA. The results suggested that the viral DNA clones were primarily segregated into two large groups: SAdV-6 (2 nonredundant sequences) and SAdV-7 (9 non-redundant sequences). In addition, there were three clones with more similarity to SAdV-1, SAdV-3 and HAdV-52 respectively. ConclusionOur data confirmed the prevalence of adenoviral DNA in the feces of NHPs and revealed the heterogeneity and phylogenetics of the adenoviruses in the gastrointestinal tract of the study animals.

  12. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  13. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

  14. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  15. Efficacy of bacterin-, outer membrane protein- and fimbriae extract-based vaccines for the control of Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens Eficácia de bactéria inativada (bacterina), proteína da membrana externa e extrato de fimbrias no controle de infecção experimental por Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) em galinhas

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia C. Menão; Claudete S. Astolfi-Ferreira; Terezinha Knöbl; Antonio J. Piantino Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of three vaccines was evaluated in chickens for the control of experimental infection with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4. The vaccines were produced with bacterin, outer membrane proteins (OMP) and fimbriae crude extract (FE). The chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly with two doses of each vaccine at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The chickens were then orally challenged with 10(9) CFU/chicken Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 at 18 weeks of age. Fecal swabs were perfor...

  16. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...

  17. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  18. Towards the production of reliable quantitative microbiological data for risk assessment: Direct quantification of Campylobacter in naturally infected chicken fecal samples using selective culture and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam

    2015-01-01

    Poultry has been identified as a significant source for human campylobacteriosis which constitutes an important zoonosis and public health problem in many areas of the world. Rapid, direct and accurate quantification of Campylobacter in poultry is essential for the assessment of public health risks...

  19. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

  20. Fecal microbiota transplantation: in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shaan; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Petrof, Elaine O

    2016-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human gut microbiome to elucidate the therapeutic potential of its manipulation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient's gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26929784

  1. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  2. Karakteristik Genetik dan Fenotip Ayam Nunukan di Pulau Tarakan, Kalimantan Timur (THE PHENOTHYPIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF NUNUKAN CHICKEN OF TARAKAN ISLAND, EAST BORNEO)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Alwi; Cece Sumantri; Sri Darwati

    2014-01-01

    Nunukan chicken is local chicken of Tarakan and Nunukan in East Borneo Province. It is a germplasmof East Kalimantan which have special characteristics. Due to its characteristic, the chicken extremelyneed to be conserved and develop. This study was conducted to find out more reliable data on thecharacteristics of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island. It was done by directly observed and measuredfenotype traits of nunukan chicken. Sample used was mature chicken, with the total tnumber 211 birds....

  3. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  4. Extensive Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Chicken Cecal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeant, Martin J.; Chrystala Constantinidou; Tristan A Cogan; Bedford, Michael R.; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown speci...

  5. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D10-values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  6. Intestinal parasite infections and fecal steroid levels in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Immune-endocrine interactions have been evaluated much less frequently in nonhuman primates, and this may be due, in part, to logistical and ethical concerns regarding trapping and sampling of endangered species, especially apes. Using noninvasive fecal collection methods, the present study evaluates possible relationships between fecal steroid levels and gastrointestinal parasite infections in the Ngogo chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Because both testosterone and cortisol exhibit immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in other animal models, it was hypothesized that both testosterone and cortisol would be positively associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in these animals. When placed in a mixed model simultaneously, both testosterone (F = 4.98, df = 1, P = 0.033) and cortisol (F = 5.94, df = 1, P = 0.020) were positively associated with total (helminth and protozoan) parasite richness (the number of unique intestinal parasite species recovered from hosts' fecal samples). It is possible that androgens and corticoids alter the ability of a host to mount an effective immune response against concomitant infection with multiple parasitic species. The utility of fecal samples for assessing immune-endocrine interactions is discussed. PMID:16444733

  7. [Gastro-intestinal helminths detected by fecal examination in stray dogs in the Aydin province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Hakki; Eren, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Fecal specimens of a total of 200 dogs were examined by native, Fulleborn's floatation and Benedek's sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in stray dogs in the Aydin Municipality Animal Shelter and the Kuşadasi Municipality Animal Shelter. Helminth infections were encountered in 82 (41%) of the fecal samples examined. One cestode egg and four nematode eggs were found in the infected fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as follows: Taenia spp. (7.5%), Toxacara spp. (20%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (21%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.5%). No trematode eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study. PMID:17471412

  8. Fecal Microbial Composition of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Patients in Remission and Subsequent Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar S Wills; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Paul H Savelkoul; Masclee, Ad A.; Pierik, Marieke J.; John Penders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited studies have examined the intestinal microbiota composition in relation to changes in disease course of IBD over time. We aimed to study prospectively the fecal microbiota in IBD patients developing an exacerbation during follow-up. DESIGN: Fecal samples from 10 Crohn's disease (CD) and 9 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients during remission and subsequent exacerbation were included. Active disease was determined by colonoscopy and/or fecal calprotectine levels. Exclusion crit...

  9. Factors contributing to fecal incontinence in older people and outcome of routine management in home, hospital and nursing home settings

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, Asangaedem; Gosney, Margot A; Barrett, James

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Fecal loading, cognitive impairment, loose stools, functional disability, comorbidity and anorectal incontinence are recognized as factors contributing to loss of fecal continence in older adults. The objective of this project was to assess the relative distribution of these factors in a variety of settings along with the outcome of usual management. Methods: One hundred and twenty adults aged 65 years and over with fecal incontinence recruited by convenience sampling from four dif...

  10. Discriminant analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci, a method to differentiate human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, B A

    1996-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci was used to differentiate between human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters. A total of 1,435 isolates from 17 samples of cattle, poultry, human, and wild-animal wastes were obtained, and their ability to grow in the presence of four concentrations of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, halofuginone, oxytetracycline, salinomycin, and streptomycin) was measured. When the resulting antibiotic r...

  11. Identification of Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution in Coastal Waters by Using Host-Specific 16S Ribosomal DNA Genetic Markers from Fecal Anaerobes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard, Anne E.; Field, Katharine G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new PCR-based method for distinguishing human and cow fecal contamination in coastal waters without culturing indicator organisms, and we show that the method can be used to track bacterial marker sequences in complex environments. We identified two human-specific genetic markers and five cow-specific genetic markers in fecal samples by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from members of the genus Bifidobacterium and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group and performing leng...

  12. Presence of Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kerry K; Bueschel, Dawn M; Songer, J Glenn

    2013-06-01

    Chicken livers sold at grocery stores in Tucson, AZ, USA were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Results showed that 69.6% of sampled retail chicken livers were culture positive for C. perfringens. Genotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates were type A, but were negative for the enterotoxin gene (cpe). PMID:23583538

  13. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  14. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  15. Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P Muehlenbein; Marc Ancrenaz; Rosman Sakong; Laurentius Ambu; Sean Prall; Grace Fuller; Mary Ann Raghanti

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans)...

  16. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Abdul; Hailemariam Zerihun; Hair-Bejo Mohd; Giap Tan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 ...

  17. Fecal Chymotrypsin and Trypsin Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. S.; Ediss, I.; Mullinger, M. A.; Bogoch, A.

    1971-01-01

    Trypsin and chymotrypsin concentrations were determined in 180 spot stool specimens from 110 control patients in hospital. The lower limit of normality for each enzyme was placed at the 5% level: 95% of this population excreted feces containing more than 100 μg. of chymotrypsin and 30 μg. of trypsin per g. of feces. Chymotrypsin concentrations appeared to be a more reliable guide to pancreatic function than trypsin concentrations. Fecal chymotrypsin concentrations were subnormal in five patients with chronic pancreatitis, borderline in one patient with relapsing pancreatitis, subnormal in one patient after pancreatectomy, and subnormal in five of nine with carcinoma of the pancreas. Subnormal concentrations of fecal chymotrypsin were found in seven of 21 patients with chronic liver disease related to alcoholism, eight of 32 with a partial gastrectomy, three of 10 with adult celiac disease and five of 16 with psoriasis. It appears that the determination of fecal chymotrypsin concentrations provides a valuable screening test for pancreatic exocrine deficiency. However, normal results may be found in some patients with pancreatic disease and subnormal values may occur in some patients with other conditions. PMID:5550376

  18. Development of a Swine-Specific Fecal Pollution Marker Based on Host Differences in Methanogen mcrA Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Ufnar, David F.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ellender, R D

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testin...

  19. Removal of bacterial fecal indicators, coliphages and enteric adenoviruses from waters with high fecal pollution by slow sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rosalie; Dizer, Halim; Graeber, Ingeborg; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; López-Pila, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the performance of slow sand filtration (SSF) facilities, including the time needed for reaching stabilization (maturation), operated with surface water bearing high fecal contamination, representing realistic conditions of rivers in many emerging countries. Surface water spiked with wastewater was infiltrated at different pore water velocities (PWV) and samples were collected at different migration distances. The samples were analyzed for phages and to a lesser extent for fecal bacteria and enteric adenoviruses. At the PWV of 50 cm/d, at which somatic phages showed highest removal, their mean log(10) removal after 90 cm migration was 3.2. No substantial differences of removal rates were observed at PWVs between 100 and 900 cm/d (2.3 log(10) mean removal). The log(10) mean removal of somatic phages was less than the observed for fecal bacteria and tended more towards that of enteric adenoviruses This makes somatic phages a potentially better process indicator than Escherichia coli for the removal of viruses in SSF. We conclude that SSF, and by inference in larger scale river bank filtration (RBF), is an excellent option as a component in multi-barrier systems for drinking water treatment also in areas where the sources of raw water are considerably fecally polluted, as often found in many emerging countries. PMID:20851449

  20. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  1. AMPK and mTOR: Sensors and regulators of immunometabolic changes during Salmonella infection in the chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens, but the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of clinical disease, results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and can transmit infections to naive hosts via fecal shedding of bacter...

  2. Species variation in the fecal metabolome gives insight into differential gastrointestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Jasmina; Wang, Yulan; Li, Jia; Coen, Muireann; Utzinger, Jürg; Marchesi, Julian R; Keiser, Jennifer; Veselkov, Kirill; Lindon, John C; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic composition of fecal extracts provides a window for elucidating the complex metabolic interplay between mammals and their intestinal ecosystems, and these metabolite profiles can yield information on a range of gut diseases. Here, the metabolites present in aqueous fecal extracts of humans, mice and rats were characterized using high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate pattern recognition techniques. Additionally, the effects of sample storage and preparation methods were evaluated in order to assess the stability of fecal metabolite profiles, and to optimize information recovery from fecal samples. Finally, variations in metabolite profiles were investigated in healthy mice as a function of time. Interspecies variation was found to be greater than the variation due to either time or sample preparation. Although many fecal metabolites were common to the three species, such as short chain fatty acids and branched chain amino acids, each species generated a unique profile. Relatively higher levels of uracil, hypoxanthine, phenylacetic acid, glucose, glycine, and tyrosine amino acids were present in the rat, with beta-alanine being unique to the rat, and glycerol and malonate being unique to the human. Human fecal extracts showed a greater interindividual variation than the two rodent species, reflecting the natural genetic and environmental diversity in human populations. Fecal composition in healthy mice was found to change over time, which might be explained by altered gut microbial presence or activity. The systematic characterization of fecal composition across humans, mice, and rats, together with the evaluation of inherent variation, provides a benchmark for future studies seeking to determine fecal biomarkers of disease and/or response to dietary or therapeutic interventions. PMID:18052033

  3. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  4. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  5. Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massino De Marchi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

  6. Usefulness of Adjunctive Fecal Calprotectin and Serum Procalcitonin in Individuals Positive for Clostridium difficile Toxin Gene by PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Y Popiel; Gheorghe, Romina; Eastmond, Jennifer; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In 54/64 subjects with nosocomial diarrhea, fecal calprotectin levels correlated with the results of stool samples tested for Clostridium difficile toxin gene by PCR. Fecal calprotectin levels can be used as an adjunctive measure to PCR to support the diagnosis of C. difficile infection.

  7. Usefulness of Adjunctive Fecal Calprotectin and Serum Procalcitonin in Individuals Positive for Clostridium difficile Toxin Gene by PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Kristin Y; Gheorghe, Romina; Eastmond, Jennifer; Miller, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    In 54/64 subjects with nosocomial diarrhea, fecal calprotectin levels correlated with the results of stool samples tested for Clostridium difficile toxin gene by PCR. Fecal calprotectin levels can be used as an adjunctive measure to PCR to support the diagnosis of C. difficile infection. PMID:26354814

  8. Efficacy of bacterin-, outer membrane protein- and fimbriae extract-based vaccines for the control of Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. Menão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of three vaccines was evaluated in chickens for the control of experimental infection with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE phage type 4. The vaccines were produced with bacterin, outer membrane proteins (OMP and fimbriae crude extract (FE. The chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly with two doses of each vaccine at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The chickens were then orally challenged with 10(9 CFU/chicken Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 at 18 weeks of age. Fecal swabs were performed for the recovery of shedding SE, and SE was recovered from the liver and spleen. Additionally, antibody titers were measured in the serum by micro-agglutination test. The results indicated that the vaccine produced with bacterin yielded better results and resulted in reduction of fecal shedding and organ invasion by SE after oral challenge, although no vaccine was 100% effective for the control of SE experimental infection.

  9. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  10. Moisture and fat content of extra crispy fried chicken skin from breast, thigh, drum, and wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish nutrient values for fast food fried chicken, sample compositing procedures were validated by comparing moisture and fat content of skin from four chicken parts. Samples were purchased from 12 fast food outlets nationwide using a probability sampling plan. Skin samples were derived from...

  11. Characterizing genetic diversity of contemporary pacific chickens using mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Needham Dancause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region (HVR sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary

  12. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symp...

  13. Qualidade microbiológica no processamento do frango assado em unidade de alimentação e nutrição Microbiological quality in the roast chicken process in nutritional and nourishment unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete O. de Mesquita

    2006-03-01

    samples that were submitted to the following microbiological analyses: total and fecal Coliforms, coagulase positive Staphylococcus and Salmonella ssp., and Clostridium only in roast chicken. Microbial analyses of counters, vessels and handlers after the hygiene and roast chicken demonstrated no evidence of the microorganisms analyzed. In 9.9% of the row chicken samples, the presence of fecal Coliform were found (>15.000 NMP - law limit and 6.6% of the samples presented coagulase positive Staphylococcus. All the samples did not present Salmonella ssp. It was detected fecal Coliform contamination in the counters and hands during the handling of the chicken and it was related to the raw material. The results showed that the processing stage were microbiological quality appropriate, guarantying the safety end product.

  14. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9°C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (±SD) of 44.9±4.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.6±5.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity. PMID:20648568

  15. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P < 0.05) during the breeding season, and brief spikes were associated with estrus and mating. A postovulatory increase in PdG was not always detected, but sustained baseline T after mating appeared consistent with ovulation. Parturient bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P < 0.05) during expected time of embryo implantation in Fall, and a late gestational rise in fecal T occurred 30 days prepartum. Many nonparturient bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P < 0.05) fecal T during summer months, whereas parturient bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. PMID:23040062

  16. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina; Pudova, Ksenia; Puurand, Marju; Visnapuu, Triinu; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, change...

  17. Fecal calprotectin level correlated with both endoscopic severity and disease extent in ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Kousaku; Ishihara, Shunji; Yuki, Takafumi; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Kazumori, Hideaki; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Oka, Akihiko; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between fecal calprotectin (FC) and disease extent in ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the correlation of FC with disease extent and severity in UC patients. Methods UC patients scheduled to undergo an ileocolonoscopy were enrolled and fecal samples for FC measurement were collected prior to the procedure. A Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) was determined for each of 5 colonic segments. To evaluate the associ...

  18. Fecal isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Agnarsson, U; Glass, S; Govan, J R

    1989-01-01

    Fecal isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in 8 of 10 patients with cystic fibrosis who at the time of sampling also exhibited colonization of the respiratory tract. In contrast, P. aeruginosa cells were isolated at low frequency (9.1%) from the stools of 44 patients with cystic fibrosis with no previous history of chronic colonization. The results of this study suggest that the gastrointestinal tract is not a significant chronic reservoir of P. aeruginosa prior to pulmonary colon...

  19. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  20. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS S...

  1. Lower Bifidobacteria counts in both duodenal mucosa-associated and fecal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angèle PM Kerckhoffs; Melvin Samsom; Michel E van der Rest; Joris de Vogel; Jan Knol; Kaouther Ben-Amor; Louis MA Akkermans

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the composition of both fecal and duodenal mucosa-associated microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy subjects using molecular-based techniques. METHODS: Fecal and duodenal mucosa brush samples were obtained from 41 IBS patients and 26 healthy subjects. Fecal samples were analyzed for the composition of the total microbiota using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and both fecal and duodenal brush samples were analyzed for the composition of bifidobacteria using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The FISH analysis of fecal samples revealed a 2-fold decrease in the level of bifidobacteria (4.2 ± 1.3 vs 8.3 ± 1.9, P < 0.01) in IBS patients compared to healthy subjects, whereas no major differences in other bacterial groups were observed. At the species level, Bifidobacterium catenulatum levels were significantly lower (6 ± 0.6 vs 19 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) in the IBS patients in both fecal and duodenal brush samples than in healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Decreased bifidobacteria levels in both fecal and duodenal brush samples of IBS patients compared to healthy subjects indicate a role for microbiotic composition in IBS pathophysiology.

  2. Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of host-associated Bacteroidales-based 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genetic markers was investigated as a tool for providing information to managers on sources of bacterial impairment in Vermont streams. The study was conducted during 2009 in two watersheds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters, the Huntington and the Mettawee Rivers. Streamwater samples collected during high-flow and base-flow conditions were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, Human qHF183 and BacHum, Ruminant BoBac, and Canid BacCan) to identify humans, ruminants, and canids as likely or unlikely major sources of fecal contamination. Fecal reference samples from each of the potential source groups, as well as from common species of wildlife, were collected during the same season and from the same watersheds as water samples. The results were combined with data from other states to assess marker cross reaction and to relate marker results to E. coli, the regulated water-quality parameter, with a higher degree of statistical significance. Results from samples from the Huntington River collected under different flow conditions on three dates indicated that humans were unlikely to be a major source of fecal contamination, except for a single positive result at one station that indicated the potential for human sources. Ruminants (deer, moose, cow, or sheep) were potential sources of fecal contamination at all six stations on the Huntington River during one high-flow event and at all but two stations during the other high-flow event. Canids were potential sources of fecal contamination at some stations during two high-flow events, with genetic-marker concentrations in samples from two of the six stations showing consistent positive results for canids for both storm dates. A base-flow sample showed no evidence of major fecal contamination in the Huntington River from humans

  3. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  4. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  5. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier;

    2015-01-01

    since mold can develop when frozen foods are allowed to attain temperatures of -10ºC, or above. The growth of fungi on the food surface results in economic losses and represents a hazard to public health due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to identify the species of......Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  7. Host age only partially affects resistance to primary and secondary infections with Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idi, A; Permin, A; Murrell, K D

    2004-07-14

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of chickens' age on resistance to primary and secondary infections with Ascaridia galli. In Experiment I, three groups, each of 80 female Lohman Brown chickens, aged one day, one month, or four months were compared. Within each group, 54 chickens were infected orally with 500 embryonated eggs and 26 were kept as non-infected controls. Weights were recorded weekly and five chickens in each group were slaughtered every 2 weeks for worm counts. At week 10 post-infection, 17 of the infected chickens and 18 of the controls were challenged with 500 eggs. In a replicate experiment (Experiment II), 35 one-day-old and 53 one-month-old female Lohman Brown chickens were infected orally with 500 A. galli eggs. Weights and fecal egg counts were recorded every week and infected chickens were necropsied every two weeks for determination of the worm burden. Chickens infected at one month of age excreted significantly fewer A. galli eggs when measured at 14 weeks of inoculation. The worms recovered from the one-month-old age group were significantly shorter than those from the chickens infected at one day of age in the first experiment. Worm burden and female fecundity values, however, were not significantly different between age groups in both Experiments I and II. Weight gains of infected chickens were not significantly different from the controls' and only a few chickens exhibited occasional slight diarrhea in both experiments. The results from these experiments demonstrate that the chickens' age only partially influences resistance to A. galli infection. PMID:15219363

  8. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Ryu, Hodon; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel; Huertas, Evelyn; Gary A Toranzos; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n = 534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo (RGA) watershed were collected mostly on a weekly basis (54 sampling events) during 13 months. DNA extracts from water samples were used in PCR assays to determine the occurrence of fecal bacteria (Bacteroidales, Clostridium coccoides, and enterococci) and ...

  9. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atidégla, Séraphin C; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  10. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  11. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  12. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Vicki A; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J; Hunt, Terry L; Burney, David A; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wood, Jamie R; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken. PMID:24639505

  13. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  14. Identification, quantification and treatment of fecal odors released into the air at two wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yubin; Hallis, Samantha A; Vitko, Tadeo; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-09-15

    Odorous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an annoyance for neighboring communities. This article, for the first time, quantitatively reports on an evaluation of the presence of fecal odorants identified in air samples from two exemplary WWTPs by the odor profile method (OPM) and chemical analysis. The fecal odorants indole and skatole were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The odor threshold concentration of skatole was determined to be 0.327 ng/L (60 pptV) in Teflon Bags by an expert panel. Skatole was found to be the primary chemical leading to fecal odor, due to its odor concentration to odor threshold concentration ratio that ranged from 2.8 to 22.5. The Weber-Fechner law was followed by pure skatole, but was not applicable when there was a mixture of fecal odorants and other odorant types present in WWTP air emission samples. This is probably caused by antagonism with other odorant types. Several existing odor control treatment methods for fecal odorants were evaluated at different wastewater treatment operations at two WWTPs by the OPM and chemical analysis for indole and skatole. Chemical scrubbing and biofiltration performed best in removing fecal odors among current control technologies. PMID:27235805

  15. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. The risk to import ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus through chicken meat trade in Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Schaumburg, F; A.S. Alabi; Frielinghaus, L. (Lisa); Grobusch, M.; Köck, R.; Becker, K.; Issifou, S.; Kremsner, P. G.; Peters, G.; Mellmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A main export market for chicken meat from industrialized countries is sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistant bacteria could be exported to developing countries through chicken meat trade. The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meat in Gabon and to assess their dissemination among humans. Results: Frozen chicken meat samples imported from industrialized cou...

  17. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods:One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results:S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40%and 48%in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions:The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  18. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  19. Evaluation of Chicken IgY Generated Against Canine Parvovirus Viral-Like Particles and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Assay for Canine Parvovirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Shiqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated against canine parvovirus virus-like particles (CPV-VLPs) antigen using chickens. Anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY was extracted from hen egg yolk and used for developing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CPV in dog feces. The cutoff negative values for anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY were determined using negative fecal samples (already confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In both ELISA and ICA, there was no cross-reaction with other diarrheal pathogens. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea, of which 26.47% were confirmed as CPV-positive samples by PCR, while 29.41% and 32.35% of the samples were found to be positive by ELISA and ICA, respectively. The developed ELISA and ICA exhibited 97.06% and 94.12% conformity with PCR. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed for IgY-based ELISA and ICA. Thus, they could be suitable for routine use in the diagnosis of CPV in dogs. PMID:26469376

  20. Clostridium Difficile and Fecal Microbial Transplant in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Critically-ill patients constitute majority of the patients hospitalized in ICU wards (1, 2. This group of patients demands special considerations and measures of care (3-6. Clostridium difficile infection causes dangerous, painful and persistent diarrhea in critically ill patients. Its treatment consists of enteral metronidazol or vancomycin in combination with IV antibiotics cessation. Recently, probiotics have been considered as an alternative treatment for pseudomembranous colitis. In 1958, fecal microbial transplant was first described from healthy individuals to sick patients to displace pathogenic microbes from the intestine by re-establishing a healthy microbial community. Since then, it has gained value as “express stool treatment” or currently known as “fecal transplant”. Last year, FDA classified stool as drug, which typically requires an Investigational New Drug application (IND. However, in July 2013, the FDA issued guidance stating that it would exercise enforcement discretion for physicians administering FMT to treat patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Accordingly, considering stool as a tissue product or giving it its own classification, as FDA approved for blood, would keep patients safe, ensure broad access and facilitate research (7.It should be taken into consideration that some complications might accompany fecal microbial transplant such as making patients susceptible for conditions like obesity or autoimmune disorders.Safety and quality assurance starts from pre-enrollment donor screening, donor testing (17 serological and stool-based assays, donor monitoring and process control. The composition of the bacterial community has been shown to change when stored at -80oC compared to the samples stored at -20oC and it has been recommended to store the samples of intestinal content at -20oC before use for bacterial community analysis, instead of the current practice at -80oC (7, 8. However, if

  1. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  2. Persistence of mitochondrial DNA markers as fecal indicators in water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiwei; Chen, Huimei; Shi, Wei; Cui, Yibin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has recently been developed to identify sources of fecal contamination, but information regarding environmental fate of mtDNA is limited. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the persistence of three species-specific mtDNA markers (human, pig and chicken) in river microcosms under different laboratory conditions and in dialysis tubes incubated in river environments during different seasons. Human feces had a higher abundance of mtDNA marker than pig and chicken feces. A biphasic decay pattern was observed for the mtDNA markers in microcosms incubated in darkness, and T90 (time needed for 90% reduction) ranged from 2.03 to 13.83 d. Each species-specific mtDNA marker persisted for relatively longer time at lower temperatures, and light exposure and predation increased the decay rates. Field experiments showed that the mtDNA markers could survive for longer time in winter (T90: 1.79-4.37 d) than in summer (T90: 0.60-0.75 d). Field application of mtDNA technology indicated that the markers were mainly distributed on the sites near animal breeding plants and had lower abundance in downstream water of the receiving river. This study expands our knowledge of the environmental fate of mtDNA markers and the results may be useful for practical application of the technology in fecal source tracking. PMID:26172605

  3. Fecal source tracking in water by next-generation sequencing technologies using host-specific Escherichia coli genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-08-19

    High levels of fecal bacteria are a concern for the aquatic environment, and identifying sources of those bacteria is important for mitigating fecal pollution and preventing waterborne disease. Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator of fecal pollution, however less success has been achieved using this organism for library-independent microbial source tracking. In this study, using next-generation sequencing technology we sequenced the whole genomes of 22 E. coli isolates from known sources (9 from humans, 2 from cows, 6 from pigs, and 5 from chickens) and identified candidate host-specific genomic regions. Specificity testing on the candidate regions was performed using 30 E. coli isolates from each source. Finally, we identified 4 human-, 2 cow-, 3 pig-, and 4 chicken-specific genetic markers useful for source tracking. We also found that a combination of multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing is effective for detecting multiple genetic markers in multiple isolates at one time. This technique was applied to investigating identified genetic markers in 549 E. coli isolates obtained from the Yamato River, Japan. Results indicate that humans constitute a major source of water contamination in the river. However, further work must include isolates obtained from geographically diverse animal hosts to make this method more reliable. PMID:25055157

  4. Measurement of fecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurements of fecal 14C and expired 14CO2 in the breath are necessary to evaluate patients with various ileal abnormalities and bile salt malabsorption. Following the oral ingestion of the labeled bile acid, glycine-[I-14C]cholic acid, detection of increased fecal 14C without abnormal expiration of 14CO2 identifies patients with ileal resection. This contrasts with the normal fecal 14C content and abnormal expired 14CO2 found in patients with bacterial overgrowth. Fecal 14C content was determined by utilizing Van Slyke combustion of the specimen and trapping the liberated 14CO2 with Scintisorb C. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate, and expands the diagnostic usefulness of the bile salt absorption test

  5. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  6. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  7. Determination of ovarian cyclicity and pregnancy using fecal progesterone in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hua; Liu, Shu-Qiang; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Tian-Xiang; Wei, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Jun-Tong; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The forest musk deer (FMD, Moschus berezovskii) is a threatened species in China. Although crucial for its artificial breeding management and thus protection, to date, gonadal steroidogenic activity data are unavailable in this species. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to characterize ovarian activity throughout the estrous cycle, non-pregnant luteal phase, and gestation in female FMD. These goals were accomplished using an enzyme immunoassay to measure fecal concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone. Fecal samples were collected from female FMD (aged 3-4 years) for one year, including during breeding and non-breeding seasons. Non-pregnant estrous cycles were recorded in females, based on fecal progesterone concentrations, their overall estrous cycle length was (mean±SEM) 24.3±0.5 days, with 21.6±0.5 days in the luteal phase and 2.7±0.3 days in the inter-luteal phase. Fecal progesterone and E2 concentrations were also measured in females that became pregnant and gave birth after gestating approximately 6 months. Two weeks after becoming pregnant, the average fecal progesterone concentration was significantly greater than that during non-pregnancy. The average fecal progesterone concentrations during pregnancy increased 3.2-fold above non-pregnant concentrations, decreasing to non-pregnant concentrations only after parturition. By contrast, average fecal E2 concentrations during gestation and after parturition were not different from average non-pregnant concentration. In addition, no difference was observed between progesterone concentration in the first month after pregnancy and the value during the luteal phase. However, progesterone concentration during the second month of pregnancy was significantly higher than the value during the luteal phase. In conclusion, monitoring fecal progesterone is an effective method for assessing ovarian function in FMD and will be a useful tool for breeding management and development of assisted

  8. Giardia intestinalis and fecal fat analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ÜSTÜN, Şebnem; ORUÇ, Nevin; İLTER, Tankut

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Malabsorption patients in whom fecal fat analysis was performed were also investigated for Giardia intestinalis. Materials and Methods: Fecal fat tests were studied in 75 malabsorption patients who had applied to the Gastroenterology Department of Ege University Medical Faculty in the period 2009-2010. In addition, stools were examined by parasitological methods in terms of Giardia intestinalis. Results: As a result of stool examination of 75 malabsorption cases, Giar...

  9. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter. PMID:24490929

  10. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate

  11. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  12. Quantifying the sensitivity of scent detection dogs to identify fecal contamination on raw produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Melissa L; Bond, Ronald F; Farrar, Jeff; Falco, Andy; Cassens, Barbara; Cruse, Alonza; Atwill, Edward R

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw produce commodities has been associated with foodborne outbreaks in the United States. In a recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report outlining the incidence of food-related outbreaks from 1998 to 2008, produce of all kinds were implicated in 46% of illnesses and 23% of deaths. Methods that quickly identify fecal contamination of foods, including produce, will allow prioritization of samples for testing during investigations and perhaps decrease the time required to identify specific brands or lots. We conducted a series of trials to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of scent detection dogs to accurately identify fecal contamination on raw agricultural commodities (romaine lettuce, spinach, cilantro, and roma tomatoes). Both indirect and direct methods of detection were evaluated. For the indirect detection method, two dogs were trained to detect contamination on gauze pads previously exposed to produce contaminated with feces. For the direct detection method, two dogs were trained to identify fecal contamination on fresh produce. The indirect method did not result in acceptable levels of sensitivity except for the highest levels of fecal contamination (25 g of feces). Each dog had more difficulty detecting fecal contamination on cilantro and spinach than on roma tomatoes. For the direct detection method, the dogs exhibited >75% sensitivity for detecting ≥0.25 g of feces on leafy greens (cilantro, romaine lettuce, and spinach) and roma tomatoes, with sensitivity declining as the amount of feces dropped below 0.025 g. We determined that use of a scent detection dog to screen samples for testing can increase the probability of detecting ≥0.025 g of fecal contamination by 500 to 3,000% when samples with fecal contamination are rare (≤1%). PMID:24405993

  13. Detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in radiation- sterilized chicken meat stored for several years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented indicating a linear relationship between irradiation dose (10–60 kGy) and the quantity of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone produced in irradiated frozen (-46°C) chicken meat. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was found in chicken meat sterilized (at -40°C) by gamma and electron beam irradiation 12 years previously and used for toxicity clearance. After freeze-drying the irradiated chicken samples still contained 2-dodecylcyclobutanone indicating that it was present in the diets tested. The compound was not detected in chicken meat sterilized by thermal processing 13 years ago. In addition, there was evidence that 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone was also present in the irradiation sterilized samples

  14. Analysis of Local Chicken Entreprise in DAS Serayu Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeprapto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Objectives of this research was to know income and efficiency level of local chicken entreprise. Beside that, to know potency of local chicken enterprise developing in DAS Serayu, Banyumas and know factors can effect level of that income and efficiency. Methode that used at this research is survey method to farmer families. Take of research data by random sampling.The data is analysed by multiple regression analysis. The results of this research showed that income level of local chicken entreprise at DAS Serayu is Rp 277.375,00 / year and economi efficiency 2.80 , that means the farmers get return Rp 2.80 for every one unit cost addition. The age of farmers and total of chicken possession effect at efficiency of local chicken entreprise. Potency of local chicken developing very big if showed from power of area and human resources. Very important to increase entreprise capital and increase knowledge for farmer. Beside that more important present motivation and support for develop there enterprise (Animal Production 2(1: 13-17 (2000Key Words: local chicken, farmers income, economic efficiency

  15. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  16. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  17. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-20

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  18. Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, T M; van Faassen, A; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A; ten Hoor, F; Kleinjans, J C

    1992-02-14

    Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians. Consumption of cereal fiber, calcium and carotene as well as fecal concentrations of iso-lithocholic acid were found to correlate positively with excreted concentrations of one or more fecapentaene analogues. On average, 22% of excreted fecapentaene concentrations was found to be related to nutrient intake in stepwise regression models. Dietary calcium intake was found to be the most significant factor positively correlating with excreted fecapentaene concentrations. Intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or fiber from vegetables and fruit could be shown to correlate with fecapentaene excretion to a lesser degree. Despite high fecapentaene concentrations in fecal dichloromethane extracts, only 1 out of 20 samples revealed significant mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Further, aqueous extracts of feces from omnivores appeared to be equally mutagenic as feces from vegetarians and contained non-detectable concentrations of fecapentaenes. It is concluded that dietary factors do affect excreted fecapentaene levels, but only to a relatively minor extent. Since vegetarians at low risk for colorectal cancer excrete higher concentrations of fecapentaenes, it could be hypothesized that relatively increased fecapentaene excretion in combination with antimutagenic compounds in feces represents colon cancer prevention. PMID:1540928

  19. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity. PMID:26371036

  20. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11 and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8 and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15. Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a 13C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164. Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity.

  1. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found. PMID:26752227

  2. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  3. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  4. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zulfekar Ali; Md. Mostafizer Rahman; Shirin Sultana

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is important avian pathogens responsible for chronic respiratory diseases of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the...

  5. Influence of Flaxseed Oil on Fecal Microbiota, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolks in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Heo, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Do-Woon; Park, Tae-Eun; Han, Geon Goo; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Ho-Bin; Jung, Eojin; Kim, Hee Sung; Na, Yerim; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many attempts to produce ω-3 fatty acid-rich eggs using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that is a popular fatty acid in the poultry feed industry, only limited knowledge about the effects of ALA-enriched diets on chicken fecal microbiota is currently available. Herein we examined the changes in the fecal microbiota composition, egg quality traits and fatty acid composition of the egg yolks of laying hens fed ALA-rich flaxseed oil for 8 weeks. The animals fed the experimental diets that contained 0 % (group C), 0.5 % (group T1), and 1.0 % (group T2) of flaxseed oil, respectively, and eggs and feces were obtained for the analyses. ω-3 fatty acids, including ALA, were increased in T1 and T2 compared with C. Furthermore, the freshness of eggs was improved with no side effects on the eggs. The diet also changed the fecal microbiota; Firmicutes was increased in T1 and T2 (48.6 to 83 and 79.6 %) and Bacteroidetes was decreased (40.2 to 8.8 and 4.2 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, among the 56 examined genera, was the most influenced bacterial group in terms of the fecal microbial community shifts. These results indicate that ALA-rich diets influenced both the egg and fecal microbiota in beneficial manners in laying hens although the association between the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk and the fecal microbiota was not clear. This study is a first step to understand the effect of flaxseed oil as well as intestinal microbiota of laying hens. PMID:26613617

  6. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Blythe A.; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Hanley, Kaitlyn; Ballesté, Elisenda; Brandão, João; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Converse, Reagan; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer, Gidley, Maribeth L.; Gourmelon, Michèle; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung; Lozach, Solen; Madi, Tania; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Peed, Lindsay; Reischer, Georg H.; Rodrigues, Raquel; Rose, Joan B.; Schriewer, Alexander; Sinigalliano, Chris; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Stewart, Jill; Van De Werfhorst; Laurie, C.; Wang, Dan; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Jay, Jenny; Holden, Patricia A.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Shanks, Orin; Griffith, John F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing in large multi-laboratory studies. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BtH), BsteriF1, gyrB, HF183 endpoint, HF183 SYBR, HF183 Taqman®, HumM2, and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH (Mnif)) using 64 blind samples prepared in one laboratory. The blind samples contained either one or two fecal sources from human, wastewater or non-human sources. The assay results were assessed for presence/absence of the human markers and also quantitatively while varying the following: 1) classification of samples that were detected but not quantifiable (DNQ) as positive or negative; 2) reference fecal sample concentration unit of measure (such as culturable indicator bacteria, wet mass, total DNA, etc); and 3) human fecal source type (stool, sewage or septage). Assay performance using presence/absence metrics was found to depend on the classification of DNQ samples. The assays that performed best quantitatively varied based on the fecal concentration unit of measure and laboratory protocol. All methods were consistently more sensitive to human stools compared to sewage or septage in both the presence/absence and quantitative analysis. Overall, HF183 Taqman® was found to be the most effective marker of human fecal contamination in this California-based study.

  7. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:24574734

  8. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  9. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental

  10. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  11. Influence of beta-agonists (ractopamine HCI and zilpaterol HCI) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two beta-agonists [ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx**R) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax**R)], recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve performance traits and carcass leanness, were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Fecal samples (...

  12. Evaluation of LIAISON® C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase and LIAISON® C. difficile toxin A and B in Copan FecalSwabTM samples in a three-step algorithm for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Oggioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presumptive laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is achieved by the means of the detection of a common antigen (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH in stool, then confirming the positives either by the detection of toxins A and B or by a molecular test for the detection of pathogenicity locus, encoding for the two toxins and for the binary toxin. A fully automated chemiluminescence system for the GDH antigen (LIAISON® C. difficile GDH and for the detection of toxins A and B (LIAISON® C. difficile Toxin A and B (DiaSorin, Gerenzano, Italy allows for the performance of these tests on large numbers of samples in a short time, ensuring the traceability of the data.

  13. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

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    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  14. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  15. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, A.; J. C. Block

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the co...

  16. Salmonella enterica in Commercial Swine Feed and Subsequent Isolation of Phenotypically and Genotypically Related Strains from Fecal Samples▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Bayleyegn; Sterman, Allyson; Mathews, Jennifer; Artuso-Ponte, Valeria; Abley, Melanie; Farmer, William; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Morrow, W. E. Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples in commercial swine production units. Of 275 feed samples, Salmonella was detected in 10 feed samples that originated from 8 of 36 (22.2%) barns, with a prevalence of 3.6% (10/275 samples). In fecal samples, a prevalence of 17.2% was found at the early finishing stage (1,180/6,880 samples), with a significant reduction in prevalence (7.4%) when pigs reached market age (392/5,321 samples). Of the 280 Salmonella isolates systematically selected for further characterization, 50% of the feed isolates and 55.3% of the isolates of fecal origin showed similar phenotypes based on antimicrobial resistance patterns and serogrouping. About 44% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping grouped the 46 representative isolates into five genotypic clusters, of which four of the clusters consisted of genotypically related isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples. The occurrence of genotypically related and, in some cases, clonal strains, including multidrug-resistant isolates in commercially processed feed and fecal samples, suggests the high significance of commercial feed as a potential vehicle of Salmonella transmission. PMID:20851969

  17. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun

    2016-01-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  18. Eficiência do diagnóstico coproscópico de Schistosoma mansoni em fezes prensadas The efficiency of the examination of compressed fecal samples for Schistosoma mansoni eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia do controle da esquistossomose depende em grande parte da sensibilidade da coproscopia. Passamos a utilizar, além da técnica de Kato-Katz, a de prensagem de fezes entre lâmina e lamínula de polipropileno, segundo Ferreira. De 1.282 amostras fecais colhidas entre 1998 e 2000 no Bairro da Palha, Município de Bananal, São Paulo, Brasil, 105 (8,2% resultaram positivas. A primeira técnica revelou 90 (7% e a segunda, 88 (6,9% amostras positivas. Os resultados concordaram, segundo a estatística kappa. Valores baixos de percentagens de positivos e de opg (ovos por grama de fezes, em Bananal, demandaram aumento do volume de material a examinar. Além de permitir a observação da viabilidade dos ovos de Schistosoma mansoni, a segunda técnica dispensa o uso de glicerina, de placa medidora e de tamisação; esta última, responsável por ulterior perda de precisão nas determinações de opg.The control of schistosomiasis depends mostly upon the sensitivity of stool examinations. We used both the Kato-Katz technique and the compression of samples between the slide and a polypropylene cover glass, according to Ferreira. Out of 1,282 samples collected between 1998 and 2000 in the Palha District, Municipality of Bananal, São Paulo State, Brazil, 105 (8.2 % were positive. The first and second methods revealed 90 (7% and 88 (6.9 % positive cases, respectively. According to the kappa statistic, both methods were in agreement. In Bananal, the proportion of positive cases and egg per gram (epg values are low, which calls for the examination of larger than usual volumes of feces. The viability of Schistosoma mansoni eggs can also be checked when using the second method, which dispenses with glycerin solution, measuring plates and sieves. The latter cause a further loss of precision in epg determinations.

  19. Fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Erik H; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ecker, Lucie; Cabello, Martin; Durand, David; Barletta, Francesca; Molina, Margarita; Gil, Ana I; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F; Cleary, Thomas G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and to compare these levels between diarrhea and control cases. We analyzed 1,474 stool samples from 935 diarrhea episodes and 539 from healthy controls of a cohort study of children younger than 2 years of age in Lima, Peru. Stools were analyzed for common enteric pathogens, and diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were studied by a multiplex real-time PCR. Stool smears were stained with methylene blue and read by a blinded observer to determine the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field (L/hpf). Fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 11.8% (110/935) of all diarrheal episodes versus 1.1% (6/539) in controls (P 10 L/hpf were present in 8.5% (18/212) of diarrhea versus 1.3% (2/157) of control samples (P 10 L/hpf) with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 15.51; P < 0.05). Although diarrheagenic E. coli was isolated with similar frequencies in diarrhea and control samples, clearly it was associated with a more inflammatory response during symptomatic infection; however, in general, these pathogens elicited a mild inflammatory response. PMID:21325554

  20. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  1. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in free ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayari, M; Namavari, M; Mojaver, S

    2016-09-01

    Recently chickens are considered as an important intermediate hosts for Neospora caninum. Free range chickens expose to infection with N. caninum oocysts because they feed from the ground therefore they could be a good index of the environmental contamination. We studied N. caninum infection in free range chickens by serological. One hundred and fifty chickens purchased from five regions from Fars province and their blood were used for serological testing. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 26 (17.33 %) of 150 serum samples by MAT. This study is the first to describe the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in chicken in Iran. These serological results indicate a widespread exposure of free range chickens to N. caninum in south of Iran. PMID:27605795

  2. Measurement of Antibodies to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Indigenous Chicken Flocks Around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hadipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 1427 and 68%, respectively. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV in indigenous chicken flocks in Southwest of Iran and necessitate the regular vaccination programme against IB in native flocks.

  3. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    JoostHordijk; CindyDierikx

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each g...

  4. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hordijk, J.; Schoormans, A.; Kwakernaak, M.; Duim, B.; Broens, E.; Dierikx, C.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Wagenaar, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each g...

  5. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca) in response to stress

    OpenAIRE

    R.G. Morato; M.G. Bueno; P. Malmheister; I.T.N. Verreschi; R.C. Barnabe

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20ºC until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androge...

  6. Postoperative Changes in Fecal Bacterial Communities and Fermentation Products in Obese Patients Undergoing Bilio-Intestinal Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Patrone, Vania; Vajana, Elia; Minuti, Andrea; Callegari, Maria L.; Federico, Alessandro; Loguercio, Carmela; Dallio, Marcello; Tolone, Salvatore; Docimo, Ludovico; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the gut microbial ecology of 11 severely obese patients before and after bilio-intestinal bypass (BIB). Fecal samples were evaluated for microbial communities using 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing, real-time PCR targeting functional genes, and gas chromatography of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). At 6 months after surgery, subjects exhibited significant improvements in metabolic markers (body weight, glucose, and lipid metabolism) compared with baseline. The fecal microbiota of post...

  7. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples wer...

  8. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  9. A METHOD TO ESTIMATE MUSK DEER (MOSCHUS BEREZOVSKII) POPULATION NUMBER FROM FECAL PELLET SAMPLING%一种用粪便样方法估计林麝种群密度的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建; 周开亚; 杨光; 胡锦矗

    2004-01-01

    Reliable estimate of wildlife numbers is essential for effective population management. Density estimate based on the frequency distribution of population is an effective census method for small animals. But it has limitations when applied to large vertebrates. Thus a new method, temporary spatial sampling plots, was developed to estimate the density of musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in the Yele Nature Reserve in 1995. The result showed: (1) the distribution index CA = 12.09 indicating that the frequency distributions of musk deer pellet groups were strongly aggregated; (2) The frequency distribution gave an excellent fit to the negative binomial model. The value of k in the negative binomial is a useful measure of the degree of aggregation, where smaller values of k imply greater aggregation. In our study k = 0. 082 9, which means the musk deer population was strongly aggregated; (3) Possible theoretical frequency distributions which could be used to aid in interpreting usage patterns of wildlife populations, and apply in density estimate. It was estimated that there were about 62 ~ 98 individuals of musk dear in the Yele Nature Reserve, with the density n = 1 ~ 1.6 km -2; the pattern of distribution appeared to be affected by environmental factors and human disturbance. Fig 1, Tab 2, Ref 24%数量(密度)特征是动物种群的一个重要特征,是定点研究一个野生种群生态的一项非常重要的基础工作.其数量和年龄结构为进一步分析其种群的密度、移动、巢域和核域,尤其是为种群动态提供依据,也是珍稀动物保护和资源动物管理利用的先行工作和重要组成部份.关于野生动物种群数量的具体统计方法,有不少的文章报道,然而从动物的空间分布格局来研究大型脊椎动物却较为少见,这主要是受研究方法的限制.为此,作者对此进行了改进,提出了一种新的研究方法:临时空间样方法,并将其应用到冶勒自然保护区林麝的

  10. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  11. Gastroenteric virus detection in fecal samples from women in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil Detecção de vírus gastroentéricos em amostras fecais de mulheres em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gilberto Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This was a prospective study that included women seen in the obstetrics and gynecology sector of Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Goiás, in Goiânia, State of Goiás, with the aim of detecting rotaviruses, adenoviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses. Eighty-four women participated in the study and from these, 314 fecal samples were collected. Out of all of the women, 29 were seropositive for HIV and 55 were seronegative, and 45 and 39 were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from each woman once every two months over the period from July 2006 to June 2007, and they were screened for rotaviruses by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoenzymatic assays, for caliciviruses and astroviruses by means of RT-PCR and for adenovirus by means of immunoenzymatic assays. The astroviruses were genotyped using nested PCR. RESULTS: Among the 84 patients, 19 (22.6% were positive for either calicivirus (14/19 or astrovirus (6/19, while one women was positive for both viruses in fecal samples collected on different occasions. Most of the positive samples were collected during the months of July and August (astrovirus and September and October (calicivirus. None of the samples analyzed was positive for rotavirus or adenovirus. Gastroenteric viruses were detected in 13/19 (68.4% of the pregnant women, whether HIV-seropositive or not. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study showed that neither pregnancy nor HIV-seropositive status among the women increased the risk of infection by any of the gastroenteric viruses studied. This study presents data on gastroenteric virus detection among pregnant and/or HIV-positive women.INTRODUÇÃO: Este foi um estudo prospectivo que incluiu mulheres atendidas no setor de obstetrícia e ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás com o objetivo de detectar rotavírus, adenov

  12. Assessment of Tetracycline, Lead and Cadmium Residues in Frozen Chicken Vended in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Belleh Efie Diana; Adetunji Victoria Olusola; Odetokun Ismail Ayoade

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the levels of tetracycline and heavy metals (lead and cadmium) levels in frozen chicken. One hundred frozen chicken muscle samples were sourced from major markets in Lagos and Ibadan (fifty samples each). The samples were analyzed using High Power Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for tetracycline residue determination while Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to determine the levels of lead and cadmium residues in the samples. Mean concentrations of tetracycline re...

  13. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jeon; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p

  14. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  16. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose (75Se, 54Mn, 59Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. 51CrCl3 was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered 51CrCl3 was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption

  17. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  18. Diet and environment shape fecal bacterial microbiota composition and enteric pathogen load of grizzly bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. CONCLUSION: This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens.

  19. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  20. Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Wang, Yulan; Hao, Fuhua;

    2015-01-01

    This study employs spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of fecal extracts from healthy subjects and patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) to substantiate the potential use of spectroscopy as a non-invasive diagnostic tool and to characterize the fecal...... metabolome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stool samples from 113 individuals (UC 48, CD 44, controls 21) were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Bruker 600 MHz, Bruker BioSpin, Rheinstetten, Germany). Data were analyzed with principal component analysis and orthogonal...

  1. Use of Antibiotic Resistance Analysis To Identify Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, B A; Andrews, R. W.; Conway, R. A.; Corr, C. L.; Dobratz, E. J.; Dougherty, D. P.; Eppard, J. R.; Knupp, S. R.; Limjoco, M. C.; Mettenburg, J. M.; Rinehardt, J. M.; Sonsino, J.; Torrijos, R. L.; Zimmerman, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the reliability and repeatability of antibiotic resistance analysis as a method of identifying the sources of fecal pollution in surface water and groundwater. Four large sets of isolates of fecal streptococci (from 2,635 to 5,990 isolates per set) were obtained from 236 samples of human sewage and septage, cattle and poultry feces, and pristine waters. The patterns of resistance of the isolates to each of four concentrations of up to nine antibiotics were a...

  2. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  3. BIOAPATITE MADE FROM CHICKEN FEMUR BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-bioapatite (BAP powder was successfully acquired from chicken femur bones via chemical treatment followed by calcination. The isolation of nano-bioapatite powder from chicken bone has not been published so far. The bioapatite powder was chemically and structurally characterized by elemental analysis (AAS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR techniques. The nano BAP powder showed needleshaped morphology. The crystallite size distribution and specific surface area proved the nanostructured character of the sample. Chemical analysis together with FTIR spectrometry have demonstrated that the BAP powder was Ca-deficient with Na, Mg and carbonate substitutions that make the BAP suitable for application as a filler in biocomposites.

  4. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in fecal droppings from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Heddema; S. van der Sluis; J.A. Buys; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; J.H. van Wijnen; C.E. Visser

    2006-01-01

    In many cities, the feral rock dove is an abundant bird species that can harbor Chlamydophila psittaci. We determined the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in fresh fecal samples from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The prevalence was 7.9% overall (26/331; 95% confidence interval,

  6. The Effects of Water Matrix on Decay of Human Fecal Molecular Markers and Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although molecular source tracking for human fecal contamination is used on a wide range of sample types, little is known about comparative decay of proposed molecular markers under different conditions, or correlation with pathogen decay. Our purpose was to measure correlations ...

  7. Improved GC/MS method for quantitation of n-Alkanes in plant and fecal material

    Science.gov (United States)

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the quantitation of n-alkanes (carbon backbones ranging from 21 to 36 carbon atoms) in forage and fecal samples has been developed. Automated solid-liquid extraction using elevated temperature and pressure minimized extraction time to 30 min...

  8. Membrane filter method to study the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hidenori; Benno, Yoshimi

    2015-11-01

    A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132(T) and B. longum JCM1217(T) ) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication. Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus pasteurianus, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Clostridium spp. were the most abundant gut bacteria detected before coculture with the test strains. Results of the coculture experiments indicated that the test strains significantly promote the growth of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques, and Veillonella spp. and inhibit the growth of Sutterella wadsworthensis. Differences in the relative abundances of gut bacterial strains were furthermore observed after coculture of the fecal samples with each test strain. Bifidobacterium spp., which was detected as the dominant strain in the fecal samples, was found to be unaffected by coculture with the test strains. In the present study, interbacterial communication using bacterial metabolites between the test strains and the gut microbiota was demonstrated by the coculture technique. The detailed mechanisms and effects of the complex interbacterial communications that occur among the gut microbiota are, however, still unclear. Further investigation of these relationships by coculture of several fecal samples with probiotic strains is urgently required. PMID:26486646

  9. Applicability of fecal estrogenic metabolites estimation for assessment of reproductive activities in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out at the sheep experimental farm belonging to Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Applied Radiobiology, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. Inshas, Sharkia Governorate.Hormonal radioimmunological assay of serum estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estrone sulphate (E1S) and estrone sulphate (E1S) in fecal samples was performed in the laboratories of the Endocrinology Research Unit, Applied Radiobiology Department, Applied Radioisotope Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority.It was aimed to point out the ovarian estrogens (E1, E2) and estrogen metabolite (E1S) in both serum and fecal samples, as indicator for reproductive activity in hybrid ewes (Ossimi x Rahmani x Barki, with equal genetic proportion), during estrus cycle, pregnancy and post-partum periods. A total number of 62 ewes were randomly selected according to reproductive farm records and subjected to the study. Estradiol-17β, Estrone and Estrone sulfate were estimated in blood serum. Estrogen sulfate was estimated in fecal samples, estimations were carried out in the various stages of estrus cycle, pregnancy (every 10 days up to the time of parturition) and Postpartum (every 10 days up to 60 days).Fecal samples were collected 24 hours after blood collection to reflect the level of serum estrogenic hormones levels in blood circulation.

  10. Fecal Calprotectin Predicts Relapse and Histological Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per;

    2016-01-01

    . Fecal calprotectin (FC) was measured 2 to 3 days before the sigmoidoscopy. The tissue samples were evaluated for neutrophilic inflammation. We aimed at testing the predictive performance of FC and histological inflammatory activity on disease relapse. RESULTS: A baseline FC level of more than 321 mg...

  11. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  12. Comparison of three commercial fecal calprotectin ELISA test kits used in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Bachmann Holmetoft, Ulla; Ingdam Halkjær, Sofie;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of intestinal inflammation used to distinguish between functional and organic bowel diseases and to evaluate disease activity among patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to compare three different ELISA tests...... measuring calprotectin in their accuracy to detect IBD and to distinguish between IBD patients with active or inactive disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study includes in total 148 fecal samples, 96 from patients with a previously confirmed IBD diagnosis and 52 from healthy controls, aged from 25 to 86...... tests (EK-CAL, CALPRO and HK325) were performed on fecal specimens and results compared. RESULTS: The CALPRO calprotectin ELISA test was shown to have the best specificity of 96% compared to the HK325 and the EK-CAL calprotectin ELISA tests with 28% specificity and 74% specificity, respectively. A...

  13. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  14. Effect of fecal material on carcass microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler carcass bacterial counts are increased by visible fecal material, therefore further treatment of these carcasses is necessary. Inside-outside bird washers (IOBWs) are used by many processors to remove feces and possibly reduce bacterial counts. A series of studies have shown that IOBWs hav...

  15. Fecal calprotectin excretion in preterm infants during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Rougé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. METHODOLOGY: F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27-29 weeks, and 880-1320 g, respectively at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 microg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78 was observed (86% and 67%, respectively. In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001, and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d (p = 0.009, the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001, and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019 and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047. CONCLUSION: During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment.

  16. Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029

  17. Microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Pek Geck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from three layer farms (designated as Farm A, Farm B and Farm C. A total of 67 culled chicken layer samples consisting of egg wash water, chicken carcass rinse, drinking water, cloaca swab, feed and faeces were examined for enterobacteriaceae, total and faecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli using the procedures in the bacteriological analytical manual. Results: The total plate count for bacteria ranged from 2.7 x 103 cfuml-1 to 1.8 x 107 cfug-1 (Farm A, 1100.0 Most probable number (MPNml-1/ MPNg-1 for Farm A, B and C. Similarly, E. coli count for all the three farms ranged from 1100.0 MPNml-1/MPNg-1. E. coli counts were very low for most of the samples examined except chicken carcass and faeces. Conclusion: In general, Farm A had higher bacterial count, followed by Farm C and Farm B. This work gives an indication that pathogenic foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Shigella and Yersinia spp. may be present in culled chicken layers and consequently pose the risk of causing food poisoning or outbreaks.

  18. Fecal immunochemical test as a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases: can it rival fecal calprotectin?

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Jun; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Nakarai, Asuka; Takashima, Shiho; Inokuchi, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of disease activity is essential for choosing an appropriate treatment and follow-up plan for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy is required for accurately evaluating disease activity, but the procedures are sometimes invasive and burdensome to patients. Therefore, alternative non-invasive methods for evaluating or predicting disease activity including mucosal status are desirable. Fecal calprotectin (Fcal) is the most widely used fecal marker for IB...

  19. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    addition, the detection range of X-DNA of a spectrophotometric and a fluorometric (PicoGreen) method was compared. The PicoGreen showed a quantification limit of 1 ng/mL, consistent triplicate measurements, and finally a linear relationship between the concentrations of DNA standards and the fluorescence...

  20. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France...

  1. Type I strain of Toxoplasma gondii from chicken induced different immune responses with that from human, cat and swine in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guang-wei; Xu Li-xin; LI Xiang-rui; WanG Shuai; WanG Wang; ZhanG Zhen-chao; XIe Qing; ZhanG Meng; I a hassan; Yan Ruo-feng; SonG Xiao-kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, four strains of Toxoplasma gondi with the same genetic type (Type I) originated from chicken, human, cat and swine were used to compare the immune responses in resistant chicken host to investigate the relationships between the parasite origins and the pathogenicity in certain host. A total of 300, 10-day-old chickens were al ocated randomly into ifve groups which named JS (from chicken), CAT (from cat), CN (from swine), RH (from human) and a negative control group (–Ve) with 60 birds in each group. Tachyzoites of four different T. gondi strains (JS, CAT, CN and RH) were inocu-lated intraperitoneal y with the dose of 1×107 in the four designed groups, respectively. The negative control (–Ve) group was mockly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Blood and spleen samples were obtained on the day of inoculation (day 0) and at days 4, 11, 25, 39 and 53 post-infection to screen the immunopathological changes. The results demonstrated some different immune characters of T. gondi infected chickens with that of mice or swine previous reported. These differences included up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules in the early stage of infection, early peak expressions of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and-10 (IL-10) and long keep of IL-17. These might partial y contribute to the resistance of chicken to T. gondi infection. Comparisons to chickens infected with strains from human, cat and swine, chickens infected with strain from chicken showed signiifcant high levels of CD4+and CD8+T cel s, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12 and IL-10. It suggested that the strain from chicken had different ability to stimulate cel ular immunity in chicken.

  2. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  3. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Morato

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca. Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20ºC until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37ºC for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 ± 17.5 ng/g dry feces in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline. On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (± SEM fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 ± 26.7, after: 213.7 ± 43.6 ng/g dry feces. These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000). Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000), with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010), CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000), and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000). Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:19874614

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Lucio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI, and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000. Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000, with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010, CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000, and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000. Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  6. When can we measure stress noninvasively? Postdeposition effects on a fecal stress metric confound a multiregional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of stress hormone metabolites in fecal samples has become a common method to assess physiological stress in wildlife populations. Glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) measurements can be collected noninvasively, and studies relating this stress metric to anthropogenic disturbance are increasing. However, environmental characteristics (e.g., temperature) can alter measured GCM concentration when fecal samples cannot be collected immediately after defecation. This effect can confound efforts to separate environmental factors causing predeposition physiological stress in an individual from those acting on a fecal sample postdeposition. We used fecal samples from American pikas (Ochotona princeps) to examine the influence of environmental conditions on GCM concentration by (1) comparing GCM concentration measured in freshly collected control samples to those placed in natural habitats for timed exposure, and (2) relating GCM concentration in samples collected noninvasively throughout the western United States to local environmental characteristics measured before and after deposition. Our timed-exposure trials clarified the spatial scale at which exposure to environmental factors postdeposition influences GCM concentration in pika feces. Also, fecal samples collected from occupied pika habitats throughout the species' range revealed significant relationships between GCM and metrics of climate during the postdeposition period (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation during the month of sample collection). Conversely, we found no such relationships between GCM and metrics of climate during the predeposition period (prior to the month of sample collection). Together, these results indicate that noninvasive measurement of physiological stress in pikas across the western US may be confounded by climatic conditions in the postdeposition environment when samples cannot be collected immediately after defecation. Our results reiterate the importance

  7. Broilers with low serum Mannose-binding Lectin show increased fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie L; Juul-Madsen, Helle R; Kjærup, Rikke B; Okimoto, Ron; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Maurischat, Sven; Sørensen, Poul; Dalgaard, Tina S

    2016-08-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key molecule in innate immunity. MBL binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens, initiating the complement system via the lectin-dependent pathway or facilitates opsonophagocytosis. In vivo studies using inbred chicken lines differing in MBL serum concentration indicate that chicken MBL affects Salmonella resistance; further studies are imperative in conventional broiler chickens. In this study 104 conventional day-old chickens (offspring from a cross between Cobb 500 male and female parent breeders) were orally infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo. The chickens were divided into two groups based on polymorphisms in their MBL promoter region, designated L/L for low serum concentrations of MBL and L/H for medium serum concentrations of MBL. A semi-quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in cloacal swabs was used, the log10 CFU quantification was based on a standard curve from artificially spiked cloacal swab samples pre-incubated for 8 h with known concentrations of Salmonella ranging from 10(1) to 10(6) CFU/swabs, with an obtained amplification efficiency of 102% and a linear relationship between the log10 CFU and the threshold cycle Ct values of (R(2) = 0.99). The L/L chickens had significantly higher Log10 CFU/swab at week 5 post infection (pi) than the L/H chickens. A repetition of the study with 86 L/L and 18 L/H chickens, also gave significantly higher log10 CFU ± SEM in cloacal swabs, using the semi-quantitative real-time PCR method from L/L chickens than from the L/H chickens at week 5 pi. These results indicate that genetically determined basic levels of MBL may influence S. Montevideo susceptibility. PMID:26994208

  8. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  9. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  10. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Zarfel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.

  11. Microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products (Luncheon, Burger and debonded minced chicken) which are produced by three companies (Halwany Bros.(H)-Faragalla (F) and Egypco (E)). The samples were purchased from local supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The examination illustrated that all examined samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. While Luncheon (F), Burger (H) and debonded minced chicken (E) were only positive for Salmonella spp. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at 0, 3, 6 and 9 kGy. The effects of radiation treatments and cold storage (5+,-1 degree) on the total volatile basic nitrogen (T.V.B.N.), microbiological quality and sensory properties of samples under investigation were studied. The results indicated that 3kGy dose of gamma irradiation completely destroyed Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. and caused slight increase in (T.V.B.N.) content for all samples. A gradual increase in total bacteria, molds and yeast and T. V. B. N. during storage were observed, while 6 kGy dose was also sufficient for destroying Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in all chicken meat products under investigation without any detectable effects on the sensory properties of these products and increased the shelf-life of luncheon, burger and minced for 8, 4 and 3 weeks respectively as compared with 4, 2 and 1 weeks for control samples

  12. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tobiańska, Berenika; Tarasewicz, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic gastrointestinal infections in free-range chickens from the West Pomerania province. Experimental material for the study was taken from 10 farms. Breeds raised in farms participating in the study included miniature chickens called Polish Lilliputians and Green- legged Partridge. A total of 104 samples of faeces were examined. The Willis-Schlaff flotation method was used to assess the prevalence of infection, and McMaster's method to evaluate the intensity. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites was found in 9 of the 10 farms. Oocysts of the genus Eimeria and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Trichostrongylus tenuis were isolated from the chicken faeces. Coccidiosis was found to be dominant parasitosis. The prevalence of infections on these farms with protozoa of Eimeria spp. was on average 32.7%, while for nematode species they amounted to 9.6% for Ascaridia galli, 5.7% for Heterakis gallinarum and 12.5% for Trichostrongylus tenuis. The results indicate the need to take preventive measures, designed to eliminate/reduce the risk of parasitoses in poultry from free-range systems. Focus should be placed on the hygiene of the farming conditions. PMID:25706430

  14. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  15. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras; REMEDIOS D. CATAMIN; Delia A. Paragados; AILEEN C. DE LA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefu...

  16. Relevance of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin in the post-operative management of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccaro, Roberta; Angriman, Imerio; D'Incà, Renata

    2016-03-27

    The role of fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin has been extensively studied in many areas of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients' management. The post-operative setting in both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients has been less investigated although few promising results come from small, cross-sectional studies. Therefore, the current post-operative management still requires endoscopy 6-12 mo after intestinal resection for CD in order to exclude endoscopic recurrence and plan the therapeutic strategy. In patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy, endoscopy is required whenever symptoms includes the possibility of pouchitis. There is emerging evidence that fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin are useful surrogate markers of inflammation in the post-operative setting, they correlate with the presence and severity of endoscopic recurrence according to Rutgeerts' score and possibly predict the subsequent clinical recurrence and response to therapy in CD patients. Similarly, fecal markers show a good correlation with the presence of pouchitis, as confirmed by endoscopy in operated UC patients. Fecal calprotectin seems to be able to predict the short-term development of pouchitis in asymptomatic patients and to vary according to response to medical treatment. The possibility of both fecal markers to used in the routine clinical practice for monitoring IBD patients in the post-operative setting should be confirmed in multicentric clinical trial with large sample set. An algorithm that can predict the optimal use and timing of fecal markers testing, the effective need and timing of endoscopy and the cost-effectiveness of these as a strategy of care would be of great interest. PMID:27022446

  17. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  18. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in backyard and commercial layer chickens in Bhola district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuzul Islam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in the chicken population of Bhola district, Bangladesh, during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. A total of 480 blood samples from chickens were collected from different upazilas (sub-districts of Bhola district. The sampling considered the types of chicken (backyard and commercial layer, age groups (pullet, adult and old and seasons (summer and winter. On the basis of the serum plate agglutination test, 55.83% (n=268/480 chickens were found positive for MG. The MG infection was higher (62.5% in backyard chickens as compared to those being reared in commercial farming systems (53.61%. With respect to age groups, the prevalence was highest in pullets (60.63% followed by adults (55.63% and old chickens (51.25%. Moreover, chickens reared in winter showed higher prevalence of MG (60.42% as compared to those reared in summer (51.25%. In conclusion, MG infection is prevalent in the chicken population of Bhola district, Bangladesh. Appropriate strategies should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.

  19. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  20. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  1. Studies on radurization of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)

  2. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth were determined. The composition of fecal microbiota and profile of metabolites changed in response to substrate (levan and amino acids availability. The main products of levan metabolism were acetic, lactic, butyric, propionic and succinic acids and carbon dioxide. Associated growth of levan-degrading (e.g. Bacteroides and butyric acid-producing (e.g. Faecalibacterium taxa was observed in levan-supplemented media. The study shows that the capacity of levan and possibly also other dietary fibers/prebiotics to modulate the composition and function of colon microbiota can be predicted by using isothermal microcalorimetry of fecal samples linked to metabolite and consortia analyses.

  3. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina; Pudova, Ksenia; Puurand, Marju; Visnapuu, Triinu; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth were determined. The composition of fecal microbiota and profile of metabolites changed in response to substrate (levan and amino acids) availability. The main products of levan metabolism were acetic, lactic, butyric, propionic and succinic acids and carbon dioxide. Associated growth of levan-degrading (e.g. Bacteroides) and butyric acid-producing (e.g. Faecalibacterium) taxa was observed in levan-supplemented media. The study shows that the capacity of levan and possibly also other dietary fibers/prebiotics to modulate the composition and function of colon microbiota can be predicted by using isothermal microcalorimetry of fecal samples linked to metabolite and consortia analyses. PMID:26629816

  4. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  5. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:26211780

  6. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome share many symptoms. While irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder for which no specific treatment is available, the range of effective therapies for IBD is evolving rapidly. Accurate diagnosis of IBD is therefore essential. Clinical assessment, together with various imaging modalities and endoscopy, has been the mainstay of diagnosis for many years. Fecal biomarkers of gastrointestinal inflammation have appeared in the past decade, of which calprotectin, a neutrophil cytosolic protein, has been studied the most. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic remitting and relapsing diseases, and objective assessment of disease activity and response to treatment are important. This review focuses on the use of fecal calprotectin measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with IBD. PMID:26869808

  7. [Fecal Calprotectin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun

    2016-05-25

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis comprise conditions characterized by chronic, relapsing immune activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. Objective estimation of intestinal inflammation is the mainstay in the diagnosis and observation of IBD, but is primarily dependent on expensive and invasive procedures such as endoscopy. Therefore, a simple, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate test would be extremely important in clinical practice. Fecal calprotectin is a calcium-containing protein released into the lumen that is excreted in feces during acute and chronic inflammation. It is well-researched, noninvasive, and has high sensitivity and specificity for identification of inflammation in IBD. This review will focus on the use of fecal calprotectin to help diagnose, monitor, and determine treatment in IBD. PMID:27206433

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the fecal microbial community in herbivorous land and marine iguanas of the Galápagos Islands using 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2011-01-01

    Herbivorous reptiles depend on complex gut microbial communities to effectively degrade dietary polysaccharides. The composition of these fermentative communities may vary based on dietary differences. To explore the role of diet in shaping gut microbial communities, we evaluated the fecal samples from two related host species—the algae-consuming marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (LI) (genus Conolophus) that consume terrestrial vegetation. Marine and LI fecal samples we...

  9. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, W.; Staley, C.; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Palmer, A.; Beale, D. J.; Toze, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial...

  10. Comparison of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Rapid Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Marine and Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave S. Bachoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of three PCR protocols for the detection of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and one PCR protocol for detecting Bacteroidales as indicators of human fecal pollution in environmental samples. Quantitative PCR indicated that a higher concentration of B. adolescentis DNA was recovered from sewage samples on the 0.2 μm filters compared to the 0.45 μm filters, and there was no evidence of qPCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts. With the Matsuki method (1999, B. adolescentis was detected only in undiluted sewage samples. The King method (2007 performed well and detected B. adolescentis in all of the sewage dilutions (from undiluted to 10−4. In contrast, the Bonjoch approach (2004 was effective at detecting B. adolescentis at lower dilutions (10−3 of sewage samples and it gave false positive results with some (3/8 pig fecal samples. Human-specific Bacteroidales (HuBacs were detected in the lower diluents of sewage samples but was positive in pig (6/8 and cattle fecal samples. PCR detection of B. adolescentis in marine samples from Puerto Rico and freshwater samples from Georgia indicated that the PCR method of King et al. (2007 and the modified Layton method for HuBac were in agreement in detecting human fecal pollution in most sites.

  11. Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

  12. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  13. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when...

  14. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  15. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  16. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline; Woods, Anne

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  17. Keragaman Gen Heat Shock Protein 70 pada Ayam Kampung, Ayam Arab, dan Ayam Ras (POLYMORPHISMS OF THE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 GENE IN KAMPONG, ARABIC, AND COMMERCIAL CHICKENS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Hasil Tamzil; Ronny Rachman Noor; Wasmen Manalu; Cece Sumantri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the polymorphisms of HSP-70 gene of kampong, Arabic, andcommercial chickens. The study used whole blood samples taken from the branchial vein at the age of 12weeks from a group of chickens that were kept since DOC. Kampong chickens DOC were obtained byhatching the eggs that were collected from lowlands, medium and high altitude areas in Lombok island,while the Arabic chickens DOC were obtained from farmer. DOC of commercial chickens were purchased atthe...

  18. Identifying Sources of Fecal Contamination in Streams Associated with Chicken Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry is responsible for 44% of the total feces production in the U.S., followed by cattle and swine. The large U.S. production of feces poses a contamination risk for affected watersheds across the country. To aid in the identification of the sources of contamination, many D...

  19. Decontamination of fermented chicken feet by 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermented chicken feet was treated by 60Co irradiation, and the aerobic plate count, enumeration of coliforms, pathogens and TBARS value were measured during storage. The results showed that, aerobic plate count of all irradiated samples was lower than control, and enumeration of coliforms, and pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salmonella were not detected. TBARS value of all treatments was stable during 60 d storage. It could be concluded that 60Co irradiation of chicken feet was an effective method to prolong its shelf life. (authors)

  20. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  1. The sensory quality of irradiated whole fresh chicken carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colour, odour, flavour and texture of fresh chicken carcasses irradiated at doses up to 10 kGy was assessed using a trained sensory panel. In addition, colour was measured spectrophotometrically while texture was examined using the Instron. In a second experiment, the influence of storage following irradiation at doses up to 5 kGy on the sensory quality was established. Irradiation induced a slight pinkness in the chicken flesh which was detected by both the panelists and the spectrophotometer (a* -redness). During storage the pinkness decreased. The odour of raw chicken carcasses was not significantly affected by irradiation until a dose of 10kGy had been applied. The major changes in the flavour of irradiated chicken occurred during storage when an 'unpleasant' flavour with an 'after taste' developed. These flavour changes were more apparent in the breast than the leg meat but, it was only when doses greater than 5kGy were applied that significant differences were detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. Texture changes were detected by the sensory panel but not by the Instron apparatus. Although the trained panelists were able to detect significant differences between irradiated and unirradiated chicken, the numerical differences between treatments were often quite small. It is possible that an untrained consumer group would be unable to detect these differences. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig., 14 tabs

  2. Seroprevalence of Avian Leukosis Virus Antigen Using ELISA Technique in Exotic Broilers and Nigerian Local Chickens in Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sani

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV in exotic broiler chickens and Nigerian local chickens in Zaria, Nigeria, a total of 600 sera (300 from exotic broiler chickens and 300 from Nigerian local chickens, obtained from the live bird market in Zaria, Nigeria, were tested for ALV p27 antigen by the antigen capture-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ac-ELISA technique. The age range of the Nigerian local chickens sampled in this study was 6 – 24 months, while that of the exotic broiler chickens used in this study was 2-3 months. Fourteen out of the 300 sera obtained from the exotic broiler chickens tested positive to ALV p27 antigen, which represents 4.70%, while 180 of the 300 Nigerian local chicken sera were confirmed positive to the antigen, representing 60.00%. Thirteen (92.86% of the fourteen sera from the exotic broiler chickens were lowly positive (ELISA Units range of 10-20% to ALV p27 antigen, while only one (7.14% serum sample was moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with an ELISA Unit of 29.33%. Of the 180 sera from the Nigerian local chickens that tested positive to ALV p27 antigen , 79 (43.89% were lowly positive with ELISA Units ranging from 10.67% to 21.33%, while 101 (56.11% serum samples were moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with ELISA Units ranging from 28.0% to 73.33%. A higher seroprevalence of ALV was detected in Nigerian local chickens than the exotic broiler chickens. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 345-348

  3. Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Breast as Influenced by the Methods of Mechanical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various marination processes on the quality characteristics of chicken breast prepared with chicken feet gelatin and wheat fiber. The chicken feet gelatin was swollen with hydrochloric solution (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.31±0.02) and dehydrated by freeze-drying. The composition (w/w) of the marinade was water (10%), soy sauce (12%), phosphate (0.3%), wheat fiber (1.5%), and chicken feet gelatin (1.5%). Three samples of chicken breast were manufactured with Tumbler (only tumbler), Tenderizer (tenderizer and tumbler), and Injector (injector and tumbler). The water content of the Injector sample was significantly higher than those of the Tumbler and Tenderizer samples (pTenderizer samples (pTenderizer sample was significantly lower than that of the Tumbler and Injector samples (p<0.05). No significant differences, except for color, were observed in the sensory analysis of the samples. Thus, the proper selection of mechanical processing is important to improve the quality characteristics of marinated chicken breast, considering the types of final products. PMID:26761806

  4. Identification of irradiated chicken meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)

  5. Noninvasive Measurement of Fecal Progesterone Concentration in Toy Poodles by Time Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sugimura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone is an important reproductive hormone and measurement of its level by repeated blood samplings is beneficial to monitoring of estrus cycle. However, since toy poodles have a small body size and thin-walled blood vessels, repeated blood samplings cause stress and affect their preparation for mating or artificial insemination (AI. Therefore, a noninvasive method for monitoring progesterone concentration should be developed. Here, we show that time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TF-RIA is a useful noninvasive method for determining the progesterone concentration in serum and fecal samples obtained from toy poodles. Present results demonstrate that progesterone concentrations in the fecal correlated with the serum collected in same time and the sequential changes in progesterone concentrations in the feces are paralleled in the serum. Therefore, this technique may be suitable for monitoring the estrus cycle in toy poodles.

  6. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.;

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7......, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. [C. jejuni, C. lari and C. coli]), water quality (turbidity, temperature, E. coli), and human and ruminant/cow Bacteroidales and mitochondrial DNA-based fecal source tracking (FST) markers in two source watersheds. Water samples (n=329) were collected at 10 sites (5 in...... each watershed) over 18 months. The human Bacteroidales marker (HF183) occurred in 9-10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant/cow Bacteroidales markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mt...

  7. Excretory fate of estradiol and progesterone in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and patterns of fecal steroid concentrations throughout the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S K; Papageorge, S; Foley, C; Brown, J L

    1996-05-01

    We developed and validated a noninvasive method to quantify fecal estrogens and progestins as a tool for monitoring long-term ovarian activity in free-ranging African elephants. The lag times between iv injection of [(3)H]estradiol and [(14)C]progesterone and peak excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces were approximately 4 hr and 48 hr, respectively. The majority of progesterone metabolites recovered was excreted in feces (55%) versus urine (45%), whereas comparatively little of the recovered estradiol metabolites were excreted in feces (5%) compared to urine (95%). Intrasample variation in fecal hormone concentrations was extremely high but could be substantially reduced by extracting well-mixed fecal powder from freeze-dried samples, taken from the central or premixed portion of the wet sample. This method resulted in a close correspondence between matched serum and fecal progestins (mean correlation = 0.81, range 0.61-0.94) collected from five nonpregnant adult females over a 7-month period. Fecal estrogen profiles were more ambiguous, tending to overlap with those of fecal progestins. We conclude that analyses of fecal progestins can provide an effective, noninvasive means of characterizing ovarian activity in free-ranging African elephants. PMID:8998970

  8. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Some Biochemical Indicators in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionising radiation before incubation on concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was the control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for the both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of all three parameters was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The concentration of total protein was significantly decreased in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3, 7 and 30 and increased only on day 5. The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma was increased in the same chickens on days 1 and 30. The concentration of the cholesterol was decreased in the same chickens on day 7, and increased on day 10. Obtained results indicate that low-dose of gamma radiation has effects on some metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (author)

  9. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-07-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  10. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  11. Composition and Diversity of the Fecal Microbiome and Inferred Fecal Metagenome Does Not Predict Subsequent Pneumonia Caused by Rhodococcus equi in Foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan M; Cohen, Noah D; Suchodolski, Jan; Chaffin, M Keith; McQueen, Cole M; Arnold, Carolyn E; Dowd, Scot E; Blodgett, Glenn P

    2015-01-01

    In equids, susceptibility to disease caused by Rhodococcus equi occurs almost exclusively in foals. This distribution might be attributable to the age-dependent maturation of immunity following birth undergone by mammalian neonates that renders them especially susceptible to infectious diseases. Expansion and diversification of the neonatal microbiome contribute to development of immunity in the gut. Moreover, diminished diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome has been associated with risk of infections and immune dysregulation. We thus hypothesized that varying composition or reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiome of neonatal foals would contribute to increased susceptibility of their developing R. equi pneumonia. The composition and diversity indices of the fecal microbiota at 3 and 5 weeks of age were compared among 3 groups of foals: 1) foals that subsequently developed R. equi pneumonia after sampling; 2) foals that subsequently developed ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscess formation or consolidation but not clinical signs (subclinical group); and, 3) foals that developed neither clinical signs nor ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscess formation or consolidation. No significant differences were found among groups at either sampling time, indicating absence of evidence of an influence of composition or diversity of the fecal microbiome, or predicted fecal metagenome, on susceptibility to subsequent R. equi pneumonia. A marked and significant difference identified between a relatively short interval of time appeared to reflect ongoing adaptation to transition from a milk diet to a diet including available forage (including hay) and access to concentrate fed to the mare. PMID:26305682

  12. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG)5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG)5-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  13. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Linglin, E-mail: full1103@yahoo.com.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Shuai Jiangbing [Zhejiang Entry and Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Li Jianrong, E-mail: lijianrong@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG){sub 5} primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG){sub 5}-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: > The host-origin library developed by (GTG){sub 5}-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. > Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. > High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. > Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  14. Impact of a drug-free program on broiler chicken growth performances, gut health, Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni occurrences at the farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, M-L; Quessy, S; Letellier, A; Arsenault, J; Boulianne, M

    2015-08-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents as feed additives in poultry production is a public health concern due to the overall increase in antimicrobial resistance. Although some alternative products are commercially available, little is known on their potential impact on flock health and productivity. A prospective study involving 1.55 million birds was conducted on eight commercial broiler farms in Québec, Canada, to evaluate the impact of replacing antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidial drugs by a drug-free program including improved brooding conditions, anticoccidial vaccination, essential oil-based feed additives, and water acidification. Various productivity and health parameters were compared between barns allocated to the conventional and the drug-free program. Zootechnical performances were monitored as productivity criteria. Clinical necrotic enteritis and subclinical enteritis occurrences, litter and fecal moistures content were measured, and microscopic gut health was evaluated. Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter spp. strains were recovered from fecal samples collected during farm visits. Clostridium perfringens counts were used as poultry health indicators and Campylobacter prevalence was noted as well. The drug-free program was associated with a significant increase in feed conversion ratio and a decrease in mean live weight at slaughter and in daily weight gain. An increased incidence of necrotic enteritis outbreaks and subclinical enteritis cases, as well as an increase in litter moisture content at the end of the rearing period were also observed for this program. Mean microscopic intestinal lesion scores and prevalence of Campylobacter colonization were not statistically different between the two groups but the drug-free program was associated with higher Clostridium perfringens isolation rates. According to the current study design, the results suggest that substitution of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidial drugs by a drug

  15. Effect of irradiation on sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation could effectively control lactobacillus of fermented spicy chicken feet and extend its shelf life. Sensory evaluation standard of fermented spicy chicken feet was established to study the sensory change after irradiation according to related standards and research results. Color and shape (weight 30%), scent (weight 30%), texture and taste (weight 40%) were selected as sensory evaluation items. The sensory evaluation results after irradiation 3 days didn't show significance difference among control, 3, 5, 8 and 12 kGy irradiated samples, and the sensory evaluation score of 10 kGy irradiated sample was much higher then other sample groups. The results after irradiation 11d were almost as same as 3d results. It is indicated that the sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet would not destroyed by irradiation, and suitable dosage of irradiation may promote the sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet. (authors)

  16. Study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Tran, Thi Hanh; Phung, Dac Cam; Nguyen, Thi Be

    2006-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter spp. diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity. Chicken meat is known to be a major source of Campylobacteriosis infection in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 100 samples from breast part of chicken carcass were collected from retail market in Hanoi. The samples were taken for bacteriological analysis following the ISO 10272 standards. Thirty one samples (31%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The most frequently isolated Campylobacter was Campylobacter jejuni (45.2%) followed by Campylobacter coli (25.8%). Due to high contamination rates of retail chicken products, special attention must be paid to good manufacturing practices of food processors and vendors. Further studies should be done to assess the risk factors of Campylobacter spp. contamination in the Vietnamese fowl production chain. PMID:17135525

  17. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples. PMID:26035837

  18. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilario Ferrocino

    Full Text Available In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE. The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples.

  19. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Rural Virginia Watershed with Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Fecal Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Charles; Robinson, Sandra L.; Filtz, Jennifer R.; Grubbs, Sarah M.; Angier, Theresa A.; Reneau, Raymond B.

    1999-01-01

    Nonpoint sources of pollution that contribute fecal bacteria to surface waters have proven difficult to identify. Knowledge of pollution sources could aid in restoration of the water quality, reduce the amounts of nutrients leaving watersheds, and reduce the danger of infectious disease resulting from exposure to contaminated waters. Patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci were analyzed by discriminant and cluster analysis and used to identify sources of fecal pollution in a r...

  20. Diagnosis of Infectious Bronchitis Disease in Broiler Chickens by Serological Test (ELISA and RT-PCR in Duhok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyar Adil Morad AL-Barwary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis (IB is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry and it causes major economic losses in poultry industry. The study was conducted to detect Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers chicken farms in Duhok Governorate. To achieve this goal two tests have been used throughout the study protocol Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. One hundred and eighty Serum samples were collected from 11 chicken farms including (120 samples from 9 symptomatic non vaccinated chicken farms, (30 samples from one asymptomatic vaccinated chicken farm and another (30 samples from one asymptomatic non vaccinated chicken farm and screened for the presence of IBV antibodies by ELISA kit. The total RNAs were extracted from tracheal tissues using RNX TM-Plus reagent (Cinnagen,Iran. Eighty serum samples were positive: 50/120 (41.6% sample were symptomatic non vaccinated, another 30/30 (100% were asymptomatic vaccinated chickens samples, and the remaining samples (100 were negative by ELISA , including 70 /120 (58.4% from symptomatic non vaccinated chickens, and 30/30 (100% from asymptomatic non vaccinated chickens. The molecular detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus by use of RT-PCR was applied to extract RNAs from tracheal tissues. The test was performed on (80 symptomatic non vaccinated chickens and 36 vaccinated and non vaccinated chickens. Detection was performed using universal types of primers including XCE2+ and XCE2- 80 symptomatic chickens were examined by RT-PCR (50 with positive ELISA and 30 with negative ELISA results, 36 (44.4 % have detectable IBV-cDNA and the remaining 44 (55.6% did not have detectable IBVcDNA. Another 36 (18 asymptomatic vaccinated and 18 non vaccinated chickens were examined by RT-PCR, 8 (22.2% have detectable IBV-cDNA, and the remaining 28 (77.8% were negative. This study has determined the presences of IBV in flocks of Duhok

  1. Development and evaluation of a quantitative PCR assay targeting sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hodon; Lu, Jingrang; Vogel, Jason; Elk, Michael; Chávez-Ramírez, Felipe; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Santo Domingo, Jorge

    2012-06-01

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fecal clone libraries. Using these sequences, a novel crane quantitative PCR (Crane1) assay was developed, and its applicability as a microbial source tracking (MST) assay was evaluated by determining its host specificity and detection ability in environmental waters. Bacteria from crane excreta were dominated by bacilli and proteobacteria, with a notable paucity of sequences homologous to Bacteroidetes and Clostridia. The Crane1 marker targeted a dominant clade of unclassified Lactobacillales sequences closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium. The host distribution of the Crane1 marker was relatively high, being positive for 69% (66/96) of the crane excreta samples tested. The assay also showed high host specificity, with 95% of the nontarget fecal samples (i.e., n = 553; 20 different free-range hosts) being negative. Of the presumed crane-impacted water samples (n = 16), 88% were positive for the Crane1 assay, whereas none of the water samples not impacted by cranes were positive (n = 165). Bayesian statistical models of the Crane1 MST marker demonstrated high confidence in detecting true-positive signals and a low probability of false-negative signals from environmental water samples. Altogether, these data suggest that the newly developed marker could be used in environmental monitoring studies to study crane fecal pollution dynamics. PMID:22492437

  2. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  3. Enterotoxigenic and non-enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis from fecal microbiota of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF is an important part of the human and animal intestinal microbiota and is commonly associated with diarrhea. ETBF strains produce an enterotoxin encoded by the bft gene located in the B. fragilispathogenicity island (BfPAI. Non-enterotoxigenic B. fragilis(NTBF strains lack the BfPAI and usually show two different genetic patterns, II and III, based on the absence or presence of a BfPAI-flanking region, respectively. The incidence of ETBF and NTBF strains in fecal samples isolated from children without acute diarrhea or any other intestinal disorders was determined. All 84 fecal samples evaluated were B. fragilis-positive by PCR, four of them harbored the bft gene, 27 contained the NTBF pattern III DNA sequence, and 52 were considered to be NTBF pattern II samples. One sample was positive for both ETBF and NTBF pattern III DNA sequences. All 19 B. fragilis strains isolated by the culture method were bft-negative, 9 belonged to pattern III and 10 to pattern II. We present an updated overview of the ETBF and NTBF incidence in the fecal microbiota of children from Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

  4. Ruminants Contribute Fecal Contamination to the Urban Household Environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela R; Pickering, Amy J; Harris, Michael; Doza, Solaiman; Islam, M Sirajul; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-05-01

    In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the sensitivity and specificity of three human, three ruminant, and one avian source-associated QPCR microbial source tracking assays were evaluated using fecal samples collected on site. Ruminant-associated assays performed well, whereas the avian and human assays exhibited unacceptable cross-reactions with feces from other hosts. Subsequently, child hand rinses (n = 44) and floor sponge samples (n = 44) from low-income-households in Dhaka were assayed for fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, Bacteroidales, and Escherichia coli) and a ruminant-associated bacterial target (BacR). Mean enterococci concentrations were of 100 most probable number (MPN)/2 hands and 1000 MPN/225 cm(2) floor. Mean concentrations of Bacteroidales were 10(6) copies/2 hands and 10(5) copies/225 cm(2) floor. E. coli were detected in a quarter of hand rinse and floor samples. BacR was detected in 18% of hand rinse and 27% of floor samples. Results suggest that effective household fecal management should account not only for human sources of contamination but also for animal sources. The poor performance of the human-associated assays in the study area calls into the question the feasibility of developing a human-associated marker in urban slum environments, where domestic animals are exposed to human feces that have been disposed in pits and open drains. PMID:27045990

  5. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  6. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  7. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  8. Application of Microbial Source Tracking in Non-point Fecal Pollution Source Tracking%微生物源示踪技术在非点源粪便污染源检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武虓; 张淼; 何秀丽; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of application of microbial source tracking by REP-PCR (repetitive extragenic palindromic consensus sequence-PCR) on non-point fecal pollution source tracking. Methods Cattle, chicken, dog and pig sources fecal pollution samples were collected, 30 for each source, from Xinghai GuK, Dalian. A total of 500 E.coli isolates were isolated and identified with improved biochemical methods. DNA finger prints were produced by REP-PCR and then analyzed. Results The DNA fingerprints of E.coli isolates showed a series of different bands between 0.2 kbp to 5 kbp,especially between 0.5 kbp to 2 kbp. The statistic results showed the ARCC (average rate of correct classification) reached 95.6%. Conclusion The research showed the application of microbial source tracking is of great value in non-point fecal pollution source tracking.%目的 探究以细菌基因组重复序列PCR技术(repetitive extragenic palindromic consensus sequence-PCR,REP-PCR)为手段的微生物源示踪技术对鉴别非点源污染中养殖动物粪便污染来源的应用价值.方法 采用针对大肠杆菌优化的分离与生化鉴定方法,从大连金州湾沿岸采集猪、牛、鸡、犬4种不同来源粪便样品各30份,以分离获得的大肠杆菌为实验材料,通过REP-PCR扩增电泳得到DNA指纹图谱,并对DNA指纹图谱进行聚类分析和判别分析.结果 不同来源的大肠杆菌DNA指纹图谱主要分布于0.2~5 kpb,其中在0.5~2 kbp间具有大量特异性条带.平均源示踪准确率(ARCC)达95.6%.结论 REP-PCR微生物源示踪技术在分析非点源污染中养殖动物粪便污染来源上具有应用价值.

  9. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer. PMID:26876684

  10. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  11. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...

  12. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.)

  13. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; R Godbout

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternati...

  14. Reactivation of chicken erythrocyte nuclei in heterokaryons results in expression of adult chicken globin genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, S.; Zuckerman, S H; Ringertz, N R

    1981-01-01

    Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte--rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins.

  15. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Relationship between Concentrations of Coprostanol and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Tropical (Mekong Delta) and Temperate (Tokyo) Freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Kei O.; Tarao, Mitsunori; Chiem, Nguyen H.; Minh, Le Y.; Takada, Hideshige

    2004-01-01

    A reliable assessment of microbial indicators of fecal pollution (total coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococcus) is critical in tropical environments. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between concentrations of indicator bacteria and a chemical indicator, coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol), in tropical and temperate regions. Water samples were collected from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, during wet and dry seasons, and from Tokyo, Japan, during summer, the aftermath of a typh...

  16. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani; Anna Rita Di Cerbo; Alessia Libera Gazzonis; Marco Genchi; Laura Rinaldi; Vincenzo Musella; Giuseppe Cringoli; Maria Teresa Manfredi

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS...

  17. Next Generation Sequencing of Fecal DNA Reveals the Dietary Diversity of the Widespread Insectivorous Predator Daubenton’s Bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Southwestern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas; Laine, Veronika N.; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding predator-prey dynamics is a fundamental task in the evaluation of the adaptive capacities of species. However, direct observations or morphological identification of fecal remains do not offer an effective way to study the dietary ecology of elusive species, such as nocturnal insectivorous bats. However, recent advances in molecular techniques have opened a new method for identifying prey species from fecal samples. In this study, we amplified species-specific mitochondrial COI ...

  18. Novel Insights in the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test for Monitoring Drug Efficacy against Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Large-Scale Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Levecke; Niko Speybroeck; Dobson, Robert J.; Jozef Vercruysse; Johannes Charlier

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is recommended to monitor drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in public health. However, the impact of factors inherent to study design (sample size and detection limit of the fecal egg count (FEC) method) and host-parasite interactions (mean baseline FEC and aggregation of FEC across host population) on the reliability of FECRT is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A simulation study was performed in w...

  19. Fecal metagenomics for the simultaneous assessment of diet, parasites, and population genetics of an understudied primate

    OpenAIRE

    Srivathsan, Amrita; Ang, Andie; Vogler, Alfried P; Meier, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid habitat loss and degradation are responsible for population decline in a growing number of species. Understanding the natural history of these species is important for designing conservation strategies, such as habitat enhancements or ex-situ conservation. The acquisition of observational data may be difficult for rare and declining species, but metagenomics and metabarcoding can provide novel kinds of information. Here we use these methods for analysing fecal samples from an...

  20. Distributional patterns of fecal indicator bacteria in spring area of Plitvice Lakes National park

    OpenAIRE

    Vurnek, Maja; Brozinčević, Andrijana; Briški, Felicita; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have widespread use as indicators of water quality and health hazards. The purpose of this study was to determine distributional patterns of FIB and to assess their origin on several sites in spring area and in vertical profile of Prošćansko Lake in Plitvice Lakes National Park. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from March to January 2013 on 9 sampling sites. Standard microbiological methods were used to determine densiti...

  1. The Fecal Microbiome in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea and Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jan S. Suchodolski; Melissa E Markel; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F.; Unterer, Stefan; Heilmann, Romy M.; Scot E Dowd; Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Minamoto, Yasushi; Dillman, Enricka M.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Toresson, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32), dogs wi...

  2. Fecal Protease Activity Is Associated with Compositional Alterations in the Intestinal Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Ian M.; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Ferrier, Laurent; Wu, Michael C.; Siddle, Jennica P.; Bueno, Lionel; Ringel, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intestinal proteases carry out a variety of functions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Studies have reported that elevated enteric proteases in patients with GI disease can alter intestinal physiology, however the origin (human vs. microbial) of elevated proteases in patients with GI disease is unclear. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between protease activity and the microbiota in human fecal samples. Design: In order to capture a wide range of fec...

  3. Resistance to Antibiotics of Clinical Relevance in the Fecal Microbiota of Mexican Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate; Dunn, Jacob C.; Jennifer M W Day; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    There are a growing number of reports of antibiotic resistance (ATBR) in bacteria living in wildlife. This is a cause for concern as ATBR in wildlife represents a potential public health threat. However, little is known about the factors that might determine the presence, abundance and dispersion of ATBR bacteria in wildlife. Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), tapir...

  4. Diet composition of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in western Poland: results of fecal analyses

    OpenAIRE

    GRACLIK, Agnieszka; Wasielewski, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    The diet of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) was investigated by analysis of 900 droppings taken from 8 different bat colonies in western Poland. Three taxonomic orders (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera) and representatives of 2 other groups of arthropods (Chilopoda: Lithobiidae and Arachnida: Araneae) were identified in the droppings. Coleoptera was the most abundant prey found in fecal samples in all seasons. Study sites differed significantly in the composition of prey, which p...

  5. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Li; Jingqiu Ma; Shanshan Geng; Junli Wang; Jinrong Liu; Jie Zhang; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chil...

  6. Effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on survival of fecal and other bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mccambridge, J; McMeekin, T A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on the survival of bacteria of fecal and plant origin was studied. The decline in the numbers of Escherichia coli cells in estuarine water samples was found to be significantly greater in the presence of both naturally occurring microbial predators and solar radiation than when each of these factors was acting independently. The effect of solar radiation on microbial predators was negligible, whereas the susceptibility of bacteria to...

  7. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Windey; Els Houben; Lise Deroover; Kristin Verbeke

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a 13C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characteri...

  8. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x104 to 5x107 per g. Coliforms were 8x101 to 3x104 per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation

  10. Analytical Method for Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Ivelina; Ivanov Galin; Shikov Vasil; Ivanova Snezhana

    2014-01-01

    : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420*) and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g). Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enable...

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and potential use of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone as a marker for irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and characterization of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone is described. Solvent extraction techniques for the isolation of this compound from irradiated minced chicken meat and its detection by selected ion monitoring are outlined. The compound was not detected in either raw or cooked nonirradiated minced chicken meat by the methods used, but its presence was confirmed in the irradiated samples. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was detectable for 20 days postirradiation. The dose (4.7 kGy) of irradiation applied was below the recommended upper limit for food (10 kGy), and this compound may have potential as a marker for irradiated chicken meat and for other foods containing lipid

  12. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x104 to 5x107 per g. Coliforms were 8x101 to 3x104 per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation. (author)

  13. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsham NE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natalie E Walsham,1 Roy A Sherwood2 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Lewisham, Lewisham, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Viapath at King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and irritable bowel syndrome share many symptoms. While irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder for which no specific treatment is available, the range of effective therapies for IBD is evolving rapidly. Accurate diagnosis of IBD is therefore essential. Clinical assessment, together with various imaging modalities and endoscopy, has been the mainstay of diagnosis for many years. Fecal biomarkers of gastrointestinal inflammation have appeared in the past decade, of which calprotectin, a neutrophil cytosolic protein, has been studied the most. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic remitting and relapsing diseases, and objective assessment of disease activity and response to treatment are important. This review focuses on the use of fecal calprotectin measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with IBD. Keywords: calprotectin, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation 

  14. Fecal Viral Load and Norovirus-associated Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin C W Chan; Sung, Joseph J Y; Lam, Rebecca K. Y.; Chan, Paul K.S.; Nelson L S Lee; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Leung, Wai K

    2006-01-01

    We report the median cDNA viral load of norovirus genogroup II is >100-fold higher than that of genogroup I in the fecal specimens of patients with norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. We speculate that increased cDNA viral load accounts for the higher transmissibility of genogroup II strains through the fecal-oral route.

  15. 21 CFR 866.5180 - Fecal calprotectin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fecal calprotectin immunological test system. 866.5180 Section 866.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5180 Fecal calprotectin immunological...

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of MR colonography with fecal tagging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Løgager, Vibeke Berg; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Eegholm, Bodil; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    >10 mm. CONCLUSION: MRC showed acceptable per-patient sensitivities, but the per-polyp sensitivities are still compromised by the fecal tagging. MRC may be implemented, but at the present time MRC with fecal tagging is not ready for widespread use, although it remains a very promising diagnostic tool....

  17. Karakteristik Genetik dan Fenotip Ayam Nunukan di Pulau Tarakan, Kalimantan Timur (THE PHENOTHYPIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF NUNUKAN CHICKEN OF TARAKAN ISLAND, EAST BORNEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is local chicken of Tarakan and Nunukan in East Borneo Province. It is a germplasmof East Kalimantan which have special characteristics. Due to its characteristic, the chicken extremelyneed to be conserved and develop. This study was conducted to find out more reliable data on thecharacteristics of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island. It was done by directly observed and measuredfenotype traits of nunukan chicken. Sample used was mature chicken, with the total tnumber 211 birds.Fenotype qualitative traits of nunukan chicken was florid brown of feather basic colour, columbian offeather colour theme, golden of feather flickering, and solid of feather pattern. The other special traits islittle growth (even not growth of wings and tail feather, and on immature chicken (age of 0-5 monthcommonly primary feather not growth. There was 13 fenotype quantitative traits on male, and two onfemale chicken was different between location (sub district on 20 traits. The number of nunukan chickenat Tarakan Island was about 940 birds, and 36,17% was mature chicken. The effective population totalwas 299 birds, highest effective population was in West Tarakan (162 birds and lowest was in MidleTarakan (46 birds. The average of inbreeding increased 0.177%, highest was in Midle Tarakan (1,08%and lowest was in West Tarakan (0,31. The population of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island was specificof the fenotype characteristic.

  18. Dose determination in irradiated chicken meat by ESR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the properties of the radicals produced in chicken bones have been investigated by ESR technique to determine the amount of dose applied to the chicken meats during the food irradiation. For this goal, the drumsticks from 6-8 weeks old chickens purchased from a local market were irradiated at dose levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 kGy. Then, the ESR spectra of the powder samples prepared from the bones of the drumsticks have been investigated. Unirradiated chicken bones have been observed to show a weak ESR signal of single line character. CO-2 ionic radicals of axial symmetry with g=1.9973 and g=2.0025 were observed to be produced in irradiated samples which would give rise to a three peaks ESR spectrum. In addition, the signal intensities of the samples were found to depend linearly on the irradiation dose in the dose range of 0-10 kGy. The powder samples prepared from chicken leg bones cleaned from their meats and marrow and irradiated at dose levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, B, 10, 12,14, 16, 1B, 20 and 22 kGy were used to get the dose-response curve. It was found that this curve has biphasic character and that the dose yield was higher in the 12-1B kGy dose range and a decrease appears in this curve over 18 kGy. The radical produced in the bones were found to be the same whether the irradiation was performed after stripping the meat and removing the marrow from the bone or before the stripping. The ESR spectra of both irradiated and non irradiated samples were investigated in the temperature range of 100 K-450 K and changes in the ESR spectra of CO-2 radical have been studied. For non irradiated samples (controls). the signal intensities were found to decrease when the temperature was increased. The same investigation has been carried out for irradiated samples and it was concluded that the signal intensities relative to the peaks of the radical spectrum increase in the temperature range of 100 K-330 K, then they decrease over 330 K. The change in the

  19. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Emma C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Christopher K

    2015-09-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens ( O157:H7, spp., and spp. [, and ]), water quality (turbidity, temperature, and ), and human and ruminant-cow and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based fecal source tracking (FST) markers in two source watersheds. Water samples ( = 329) were collected at 10 sites (five in each watershed) over 18 mo. The human marker (HF183) occurred in 9 to 10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant-cow markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mtDNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences ( pollution in both watersheds. PMID:26436273

  20. Serological Survey of the Avain Leukosis Virus Infection in China Native Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Deqing Li; Xuan Dong; Chengtai Ma; Zhizhong Cui; Peng Zhao

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the Avain leukosis virus infection status in China native chicken flocks, 2530 serum samples from 26 kinds of China native chickens were collected and detected using the Avian Leukosis Virus Antibody Test kit (ALV-A/B) and Avian Leukosis Virus Antibody Test kit-Subgroup J (ALV-J). The results showed that among 2530 sera samples 118 samples were positive for ALV-A/B, 332 samples were positive for ALV-J and 35 samples were positive for both ALV-A/B and ALV-J. The positive rate fo...

  1. Researching the detection of irradiated fresh chicken by lipid hydroperoxide (LHP) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of feasibility on detecting irradiated fresh chicken has been carried out by LHP method. The peroxide content, autoxidation and susceptibility to γ-radiation for fat of various location of chicken have been studied. It has been found that there are the effects of absorbed dose and temperature on irradiation peroxidation. When chicken was irradiated with the dose of 2 kGy, peroxide concentration produced by irradiation in tail fat is 3 x 10-3 mol kg-1 (fat) for the samples with 20 degree C and ∼2 x 10-3 mol kg-1(fat) for the samples with initial temperature of -18 degree C, respectively, which are about 7 and 5 times greater than background value (4.3 +- 1.7) x 10-4 mol kg-1 (fat). Therefore, the LHP method could be used to identify chicken irradiated under the condition of air

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis infection in young broiler chickens from breeding farm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available old from a breeding farm not far from Bogor. Samples were examined pathologic anatomically (PA and bacteriologically to isolate the causative agents . The sensitivity of the main causative agents isolated from the samples was tested with some drugs, while its pathogenicity was tested in 3 days old chickens intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally and orally, three chickens per inoculations . Exudative and caseous omphalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, sirsacculitis, and coxofemoral and knee joints were observed in PA examinations, while on bacteriological examination the main cusative agent, ie. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated successfully . Drug sensitivity test showed that the pathogen was sensitive to chloramphenicol, baytril, gentamisin, and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, and resistant to erythromycin, colistin, streptomycin and kanamycin . On the other hand, pathogenicity test of the isolate showed that all but two chickens which were inoculated orally, were died 24 hours post-inoculation . It was concluded that young broiler chickens of the farm were infected by Salmonella Enteritidis.

  3. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Methods Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM, and their sum (total estrogens were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences, high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. Results In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003. These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57−0.70, P=0.03−0.002. Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with

  4. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas. PMID:23502854

  5. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence

  6. Assessment of Tetracycline, Lead and Cadmium Residues in Frozen Chicken Vended in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belleh Efie Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the levels of tetracycline and heavy metals (lead and cadmium levels in frozen chicken. One hundred frozen chicken muscle samples were sourced from major markets in Lagos and Ibadan (fifty samples each. The samples were analyzed using High Power Liquid Chromatography (HPLC for tetracycline residue determination while Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was used to determine the levels of lead and cadmium residues in the samples. Mean concentrations of tetracycline residue levels in the frozen chicken sampled ranged from 1.1589-1.0463ppm which is higher than the maximum residue limit set by international food safety agencies. Pb contents were higher in chicken muscles sampled from markets in Ibadan (0.0227±0.0069 μg dL-1 than Lagos (0.0207±0.0082 μg dL-1, while Cd levels were 0.0013 μg dL-1 higher than in the Lagos samples (0.0065±0.0026 μg dL-1. These values were within maximum residue limits. There were no significant differences (p<0.05 in levels of tetracycline, lead and cadmium levels from the two market locations (Lagos and Ibadan and parts (wings and thigh muscles. However, significant differences occurred in tetracycline and Pb levels in frozen chicken sourced from Cotonou. Though not significant, tetracycline contents in the thigh muscles of the frozen chicken samples was higher than that of the wings muscles and this was attributed to the site of administration of antibiotic injection and failure to observe the pre-slaughter withdrawal period by the farmers. This study is of public health importance as the presence of these residues above the maximum residue limit in frozen chicken predisposes consumers to drug resistance, allergic reactions and poisoning as a result of toxicity.

  7. Evaluation of different storage methods to characterize the fecal bacterial communities of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, K.; Mrázek, Jakub; Kopečný, Jan; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2012), s. 45-51. ISSN 0167-7012 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : storage methods * bacterial DNA * fecal sample Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2012

  8. Modification of the standard most-probable-number procedure for fecal coliform bacteria in seawater and shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, F.

    1981-01-01

    To determine whether or not presumptive tubes which take 48 h to become positive need to be transferred to EC medium during the fecal coliform multitube most-probable-number procedure, 572 seawater and shellfish samples were considered. When the 24-hour positive tubes alone were transferred to EC, it appeared that incorrect dilution data would be rare.

  9. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  10. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... chlorhexidine diacetate salt hydrate (1%). The most effective compounds were cetylpyridinium chloride (0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride (1%) (>4.2 log). However, when these treated samples were stored for 24 h at 5°C, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, and grapefruit seed extract were less...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  11. Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Araghi; Saeed Seifi; Reza Sayrafi; Parisa Sadighara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model. Materials and Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated.  Results: The chang...

  12. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Japheth A Opintan; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produc...

  13. DEMAND FOR QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY IN BEEF, CHICKEN AND FISH CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundari, Kolawole

    2012-01-01

    This study examines income elasticity of demand for quantity and quality beef, chicken, and fish in Nigeria. The analysis is based on randomly selected 134 households in Ondo state. The empirical results show that income elasticity of demand for beef, chicken, and fish are inelastic. This suggests that these food items are considered necessities among households in the sample. The computed income elasticity of demand for quality was found to be positive for all food items. The implication of ...

  14. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulekhani Sedwell Khanyile

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterised and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population’s genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n =146, Malawi (n =30 and Zimbabwe (n =136 were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29-0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK and 0.24 (VD at SNP marker interval of 500kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population

  15. Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques. Results: An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52 was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02, female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60, exotic birds 42.4% (37.83- 46.97, and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12. Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37, intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39, and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98. The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling locations, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (0.05 of infection rates was observed in sex. Conclusion: Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry farmers on the need for

  16. Resistance to gentamicin and vancomycin in enterococcal strains isolated from retail broiler chickens in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Mito, Yasuaki; Otsuki, Koichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2004-10-01

    A total of 137 Enterococcus strains isolated from chicken meat were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Strains with the vanCl gene were isolated from seven of nine samples of chicken meat processed in Japan and from all chickens from China and Brazil between July 2001 and April 2002. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were distinguishable from each other, suggesting that VanCl-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus is preferentially colonized in broiler chickens in these countries. The incidence of high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci that harbored the aac(6')-le-aph(2")-la or aph(2')-Id gene varied among the countries from which the chickens originated (Japan, 2 of 65; China, 11 of 43; Brazil, 6 of 29). Moreover, the PFGE patterns of the HLGR strains were distinguishable from each other, except for two strains obtained from chickens from Brazil. The results suggest that HLGR Enterococcus is highly prevalent in broiler chickens. PMID:15508646

  17. Effect of packaging material on the quality of irradiated chicken feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of packaging material on the quality of irradiated chicken feed. The study was carried out to determine the proper packaging materials to maintain the keeping quality of irradiated chicken feed. Four kinds of packaging materials, namely laminated woven plastic bag, polyethylene film of 0,085 mm thick, laminated cement paper, and plain cement paper were made into puches with size of 15 x 25 cm, filled with 0.5 kg chicken feed and then irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 10 kGy. Samples were kept in ambient temperatures and the examinations were carried out every 2 months from 0 to 6 months of storage on the chemical changes and microbial content. Parameters examined were moisture content, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total microbial count, mould and yeast count, enterobacteraceae, coliformbacteria, and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial spores. The results showed that the four packaging material were able to protect the chicken feed from gaining or loosing moisture, but the TBA values of chicken feed in plain cement paper pouches were lower than those in the three other packaging materials. The four kinds of packaging materials used did not give any meaningful effect on the microbial content of chicken feed, and were able to protect the chicken feed from recontamination during storage. 8 refs

  18. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  19. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.

  20. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  1. Complex study of the physiological role of cadmium. III. Cadmium loading trials on broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori, J; Fekete, S; Kádár, I; Koncz, J; Vetési, F; Albert, M

    1995-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) loading trials were conducted on a total of 110 (3 x 10 and 4 x 20) broiler chickens prereared for 21 days. The control chickens received no cadmium, while chickens in the six treatment groups were given different doses of Cd as an aqueous solution of CdSO4 administered either into the crop or mixed in the feed. The chickens were kept in a climatized animal house and treated usually for 3-5 weeks (maximum 68 days), with the exception of group Cd-75 chickens which were treated up to 239 days of age. The chickens' health status, body mass and feed consumption were monitored throughout the trial. On days 14-20 and on day 42 of the trial 2 chickens per group, then at the end of trial a total of 25 chickens were killed in anaesthesia. These birds, together with chickens that died or were killed during the trial, were subjected to detailed gross pathological examination. From 11 organs (kidney, liver, spleen, testicle, brain, myocardium, skeletal muscle, lungs, digestive tract, pancreas, tubular bones) of these chickens samples were taken for assay for a total of 16 elements, as well as for light and electron microscopic examination. With the exception of groups Cd-30 and Cd-600, no abnormal clinical signs were observed in the first two weeks of the trial. Chickens of group Cd-30 died before day 8-12 of the trial among signs of complete anorexia, rapid emaciation, huddling and diarrhoea, while chickens of group Cd-600 died before day 28, showing similar clinical signs. The body mass of chickens fed a Cd-supplemented diet either remained constant or decreased substantially, in a degree proportional to the Cd load. The only exception was group Cd-2.5, in which the average body mass of birds at the end of week 8 slightly exceeded that of the controls. Four out of the 10 cockerel chicks fed a diet containing 75 ppm Cd up to 239 days of age died of intercurrent diseases; the remaining six grew well and reached a body mass of 3.8-4.3 kg. Feed conversion efficiency

  2. Development, Evaluation, and Application of Lateral-Flow Immunoassay (Immunochromatography) for Detection of Rotavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples†

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Yousif, Yousif; Anderson, Joe; Chard-Bergstrom, Cindy; Kapil, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay (LFT) was developed to detect bovine rotavirus in fecal samples. Using samples (n = 74) from diarrheic calves, a comparison of the LFT with a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) and transmission electron microscopy (EM) was conducted. When EM was used as the reference method, initial studies of 29 samples indicated 70 and 80% sensitivities of the LFT and LAT, respectively, with both being 100% specific. When the LAT was the reference test, the LFT was 75% sens...

  3. Fecal Calprotectin Measured By Patients at Home Using Smartphones--A New Clinical Tool in Monitoring Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Kristoffer Kofod; Elsberg, Henriette; Thorkilgaard, Tine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin is a reliable noninvasive marker for intestinal inflammation usable for monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Tests are usually performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which is time consuming and delays results, thus limiting its use in...... clinical practice. Our aim was to evaluate CalproSmart, a new rapid test for fecal calprotectin performed by patients themselves at home, and compare it to gold standard ELISA. METHODS: A total of 221 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (115 ulcerative colitis and 106 Crohn's disease) were included...... using CalproSmart at home, patients also sent in 2 fecal samples to be analyzed by ELISA. RESULTS: Totally, 894 fecal calprotectin results were obtained by ELISA, and 632 of them from CalproSmart. The correlation coefficient was 0.685, higher for academics than nonacademics (0.768 versus 0.637; P = 0...

  4. Biochemical and developmental characterization of carbonic anhydrase II from chicken erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orito Kensuke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA of the chicken has attracted attention for a long time because it has an important role in the eggshell formation. The developmental profile of CA-II isozyme levels in chicken erythrocytes has not been determined or reported. Furthermore, the relations with CA-II in erythrocyte and egg production are not discussed. In the present study, we isolated CA-II from erythrocytes of chickens and determined age-related changes of CA-II levels in erythrocytes. Methods Chicken CA-II was purified by a combination of column chromatography. The levels of CA-II in the hemolysate of the chicken were determined using the ELISA system in blood samples from 279 female chickens, ages 1 to 93 weeks, 69 male chickens, ages 3 to 59 weeks and 52 weeks female Araucana-chickens. Results The mean concentration of CA-II in hemolysate from 1-week-old female was 50.8 ± 11.9 mg/g of Hb. The mean levels of CA-II in 25-week-old (188.1 ± 82.6 mg/g of Hb, 31-week-old (193.6 ± 69.7 mg/g of Hb and 49-week-old (203.8 ± 123.5 mg/g of Hb female-chickens showed the highest level of CA-II. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chickens significantly decreased at 63 week (139.0 ± 19.3 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chicken did not change from week 63 until week 93.The mean level of CA-II in hemolysate of 3-week-old male WL-chickens was 78.3 ± 20.7 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in male WL-chickens did not show changes in the week 3 to week 59 timeframe. The mean level of CA-II in 53-week-old female Araucana-chickens was 23.4 ± 1.78 mg/g of Hb. These levels of CA-II were about 11% of those of 49-week-old female WL-chickens. Simple linear regression analysis showed significant associations between the level of CA-II and egg laying rate from 16 week-old at 63 week-old WL-chicken (p Conclusions Developmental changes and sexual differences of CA-II concentration in WL-chicken erythrocytes were observed. The concentration of CA-II in

  5. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  6. Improving the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological processes for the reduction of microorganisms in food, It can be used to improve the safety of food products, and to extend their shelf lives. The aim of this study was to improve the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing. As part of the study a microbial assessment of broiler chicken thighs from three retail outlets (supermarket, local markets and farms) was conducted. The total viable count and total coliform counts were determined. Hygienic quality indicator organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and microbial counts made. Radiation sensitivity test to determine the D10 (decimal reduction does) of E. coli on chicken at refrigeration and frozen temperature were conducted. D10 values were 0.22 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.03 kGy at refrigerated and frozen temperatures respectively. A storage test consisting of an uninoculated pack experiment and a challenge test to explore the effect of irradiation and frozen food storage on the total viable count and survival of E. coli was conducted. Chicken thigh samples were treated with 0 (non irradiated), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy of gamma irradiation and held frozen for 56 days. The control and irradiated samples were stored at -18 oC and underwent microbial analysis and sensory evaluation at 7 days intervals. It was observed that irradiation and frozen storage reduced microbial loads. There were significant differences in sensory quality characteristics during freezing storage in chicken meat. The combination of irradiation and frozen storage resulted in greater overall reductions on microbial loads thus improving hygienic quality. (au)

  7. Effect of packaging on physicochemical characteristics of irradiated pre-processed chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effect of modified atmosphere packaging and antioxidants on the physicochemical characteristics of irradiated pre-processed chicken, the pre-processed chicken was added antioxidants first, and then packaged in common, vacuum and gas respectively, and finally irradiated at 5 kGy dosage. All samples was stored at 4 ℃. The pH, TBA, TVB-N and color deviation were evaluated after 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21 d of storage. The results showed that pH value of pre-processed chicken with antioxidants and vacuum packaged increased with the storage time but not significantly among different treatments. The TBA value was also increased but not significantly (P > 0.05), which indicated that vacuum package inhibited the lipid oxidation. TVB-N value increased with storage time, TVB-N value of vacuum package samples reached 14.29 mg/100 g at 21 d storage, which did not exceeded the reference indexes of fresh meat. a * value of the pre-processed chicken of vacuum package and non-oxygen package samples increased significantly during storage (P > 0.05), and chicken color kept bright red after 21 d storage with vacuum package It is concluded that vacuum packaging of irradiated pre-processed chicken is effective on ensuring its physical and chemical properties during storage. (authors)

  8. Assessment of microbial contamination of chicken products sold in Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindhe S.N

    Full Text Available Three restaurants were randomly selected in Parbhani city for the purchase of chicken products which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the chicken curry samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count :1.1- 1.47 x 106 cfu/g ; Enterobacteriaceae count: 1.57- 2.17 x 106 cfu/g ; lactic acid bacteria count(LAB count :1.70 - 2.33 x 106 cfu/g. With respect to the sample of Tandoori chicken, the total aerobic count ranged from 3.54 x 106 cfu/g; S. aureus count: 1.8 x105- 2 x 107; Enterobacteriaceae count: 5.09 x 108 cfu/g; LAB count :1.3 -4.6 x 108 cfu/g. Probable organisms isolated from chicken curry were E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Lactobacillus sp., and S. aureus while those organisms isolated from Tandoori chicken include Salmonella, Proteus, Shigella, S. aureus, Klebsiella and Lactobacillus sp. Most of the chicken products sampled were therefore considered to pose health risk to consumers, making it imperative to institute not only sanitary measures during processing, storage and marketing but also to ensure steady source of power supply. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 208-210

  9. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when testing should be done do not exist. Clinicians must weigh the risk, benefit, and burden of testing against the need for empiric treatment. All types of FI are initially managed in the same way, which includes lifestyle modification to reduce bowel derangements, improved access to toileting, and initiation of a bulking regimen to improve stool consistency. If initial conservative management fails, pharmaco-logic agents, biofeedback, or surgery may be indicated. PMID:23935551

  10. Fecal immunochemical test as a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases: can it rival fecal calprotectin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jun; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Nakarai, Asuka; Takashima, Shiho; Inokuchi, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of disease activity is essential for choosing an appropriate treatment and follow-up plan for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy is required for accurately evaluating disease activity, but the procedures are sometimes invasive and burdensome to patients. Therefore, alternative non-invasive methods for evaluating or predicting disease activity including mucosal status are desirable. Fecal calprotectin (Fcal) is the most widely used fecal marker for IBD, and many articles have described the performance of the marker in predicting disease activity, mucosal healing (MH), treatment efficacy, and risk of relapse. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) can quantify the concentration of hemoglobin in stool and was originally used for the screening of colorectal cancer. We recently reported that FIT is also a useful biomarker for IBD. A direct comparison between the use of Fcal and FIT showed that both methods predicted MH in ulcerative colitis equally well. However, in the case of Crohn's disease, FIT was less sensitive to lesions in the small intestine, compared to Fcal. FIT holds several advantages over Fcal in regards to user-friendliness, including a lower cost, easy and clean handling, and the ability to make rapid measurements by using an automated measurement system. However, there is insufficient data to support the application of FIT in IBD. Further studies into the use of FIT for evaluating the inflammatory status of IBD are warranted. PMID:26884729

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of chicken kabab and sausage; as prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken kabab and sausage were treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation in a 60CO package irradiator. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 degree centigrade). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab and sausage were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months of storage. Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the chicken kabab and sausage were also investigated, but only immediately after treatment. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab and sausage (moisture, protein and fats). Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab and sausage. The dose needed to decrease by 1 log cfu/g (D10 value) of Salmonella spp and E coli. numbers were 213 and 400 Gy in chicken kabab, while 345 and 250 Gy in chicken sausage, respectively. The chemical parameters, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 5 months for chicken kabab and sausage treated with 4 and 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  12. Studies On Quality Criteria For Irradiated Breaded Chicken Breast Fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality criteria of irradiated breaded chicken breast fillets were studied. Fresh boneless and skinless breaded chicken breast meats samples were divided into four separate batches and packed in plastic bags and sealed by an impulse sealer. Samples in plastic bags were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5 and 7 kGy) at ambient temperature. Just after irradiation, the samples were stored at 4 ±10C. All samples were evaluated for microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. During storage, the total bacterial count was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all samples with higher rates of increase in non-irradiated samples. In all irradiated samples, Staphylococcus aureus did not detected up to 6 days then detected after 22 days in samples treated with 2.5 kGy as well as 31 days in samples treated with 5 kGy. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was detected after 45 days in samples treated with 7 kGy. Salmonella sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni could not detected in untreated and treated samples. The protein content showed significant decrease immediately after irradiation and during the refrigerated storage. The TVN values for non-irradiated samples were significantly higher (P<0.05) than irradiated samples. The present data showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in protein solubility percentages of irradiated samples at day 0 and 6 of refrigerated storage. The observed decrease was related to the increase of radiation dose. At the end of storage period (62 days), 2.5 kGy samples were significantly higher in TBA values than other irradiated samples. On the other hand, irradiation was significantly reduced (P<0.05) the amount of major mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Sensory attributes of breaded chicken breast fillets did not affected by irradiation. It could be concluded that irradiation dose of 5 kGy can be used in chicken samples stored in

  13. Fecal bacterial microbiome diversity in chronic HIV-infected patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Yingfei; Lin, Ping; Tang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Liying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Renfan; Liu, Li; Cheng, Jun; Shao, Jiashen; Qi, Tangkai; Tang, Yan; Cai, Rentian; Guan, Liqian; Luo, Bin; Sun, Meiyan; Li, Ben; Pei, Zhiheng; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify fecal bacterial microbiome changes in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (454 pyrosequencing), and clustered into operational taxonomic units using the QIIME software. Relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were calculated. Alpha diversity was determined by Chao 1 and observed-species indices, and beta diversity was determined by double principal component analysis using the estimated phylogeny-based unweighted Unifrac distance matrices. Fecal samples of the patients with chronic HIV-infection tended to be enriched with bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes (47.20%±0.43 relative abundance) and Proteobacteria (37.21%±0.36) compared with those of the non-HIV infected controls (17.95%±0.06 and 3.81%±0.02, respectively). Members of the genus Bilophila were exclusively detected in samples of the non-HIV infected controls. Bacteroides and arabacteroides were more abundant in the chronic HIV-infected patients. Our study indicated that chronic HIV-infected patients in China have a fecal bacterial microbiome composition that is largely different from that found in non-HIV infected controls, and further study is needed to evaluate whether microbiome changes play a role in disease complications in the distal gut, including opportunistic infections. PMID:27048741

  14. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-09-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  15. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonghoon Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra, microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS and the microcystin-producing (mcyA gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01, suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001, which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05, possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid.

  16. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Brittany E.; Lawrence, Laurie M.; Hayes, Susan H.; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota. PMID:27128793

  17. A novel microbial source tracking microarray for pathogen detection and fecal source identification in environmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Staley, Christopher; Sadowsky, Michael J; Weidhaas, Jennifer

    2015-06-16

    Pathogen detection and the identification of fecal contamination sources are challenging in environmental waters. Factors including pathogen diversity and ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria hamper risk assessment and remediation of contamination sources. A custom microarray targeting pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa), microbial source tracking (MST) markers, and antibiotic resistance genes was tested against DNA obtained from whole genome amplification (WGA) of RNA and DNA from sewage and animal (avian, cattle, poultry, and swine) feces. Perfect and mismatch probes established the specificity of the microarray in sewage, and fluorescence decrease of positive probes over a 1:10 dilution series demonstrated semiquantitative measurement. Pathogens, including norovirus, Campylobacter fetus, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enterica, and Giardia lamblia were detected in sewage, as well as MST markers and resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Sensitivity (percentage true positives) of MST results in sewage and animal waste samples (21-33%) was lower than specificity (83-90%, percentage of true negatives). Next generation DNA sequencing revealed two dominant bacterial families that were common to all sample types: Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Five dominant phyla and 15 dominant families comprised 97% and 74%, respectively, of sequences from all fecal sources. Phyla and families not represented on the microarray are possible candidates for inclusion in subsequent array designs. PMID:25970344

  18. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  19. Killer cells in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)

  20. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  1. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  2. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS Seventy three eligible subjects underwent ileocolonoscopy and multiple biopsies were obtained from different parts of the colon and terminal ileum. All patients underwent blood and stool sampling as well as an interview to assess the disease severity utilizing ulcerative colitis activity index (UCAI), subjectively. The diagnostic value of the FC in comparison with Mayo disease activity index as the gold standard technique, was then evaluated. RESULTS Mean FC level increased linearly according to Mayo disease activity index (r=0.44, p 21.4 ng/ml was able to discriminate between active and inactive phases of UC according to Mayo disease activity index>2 with 72.3% sensitivity and 73.1% specificity. The combination of FC > 21.4 ng/ml and UCAI score of 7 had a 46.8% sensitivity and 88% specificity to diagnose Mayo disease activity index >2. Furthermore, FC level 2. PMID:24829673

  3. One-Year Plasma N-linked Glycome Intra-individual and Inter-individual Variability in the Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, R. Brent; Bereman, Michael S.; Petitte, James N.; Hawkridge, Adam M.; Muddiman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the chicken presents a similar pathogenesis compared with humans including CA-125 expression and genetic mutational frequencies (e.g., p53). The high prevalence of spontaneous EOC chickens also provides a unique experimental model for biomarker discovery at the genomic, proteomic, glycomic, and metabolomic level. In an effort to exploit this unique model for biomarker discovery, longitudinal plasma samples were collected from chickens at three mo...

  4. Fecal bacterial community changes associated with isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women after soy bar consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Nakatsu

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine fecal bacterial community changes in 17 postmenopausal women after a week of diet supplementation with soy bars containing isoflavones, and to determine correlations between microbial community changes and excreted isoflavone metabolites. Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03 before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. However, between subjects comparisons showed high inter-individual variation that resulted in clustering of profiles by subjects. Urinary excretion of isoflavone (daidzein metabolites indicated four subjects were equol producers and all subjects produced O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA. Comparison of relative proportions of 16S rRNA genes from 454 pyrosequencing of the last fecal samples of each treatment session revealed significant increases in average proportions of Bifidobacterium after soy consumption, and Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were significantly greater in equol vs non-S-(-equol producers. This is the first in vivo study using pyrosequencing to characterize significant differences in fecal community structure and composition in postmenopausal women after a week of soy diet-supplementation, and relate these changes to differences in soy isoflavones and isoflavone metabolites.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00244907.

  5. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  6. Comparison of the Prevalence of Microbial Contamination in Packed and Unpacked Redmeat and Chicken Meat at Retail Outlets and Department Stores in Southern Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kamkar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Despite advances in disease prevention and food materials technology, food – borne diseases are still a major problem in both developed and developing countries. Morever, meat plays a key role in transfer of bacteria, especially “Zoonotic” to humans. Therefore, we decided to investigate the outbreak of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella,Campylobacter, Yersinia and Aeromonas in red meat and chicken offered as packed and unpacked in areas under the authority of Tehran university of medical sciences . Methods: 630 samples including 315 raw chicken meat and 315 raw red meat samples were collected and tested for a period of one year from July, 2004 to August,2005. Samples were collected from shops selling packed meat and chicken as well as shops selling unpacked meat and chicken in different parts of the south of Tehran The methods used for the laboratory investigation were based on Iranian National Standard Procedure No. 2394. Results: Of the 630 samples of chicken and meat, 183 samples (29 % were contaminated. 49.2 percent of the contaminated samples were chicken meat and 8.9 percent were red meat. From the total, 71 samples were contaminated with salmonella (11.3 %, 68 samples with Campylobacter (10.8 %, 26 samples with Yersinia entrocolitica (4.1 % and 18 samples with Aeromonas (2.9 %. In red meat samples, microbial contamination was observed in 4.9 % of packed and 10.3 percent of unpacked samples. Contamination rate of chicken samples was higher including 59.3 % of packed and 45.7 % of unpacked chicken samples. The observed difference between the remitting samples of packed and unpacked chicken was statistically significant. (P 0.05

  7. Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV. PMID:27298822

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403 was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.

  9. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  10. Determination of Cr and Cd concentration adsorbed by chicken feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results of the samples analysis of chicken feathers are presented, used as adsorber of the heavy metals Cd and Cr present in water solutions with well-known concentrations of these metals. It was used the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (AAN), using the TRIGA Mark-III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The obtained results they show the advantages of having a versatile installation for the analysis of this type of samples. By means of the analysis of the results, it was determined the feasibility of using chicken feathers like adsorber of these metals present in polluted waters, additionally, it was detected the presence of others polluting elements in the inputs to prepare the reference solutions as well as in the processes, so much of preparation of the feathers like of the metals adsorption. (Author)

  11. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  12. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload. PMID:17190684

  13. Use of gamma irradiation for improving the hygienic quality of chilled chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh, chilled chicken carcasses were irradiated at 2.5 kGy and stored at 40 degree C. At intervals samples were withdrawn for microbial, chemical and sensory evaluation. Result showed that combination of a 2.5 kGy irradiation dose and storage at 4 degree C were adequate for a radicidised chicken process. Immediately after irradiation, the microbial spoilage was reduced by at least 4 log cycles. The carcasses were qf excellent quality for at least 16 days of storage and were free from Salmonella and other food pathogens. Changes in chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and amino acids) and sensory quality of chicken carcasses irradiated at 2.5 kGy were not significant. Therefore the dose of 2.5 kGy should be the target for chilled chicken irradiation process

  14. Up-grading the quality of chilled chicken by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh, chilled chicken carcasses were irradiated at 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 deg C. At intervals samples were withdrawn for microbial, chemical and sensory evaluation. Results showed that combination of a 2.5 kGy irradiation dose and storage at 4 deg C were adequate for a radicidised chicken process. Immediately after irradiation, the microbial spoilage was reduced by at least 4 log cycles. The carcasses were of excelllent quality for at least 16 days of storage and were free from Salmonella and other food pathogenes. Changes in chemical composition ( moisture, fat, protein, ash and amino acids) and sensory quality of chicken carcasses irradiated at 2.5 kGy were not significant. Therefore the dose of 2.5 kGy should be the target for chilled chicken irradiation process

  15. Irradiation control of pathogenic bacteria and their growth during storage time in cooled chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of pathogenic bacteria during storage time and their D10 values by irradiation in cooled chicken were evaluated. The total numbers of colony, E.coli 10003, Campylobacter jejuni33560 and CY04 of the D10 values were 1.434 kGy, 0.408 kGy, 0.175 kGy, 0.2 kGy respectively in cooled chicken. The results show that total bacteria count in vacuum packaged cooled chicken sample is 5.66 lg(CFU/g) and 4.90 lg (CFU/g) after 3 kGy and 5 kGy irradiation. And in storage at 0∼4 degree C the storage shelf-life of irradiated vacuum packaged cooled chicken could extend to 21 d and 28 d. It can be deduced that pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by irradiation. (authors)

  16. Vitamin E Contents and Oxidative Stability of Red Palm Oils Blended Chicken Nuggets during Frozen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red Palm Oil (RPO) has a high oxidative stability and contains high levels of natural antioxidants, such as vitamin E and carotenoids. In this study, Vitamin E contents and lipid oxidation of chicken nuggets blended with red palm oil consist of NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 were compared against the control chicken fat treatment, each containing 10 % fat. Vitamin E contents, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide values (PV) for all samples were measured throughout 4 months of storage at -18 degree Celsius. All the vitamin E homologues were decreased. α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol decreased faster meanwhile δ-tocopherol decreased slower than other homologues. Besides that, Vitamin E content in NVRO and NVRO-100 was significantly decreased (p<0.05) from 767.15 to 482.14 μg/ g and 842.73 to 672.36 μg/ g respectively. TBA and PV values for all samples chicken nuggets increased throughout 3 months of frozen storage but started to decrease thereafter. However, chicken nuggets formulated with NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 significantly reduced (p<0.05) TBA and PV values compared with chicken fat treatments. This study showed that frozen storage influence vitamin E stability and the potential of utilization of red palm oils in improving nutritional quality and reducing lipid oxidation of chicken nugget. (author)

  17. Genetic Diversity of Gallibacterium anatis Isolates from Different Chicken Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bojesen, Anders Miki; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, Henrik; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Bisgaard, Magne

    2003-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to characterize the genotypic diversity of a total of 114 Gallibacterium anatis isolates originating from a reference collection representing 15 biovars from four countries and isolates obtained from tracheal and cloacal swab samples of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were char...

  18. Evaluation of different storage methods to characterize the fecal bacterial communities of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Klára; Mrázek, Jakub; Kopečný, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J

    2012-10-01

    Freezing is considered to be the best method for long-term storage of bacterial DNA from feces; however this method cannot be usually applied for samples of wild primates collected in the challenging conditions of the tropical forest. In order to find an alternative conservation method of fecal samples from wild great apes, we compared freezing with other fixation methods. Fecal samples from 11 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from three Czech Zoos were stored using freezing, RNA Stabilization Reagent (RNAlater), and 96% ethanol. Subsequently, the samples were examined using culture-independent methods (PCR-DGGE, and Real-time PCR) to qualitatively and quantitatively assess fecal microbiota composition and to compare differences among the storage methods. Noticeably, freezing samples resulted in the highest recoveries of DNA. No significant differences in DNA recovery were found between freezing and using RNAlater; however, significantly lower DNA concentrations were recovered from samples stored in 96% ethanol. Using PCR-DGGE we found that either 96% ethanol, RNAlater or freezing were suitable for preserving bacterial DNA; however fingerprints obtained from RNAlater storage were more similar to those obtained from the frozen method; in comparison to the patterns resulting from storing samples in ethanol. Using qPCR, frozen samples yielded the highest values of bacterial counts, with the exception of Enterobacteriaceae, which showed the highest numbers using samples stored in ethanol. Sequences of amplicons obtained from PCR-DGGE belonged to the families Clostridiaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Staphylococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, phylum Firmicutes; however most amplicons showed sequence similarity to previously uncultured microorganisms. Bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were the most frequently identified species in the fecal bacterial communities of captive western gorillas. The study showed that RNAlater is an optimal storage method when

  19. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  20. Clostridial necrotic enteritis in chicken associated with growth rate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.