WorldWideScience

Sample records for chicken embryo manipulations

  1. In ovo gene manipulation of melanocytes and their adjacent keratinocytes during skin pigmentation of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Hidetaka; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Sakai, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-04-01

    During skin pigmentation in avians and mammalians, melanin is synthesized in the melanocytes, and subsequently transferred to adjacently located keratinocytes, leading to a wide coverage of the body surface by melanin-containing cells. The behavior of melanocytes is influenced by keratinocytes shown mostly by in vitro studies. However, it has poorly been investigated how such intercellular cross-talk is regulated in vivo because of a lack of suitable experimental models. Using chicken embryos, we developed a method that enables in vivo gene manipulations of melanocytes and keratinocytes, where these cells are separately labeled by different genes. Two types of gene transfer techniques were combined: one was a retrovirus-mediated gene infection into the skin/keratinocytes, and the other was the in ovo DNA electroporation into neural crest cells, the origin of melanocytes. Since the Replication-Competent Avian sarcoma-leukosis virus long terminal repeat with Splice acceptor (RCAS) infection was available only for the White leghorn strain showing little pigmentation, melanocytes prepared from the Hypeco nera (pigmented) were back-transplanted into embryos of White leghorn. Prior to the transplantation, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)(+) Neo(r+) -electroporated melanocytes from Hypeco nera were selectively grown in G418-supplemented medium. In the skin of recipient White leghorn embryos infected with RCAS-mOrange, mOrange(+) keratinocytes and transplanted EGFP(+) melanocytes were frequently juxtaposed each other. High-resolution confocal microscopy also revealed that transplanted melanocytes exhibited normal behaviors regarding distribution patterns of melanocytes, dendrite morphology, and melanosome transfer. The method described in this study will serve as a useful tool to understand the mechanisms underlying intercellular regulations during skin pigmentation in vivo. PMID:25739909

  2. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality

    OpenAIRE

    Loyau, Thomas; Berri, Cecile; Bedrani, Larbi; Metayer-Coustard, Sonia; Praud, Christophe; Duclos, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; RIDEAU, Nicole; Everaert, N.; Yahav, S.; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8 degrees C, 5...

  3. Gene transfer into older chicken embryos by ex ovo electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiankai; Yan, Xin; Lin, Juntang; Rolfs, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The chicken embryo provides an excellent model system for studying gene function and regulation during embryonic development. In ovo electroporation is a powerful method to over-express exogenous genes or down-regulate endogenous genes in vivo in chicken embryos(1). Different structures such as DNA plasmids encoding genes(2-4), small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmids(5), small synthetic RNA oligos(6), and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides(7) can be easily transfected into chicken embryos by electroporation. However, the application of in ovo electroporation is limited to embryos at early incubation stages (younger than stage HH20--according to Hamburg and Hamilton)(8) and there are some disadvantages for its application in embryos at later stages (older than stage HH22--approximately 3.5 days of development). For example, the vitelline membrane at later stages is usually stuck to the shall membrane and opening a window in the shell causes rupture of the vessels, resulting in death of the embryos; older embryos are covered by vitelline and allantoic vessels, where it is difficult to access and manipulate the embryos; older embryos move vigorously and is difficult to control the orientation through a relatively small window in the shell. In this protocol we demonstrate an ex ovo electroporation method for gene transfer into chicken embryos at late stages (older than stage HH22). For ex ovo electroporation, embryos are cultured in Petri dishes(9) and the vitelline and allantoic vessels are widely spread. Under these conditions, the older chicken embryos are easily accessed and manipulated. Therefore, this method overcomes the disadvantages of in ovo electroporation applied to the older chicken embryos. Using this method, plasmids can be easily transfected into different parts of the older chicken embryos(10-12). PMID:22872055

  4. Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni for chicken embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, S; Rodgers, F G

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni was examined in chicken embryos. In this system, mortality data and histopathological findings induced by organisms and by bacterium-free filtered broth were identical. The absence in chicken embryo tissues both of organisms and of an inflammatory infiltrate suggests a toxin etiology.

  5. Ex ovo electroporation for gene transfer into older chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiankai; Redies, Christoph

    2005-08-01

    In ovo electroporation is an excellent method to ectopically induce or inhibit gene expression in chicken embryos and to study the in vivo function of genes during embryonic development. However, the application of electroporation in ovo to date is limited to an early stage of incubation ( stage 22), the vitelline and allantoic vessels have developed extensively and the in ovo manipulation of the embryo becomes exceedingly difficult. Therefore, in this study, we validate an ex ovo electroporation system, by which the time for performing electroporation can be extended up to at least day 7 of incubation. The application of this method will help to study gene function and regulation at later stages of development in the living chicken embryo. PMID:15965981

  6. In ovo electroporations of HH stage 10 chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Marissa C; Chizhikov, Victor; Millen, Kathleen J

    2007-01-01

    Large size and external development of the chicken embryo have long made it a valuable tool in the study of developmental biology. With the advent of molecular biological techniques, the chick has become a useful system in which to study gene regulation and function. By electroporating DNA or RNA constructs into the developing chicken embryo, genes can be expressed or knocked down in order to analyze in vivo gene function. Similarly, reporter constructs can be used for fate mapping or to examine putative gene regulatory elements. Compared to similar experiments in mouse, chick electroporation has the advantages of being quick, easy and inexpensive. This video demonstrates first how to make a window in the eggshell to manipulate the embryo. Next, the embryo is visualized with a dilute solution of India ink injected below the embryo. A glass needle and pipette are used to inject DNA and Fast Green dye into the developing neural tube, then platinum electrodes are placed parallel to the embryo and short electrical pulses are administered with a pulse generator. Finally, the egg is sealed with tape and placed back into an incubator for further development. Additionally, the video shows proper egg storage and handling and discusses possible causes of embryo loss following electroporation. PMID:18989448

  7. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  8. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  9. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  10. Gene Transfer into Older Chicken Embryos by ex ovo Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jiankai; Yan, Xin; Lin, Juntang; Rolfs, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The chicken embryo provides an excellent model system for studying gene function and regulation during embryonic development. In ovo electroporation is a powerful method to over-express exogenous genes or down-regulate endogenous genes in vivo in chicken embryos1. Different structures such as DNA plasmids encoding genes2-4, small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmids5, small synthetic RNA oligos6, and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides7 can be easily transfected into chicken embryos by electrop...

  11. In Ovo Electroporations of HH Stage 10 Chicken Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Marissa C.; Chizhikov, Victor; Millen, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    Large size and external development of the chicken embryo have long made it a valuable tool in the study of developmental biology. With the advent of molecular biological techniques, the chick has become a useful system in which to study gene regulation and function. By electroporating DNA or RNA constructs into the developing chicken embryo, genes can be expressed or knocked down in order to analyze in vivo gene function. Similarly, reporter constructs can be used for fate mapping or to e...

  12. In ovo transfection of chicken embryos using cationic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, C I; Chen, H Y

    1995-05-01

    It is reported that cationic liposomes are capable of transfecting embryos in unincubated fertile chicken eggs and that the cationic liposome, TransfectAce, has superior properties to Lipofectin. In order to determine the duration of expression of genes introduced in this way, embryos were transfected with an expression vector encoding the firefly luciferase cDNA under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (LTR). Luciferase activity could be observed consistently in day 3 embryos and activity was detectable up to day 8 of incubation. The relative expression of luciferase under the control of different viral promoters was compared in transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts and day 3 embryos. The cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter and the SV40 early promoter directed the highest amount of expression in fibroblasts while the Rous sarcoma virus LTR caused the highest amount of expression in embryos. Chicken embryo fibroblasts were transfected with the luciferase vector in order to examine duration of reporter gene expression in vitro. Luciferase expression was decreased exponentially over a 24-day period after which point luciferase activity could no longer be detected. These data suggest that stable integration of transfected DNA using liposomes is a rare event. Nevertheless, liposome-mediated transfection of embryos is suitable for the examination of promoter activity in vivo and may be a useful method to transfect genes to study embryonic development. PMID:7795662

  13. Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells

  14. In ovo gene electroporation into early chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T

    2000-01-01

    In chicken embryos, viral vectors have been successfully used to transfer foreign genes in somatic cells. By using retroviral vectors, for example, genes involved in myocyte growth and differentiation in chicken embryos have been characterized (1-3). The reason for the use of viral vectors is its high efficiency of gene transfection, particularly when stable gene expression is desired. However, if only transient gene expression is considered, several nonviral methods may be useful at present. In ovo lipofection gave spatial expression of a reporter gene in embryonic tissues of chickens (4-6). In addition, two other nonviral methods may be applicable to chicken embryos in ovo. One is microparticle bombardment which has been widely used to transfect genes to tissues of a variety of animal species in vivo (7,9), and the other is electroporation (EP) by which foreign genes are transferred into cells through nanometer pores made on the cell membrane by applying electric pulses (10). The latter method is found to be more efficient than other nonviral methods (11), and has been tested in various animal tissues such as the rat brain, the mouse testis, and the chicken embryo (12,14). PMID:21445755

  15. Perflurooctanoic acid induces developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PFOA exposure thinned right ventricular wall thickness in D19 chicken embryo hearts. ► PFOA exposure induced left ventricle hypertrophy in hearts of hatchling chickens. ► PFOA exposure induced altered cardiac function in hatchling chickens. -- Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will

  16. The effects of X-rays on chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of the chickens embryo changes in the course of its 21 days of development. A period of relatively high resistance in the early stages of development (1. to 3. day of incubation), is followed by an increase of sensitivity from the 4. day onwards. In 1- to 3-day-old embryos, X-rays cause nonspecific malformations in those organs which are in a phenocritical period at the moment of irradiation. In mature embryos (4. to 20. day of incubation) characteristic biochemical changes in the metabolism of proteins and amino-acids as well as the nitrogen excretion can be observed as the predominant radiation effects. (orig.)

  17. Thermal manipulations of turkey embryos: The effect on thermoregulation and development during embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestun, Y; Zimmerman, I; Yahav, S

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies conducted on meat-type chickens in our laboratory showed that thermal manipulations (TMS:) of the embryo during the time window of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid axis development and maturation significantly reduced the metabolic rates of the embryo and the chicken, improving the posthatch feed conversion rate (FCR:). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intermittent TMs during turkey embryogenesis on embryo development. Fertile turkey eggs were divided into three treatments: control; 6H--with TM by elevation of temperature and RH by 1.7°C and 9%, respectively, above the control conditions for 6 h/d, from E10 through E22, i.e., 240 through 552 h of incubation; and 12H--with TM as above, for 12 h/d, during the same time period. From E0 through E10 and from E23 onward all eggs were incubated under control conditions. The embryo growth rate was not negatively affected by TM. During TM eggshell temperature, the embryonic heart rate and oxygen consumption were elevated by the manipulation while the embryos were in their ectothermic phase. However, by the end of the TM period and until hatch (the endothermic phase) these parameters were significantly lower in both TM treatments than in the control, indicating a lower metabolic rate and heat production. The TM embryos hatched approximately 10 h earlier than the controls, without any negative effects on chick body weight or hatchability. Nevertheless, TM treatments resulted in a higher proportion of chicks with unhealed navels. Body temperature at hatch was significantly lower in the TM chicks than in the controls, suggesting lower heat production and metabolic rate, which might affect the energy requirements for posthatch maintenance. It was concluded that TM during turkey embryogenesis might have altered the thermoregulatory set point, and thus lowered the embryo metabolic rate, which might have a long-lasting posthatch effect. PMID:25630674

  18. ADAPTATION OF EIMERIA TENELLA (LOCAL ISOLATE SPOROZOITES IN CHICKEN EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Akhtar, M. M. Ayaz, C.S. Hayat, M. Ashfaq1 and I. Hussain1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Emieria (E tenella ( local isolate} oocysts were recovered from the cases of chicken coccidiosis. Oocysts were sporulated in 2.5 per cent potassium dichromate solution at 37°C with 60 per cent humidity. Excystation of the sporulated oocysts was done with sodium hypochlorite. Sporozoites were released by treating with 1 percent Trypsin ( 1:250 followed by sodium taurocholate at 41 ºC, The final concentrations of the sporozoites were maintained at 1.8x 103-2.0 x 103per 0.1 ml. Ten chicken embryos (12 days old were inoculated each with 0.1 mi suspension of sporozoites into the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM along with penicillin and streptomycin, The embryos were maintained at 41ºC with daily candling. Death of the embryo occurred on 5th day post inoculation in six out of ten embryos. Severe hemorrhages were seen on all dead embryos. Total numbers of oocysts harvested from the CAM were 6.1 x 104-7.2 x 104 per ml. The remaining four embryos died on the 7th day post-inoculation and had mild haemorrhages. Total numbers of oocysts harvested were 3.0 x 104-3.5x104

  19. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1)...

  20. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies birds. Mean response threshold for anesthetized embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P birds (-23.0dBre 1.0 g/ms). Latency/intensity functions (that is, slopes) were not significantly different between embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P function that occurs following 19 to 20 days of incubation. The recording of vestibular evoked potentials provides an objective, direct and noninvasive measure of peripheral vestibular function in the embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  1. Differential expression of genes for aromatase and estrogen receptor during the gonadal development in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, O; Kikuchi, H; Kikuchi, T; Mizuno, S

    1998-04-01

    In birds, differentiation of embryonic gonads is not as strictly determined by the genetic sex as it is in mammals, and can be influenced by early manipulation with a sex steroid hormone. Thus administration of an aromatase inhibitor induces testis development in the genetic female, and administration of estrogen induces a left ovotestis in the genetic male embryo. Another feature of avian gonadogenesis is that only the left ovary develops in most species. Molecular mechanisms underlying these features at the level of gene expression have not been elucidated. In this paper, we present evidence that a gene for aromatase cytochrome P-450, an enzyme required for the last step in the synthesis of estradiol-17beta, is expressed in medullae of the left and right gonads of a female chicken embryo, but not in those of a male chicken embryo, and that an estrogen receptor gene is expressed only in epithelium (and cortex later, in the female) of the left, not the right, gonad of both sexes, but the expression in the male left gonad is temporary and restricted to an early stage of development. Differential expression of these two genes serves well to explain the above features of gonadal development in birds. Furthermore, in ovo administration of estradiol-17beta from the 5th to the 14th day of incubation does not cause expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad of chicken embryos of either sex, suggesting that the absence of expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad is not the result of down-regulation, but may be regarded as an important cause of the unilateral ovarian development. PMID:9584834

  2. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls on the growth of chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Yasuhiko; Hatano, Akira [Chub Women`s College, Gifu-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Incubation of chicken embryos with either 0.01 or 0.03 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 12, 15, or 18 d resulted in a significant decrease in liver and body weight associated with enhanced mortality. Teratological examination revealed an increased frequency of malformations including hydrops, eventration, wry neck, and brevicollis. PCB exposure was also found to produce histologic damage to liver and cutaneous tissue. Our data demonstrate that exposure of chicks to PCBs during development results in a retardation of growth, an increased incidence of malformations, and histopathologic damage. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A simple technique for preparation of chicken-embryo-skin cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silim, A; El Azhary, M A; Roy, R S

    1982-01-01

    A simple, rapid technique was developed for preparing chicken-embryo-skin cell cultures utilizing trypsinization of the skin of intact 12-day-old chicken embryos. When cell cultures were inoculated with fowl pox virus, those that consisted of at least 80% epithelial cells yielded a higher virus titer than fibroblast cell cultures. PMID:6284112

  4. Increase of uric acid synthesis in irradiated chicken's embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several important intermediate and end products of uric acid metabolism as well as their corresponding enzymatic reactions were studied in 16 day-old chicken embryos which had been one or more times irradiated or respectively treated with ammonium chloride. After sublethal X-irradiation and at the time of the second irradiation with 800 R, the activity of the glutamine synthetase and the xanthin dehydrogenase in the kidneys of the embryos was increased. In contrast to this the glutamate dehydrogenase activity was moderately decreased. Two hours after the main irradiation the uric acid values as well as the amount of fixed nitrogen in the blood serum of previously-irradiated embryos are noticeably higher than the comparative data in non-previously irradiated animals. The glutamic acid values increase after the second irradiation, but still remain lower than with the non-previously irradiated animals. I achieved concuring ressults when I treated the embryos with ammonium chloride instead of radiation. (orig./MG)

  5. Differentiation of troponin in cardiac and skeletal muscles in chicken embryos as studied by immunofluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The differentiation of troponin (TN) in cardiac and skeletal muscles of chicken embryos was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Serial sections of embryos were stained with antibodies specific to TN components (TN-T, -I, and -C) from adult chicken cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac muscle began to be stained with antibodies raised against cardiac TN components in embryos after stage 10 (Hamburger and Hamilton numbering, 1951, J. Morphol. 88:49-92). It reacted also with antis...

  6. In situ DNA transfer to chicken embryos by biolistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilized chicken eggs were bombarded with a biolistic device. Transient expression of the lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was assessed after in situ gene transfer using this approach. The influence of different pressures, vacuum levels and particles was tested. Survival rate improved as particle velocity decreased, but resulted in lower levels of expression. The best survival and expression were obtained with gold particles, a helium gas pressure of 600 psi and a vacuum of 600 mmHg. Under these conditions, all bombarded embryos showed b-galactosidase activity, indicating that this was an effective method for transformation of chicken embryos.Ovos fertilizados de galinha foram bombardeados através da técnica de biobalística. A expressão transiente do gene lacZ, sob o controle do promotor humano citomegalovírus, foi verificada após a transferência in situ. Diferentes níveis de pressão de gás hélio, vácuo e tipos de partículas foram testados. A taxa de sobrevivência aumentou à medida que a velocidade das partículas diminuíram, entretanto, o nível de expressão foi menor. Os melhores resultados, combinando taxa de sobrevivência e expressão, foram obtidos com partículas de ouro, 600 libras por polegada ao quadrado de hélio e 600 mmHg de vácuo. Nestas condições, todos os embriões bombardeados apresentaram atividade da b-galactosidase, indicando que esta técnica é eficiente para a transformação de embriões de galinhas.

  7. Biochemical studies of the ammonia detoxification in irradiated chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following whole irradiation of 16-day-old chicken embryos with 770 R, ammonia concentration in blood serum and uric acid concentration in serum and tissue increase distinctly, whereas only a small change in concentration of urine in blood serum and tissue homogenate was noted. Following irradiation glutamic acid concentration in blood serum and glutamine concentration in serum and tissue also increased noticeably. Similarly the content of creatine in blood serum increased as a result of irradiation although no deviation from control values were noted in the tissue. When embryos are irradiated with increasing doses from 420 to 980 R, ammonia concentration in blood serum and also uric acid concentration in blood serum and tissue increase linearly with dose whereas no dose dependence could be observed for the content of urine in blood serum and in tissue. These results show that the increased amounts of ammonia produced upon irradiation are detoxified by the formation of uric acid, glutamic acid and glutamine. Furthermore, elimination of ammonia is also possible through creatine synthesis. (orig.)

  8. Consequences of manipulating gametes and embryos of ruminant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, T G; Ashworth, C J; Rooke, J A; Sinclair, K D

    2003-01-01

    During the past 12 years, ruminants have provided a focus for some significant advances in mammalian reproductive biotechnologies. Lambs were the first offspring generated after nuclear transfer of fetal or adult cells to enucleated oocytes, and many calves of pre-determined gender are today the result of commercialized semen sexing. In 1990, the birth of one calf provided living proof that even 'dead' spermatozoa can be paternal, whereas, more recently, a short-lived gaur calf and viable mouflon lamb represented a novel option for conservation of endangered species. As well as highlights, hazards have emerged, resulting in setbacks or developmental anomalies, such as those associated with the large offspring syndrome which encompasses a range of adverse fetal, placental and post-natal phenomena expressed in ruminants. In this review, the developmental and other consequences of applying manipulative procedures, such as assisted fertilization, semen sexing, cloning and gene transfer, to gametes and embryos from bovine, ovine and caprine species are considered. Although assisted fertilization techniques can overcome mammalian infertility, they also usurp natural gamete selection safeguards, but not always with impunity. In the case of manipulations such as cloning, and to a lesser extent gene transfer, it is evident that nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions and nuclear-mitochondrial DNA interdependences are at least partially damaged or destroyed with a view to reconstruction. Therefore, among surviving zygotes and embryos it is inevitable that the legacy is frequently one of altered genetic, epigenetic or cellular programmes and processes. PMID:14635934

  9. Improved method for ex ovo-cultivation of developing chicken embryos for human stem cell xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Schomann; Firas Qunneis; Darius Widera; Christian Kaltschmidt; Barbara Kaltschmidt

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Her...

  10. Improved method for ex ovo-cultivation of developing chicken embryos for human stem cell xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomann, Timo; Qunneis, Firas; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Here, we present an improved ex ovo-cultivation method enabling the embryos to survive 13 days in vitro. Optimized cultivation of chicken embryos resulted in a normal development regarding their size and weight. Our ex ovo-approach closely resembles the development of chicken embryos in ovo, as demonstrated by properly developed nervous system, bones, and cartilage at expected time points. Finally, we investigated the usability of our method for trans-species transplantation of adult stem cells by injecting human neural crest-derived stem cells into late Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH26-HH28/E5-E6) of ex ovo-incubated embryos. We demonstrated the integration of human cells allowing experimentally easy investigation of the differentiation potential in the proper developmental context. Taken together, this ex ovo-method supports the prolonged cultivation of properly developing chicken embryos enabling integration studies of xenografted mammalian stem cells at late developmental stages. PMID:23554818

  11. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jeongyoon; Bottje Walter G; Kong Byung-Whi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1) infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO) and tissue-culture origin (TCO) vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined...

  12. Transcriptional profiling of host gene expression in chicken embryo lung cells infected with laryngotracheitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong Yoon; Song, Joon Jin; Wooming, Ann; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Bottje, Walter G; Kong, Byung-Whi

    2010-01-01

    Background Infection by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1) causes acute respiratory diseases in chickens often with high mortality. To better understand host-ILTV interactions at the host transcriptional level, a microarray analysis was performed using 4 × 44 K Agilent chicken custom oligo microarrays. Results Microarrays were hybridized using the two color hybridization method with total RNA extracted from ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 0, 1, 3, 5, an...

  13. Transcriptional profiling of host gene expression in chicken embryo lung cells infected with laryngotracheitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Li Xianyao; Wooming Ann; Song Joon; Lee Jeong; Zhou Huaijun; Bottje Walter G; Kong Byung-Whi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Infection by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1) causes acute respiratory diseases in chickens often with high mortality. To better understand host-ILTV interactions at the host transcriptional level, a microarray analysis was performed using 4 × 44 K Agilent chicken custom oligo microarrays. Results Microarrays were hybridized using the two color hybridization method with total RNA extracted from ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 0, 1,...

  14. An ex-ovo chicken embryo culture system suitable for imaging and microsurgery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Huseyin C; Shekhar, Akshay; Rane, Ajinkya A; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between genetic and microenvironmental factors that drive normal and malformed embryonic development is fundamental for discovering new therapeutic strategies. Advancements in imaging technology have enabled quantitative investigation of the organization and maturing of the body plan, but later stage embryonic morphogenesis is less clear. Chicken embryos are an attractive vertebrate animal model system for this application because of its ease of culture and surgical manipulation. Early embryos can be cultured for a short time on filter paper rings, which enables complete optical access for cell patterning and fate studies. Studying advanced developmental processes such as cardiac morphogenesis are traditionally performed through a window of the eggshell, but this technique limits optical access due to window size. We previously developed a simple method to culture whole embryos ex-ovo on hexagonal weigh boats for up to 10 days, which enabled high resolution imaging via ultrasonography. These cultures were difficult to transport, limiting the types of imaging tools available for live experiments. We here present an improved shell-less culture system with a cost-effective, portable environmental chamber. Eggs were cracked onto a hammock created by a polyurethane membrane (cling wrap) affixed circumferentially to a plastic cup partially filled with sterile water. The dimensions of the circumference and depth of the hammock were both critical to maintain surface tension, while the mechanics of the hammock and water beneath helped dampen vibrations induced by transportation. A small footprint circulating water bath was also developed to enable continuous temperature control during experimentation. We demonstrate the ability to culture embryos in this way for at least 14 days without morphogenic defect or delay and employ this system in several microsurgical and imaging applications. PMID:21048670

  15. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Rani Gilhare; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Ashish Kumar; Surendra Kumar Naik; Tarini Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  16. GRP78 is required for cell proliferation and protection from apoptosis in chicken embryo fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, M; Choi, H; Lee, S I; Kim, J S; Park, M; Kim, K; Lee, S; Byun, S J

    2016-05-01

    Chicken serum has been suggested as a supplement to promote chicken cell proliferation and development. However, the molecular mechanisms by which chicken serum stimulates chicken cell proliferation remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of chicken serum supplementation on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and DF-1 cell proliferation. We also sought to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in mediating the effects of chicken serum on fibroblasts and DF-1 cells by overexpression of chicken 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (chGRP78), which is important for cell growth and the prevention of apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that the addition of 5% chicken serum significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of chGRP78 using siRNA decreased fibroblast proliferation and increased apoptosis. Based on these results, we suggest that the chGRP78-mediated signaling pathway plays a critical role in chicken serum-stimulated fibroblast survival and anti-apoptosis. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the maintenance of chicken fibroblast cells through the inhibition of apoptosis and may lead to the development of new treatments for avian disease. PMID:26944959

  17. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  18. Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Araghi; Saeed Seifi; Reza Sayrafi; Parisa Sadighara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model. Materials and Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated.  Results: The chang...

  19. Onset of meiosis in the chicken embryo; evidence of a role for retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman Peter; Bowles Josephine; Roeszler Kelly N; Smith Craig A; Sinclair Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Meiosis in higher vertebrates shows a dramatic sexual dimorphism: germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. Here we report the molecular analysis of meiosis onset in the chicken model and provide evidence for conserved regulation by retinoic acid. Results Meiosis in the chicken embryo is initiated late in embryogenesis (day 15.5), rel...

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana) extract on chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    S Murtini; R Murwanti; F Satrija; E Hadnharyani

    2006-01-01

    Tea mistletoe is one of medicinal herb which believed has an anticancer activity, it’s due to the capability of immunostimulator. The following research was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana) extract on chicken embryos. Twenty White Leghorn Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) 10 days old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups of 5 eggs. The first group served as control and they were inoculated with aquabidestilate sterile. The s...

  1. Accumulation and diffusion of crystallin inside single fiber cells in intact chicken embryo lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Peetermans, J A; Foy, B.D.; Tanaka, T

    1987-01-01

    The use of microscope laser light-scattering spectroscopy allows for the measurement of dynamic properties of intracellular particles inside single fiber cells at different locations in the intact chicken embryo lens. Profiles of the diffusive properties of the delta-crystallin proteins across the lens are reported for developing chickens from day 5 to day 37. A clear decrease of the diffusion is observed in the lens nucleus relative to the cortex beginning with day 10.

  2. Comparison of three nonviral transfection methods for foreign gene expression in early chicken embryos in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T; Mizutani, Y; Ohmori, Y; Okumura, J

    1997-01-13

    By using three nonviral transfection methods, i.e., microparticle bombardment, lipofection and electroporation, the transfection efficiency and the expression intensity of a lacZ reporter gene were compared in developing chicken embryos in ovo. Of the three transfection methods employed, electroporation conferred the strongest expression of the bacterial lacZ gene with similar transfection efficiency. The results suggest that as far as transient gene expression is concerned, electroporation would provide a useful and efficient nonviral means of foreign gene transfection to somatic cells of living chicken embryos in ovo. PMID:9016787

  3. [Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 in chicken embryos of different sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Feng, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ping; Huang, Pan; Li, Shi-Jun; Peng, Xiu-Li; Gong, Yan-Zhang

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the expression and functions of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (cdk2ap1) screened by suppression subtractive hybridization in chicken embryo development, a pair of primers was designed to amplify the cdk2ap1 fragment by RT-PCR and subsequently the fragment obtained was cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T. Sense and antisense probes labeled with digoxigenin were generated using SP6 and T7 RNA polymerases, respectively, and used to examine cdk2ap1 expression in chicken embryos of both sexes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In both sexes, cdk2ap1 was expressed in the head mesenchyme, rhombencephalon, optic vesicles, spinal neural tube, and forelimb of 4.0-day-old embryos and the expression in males was significantly higher than that in females. In addition, in the genital ridge and hindlimb of the 4.0-day-old chicken embryo, cdk2ap1 was obviously expressed in the males but not in females. It is supposed that cdk2ap1 may play a role in the sexual differentiation and development of gonad of chicken embryo. PMID:19819846

  4. Development of basal and induced testosterone hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo

    OpenAIRE

    Paolini, Moreno; Pozzetti, Laura; Sapone, Andrea; Luigi Biagi, Gian; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of the developing embryo to xenobiotics is highly dependent on the expression of metabolizing enzymes including cytochromes P450 (CYP). In the present study, therefore, the ontogeny of the CYP-dependent system in the chick was investigated with testosterone hydroxylase activity as a marker of CYP expression.Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and phenobarbitone (PB)-induced regio- and stereo-selective testosterone hydroxylase activity, from the first appearance of the...

  5. Identification of the Sex of Earlier Embryos from Generic Hybrids of Chicken-Quail by Wpkci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ai-jun; MA Wen-xia; LI Da-quan; MENG Qing-mei

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a protocol was deveolped the sex of earlier embryos of chicken(♂)-quail(♀)hybrids and successfully tested the sex proportion of each period (66-120 h). We acquired cross bred eggs by artificial insemination, hatched them in the same batch according to the standard hatching condition of chicken, and collected earlier living embryos at 66,72,78, 84,90,96,102,108,114, and 120 h randomly. We adopted RT-PCR protocol and multiple PCR, made the known sex quail as the external control, employed β-actin as the internal control, and used primers that were designed according to conservative area of gene Wpkci of quail to identify the sex of earlier hybrid embryos. The results indicated that the primer of Wpkci can be used to identify the sex of hybrid embryos accurately; there were more male than female in earlier embryos, the sex proportion of earlier embryos compared with academic numerical value was significantly different (P0.05). In the present study, we concluded that a simple, fast, credible and stable protocol to identify the sex of earlier hybrids embryos had been established by using primer of Wpkci; in earlier embryos, the death rate of female was higher than that of male and there was no fluctuant peak.

  6. Are Chicken Embryos Endotherms or Ectotherms? A Laboratory Exercise Integrating Concepts in Thermoregulation and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Sara M; Noveral, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    This investigative laboratory exercise uses the different relations between ambient temperature and metabolic rate in endotherms and ectotherms as a core concept to answer the following question: What thermoregulatory mode is employed by chicken embryos? Emphasis is placed on the physiological concepts that can be taught with this exercise,…

  7. Onset of meiosis in the chicken embryo; evidence of a role for retinoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopman Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiosis in higher vertebrates shows a dramatic sexual dimorphism: germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. Here we report the molecular analysis of meiosis onset in the chicken model and provide evidence for conserved regulation by retinoic acid. Results Meiosis in the chicken embryo is initiated late in embryogenesis (day 15.5, relative to gonadal sex differentiation (from day 6. Meiotic germ cells are first detectable only in female gonads from day 15.5, correlating with the expression of the meiosis marker, SCP3. Gonads isolated from day 10.5 female embryos and grown in serum-free medium could still initiate meiosis at day 16.5, suggesting that this process is controlled by an endogenous clock in the germ cells themselves, and/or that germ cells are already committed to meiosis at the time of explantation. Early commitment is supported by the analysis of chicken STRA8, a pre-meiotic marker shown to be essential for meiosis in mouse. Chicken STRA8 is expressed female-specifically from embryonic day 12.5, preceding morphological evidence of meiosis at day 15.5. Previous studies have shown that, in the mouse embryo, female-specific induction of STRA8 and meiosis are triggered by retinoic acid. A comprehensive analysis of genes regulating retinoic acid metabolism in chicken embryos reveals dynamic expression in the gonads. In particular, the retinoic acid-synthesising enzyme, RALDH2, is expressed in the left ovarian cortex at the time of STRA8 up-regulation, prior to meiosis. Conclusion This study presents the first molecular analysis of meiosis onset in an avian embryo. Although aspects of avian meiosis differ from that of mammals, a role for retinoic acid may be conserved.

  8. Location of 64K collagen producer chondrocytes in developing chicken embryo tibiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of a new low-molecular-weight collagen by cultured chicken embryo chondrocytes has been recently demonstrated. In this paper the authors report results on the location of chondrocytes synthesizing this new collagen (64K collagen) in the developing chicken embryo. The 64K collagen is synthesized in very large amounts by cells concentrated at the diaphysis of 9-day-old and at the epiphysis of 17-day-old embryo tibiae. These regions are characterized by a remodeling of the cartilage matrix leading to the replacement of the cartilage with bone tissue; therefore, this collagen appears to be a marker of a specific developmental stage of chondrocytes. The origin of cells competent for the synthesis of the 64K collagen is also discussed

  9. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  10. Viral pathogenesis in chicken embryos and tumor induction in chickens after in ovo exposure to serotype 1 Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Hill, C A; Sharma, J M

    2000-01-01

    We examined the susceptibility of late-stage chicken embryos to infection with oncogenic serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV 1). Intravenous inoculation of MDV 1 at embryonic day (ED) 16 resulted in significant replication of the virus in embryonic tissues. Within 5 days of virus exposure, pp38 viral antigen (pp38) was detected in embryonic bursae and MDV 1 was isolated by plaque assay from the spleens, thymuses, and bursae of embryos. The pathogenesis of MDV 1 after intravenous inoculation at ED 16 was similar to that in chicks exposed to MDV 1 after hatching. In contrast to the response of the embryo to intravenous inoculation, embryos exposed to MDV 1 by the amniotic route did not develop detectable pp38, nor could the virus be isolated from the embryonic tissues by plaque assay. These results show that the route of inoculation of MDV 1 in the embryos is critical for allowing the virus to come in contact with target cells. PMID:11195638

  11. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds. PMID:23288626

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana extract on chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Murtini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistletoe is one of medicinal herb which believed has an anticancer activity, it’s due to the capability of immunostimulator. The following research was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana extract on chicken embryos. Twenty White Leghorn Specific Pathogen Free (SPF 10 days old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups of 5 eggs. The first group served as control and they were inoculated with aquabidestilate sterile. The second, third and fourth group was inoculated with 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg S. oortiana extract/egg respectively. S. oortiana extract was inoculated via allantoic cavity. All experimental eggs were incubated at 37oC until day 21 and incubation was terminated before the embryos hatched. The embryos and the lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen were weighed. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe extract was measured by counting the percentage of bursa of Fabricius active lymphoid follicle and the area of thymus medulla. The results showed tea mislestoe extract at the dose of 0.1mg, 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg have immunomodulatory effect on chicken embryos indicated by the increase of percentage of active lymphoid follicle of bursa Fabricius i.e. 68.8, 71.8 and 57.8% and increase area of thymus medulla i.e. 24.9 – 39.3% respectively compared to control group i.e. 22.6% of active lymphoid follicle of bursa Fabricius and 17.6% of thymus medulla area. It is concluded that S. oortiana extract at the dose of 0.1mg, 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg have immunomodulatory effect on chicken embryos.

  13. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  14. Bulk elastic properties of chicken embryos during somitogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier James A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present measurements of the bulk Young's moduli of early chick embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 10. Using a micropipette probe with a force constant k ~0.025 N/m, we applied a known force in the plane of the embryo in the anterior-posterior direction and imaged the resulting tissue displacements. We used a two-dimensional finite-element simulation method to model the embryo as four concentric elliptical elastic regions with dimensions matching the embryo's morphology. By correlating the measured tissue displacements to the displacements calculated from the in-plane force and the model, we obtained the approximate short time linear-elastic Young's moduli: 2.4 ± 0.1 kPa for the midline structures (notocord, neural tube, and somites, 1.3 ± 0.1 kPa for the intermediate nearly acellular region between the somites and area pellucida, 2.1 ± 0.1 kPa for the area pellucida, and 11.9 ± 0.8 kPa for the area opaca.

  15. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  16. Assessment of angiogenic properties of biomaterials using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angiogenic potential of a biomaterial is a critical factor for successful graft intake in tissue engineering. We developed a modified, rapid and reproducible chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to evaluate the ability of biomaterials in inducing blood vessel density. Five biomaterials including one-layer porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), two-layer SIS, four-layer vacuum pressed (VP) SIS, polyglycolic acid (PGA) and PGA modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were analyzed. A circular section (1.2 mm diameter) of each biomaterial was placed near a group of blood vessels in the CAM. Blood vessels around the biomaterials were captured with black and white images at 96 h post implantation; and the images were subjected to densitometry evaluation. One-layer SIS induced a significant increase in blood vessel density as compared to the cellulose nitrate negative control, and had the greatest increase in blood vessel density as compared to four-layer VP SIS, PGA, or PLGA modified PGA. Although two-layer SIS has enhanced physical structure for surgical manipulation, its induction in blood vessel density was significantly lower than the one-layer SIS. Stripping the SIS proteins or incubating one-layer SIS with neutralizing antibodies against basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) resulted in decreased angiogenesis. Consistent with results obtained from bladder augmentation animal models, these results confirmed that angiogenic growth factors were present in SIS and affected the angiogenic potential of biomaterials. These data also demonstrated that the CAM assay can be used to ascertain methodically the angiogenic potential of biomaterials

  17. Canine Distemper Virus Utilizes Different Receptors to Infect Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts and Vero cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Xiu Liang; Pei-fu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Inducing animal viruses to adapt to chicken embryos or chicken embryo fibroblasts(CEF)is a common method to develop attenuated live vaccines with full security.Canine distemper virus(CDV)also does this,but the mechanisms and particular receptors remain unclear.Virus overlay protein blot assays were carried out on CEF membrane proteins,which were extracted respectively with a Mem-PERTM kit,a radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer or a modified co-immunoprecipitation method,and revealed a common 57 kDa positive band that differed from the 42-kDa positive band in Vero cells and also from those receptors reported in lymphocytes and293 cells,indicating a receptor diversity of CDV and the possibility of the 57-kDa protein acting as a receptor that is involved in adaptive infection of CDV Kunming strain to CEF.

  18. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  19. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjoedt, K; Vainio, O; Thiery, J P; Imhof, B A

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... which suggest that beta 2m mediated chemotaxis is involved in the second wave. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Oct...

  20. Changes in protein phosphorylation in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Hunter, T

    1981-01-01

    Rous sarcoma virus encodes a tyrosine-specific protein kinase (p60src) which is necessary for cell transformation. To identify substrates for this kinase, we set out to detect phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo cells, making use of the known alkali stability of phosphotyrosine. 32P-labeled phosphoproteins were separated by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The gels were then incubated in alkali...

  1. Pathogenicity and cytadherence of Mycoplasma imitans in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Wahab, O M; Ross, G; Bradbury, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Two strains of the avian organism Mycoplasma imitans were examined for pathogenicity and cytadherence in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures, and a virulent strain of the related pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum was included for comparison. All consistently cause ciliostasis in tracheal explants from both hosts, and examination of infected tissues by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that M. imitans proliferated on the epithelial surface and adh...

  2. An ex-ovo Chicken Embryo Culture System Suitable for Imaging and Microsurgery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Huseyin C.; Shekhar, Akshay; Rane, Ajinkya A.; Jonathan T. Butcher

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between genetic and microenvironmental factors that drive normal and malformed embryonic development is fundamental for discovering new therapeutic strategies. Advancements in imaging technology have enabled quantitative investigation of the organization and maturing of the body plan, but later stage embryonic morphogenesis is less clear. Chicken embryos are an attractive vertebrate animal model system for this application because of its ease of culture and sur...

  3. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, S.

    1981-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation was examined in whole cell extracts from normal and avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. The addition of serum or epidermal growth factor to serum-starved normal cells resulted in increased 32P labeling of a Mr 30,000 protein. In extracts from cells transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of Schmidt-Ruppin virus, subgroup A, and grown at the permissive temperature, the protein was phosphorylated regardless of serum starvation. This Mr 30,00...

  4. The early stages of heart development: insights from chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Johannes; Munsterberg, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and the detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to human. This review will highlight the contributions mad...

  5. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes G. Wittig; Andrea Münsterberg

    2016-01-01

    The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made...

  6. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grodzik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND and l-glutamine (Gln on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2 and differentiation (MyoD1. Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of in ovo administration of diamond nanoparticles and L-glutamine on molecular responses in chicken embryo pectoral muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa; Hotowy, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kutwin, Marta; Jaworski, Sławomir; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with L-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND) and L-glutamine (Gln) on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2) and differentiation (MyoD1). Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. PMID:24264045

  8. Radioadapted chicken embryo cells: challenge specificity and alterations in higher-order DNA structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioadapted chicken embryo cells (X-irradiation in ovo with 10 cGy at the 14th day of development with priming periods of 24 h) were treated in vitro by challenge doses of 14 different DNA- and/or chromatin-interactive agents, including X-rays. A decrease in the cellular damage, as measured by scheduled DNA synthesis, was only observed with X-irradiation. Sedimentation of nucleoids as well as viscosity of alkaline lysates from ethidium bromide (0.35-400 μg/ml)-, vovobiocin (125-1800 μg/ml)-, and hyperthermia (30 min at 43 and 45 )-treated cells suggest a higher tendency of radioadapted cells to undergo positive DNA supercoiling. When DNA from adapted and non-adapted chicken embryo cells was used as substrate, neither its digestion by DNase I nor the inhibition of DNase I activity by various DNA-interactive agents was changed in primed cells. From the previous investigations as well as from the present results it is concluded that an increase of tightening of protein-DNA interactions within the nuclear matrix is a molecular determinant of the elevated radiation resistance in radioadapted chicken embryo cells. (orig.)

  9. Adaptive response of the chicken embryo to low doses of x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken embryos were x-irradiated in ovo with 5-30 cGy (=priming dose) at the 13th-15th day of development. After 3-48 h, brain- and liver-cell suspensions were x-irradiated in vitro with (challenge) doses of 4-32 Gy. Significantly less radiation damage was observed when the radiation response was measured by scheduled DNA synthesis, nucleoid sedimentation and viscosity of alkaline cell lysates 12-36 h after the priming exposure. In vivo, pre-irradiation with 10 cGy enhanced regeneration as evidenced by the DNA content of chicken embryo brain and liver 24 h following a challenge dose of 4 Gy. From nucleoid sedimentation analyses in brain and liver cells immediately after irradiation with 16 Gy and after a 30-min repair period in the presence of aphidicolin, dideoxythymidine and 3-aminobenzamide or in the absence of these DNA repair inhibitors, it is concluded that a reduction of the initial radiation damage is the dominant mechanism of the ''radio-adaptive'' response of the chicken embryo. Sedimentation of nucleoids from ethidium bromide (EB) (0.75-400 μg/ml)-treated cells suggests a higher tendency of ''radio-adapted'' cells to undergo positive DNA supercoiling in the presence of high EB concentrations. (orig.)

  10. Bilirubin and heme as growth inhibitors of chicken embryos in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R; Foster, P; Oyedeji, C O

    1990-06-01

    The increased morbidity during pregnancies complicated by hematologic or liver disease has generally been attributed to the metabolic abnormalities of the illness itself. Because tetrapyrrole concentrations are elevated in these conditions, we introduced bilirubin or heme (prepared as 10 mM solutions) into the air sac of fertilized chicken eggs to study their effect on the growth of normal chicken embryos. In 9-d eggs, the injection of 0.06 mL heme resulted in significant embryo growth inhibition as indicated by overall wt (91 +/- 3% versus control), tibia length (84 +/- 2%), tibia wt (81 +/- 3%), femur length (88 +/- 1%), and femur wt (78 +/- 3%); doses greater than 0.10 mL resulted in substantial fetal losses. The injection of 0.06 mL bilirubin into the same-age eggs also resulted in less than normal tibia length (87 +/- 2% versus control), tibia wt (75 +/- 4%), femur length (91 +/- 2%), and femur wt (81 +/- 3%); larger doses resulted in more pronounced growth inhibition, but fetal losses were less common than with heme. Older chick embryos (12-d) appeared more resistant to the effects of bilirubin: 0.15 mL bilirubin inhibited only tibia and femur wt; larger doses were required to significantly suppress the other growth parameters. The same-age chicken embryos, however, remained exquisitely sensitive to heme; 0.05 mL resulted in less than normal whole embryo wt (88 +/- 2% versus control), tibia length (80 +/- 1%), tibia wt (76 +/- 1%), femur length (78 +/- 1%), and femur wt (77 +/- 1%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2356106

  11. Transcriptional profiling of host gene expression in chicken embryo lung cells infected with laryngotracheitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianyao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 causes acute respiratory diseases in chickens often with high mortality. To better understand host-ILTV interactions at the host transcriptional level, a microarray analysis was performed using 4 × 44 K Agilent chicken custom oligo microarrays. Results Microarrays were hybridized using the two color hybridization method with total RNA extracted from ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post infection (dpi. Results showed that 789 genes were differentially expressed in response to ILTV infection that include genes involved in the immune system (cytokines, chemokines, MHC, and NF-κB, cell cycle regulation (cyclin B2, CDK1, and CKI3, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and cellular metabolism. Differential expression for 20 out of 789 genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of 789 differentially expressed genes revealed that 21 possible gene networks with intermolecular connections among 275 functionally identified genes. These 275 genes were classified into a number of functional groups that included cancer, genetic disorder, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell death. Conclusion The results of this study provide comprehensive knowledge on global gene expression, and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in chicken embryo lung cells in response to ILTV infections.

  12. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by ex...

  14. Proliferation of exogenously injected primordial germcells (PGCs) into busulfan-treated chicken embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Fumta; N.Fujihara

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of busulfan treatment on the proliferation of chicken primordialgerm cells (Fgcs) in vivo, focusing on the preferential settlement of PGCs onto the germinal ridges of chicken em-bryos. Methods: Bustdfan (250 rig/egg) was injected into the egg white of freshly oviposited fertilized eggs, whichwere then incubated. Embryonic developnent and viability were examined, and exogenous PGCs collected from embry-onic blood vessels were injected into the germinal crescent region of recipient enthryos. The nttmber of PGCs residedonto germinal ridges of the right and left sides were compared. Results: Bustdfan had a slight harmful effect on theembryo viabihty and the PGCs proliferation. The number of PGCs resided onto the left side of germinal ridges wasslightly higher as compared with the right side. Conclusion: Busulfan suppressed the viability of embryos and the pro-liferation of endogenous PGCs in the recipient embryos. However, the number of exogenous PGCs proliferated washigher in embryos treated with busnlfan than those without busulfan. Data also suggest the possibihty of a preferentialresidence of PCCs toward the left side of the germinal crescent region as compared with the right, which may be due toa more advanced functional development of the left gonad than the right. (Asian JAndro11999 Dec; 1 : 187 - 190)

  15. Vascular reactivity in intrapulmonary arteries of chicken embryos during transition to ex ovo life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Eduardo; Ruijtenbeek, Karin; Pulgar, Victor; De Mey, Jo G R; Blanco, Carlos E

    2002-03-01

    The present study aimed to characterize pulmonary vascular reactivity in the chicken embryo from the last stage of prenatal development and throughout the perinatal period. Isolated intrapulmonary arteries from non-internally pipped embryos at 19 days of incubation and from internally and externally pipped embryos at 21 days of incubation were studied. Arterial diameter and contractile responses to KCl, endothelin-1, and U-46619 increased with incubation but were unaffected by external pipping. In contrast, the contractions induced by norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and electric field stimulation decreased with development. No developmental changes were observed in endothelium-dependent [acetylcholine (ACh) and cyclopiazonic acid] or endothelium-independent [sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] relaxation. These relaxations were abolished by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaffected by blockade of cyclooxygenase or heme oxygenase but was significantly reduced by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors. Reduction of O2 concentration from 95 to 5% produced a marked reduction in ACh and SNP-induced relaxations. Chicken embryo pulmonary arteries show a marked endothelium-dependent relaxation that is unaffected by transition to ex ovo life. Endothelium-derived NO seems to be the main mediator responsible for this relaxation. PMID:11832415

  16. Embryotoxic effects of eight organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide on three-day chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, A.; Hemminki, K.; Vainio, H.

    1984-02-01

    Nine peroxides used in rubber processing were tested for embryotoxicity in 3-day chicken embryos using the air chamber method. The potencies were expressed by the ED/sub 50/ for the total embryotoxic effect of the chemicals, including deaths and malformations, up to Day 14 of the incubation. The range of the ED/sub 50/'s was from 0.13 to 2.7 ..mu..moles per egg and the order of the potencies was as follows: cyclohexanoneperoxide > cumolhydroperoxide > ethylmethylketoneperoxide > dibenzoylperoxide > acetylacetoneperoxide > perbenzoic acid-tert-butylester > dicumylperoxide > dialauroylperoxide > hydrogen peroxide. All nine peroxides caused malformations at a moderate frequency. The maximum percentage of malformed embryos of the treated varied from the 16% of perbenzoic acid-tert-butylester to the 56% of dicumylperoxide. The high percentage caused by the latter could, however, result from slow diffusion of high lethal doses from the air chamber to the embryo.

  17. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  18. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qisheng; Wang, Yinjie; Cheng, Shaoze; Lian, Chao; Tang, Beibei; Wang, Fei; Lu, Zhenyu; Ji, Yanqing; Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Wenhui; Jin, Kai; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2016-01-01

    The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA) recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%). Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens. PMID:27172204

  19. Comparison of pretectal genoarchitectonic pattern between quail and chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia M Bardet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization of the central nervous system is controlled by local networks of transcription factors that establish and maintain the identities of neuroepithelial progenitor areas and their neuronal derivatives. The conserved cerebral Bauplan of vertebrates must result essentially from conserved patterns of developmentally expressed transcription factors. We have previously produced detailed molecular maps for the alar plate of prosomere 1 (the pretectal region in chicken (Ferran et al., 2007, 2008, 2009. Here we compare the early molecular signature of the pretectum of two closely related avian species of the family Phasianidae, Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail and Gallus gallus (chicken, aiming to test conservation of the described pattern at a microevolutionary level. We studied the developmental pretectal expression of Bhlhb4, Dbx1, Ebf1, Gata3, Gbx2, Lim1, Meis1, Meis2 Pax3, Pax6, Six3, Tal2, and Tcf7l2 (Tcf4 mRNA, using in situ hybridization, and PAX7 immunohistochemistry. The genoarchitectonic profile of individual pretectal domains and strata was produced, using comparable section planes. Remarkable conservation of the combinatorial genoarchitectonic code was observed, fundamented in a tripartite anteroposterior subdivision. However, we found that at corresponding developmental stages the pretectal region of G. gallus was approximately 30% larger than that of C. japonica, but seemed relatively less mature. Altogether, our results on a conserved genoarchitectonic pattern highlight the importance of early developmental gene networks that causally underlie the production of homologous derivatives in these two evolutionarily closely-related species. The shared patterns probably apply to sauropsids in general, as well as to more distantly related vertebrate species.

  20. Establishment of an immortal chicken embryo liver-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongyoon; Foster, Douglas N; Bottje, Walter G; Jang, Hyeon-Min; Chandra, Yohanna G; Gentles, Lauren E; Kong, Byung-Whi

    2013-06-01

    A continuously growing immortal cell substrate can be used for virus propagation, diagnostic purposes, and vaccine production. The aim of this study was to develop an immortal chicken cell line for efficient propagation of avian infectious viruses. From the various chicken embryo cells that were tested for life span extension, an immortalized chicken embryo liver (CEL) cell line, named CEL-im, was derived spontaneously without either oncogenic viruses or carcinogenic chemical treatment. Currently, CEL-im cells are growing 0.8 to 1.1 population doublings per day and have reached 120 passages. The CEL-im cell line is permissive for poultry infectious viruses, including avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The CEL-im cells produced high AMPV titer (>10(5) pfu/mL), whereas very low titers (~10 pfu/mL) for MDV-1 and infectious laryngotracheitis virus were produced. To identify genetic alterations in the immortal CEL-im cell line, telomerase activity and mRNA expression for major cell cycle regulatory genes were determined during the immortalizing process. The CEL-im cell line has negative telomerase activity, and when compared with the primary passage 2 CEL cell counterpart, mRNA expression of tumor suppressor protein p53, mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (p21(WAF)), and CDK inhibitor p16 (p16(INK4)) were downregulated in the CEL-im cell line, whereas retinoblastoma (Rb), transcription factor E2F, member 1 (E2F-1), and alternative reading frame of p16(INK4) (ARF) were upregulated. These results are similar to genetic alterations found previously in immortal chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell lines that showed efficient propagation of MDV-1. Therefore, this newly established CEL-im cell line can serve as an alternative cell substrate for the propagation of poultry viruses, such as AMPV. PMID:23687157

  1. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeongyoon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO and tissue-culture origin (TCO vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined by microarray analysis. In this study, a microarray analysis was performed to understand host-vaccine ILTV interactions at the host gene transcription level. Results The 44 K chicken oligo microarrays were used, and the results were compared to those found in virulent ILTV infection. Total RNAs extracted from vaccine ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi, compared to 0 dpi, were subjected to microarray assay using the two color hybridization method. Data analysis using JMP Genomics 5.0 and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA program showed that 213 differentially expressed genes could be grouped into a number of functional categories including tissue development, cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, 10 possible gene networks were created by the IPA program to show intermolecular connections. Interestingly, of 213 differentially expressed genes, BMP2, C8orf79, F10, and NPY were expressed distinctly in vaccine ILTV infection when compared to virulent ILTV infection. Conclusions Comprehensive knowledge of gene expression and biological functionalities of host factors during vaccine ILTV infection can provide insight into host cellular defense mechanisms compared to those of virulent ILTV.

  2. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Rani Gilhare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Result: Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. Conclusion: FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  3. Restriction of germline proliferation by soft x-ray irradiation of chicken embryos and its application to chimera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitor cells of gametes. Avian PGCs are located in the central region of the area pellucida at the blastoderm stage. PGCs enter the circulation soon after the formation of blood vessels in incubating eggs and eventually settle in the gonadal primordium. We have now examined exposure of chicken embryos to soft (low-energy) x-rays as a means of depleting endogenous PGCs and thereby improving the efficiency of chimera production. The blastoderm of White Leghorn eggs was exposed to soft x-rays for 0, 20, 40 or 60 s before incubation. The irradiated embryos manifested delayed development at 60 h of incubation. They also showed reduced numbers of circulating PGCs at stages 14 and 15 and of gonadal PGCs at stage 30. The hatchability of irradiated embryos was lower than that of nonirradiated controls. Irradiation for 20 s was found to provide the best outcome taking into consideration both the restriction of PGC proliferation and hatchability. Dispersed blastoderm cells of quail (black plumage) embryos were introduced into the blastoderm of chicken embryos irradiated for 20 s or of nonirradiated embryos. The number of donor-derived PGCs was higher in the irradiated embryos than in the nonirradiated controls at stage 30. These results suggest that soft x-irradiation of chicken embryos is a feasible approach to depletion of endogenous germ cells and consequent improvement in the efficiency of incorporation of donor PGCs

  4. Bisphenol-A Induces Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Gharibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress mechanisms are involved in the embryotoxicity. The objective of this study was to assess hepatotoxicity of bisphenol-A (BPA in chicken embryos.Materials and Methods: Fertile eggs were randomly divided into 4 groups; three experimental and one control groups, (N=15, for each group. Embryos were administered 50, 100 and 200 PPM BPA, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C with a relative humidity of 63%. The experiment was terminated on day 20 of incubation. Then, the embryos were decapitated and livers of embryos were collected for biochemical analysis. The total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, carotenoid and total protein levels were measured by spectrophotometer.Results: The result of the present study indicated that the levels of total antioxidant in the livers of embryos exposed to 200 PPM BPA were higher than control and other groups, as well as the levels of MDA compared to control group (p<0.05. The levels of GSH, total carotenoids and total protein were higher in all groups exposed to BPA than control group (p<0.05. In addition, protein concentration in 200 PPM group was higher than of other groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: So far, BPA may lead to induce toxic response of oxidative system in liver throughout embryonic period.

  5. Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation egg storage conditions (temperature, duration, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) affects viability, body mass, and physiological variables and functions in day 15 chicken embryos. Embryo viability was impaired in eggs stored for 2 and 3 weeks, with the effects greater at 22°C compared to 15°C. However, embryo size was reduced in eggs stored at 15°C compared with 22°C. Phenotypic change resulting from embryonic programming was evident in the fact that preincubation storage at 15°C diminished hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell concentration ([RBC]), and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Storage duration at 15°C more severely affected the time course (2, 6, and 24 h) responses of Hct, [RBC], and [Hb] to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by submersion compared with storage duration at 22°C. The time-specific regulation of acid-base balance was changed progressively with storage duration at both 22 and 15°C preincubation storages. Consequently, preincubation egg storage at 22°C resulted in poor viability compared with eggs stored at 15°C, but size and physiological functions of embryos in eggs stored for 1-2 weeks were worse in eggs stored in the cooler than stored under room conditions. Avian eggs thus prove to be useful for examining developmental consequences to physiology of altered preincubation thermal environment in very early stages of development (embryonic programming). PMID:26908714

  6. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    O2 consumption and CO2 production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and EE from embryos was calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and slowing down between 16...... to 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. The energy expenditure followed the pattern of curves for gas exchange, with a mean value around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19 (Figure 1). The main source...... of EE was oxidized fat contributing with nearly 100 % to the total EE. Since oxidised fat was the main energy fuel the content of fat in eggs decreased with 2.0 (RO) and 1.6 g (LA) during the incubation period. It can be concluded that the pattern of gas exchange and thereby the pattern of energy...

  7. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  8. The Growth of Muscle Cell of Inbred Chicken and Indigeneous Chicken Embryo in The Medium of Rabbit Serum and Sheep Serum

    OpenAIRE

    JA Soeroso

    2000-01-01

    An experiment on the growth embryonic muscle cell in the rabbit and sheep serum media was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The aim of this experiment was to observe the potency of the growth of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken and indigeneous chicken in the medium of rabbit and sheep serum. Two kinds of embryo, the inbred and indigeneous chicken of eleven days old were used in the experiment. The rabbit and the sheep serum were prepar...

  9. Molecular analysis of endogenous avian leukosis/sarcoma virus genomes in Korean chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Jung; Park, Sang-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Jung, Yong-Wun; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Jang, Byoung-Gui; Kim, Hak-Kue; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2008-01-01

    Since the status of endogenous avian leucosis/sarcoma virus (ALSV) infections in Korean broiler chickens is unclear, this study examined embryonated eggs obtained from broiler farms and Korean native chicken breeds in Korea using PCR with the primer sets specific for endogenous ALSVs. The PCR assays detected the genomes of EAV, ev, ev/J and ART-CH belonging to the endogenous ALSV from all embryos tested. Phylogenetically, the Korean EAV genomes were more closely related to the prototype EAV-0 than to the other prototype, E51. The Korean ART-CH elements clustered together but were distinct from the prototype ART-CH clones, 5 and 14. Although there was comparatively little divergence in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the Korean ev and ev/J genomes compared with the other known ev and ev/J genomes, the Korean genomes had phylogenetically distinct branches. From these results, endogenous genomes are quite prevalent in Korean broiler chickens. In addition, the endogenous genomes circulating in Korean broiler chickens are genetically different from the other known endogenous genomes. These results are expected to provide useful information for the control and establishment of a surveillance system for endogenous ALSVs in Korea. PMID:18250567

  10. shRNA-triggered RNAi inhibits expression of NDV NP gene in chicken embryo fibroblast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Dingfei LI; Anjing FU; Li MA; Falong YANG; Cheng TANG

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a powerful tool for identifying gene functions. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) is an ideal model for studying the interaction between avian viruses and their hosts. To establish a methodological platform for RNAi studies in CEF, three plasmid vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeted against the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) NP gene were constructed. One of them, ndvl, was proven effective on blocking viral replication in CEF and chicken embryos. Four hours prior to infec-tion with NDV, the CEF was transfected with the plas-raids by Silent-fect. An unrelated shRNA sequence (HK) was used in mock transfection. The expression of a potent shRNA resulted in up to 2.3, 21.1 and 9.8 fold decreases in NP gene expression at 3, 6 and 9 h post infection in CEF, respectively. The ndvl was able to completely inhibit the replication of the virus in CEF within 48 post infection. Furthermore, the pathological changes in CEF caused by NDV were delayed, and the degree of pathological changes was lighter compared with the mock transfection in the presence of ndvl. When the complex of shRNA-Silent-fect and NDV was co-injected into the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old embryonated eggs with 105 or 106 ELD50 NDV, NDV replication was decreased by 94.14% and 62.15% after 17 h, respectively. These find-ings suggest that the newly synthesized NP protein is crit-ical for NDV transcription and replication and provide a basis for identifying the functions of viral genes and screening for effective siRNAs against viruses in CEF and chicken embryo by RNAi.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2007-01-01

    -host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...... UB) showed a constant expression or only slight alteration. Apparently, the host genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and apoptosis, interferon-regulated proteins, and the cellular immune response were affected by IBDV infection, indicating involvement in the complex signaling pathways of host...

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  14. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mattsson

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic

  15. Pathogenicity of M. lipofaciens (strain ML64), isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Lierz, Michael; Stark, Robert; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Brokat, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Some Mycoplasma species are well known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey and a strain of M. lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be patho...

  16. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans Infections in the Alternative Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Chicken Embryo Model Resembles Systemic Murine Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Ilse D; Große, Katharina; Berndt, Angela; Hube, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Alternative models of microbial infections are increasingly used to screen virulence determinants of pathogens. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of Candida albicans and C. glabrata infections in chicken embryos infected via the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) and analyzed the virulence of deletion mutants. The developing immune system of the host significantly influenced susceptibility: With increasing age, embryos became more resistant and mounted a more balanced immune respon...

  17. Infectious bursal disease virus changes the potassium current properties of chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, H; Nieper, H; Draheim, H J; Koschinski, A; Müller, H; Dreyer, F

    1998-07-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of an economically significant poultry disease. IBDV infection leads to apoptosis in chicken embryos and cell cultures. Since changes in cellular ion fluxes during apoptosis have been reported, we investigated the membrane ion currents of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) inoculated with the Cu-1 strain of IBDV using the patch-clamp recording technique. Incubation of CEFs with IBDV led to marked changes in their K+ outward current properties, with respect to both the kinetics of activation and inactivation and the Ca2+ dependence of the activation. The changes occurred in a time-dependent manner and were complete after 8 h. UV-treated noninfectious virions induced the same K+ current changes as live IBDV. When CEFs were inoculated with IBDV after pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody, about 30% of the cells showed a normal K+ current, whereas the rest exhibited K+ current properties identical to or closely resembling those of IBDV-infected cells. Incubation of CEFs with culture supernatant from IBDV-infected cells from which the virus particles were removed had no influence on the K+ current. Our data strongly suggest that the K+ current changes induced by IBDV are not due to virus replication, but are the result of attachment and/or membrane penetration. Possibly, the altered K+ current may delay the apoptotic process in CEFs after IBDV infection. PMID:9657954

  18. Dual labeling of neural crest cells and blood vessels within chicken embryos using Chick(GFP) neural tube grafting and carbocyanine dye DiI injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chick(GFP) embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system. PMID:26065540

  19. In ovo vaccination of chicken embryos with experimental Newcastle disease and avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H; Mitchell, B; Brugh, M

    1997-01-01

    Inactivated oil-emulsion (OE) Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccines were injected into 18-day-old white rock (WR) and white leghorn (WL) chicken embryos to evaluate their immunologic efficacy and their effects on hatchability. Embryonating eggs were inoculated at 1.5 inches depth with various vaccine volumes and antigen concentrations. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were first detected in chickens at 2 wk posthatch. Protection against morbidity and mortality was demonstrated in all of 10 chickens vaccinated as embryos and challenged with viscerotropic velogenic ND virus at 53 days of age and also in all of eight in ovo- vaccinated chickens challenged with highly pathogenic AI virus at 34 days of age. All of five unvaccinated control chickens for each respective ND- and AI-vaccinated group died. In pooled groups from successive hatches, the hatchability of WR or WL embryos injected with 100 microliters of vaccine was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from unvaccinated hatchmate controls when needle gauges of 22, 20, and 18 were used. Seroconversion rates of chickens vaccinated as embryos ranged from 27% to 100% with ND vaccination and 85% to 100% for AI vaccination. For ND, geometric mean HI titers of chickens per vaccine group ranged from 11 to 733, and in pooled groups, the range was 49 to 531. Titers for AI vaccine groups ranged from 156 to 1178. This study demonstrated that acceptable hatchability, seroconversion rates, and protective immunity can be attained with in ovo inoculation of ND or AI OE vaccines if the vaccines are prepared with sufficient antigen and administered properly. PMID:9454919

  20. In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat K. Bhanja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2 expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4 expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken.

  1. In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, Subrat K; Hotowy, Anna; Mehra, Manish; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2) expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken. PMID:25923079

  2. Genome-Wide Characterization of RNA Editing in Chicken Embryos Reveals Common Features among Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome. PMID:26024316

  3. Comparative Analysis of Nkx2-5/GATA4/TBX5 Expression in Chicken, Quail and Chicken-quail Hybrids during the Early Stage of Cardiac Development in Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Qian; Liu, Xiaojun; Hui, Wenqiao; Chen, Danying; Zhao, Zongsheng; Jia, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The present study makes an investigation into expression of genes related to cardiac development in chicken, quail and chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage of embryogenesis. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of Nkx2-5, GATA4 and TBX5 in the heart of chicken, quail and chicken-quail hybrids embryos during the 3rd to 7th days of incubation. Results showed that NKX2-5 mRNA displayed a similar expression trend in chicken, quail and chicken-quail hybrids. The initial and hi...

  4. Cultivation and Characterization of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Gao, Ding Zhang, Muhammad Shahzad, Kerong Zhang, Liru Zhao and Jiakui Li*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding on the biological properties of endothelial cells (ECs, a method for the isolation and identification in vitro culture of avian pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs is described. The isolated and cultured cells from chick embryos were identified by cellular morphology and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that the cultured cells exhibited typical cobblestone morphology viewed under an inverted microscope; and were bound with Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin and stained positive for CD31 and factor VIII-related antigen. In conclusion, the findings of present study for the isolation and cultivation of PMVECs may allow more detailed analysis of their biological properties, and provide a valuable model for studying pathological processes including pulmonary hypertension, ascites and pulmonary vascular remodeling in broiler chickens.

  5. Transcriptional profiles in the cerebral hemisphere of chicken embryos following in ovo perfluorohexane sulfonate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Cristina G; Taylor, Jessica J; O'Brien, Jason M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2012-10-01

    In a recent egg injection study, we showed that in ovo exposure to perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) affects the pipping success of developing chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos. We also found evidence of thyroid hormone (TH) pathway interference at multiple levels of biological organization (i.e., somatic growth, messenger RNA expression, and circulating free thyroxine levels). Based on these findings, we hypothesize that PFHxS exposure interferes with TH-dependent neurodevelopmental pathways. This study investigates global transcriptional profiles in cerebral hemispheres of chicken embryos following exposure to a solvent control, 890 or 38,000 ng PFHxS/g egg (n = 4-5 per group); doses that lead to the adverse effects indicated above. PFHxS significantly alters the expression (≥ 1.5-fold, p ≤ 0.001) of 11 transcripts at the low dose (890 ng/g) and 101 transcripts at the high dose (38,000 ng/g). Functional enrichment analysis shows that PFHxS affects genes involved in tissue development and morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and cell-to-cell signaling. Pathway and interactome analyses suggest that genes may be affected through several potential regulatory molecules, including integrin receptors, myelocytomatosis viral oncogene, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. This study identifies key functional and regulatory modes of PFHxS action involving TH-dependent and -independent neurodevelopmental pathways. Some of these TH-dependent mechanisms that occur during embryonic development include tight junction formation, signal transduction, and integrin signaling, whereas TH-independent mechanisms include gap junction intercellular communication. PMID:22790973

  6. Transcriptional response of chicken embryo cells to Newcastle disease virus (D58 strain) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kirubaharan, J John; Chandran, N Daniel Joy; Gnanapriya, N

    2013-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) in chicken causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry worldwide. The mechanism involved in host response to NDV infection is not well understood. For better understanding of the virus-host interaction; transcriptional profile of some genes of chicken embryo (CE) cells infected with NDV vaccine strain D58 was established using quantitative RT-PCR SYBR Green method. The relative standard curve method was used to measure the level of transcripts of the cellular genes against an endogenous control (β actin) gene. Among the genes studied, IFN α, IFN γ, MHC I and DDX 1 were up-regulated while IL 6 was down regulated. The expression of viral genes (M and F) in the infected CE cells was also confirmed by relative quantification. The host cellular genes involved in pro-inflammatory response, interferon-regulated proteins and the cellular immune response were affected by NDV infection, indicating involvement of complex signaling pathways of host cell responses to the infection. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding of the pathogenesis of ND and provides an insight into the virus-host interaction. PMID:24426287

  7. Effect of copper nanoparticles on metabolic rate and development of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Sawosz, E.; Vadalasetty, K. P.;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an in ovo injection of CuNano and the timing of injection on metabolic rate (O consumption and heat production, HP) and development of layer hatchlings. On day 1 of incubation, 192 fertile eggs from 29-week-old Lohmann breeder strain ch...... embryos and depressed the development of organs; however, it did not affect YFBW, immunoglobulin concentrations and the expression of immuno-related genes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an in ovo injection of CuNano and the timing of injection on metabolic rate (O consumption and heat production, HP) and development of layer hatchlings. On day 1 of incubation, 192 fertile eggs from 29-week-old Lohmann breeder strain...... chickens were distributed into four groups that were administered colloidal CuNano on: day 1 and/or 10. Gaseous exchange was measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and HP was calculated for 16- and 19-day-old embryos. Yolk free body weight (YFBW) at 24h after hatching and the relative organ...

  8. Immunologic effects of low levels of ochratoxin A in ovo: utilization of a chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R B; Kubena, L F; Naqi, S A; Gyimah, J E; Corrier, D E; Panigrahy, B; Phillips, T D

    1987-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) was administered to 13-day-old chicken embryos via the chorioallantoic membrane. The 7-day LD50 value (day 20 incubation) of OA was calculated at 7.9 micrograms of OA. Ochratoxin-treated embryos (2.5 micrograms) had slight but significant changes in numbers of immunoglobulin-bearing cells in the bursa but not in the spleen. Chicks hatched from in ovo-treated eggs were challenged with 9 X 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) of beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli (O1:K1) at 7 days of age via the thoracic air sac. Lesion scores of OA-treated chicks were equal to or less severe than those of controls. Hatchmates of the above chicks were vaccinated with a homologous killed E. coli bacterin (O1:K1) at both 2 and 4 weeks of age and challenged with 10(4) CFU of E. coli at 7 weeks. Post-challenge lesions were present in three vaccinated untreated controls and no OA-treated chicks. We conclude that although in ovo exposure to OA may marginally suppress immunoglobulin-bearing cells of bursa, chicks hatched from OA-treated eggs respond as well as controls to an antigen and resist infection by a virulent organism. PMID:3327493

  9. Depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) by X-irradiation to extraembryonic region of chicken embryos and expression of xenotransplanted quail PGCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of germline chimeras by the transfer of primordial germ cells (PGCs) requires incorporation of the PGCs of the donor into the gonadal tissue of the recipient embryo. We investigated the utility of soft x-irradiation with application of a lead (12 x 3 x 0.25 mm, - 0.1 g) shield to the embryo proper for the production of chicken-quail germline chimeras. Chicken embryos shielded during irradiation for 120s (- 7.2 Gy) at stages 13 to 17 showed a hatchability of 35% (106/301), whereas the hatchability of unshielded embryos was 26% (27/105). The relative population of gonadal PGCs at stage 30 for embryos irradiated at stage 13 with or without shielding was 13 and 5%, respectively, of the value for nonirradiated controls. Chicken embryos irradiated at stages 13 or 14 with or without shielding and transfused with quail embryonic blood containing PGCs each exhibited - 130 relative population of donor PGCs in the left gonad at stage 30. Xenotransplanted hatchlings exhibited donor-derived PGCs as detected by Southern hybridization and PCR. Exposure of chicken embryos to - 7.2 Gy of x-radiation at stage 13 with the application of a lead shield to the embryo proper is thus a feasible approach to depletion of endogenous germ cells and the production of chicken-quail germline chimeras

  10. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    OpenAIRE

    Yefeng Yang; Yonghua Yu; Jinming Pan; Yibin Ying; Hong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). ...

  11. Investigation of the Effects of Pre-Incubation Formaldehyde Fumigation on the Tracheal Epithelium of Chicken Embryos and Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    HAYRETDAĞ, Sibel; KOLANKAYA, Dürdane

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-incubation formaldehyde fumigation on the tracheal epithelium of chicken embryos and chicks. Throughout the study pre-incubation formaldehyde fumigation was applied to 18-day-old embryos and 1-day-old chicks only once, at 1 of 2 different concentrations (3x, 42 ml of formalin and 21 g of potassium permanganate per m3 and 4x, 56 ml of formalin and 28 g of potassium permanganate per m3) for 1 of 2 different durations (20 min and 40 min). Tracheal ...

  12. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  13. A Tentative Mechanism of Solubilization of Neuropathy Target Esterase from Chicken Embryo Brain by Phospholipase A2

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Seifert

    2008-01-01

    The neuropathy target esterase is a membrane-bound enzyme linked to organophosphate-induced distal neuropathy. Here we report a tentative mechanism of its solubilization from chicken embryo brains by using phospholipase A2. The enzyme was released from brain membranes after degradation of their structural phospholipids initiated by phospholipase A2. L-α-lysophosphatidylcholine, tested as a representative product of phospholipid hydrolysis, was identified as a new efficient detergent for solub...

  14. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J W; Denison, M S; Bloom, S E

    1983-06-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole-embryo and viscera preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 DI. Basal AHHase activity was equal to or greater than adult levels from 3 DI through hatching in all preparations (approximately 0.3-0.5 nmol/min per mg). A 3-fold increase in basal activity above adult values occurred at hatching. The onset of inducibility in chicken embryo liver between 5 and 6 DI was concomitant with hepatocyte differentiation. A developmental profile of 24-hr 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-induced AHHase activity showed 15- to 30-fold induction over controls from 7 DI through day 10 after hatching, with a maximum of 15 nmol/min per mg at 14 DI and day 1 after hatching, a specific activity greater than 50% greater than maximal induction in the adult. Embryonic AHHase activity was also induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and sodium phenobarbital. Induction kinetics throughout embryonic development were similar to those reported for the adult chicken and other animals. These findings demonstrate development of a mixed-function oxidase system in very early embryogenesis and then in the liver as it differentiates. Liver AHHase activity is inducible throughout development and perinatally but such activity is under strict developmental regulation. The chicken embryo has adult levels of AHHase activity which would be sufficient to achieve metabolic activation of promutagens/carcinogens before and after hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:6407011

  15. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, J. W.; Denison, M. S.; Bloom, S E

    1983-01-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole...

  16. A Tentative Mechanism of Solubilization of Neuropathy Target Esterase from Chicken Embryo Brain by Phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Seifert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathy target esterase is a membrane-bound enzyme linked to organophosphate-induced distal neuropathy. Here we report a tentative mechanism of its solubilization from chicken embryo brains by using phospholipase A2. The enzyme was released from brain membranes after degradation of their structural phospholipids initiated by phospholipase A2. L-α-lysophosphatidylcholine, tested as a representative product of phospholipid hydrolysis, was identified as a new efficient detergent for solubilization of the neuropathy target esterase.

  17. Chronic in ovo hypoxia decreases pulmonary arterial contractile reactivity and induces biventricular cardiac enlargement in the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Eduardo; Kessels, Carolina G A; Ruijtenbeek, Karin; van Suylen, Robert J; Belik, Jaques; de Mey, Jo G R; Blanco, Carlos E

    2004-09-01

    Although chronic prenatal hypoxia is considered a major cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, experimental studies have failed to consistently find pulmonary hypertensive changes after chronic intrauterine hypoxia. We hypothesized that chronic prenatal hypoxia induces changes in the pulmonary vasculature of the chicken embryo. We analyzed pulmonary arterial reactivity and structure and heart morphology of chicken embryos maintained from days 6 to 19 of the 21-day incubation period under normoxic (21% O(2)) or hypoxic (15% O(2)) conditions. Hypoxia increased mortality (0.46 vs. 0.14; P < 0.01) and reduced the body mass of the surviving 19-day embryos (22.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 26.6 +/- 0.7 g; P < 0.01). A decrease in the response of the pulmonary artery to KCl was observed in the 19-day hypoxic embryos. The contractile responses to endothelin-1, the thromboxane A(2) mimetic U-46619, norepinephrine, and electrical-field stimulation were also reduced in a proportion similar to that observed for KCl-induced contractions. In contrast, no hypoxia-induced decrease of response to vasoconstrictors was observed in externally pipped 21-day embryos (incubated under normoxia for the last 2 days). Relaxations induced by ACh, sodium nitroprusside, or forskolin were unaffected by chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary artery, but femoral artery segments of 19-day hypoxic embryos were significantly less sensitive to ACh than arteries of control embryos [pD(2) (= -log EC(50)): 6.51 +/- 0.1 vs. 7.05 +/- 0.1, P < 0.01]. Pulmonary vessel density, percent wall area, and periarterial sympathetic nerve density were not different between control and hypoxic embryos. In contrast, hypoxic hearts showed an increase in right and left ventricular wall area and thickness. We conclude that, in the chicken embryo, chronic moderate hypoxia during incubation transiently reduced pulmonary arterial contractile reactivity, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of femoral but not pulmonary

  18. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2015-01-01

    . Experiments were performed on Ross 308 chicken embryos from 160 fertilised eggs. Experimental solutions of silver nanoparticles (Ag), hydroxyproline solution (Hyp) and a complex of silver nanoparticles with hydroxyproline (AgHyp) were injected into albumen, and embryos were incubated until day 20. An...

  19. Toxicity of pristine graphene in experiments in a chicken embryo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawosz E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz,1 Slawomir Jaworski,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Anna Hotowy,1 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Marta Grodzik,1 Natalia Kurantowicz,1 Barbara Strojny,1 Ludwika Lipinska,2 André Chwalibog3 1Division of Nanobiotechnology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Evaluation of the potential cytotoxicity of graphene is a key factor for medical applications, where flakes or a surface of graphene may be used as bioactive molecules, drug carriers, or biosensors. In the present work, effects of pristine graphene (pG on the development of a living organism, with an emphasis on morphological and molecular states of the brain, were investigated using a chicken embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the control group and groups administered with pG suspended in milli-Q water at concentrations of 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, 500 µg/L, 1,000 µg/L, 5,000 µg/L, and 10,000 µg/L (n=30 per group. The experimental solutions were injected in ovo into the albumin and then the eggs were incubated. After 19 days of incubation, the survival, weight of the body and organs, and blood serum biochemical indices were measured. The brain samples were collected for microscopic examination of brain ultrastructure and measurements of gene and protein expression. Survival of embryos was significantly decreased after treatment with pG, but the body and organ weights as well as biochemical indices were not affected. In all treatment groups, some atypical ultrastructures of the brain were observed, but they were not enhanced by the increasing concentrations of pG. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at the messenger ribonucleic acid level was downregulated, and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei was significantly reduced in the 500–10,000 µg

  20. Development of basal and induced testosterone hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, M; Pozzetti, L; Sapone, A; Biagi, G L; Cantelli-Forti, G

    1997-09-01

    1. The sensitivity of the developing embryo to xenobiotics is highly dependent on the expression of metabolizing enzymes including cytochromes P450 (CYP). In the present study, therefore, the ontogeny of the CYP-dependent system in the chick was investigated with testosterone hydroxylase activity as a marker of CYP expression. 2. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and phenobarbitone (PB)-induced regio- and stereo-selective testosterone hydroxylase activity, from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation through day 10 posthatching. In addition, whole embryo preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 days of incubation. 3. Whereas testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylase and androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione-linked activities were expressed during all stages of embryonic development, testosterone 6 alpha-, 6 beta-, 7 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities were observed only in basal embryos from 8 days of incubation. Furthermore, testosterone 2 alpha- and 2 beta-hydroxylase activities were detected exclusively from 10 days of incubation onward. All activities increased steadily throughout development as did the responsiveness of the embryonic liver to PB induction. 4. A typical pattern of development with a higher activity from 10 to 14 days of incubation (testosterone 16 alpha-, 7 alpha-, 6 alpha- and 2 beta-hydroxylase activities; up to 4.1 +/- 0.3 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 at 13 days of incubation for testosterone 7 alpha-hydroxylase) or shifted to 14 to 18 days of incubation (testosterone 6 beta-, 2 alpha- and 16 beta-hydroxylase activities: up to 56.6 +/- 1.4 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 at 16 days of incubation for testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase) was observed. There was a tendency towards an increased activity for all activities around hatching, specifically from 19 days of incubation to 4 days posthatching (up to 1,759.3 +/- 179.4 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 at 1 day posthatching for androst-4-ene-3,17-dione-linked activity). 5. The highest

  1. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching. PMID:25900009

  2. Standard-curve competitive RT-PCR quantification of myogenic regulatory factors in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Alvares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the most sensitive method used to evaluate gene expression. Although many advances have been made since quantitative RT-PCR was first described, few reports deal with the mathematical bases of this technique. The aim of the present study was to develop and standardize a competitive PCR method using standard-curves to quantify transcripts of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf-5, Myogenin and MRF4 in chicken embryos. Competitor cDNA molecules were constructed for each gene under study using deletion primers, which were designed to maintain the anchorage sites for the primers used to amplify target cDNAs. Standard-curves were prepared by co-amplification of different amounts of target cDNA with a constant amount of competitor. The content of specific mRNAs in embryo cDNAs was determined after PCR with a known amount of competitor and comparison to standard-curves. Transcripts of the housekeeping ß-actin gene were measured to normalize the results. As predicted by the model, most of the standard-curves showed a slope close to 1, while intercepts varied depending on the relative efficiency of competitor amplification. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR method permitted the detection of as few as 60 MyoD/Myf-5 molecules per reaction but approximately 600 molecules of MRF4/Myogenin mRNAS were necessary to produce a measurable signal. A coefficient of variation of 6 to 19% was estimated for the different genes analyzed (6 to 9 repetitions. The competitive RT-PCR assay described here is sensitive, precise and allows quantification of up to 9 transcripts from a single cDNA sample.

  3. Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus): I. Developmental effects and chronic and acute metabolic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Juli L; Burggren, Warren W

    2004-04-01

    Chronic exposure to a low incubation temperature clearly slows the development of poikilothemic chicken embryos (or any other poikilotherms), but little is known about the more subtle developmental effects of temperature, especially on physiological regulatory systems. Consequently, two populations of chicken embryos were incubated at 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C. When compared at the same development stage, incubation temperature had no significant impact on embryonic survival or growth. Moreover, the relative timing of major developmental landmarks (e.g. internal pipping), expressed as a percentage of development, was unaffected by temperature. The ability to maintain the rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) during an acute drop in ambient temperature (T(a)) improved from Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stages 39-40 to 43-44 in the 38 degrees C but not the 35 degrees C populations. Late stage (HH43-44) embryos incubated at 38 degrees C could maintain (O(2)) (approximately 27-33 micro l g(-1) min(-1)) during an acute drop in T(a) to approximately 30 degrees C. However, at the same stage 35 degrees C embryos acutely measured at 38 degrees C were unable to similarly maintain their (O(2)), which fell as soon as T(a) reached 36 degrees C. Thus, while hypothermic incubation does not affect gross development (other than would be predicted from a simple effect of Q(10)), there is a significant delay in the relative timing of the onset of thermoregulatory ability induced by hypothermic incubation. PMID:15037648

  4. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively. PMID:10216755

  5. Identification, purification, and characterization of phosphotyrosine-specific protein phosphatases from cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrosine phosphorylation catalyzed by a unique class of protein kinases is an important process in both normal cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation. In this study, phosphoprotein phosphatases specific for the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine residues were partially purified from secondary chicken embryo fibroblasts, using 32P-labeled immunoglobulin G. The soluble activity was purified by using DEAE-cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography and gel filtration, and at least three enzyme species of apparent Mr 55,000 (pTPI), 50,000 (pTPII), and 95,000 (pTPIII) were resolved. All three enzymes possessed somewhat similar properties. They had a pH optimum of about 7.4, they were inhibited by Zn2+, vanadate, ATP, and ADP, and they were unaffected by divalent metal cations, EDTA, and F- under standard assay conditions employing a physiological ionic strength. These properties suggest that they represent a class of enzymes distinct from well-known phosphoseryl-phosphothreonyl-protein phosphatases and that dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins may be carried out by a unique family of phosphoprotein phosphatases. Transformation by Rous sarcoma virus resulted in a small increase in phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity

  6. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  7. Applications of Tol2 Transposon-Mediated Gene Transfer for Stable Integration and Conditional Expression of Electroporated Genes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    Because of the high accessibility to developing embryos, avian embryos (chicken and quail) have long been used as a good model animal to study embryogenesis in vertebrates, especially amniotes (reviewed in Wolpert, 2004). The techniques used for “classical” avian embryology included tissue transplantations, tissue ablations, and cell-labeling by vital dye. At the end of the last century, the in ovo electropora tion technique was developed by Nakamura and his colleagues, and this modern method opened a way to study the roles of developmental genes directly in living embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999) reviewed in (Nakamura et al., 2004; Yasuda et al., 2000; Yasugi and Nakamura, 2000). This powerful technique allows us to introduce genes (DNA, RNA, morpholino) into embryos in a tissue-specific way by targeting a restricted area of embryonic tissues. Thus, the electroporation technique using chickens has provided numerous novel insights into the understanding of early development in vertebrates, making the chicken a unique model animal.

  8. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds' glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  9. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  10. Tet-on inducible system combined with in ovo electroporation dissects multiple roles of genes in somitogenesis of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadayoshi; Saito, Daisuke; Tanabe, Koji; Suetsugu, Rinako; Nakaya, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2007-05-15

    The in ovo electroporation technique in chicken embryos has enabled investigators to uncover the functions of numerous developmental genes. In this technique, the ubiquitous promoter, CAGGS (CMV base), has often been used for overexpression experiments. However, if a given gene plays a role in multiple steps of development and if overexpression of this gene causes fatal consequences at the time of electroporation, its roles in later steps of development would be overlooked. Thus, a technique with which expression of an electroporated DNA can be controlled in a stage-specific manner needs to be formulated. Here we show for the first time that the tetracycline-controlled expression method, "tet-on" and "tet-off", works efficiently to regulate gene expression in electroporated chicken embryos. We demonstrate that the onset or termination of expression of an electroporated DNA can be precisely controlled by timing the administration of tetracycline into an egg. Furthermore, with this technique we have revealed previously unknown roles of RhoA, cMeso-1 and Pax2 in early somitogenesis. In particular, cMeso-1 appears to be involved in cell condensation of a newly forming somite by regulating Pax2 and NCAM expression. Thus, the novel molecular technique in chickens proposed in this study provides a useful tool to investigate stage-specific roles of developmental genes. PMID:17359965

  11. The developmental stage of chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Lévy, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    Like mammals, bird embryos are capable of chemosensory learning, but the ontogeny of their feeding preferences has not been examined. We tested if the timing of stimulation in chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on later food preferences. We exposed chicken embryos to an olfactory stimulus for a 4-day period in the middle or toward the end of the incubation period. The chicks were tested for their preference between foods with and without the olfactory stimulus in 3-min choice tests and on a 24-h time scale. Regardless of the type of food (familiar or novel) or the duration of the test, the control chicks not exposed to the olfactory stimulus consistently showed significant preferences for non-odorized foods. Chicks that were exposed in ovo to the olfactory stimulus did not show a preference for odorized or non-odorized foods. Only those chicks that were exposed to the olfactory stimulus toward the end of the incubation period differed from the controls and incorporated a higher proportion of odorized food into their diets on a 24-h time scale. This result indicates that olfactory stimulation at the end of embryonic development has a stronger impact on later feeding preferences. Our findings contribute to the growing pool of recent data appreciating the impact of olfactory signals on behavior regulation in avian species. PMID:22080043

  12. In Ovo administration of silver nanoparticles and/or amino acids influence metabolism and immune gene expression in chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Subrat K.; Anna Hotowy; Manish Mehra; Ewa Sawosz; Lane Pineda; Krishna Prasad Vadalasetty; Natalia Kurantowicz; André Chwalibog

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or Na...

  13. Developmental effects induced by chronic and prolonged exposure of chicken embryos to 900 MHz GSM base station radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interference from base station radiation with embryonic development was investigated by chronic and prolonged exposure of developing chicken embryos. The latter were exposed under a 900 MHz GSM base station radiating microwaves at recommended safety level, i.e., 41 V/m. Total death rate was 7.7 times higher among radiation exposed embryos (78.5%) than among sham exposures (10.2%). Radiation exposure was associated with delayed hatching (3.2 days) and slightly but significantly increased (P<0.01) weight of hatchings. These finding indicated that base station radiation can induce lethal effect, as well as developmental retardation. They arouse questioning as to the adequacy of current safety guidelines. (author)

  14. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter; Schmidt, Mette; Larsen, Knud; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets. The techniques of nuclear transfer have been developed markedly through the increasing number of studies performed, and the results have become more stable. Prolonged in vitro culture period did not lead to any negative effect on nuclear transfer embryos after their transfer and it resulted in a similar or even higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems. PMID:25482653

  15. Endogenous expression of ASLV viral proteins in specific pathogen free chicken embryos: relevance for the developmental biology research field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canto-Soler M Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF eggs in combination with RCAS retrovirus, a member of the Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus (ASLV family, is of standard practice to study gene function and development. SPF eggs are certified free of infection by specific pathogen viruses of either exogenous or endogenous origin, including those belonging to the ASLV family. Based on this, SPF embryos are considered to be free of ASLV viral protein expression, and consequently in developmental research studies RCAS infected cells are routinely identified by immunohistochemistry against the ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Contrary to this generally accepted notion, observations in our laboratory suggested that certified SPF chicken embryos may endogenously express ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Since these observations may have significant implications for the developmental research field we further investigated this possibility. Results We demonstrate that certified SPF chicken embryos have transcriptionally active endogenous ASLV loci (ev loci capable of expressing ASLV viral proteins, such as p19 and p27, even when those loci are not capable of producing viral particles. We also show that the extent of viral protein expression in embryonic tissues varies not only among flocks but also between embryos of the same flock. In addition, our genetic screening revealed significant heterogeneity in ev loci composition even among embryos of the same flock. Conclusions These observations have critical implications for the developmental biology research field, since they strongly suggest that the current standard methodology used in experimental studies using the chick embryo and RCAS vectors may lead to inaccurate interpretation of results. Retrospectively, our observations suggest that studies in which infected cells have been identified simply by pan-ASLV viral protein expression may need to be considered with caution. For future studies, they

  16. Application of CdTe/ZnSe quantum dots in in vitro imaging of chicken tissue and embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulick, Amitava; Blazkova, Iva; Milosavljevic, Vedran; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kopel, Pavel; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed to synthesize CdTe/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) in an easy way and to explore the possibilities of its application in in vitro imaging of chicken tissue and embryo. The QDs were prepared using microwave irradiation with different temperatures, which is a very easy and less time-consuming method. Subsequently, these QDs were characterized by spectrofluorimetry, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering measurement. A blueshifting of the emission was found when ZnSe was deposited on CdTe QDs. The QDs showed its fluorescence emission quantum yields up to 25%. They were applied into chicken embryos and breast muscle tissues to study their efficiency in in vitro imaging. All the QDs of different color were able to visualize in in vitro imaging. The highest fluorescence intensity was detected in the case of red QDs prepared at 100°C. The green and red QDs were possible to detect up to the depth of 3 and 4 mm of the tissue, respectively. PMID:25476270

  17. A study upon the influence of cyclophosphamide treatment on the red blood cells of the chicken embryo (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Anca HAS-LAZAU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the effect of cyclophosphamide on the eveloping red blood cells of the 3-4 days old chicken embryo, when the hematopoiesis is at its peack, located at the vitelline sack level.I have chosen to work with the chicken embryo red blood cells because they have an intense mitotic activity as well as a tumoural cell-like behaviour.It is vital to know the particularities of the cell cycle of the healthy and tumoural cells, keeping in mind that most of the cytostatics act upon the cell which are developing their cell cycle (Menkes B., Prelipceanu O., Checiu I., Căpălnăşan I. 1979.The cyclophosphamide is not stage-dependent, as it acts in all the stages of the cell cycle, its mutagen effect being accompanied also by a cell cycle stopping (Paşca C., Crăciun C., Ardelean A. 2000.Cyclophosphamide supply determines retrenchment of the cell division, transforming the normal cells into multinucleated cells, with normal ploydia. The cyclophosphamide is a cytostatic using for cancer therapy (Schiavoni G., Mattei F., Di Pucchio T., Santini S. M., Bracci L., Berardelli F., Proietti F. 2000.Reshearches have done lots of studies along the years both on mice and rats, concerning the effects of cyclophosphamide on: thymus and burse fabricio ( Giurgea R., Toma V., 1977, stromal cells of bone marrow (Anton E. 1997, pulmonary thrombocytopoiesis (Sulkowki S., Sulkowska M., Musiatowikz B. 1997.

  18. Bleomycin - induced DNA damage and DNA repair in chicken embryo cells as compared to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following in vitro- and in ovo-exposure of chicken embryo cells, the level of bleomycin (BM) - induced damage was evaluated by using DNA synthesis, nucleoid sedimentation (SED), and viscometry of alkaline cell lysates (VISC). This damage was compared to X-irradiation, using 5.9-378 nM BM in vitro, 1.5-116 μg BM/egg in ovo, and 2-32 Gy, respectively, in vitro as well as in ovo. With respect to BM, the most notable result is the increase in DNA synthesis and VISC at the lowest concentrations of the drug. A decrease in both parameters was observed at high BM concentrations and following exposure to X-rays, concomitantly with an increase in SED. Regarding the radiomimetic drug BM and X-rays, different modes of DNA damage and DNA repair are suggested by previous investigations and the present results. Therefore, further evidence is presented, that the chicken embryo can act as a simple, rapid and inexpensive test system to characterize the biological effects of many nucleo- and/or cytotoxic agents. (orig.)

  19. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Grodzik; Filip Sawosz; Ewa Sawosz; Anna Hotowy; Mateusz Wierzbicki; Marta Kutwin; Sławomir Jaworski; André Chwalibog

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with L-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evalu...

  20. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  1. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of two infectious laryngotracheitis virus chicken embryo origin vaccines delivered via drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute infectious viral disease that affects chickens, causing respiratory disease, loss of production and mortality in severe cases. Biosecurity measures and administration of attenuated viral vaccine strains are commonly used to prevent ILT. It is notable that most recent ILT outbreaks affecting the intensive poultry industry have been caused by vaccine-related virus strains. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare viral replication and transmission patterns of two attenuated chicken embryo origin ILT vaccines delivered via the drinking water. Two groups of specific pathogen free chickens were each inoculated with SA-2 ILT or Serva ILT vaccine strains. Unvaccinated birds were then placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days over a period of 60 days and examined for the presence and amount of virus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A rapid increase in viral genome copy numbers was observed shortly after inoculation with SA-2 ILT virus. In contrast, a comparatively delayed virus replication was observed after vaccination with Serva ILT virus. Transmission to in-contact birds occurred soon after exposure to Serva ILT virus but only several days after exposure to SA-2 ILT virus. Results from this study demonstrate in vivo differences between ILT vaccine strains in virus replication and transmission patterns. PMID:22515537

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels show a midembryogenesis peak in chicken that is absent in growth-retarded embryos cultured ex ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robcis, H L; Caldes, T; de Pablo, F

    1991-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the primary mediator of GH action after birth, but its role as a regulator of prenatal growth is unclear. In a previous study we showed that IGF-I mRNA was expressed in chicken embryos beginning at the blastoderm stage (day 0, newly laid egg). Here we present the ontogeny of serum IGF-I in normal and growth-retarded chicken embryos. Serum samples were pooled from multiple embryos starting on day 4 of development in ovo until hatching (day 21). Extracts of day 2 and 3 whole embryos were also studied. IGF-binding proteins were removed by filtration on Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges. IGF-I was quantitated by a heterologous RIA validated for chicken species. Embryonic IGF-I showed a HPLC profile similar to that of adult chicken serum IGF-I. Serum IGF-I was measurable on day 6 of development (approximately 0.04 ng/ml), reached a peak on day 15 (18 ng/ml), and decreased to a low concentration (0.2 ng/ml) the day before hatching. Embryos cultured ex ovo showed progressive growth retardation after day 10 of development, and by day 20 their weight was 50% of normal. The serum IGF-I concentration of ex ovo cultured embryos was normal on day 10, but remained low until day 21, without the midembryogenesis rise observed in normal embryos. These results support the concept that IGF-I may have a role in general embryonic growth in addition to any paracrine/autocrine action in individual tissues. PMID:1706261

  3. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kutwin, Marta; Jaworski, Sławomir; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    It has been considered that concentrations of certain amino acids in the egg are not sufficient to fully support embryonic development of modern broilers. In this study we evaluated embryo growth and development with particular emphasis on one of the major components of connective tissue, collagen. Experiments were performed on Ross 308 chicken embryos from 160 fertilised eggs. Experimental solutions of silver nanoparticles (Ag), hydroxyproline solution (Hyp) and a complex of silver nanoparticles with hydroxyproline (AgHyp) were injected into albumen, and embryos were incubated until day 20. An assessment of the mass of embryo and selected organs was carried out followed by measurements of the expression of the key signalling factors' fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Finally, an evaluation of collagen microstructure using scanning electron microscopy was performed. Our results clearly indicate that Hyp, Ag and AgHyp administered in ovo to chicken embryos did not harm embryos. Comparing to the control group, Hyp, Ag and the AgHyp complex significantly upregulated expression of the FGF-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Hyp, Ag and, in particular, the complex of AgHyp significantly increased blood vessel size, cartilage collagen fibre lattice size and bundle thickness. The general conclusion from this study is that AgHyp treatment may help to build a stronger and longer lasting form of collagen fibres. PMID:25530495

  4. Experimental manipulation of compaction of the mouse embryo alters patterns of protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compaction, occurring at the eight-cell stage of mouse development, is the process of cell flattening and polarisation by which cellular asymmetry is first established. Changes in the pattern of protein phosphorylation have been correlated with this early event of development. In the study reported here, groups of embryos were treated in ways known to affect particular features of compaction and were then labeled with [32P]orthophosphate; the phosphoproteins obtained were examined following electrophoresis in one and two dimensions. Four-cell embryos were treated with protein synthesis inhibitors, which advance cell flattening. This treatment resulted in only minor differences from the phosphoprotein profile of untreated four-cell embryos. Inhibition of protein synthesis at the eight-cell stage has little effect on cell flattening or polarisation. However, some phosphoproteins that are observed normally in eight-cell but not in four-cell embryos were no longer detectable if labeling took place in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Eight-cell embryos incubated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which disrupts various features of compaction, showed a relative increase in the phosphorylation of a group of phosphoprotein spots associated with the eight-cell but not with the four-cell stage. Embryos incubated in Ca2(+)-free medium, which prevents intercellular flattening and delays polarisation, showed a relative decrease in the phosphorylation of the same group of phosphoprotein spots. The behaviour of these phosphoproteins may therefore be correlated with some of the features of compaction

  5. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos was...... calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and then slowing down between 16 and 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. HE...... followed the pattern of gas exchange, with a mean around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19. The main source of HE was oxidized fat. In addition to respiration experiments chemical analyses were carried out on 60 eggs from RO and 60 from LA. Prior to chemical analyses the...

  6. The effect of in ovo boron supplementation on bone mineralization of the vitamin D-deficient chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N; Odom, T W; Sampson, H W; Yersin, A G

    1991-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that boron (B) is an essential element for animals, but its action will vary greatly depending on the nutriture of the organism. One of the nutrients implicated as having an interaction with boron is cholecalciferol (Vit D3). This study was carried out to determine if such an interaction exists. The study was conducted utilizing vitamin D-deficient chicken embryos that were injected through the shell at 8 d of embryogenesis with carrier (NaCl and/or acetone), B (0.5 mg), B + Vit D3 (0.5 mg and 0.3 microgram, respectively), or Vit D3 (0.3 or 1.5 micrograms). The in ovo concomitant administration of boron and vitamin D enhanced (p less than 0.05) the hatchability of the vitamin D-deficient embryos. Furthermore, boron and/or vitamin D3 increased (p less than 0.05) the percent of bone ash and decreased (p less than 0.05) the exaggerated height of the proliferative zone of the epiphyseal growth plate normally observed in vitamin D deficiency, suggesting a more rapid bone formation. The results provide further evidence supporting the hypothesis that boron plays a role in bone mineralization through an interaction with vitamin D. PMID:1723613

  7. Isomer-specific accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to a technical mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Kennedy, Sean W; Chu, Shaogang; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Prior to its recent phaseout, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was produced by electrochemical fluorination processes, which yielded technical mixtures composed of linear isomer (∼65-79%) and several branched isomers (∼21-35%). Because PFOS can biomagnify in wildlife, birds that occupy higher trophic levels are at increased risk of exposure. We hypothesized that the pharmacokinetic properties of PFOS are isomer-specific in developing chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos exposed to technical grade PFOS (T-PFOS). In the present study, T-PFOS was composed of 62.7% linear isomer (L-PFOS), and 37.3% branched isomer, including six mono(trifluoromethyl)-branched isomers and four bis(trifluoromethyl)-branched isomers. Concentrations of 0.1, 5, or 100 µg/g of T-PFOS were injected into the air cell of chicken eggs prior to incubation. After pipping, compared with T-PFOS, the PFOS isomer profile in embryonic liver tissue for the 0.1 µg/g dose group showed 21% enrichment in the proportion of L-PFOS with a corresponding decrease in the proportion of branched isomers. Not all branched isomers were discriminated against at equal rates. The proportion of two mono(trifluoromethyl)-branched isomers and three bis(trifluoromethyl)-branched isomers decreased to a greater degree than other branched isomers. In contrast, the mono-branched isomer, P6MHpS, was overrepresented in the low-dose group. In the higher dose groups, L-PFOS was still enriched but only by approximately 10%, which indicated a dose-dependent change in isomer composition relative to T-PFOS. These results show that accumulation of PFOS in chicken embryo livers is dependent on the presence and position of branches on the alkyl backbone. This supports the hypothesis that the pharmacokinetics of PFOS are isomer-specific in biota, and may help explain why wildlife PFOS burdens are dominated by L-PFOS relative to T-PFOS mixtures. PMID:20928918

  8. 5-Methylcytosine-DNA glycosylase activity is present in a cloned G/T mismatch DNA glycosylase associated with the chicken embryo DNA demethylation complex

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Bing; Zheng, Yong; Hess, Daniel; Angliker, Herbert; Schwarz, Steffen; Siegmann, Michel; Thiry, Stéphane; Jost, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    We previously have shown that DNA demethylation by chicken embryo 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase (5-MCDG) needs both RNA and proteins. One of these proteins is a RNA helicase. Further peptides were sequenced, and three of them are identical to the mammalian G/T mismatch DNA glycosylase. A 3,233-bp cDNA coding for the chicken homologue of human G/T mismatch DNA glycosylase was isolated and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence (408 aa) shows 80% identity with the human G/T mismatch DNA ...

  9. In ovo leptin administration inhibits chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis in female chicken embryos through the STAT3-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L; Rao, K; Guo, F; Li, X; Ahmed, A A; Ni, Y; Grossmann, R; Zhao, R

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that leptin regulates placental angiogenesis and fetal growth in mammals and that in ovo leptin administration affects embryonic development and hatch weight in the chicken. To test the hypothesis that leptin affects embryonic growth through modifying chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis, we injected 0.5 μg of recombinant murine leptin into the albumen of fertilized eggs before incubation. On embryonic day 12 (E12), the number and the total area of blood vessels on CAM were measured, and expression of genes involved in angiogenesis was quantitated to show the possible mechanisms. Leptin in ovo administration decreased (P < 0.05) both the total area of blood vessels and the number of small-sized capillaries on CAM of E12 female chicken embryos, which coincided with significantly decreased (P < 0.05) embryo weight on E12 and BW at hatching. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (iNOS and eNOS) were all downregulated (P < 0.05) in CAM both at the mRNA and protein/activity levels with reduced (P < 0.05) nitric oxide (NO) concentration in chorioallantoic fluid of female embryos. Furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) was found to be diminished (P < 0.05) both at the mRNA and protein levels and associated with decreased (P < 0.05) binding of STAT3 to VEGF promotor in the CAM of leptin-treated E12 female embryos. These data suggest that in ovo leptin administration affects CAM angiogenesis and embryo growth in female chicken embryos, probably through STAT3-mediated VEGF/NO pathways. PMID:22417645

  10. Temperature and CO2 during the hatching phase. II. Effects on chicken embryo physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Anker, van den I.; Molenaar, R.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of eggshell temperature (EST) and carbon dioxide concentration during only the hatching phase on physiological characteristics of embryos and chicks. Three groups of eggs were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until d 19 of incubation (E19). From

  11. Breeder age and bone development in broiler chicken embryos Idade da matriz e desenvolvimento ósseo em embriões de frango de corte

    OpenAIRE

    K.A. Alfonso-Torres; L.H. Gargaglioni; J.M. Pizauro; D.E. Faria Filho; R.L. Furlan; M Macari

    2009-01-01

    The effect of breeder age on long bone development was studied in chicken embryos from 12 days of incubation until hatching. Fertile eggs were incubated and randomly assigned in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (two breeder ages - 38 and 60 weeks and six incubation days - 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 21). Enzymatic activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in tibial epiphyses and weights as well as length and width in tibias and femurs of the embryos were determined. Tartrate-resistant acid and alka...

  12. In ovo feeding improves energy status of late-term chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uni, Z; Ferket, P R; Tako, E; Kedar, O

    2005-05-01

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during late-term embryonic development is dependent upon the amount of glucose held in reserve primarily in the form of glycogen in the liver and upon the degree of glucose generated by gluconeogenesis from protein first mobilized from amnion albumen and then from muscle. Insufficient glycogen and albumen will force the embryo to mobilize more muscle protein toward gluconeogenesis, thus restricting growth of the late-term embryo and hatchling. We hypothesize that administration of available carbohydrates to the amnion will improve glycogen reserves and spare muscle protein mobilization for gluconeogenesis during late-term embryonic and posthatch neonatal development. Our hypothesis was tested by comparing BW gain, liver glycogen reserves, and muscle weight of in ovo fed and control embryos during last days of embryonic incubation until 25 d after hatching. We examined, using 600 birds from 2 different strains of commercial boilers, body and muscle weights and glycogen reserves following feeding embryos at d 17.5 of incubation with a solution containing maltose, sucrose, dextrin, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Providing carbohydrates and HMB to late-term embryos increased hatching weights by 5 to 6% over controls, improved liver glycogen by 2- to 5-fold, and elevated relative breast muscle size by 6 to 8%. These weight advantages were sustained through the end of the experiments at 25 d of age. It is reasonable to assume that the elevated glycogen levels in the in ovo treatment reduce the need to produce glucose via gluconeogenesis and, therefore, contribute to less use of muscle protein and hence a greater percentage of pectoral muscle weight in the in ovo birds. PMID:15913189

  13. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM increased cell proliferation (6% at 7 days (p 4.92 nM increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30% at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of  Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell proliferation in human cell lines at concentrations higher than 4.92 n

  14. In ovo administration of boron alters bone mineralization of the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N; Odom, T W; Sampson, H W; Pardue, S L

    1991-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that boron (B) is an essential element for animals, especially in bone metabolism. In this study, the influence of in ovo boron administration was assessed in the chicken. At 8 d of embryogenesis, carrier or B (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg) was injected on to the chorioallantoic membrane of fertile eggs. At hatching, body weights were recorded and tissue samples collected. Although boron failed to alter bone mineralization, it decreased (p less than 0.05) dried bone weight, suggesting a reduction in the bone organic matrix. Furthermore, 1 mg boron decreased (p less than 0.05) hatchability and increased (p less than 0.05) the height of the proliferative zone in the growth plate, indicating an unfavorable effect on bone elongation of the developing chick. PMID:1718368

  15. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  16. Roles of Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 in the inflammatory response to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in DF-1 cells and in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhao, Chengcheng; Hu, Qingchuang; Sun, Jianjun; Peng, Xiuli

    2016-06-01

    While Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen that causes chronic respiratory diseases in chicken, the molecular mechanism of MG infection is not clear. In this study, we investigated the roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and 6 (TLR6) in MG infection. We found that TLR2 type 2 (TLR2-2) and TLR6 had differential expressions in chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1 cells), where TLR6 was highly expressed, but TLR2-2 was barely expressed. Upon MG infection, TLR6 expression was upregulated, followed by upregulation of downstream factors, MyD88, NF-κB, IL2, IL6, and TNF-α. Knockdown of TLR6 expression by shRNA abolished the MG-induced inflammatory responses. More interestingly, in the presence of TLR6, TLR2-2 didn't respond to MG infection in DF-1 cells. When TLR6 was knocked down by shRNA, however, TLR2 was upregulated upon MG infection, which was followed by upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Finally, we tested effects of the MG infection on expression of TLR2-2 and TLR6 in the lungs and trachea tissues of chicken embryos. We found both TLR2-2 and TLR6 were upregulated upon MG infection, followed by upregulation of the downstream NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses. This study was the first to report the differential roles of TLR2-2 and TLR6 in MG-infected DF-1 cells and chicken embryos. PMID:26797426

  17. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  18. Sex-dependent gene expression in early brain development of chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigson Michael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. Results Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head that may be independent of morphological differentiation of the gonads. Genes located on the sex chromosomes (ZZ in males and ZW in females were common among the differentially expressed genes, several of which (WPKCI-8, HINT, MHM non-coding RNA have previously been implicated in avian sex determination. A majority of the identified genes were more highly expressed in males. Three of these genes (CDK7, CCNH and BTF2-P44 encode subunits of the transcription factor IIH complex, indicating a role for this complex in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into sexually dimorphic gene expression in the embryonic chicken brain and its possible involvement in sex differentiation of the nervous system in birds.

  19. Tissue distribution of avian infectious bronchitis virus following in ovo inoculation of chicken embryos examined by in situ hybridization with antisense digoxigenin-labeled universal riboprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Won; Brown, Corrie; Jackwood, Mark W

    2002-09-01

    Chicken embryos were inoculated with 8 different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) representing 7 different serotypes at 17 days of embryonation. At 2 and 5 days postinfection (dpi), tissues were collected for in situ hybridization using an antisense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the mRNA coding for the membrane protein. Extensive antigen staining in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the trachea, lung, bursa, and intestine was detected at 2 dpi with all 8 strains of IBV. At 5 dpi, little or no positive staining was observed in these tissues. However, tubular cells of the kidney showed multifocal positive staining with the Wolgemuth strain-, Gray strain-, JMK strain-, and Mass41 strain-infected chickens. No viral RNA was detected in the spleen at any time point. The results demonstrated strict epitheliotropic nature and wide tissue tropism of strains of IBV in the chicken embryo and the universality of our riboprobe. In situ hybridization with this probe will be useful for understanding the tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of IBV in vivo. PMID:12296388

  20. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has long-term effects on muscle and liver metabolism in fast-growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Thomas; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Berri, Cécile; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Sannier, Mélanie; Chartrin, Pascal; Praud, Christophe; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rideau, Nicole; Couroussé, Nathalie; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Everaert, Nadia; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Yahav, Shlomo; Tesseraud, Sophie; Collin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Fast-growing chickens have a limited ability to tolerate high temperatures. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis (TM) has previously been shown to lower chicken body temperature (Tb) at hatching and to improve thermotolerance until market age, possibly resulting from changes in metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of TM (12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis vs. 37.8°C, 56% RH continuously) and of a subsequent heat challenge (32°C for 5 h at 34 d) on the mRNA expression of metabolic genes and cell signaling in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR in 8 chickens per treatment, characterized by low Tb in the TM groups and high Tb in the control groups. Data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS considering TM and heat challenge within TM as main effects. TM had significant long-term effects on thyroid hormone metabolism by decreasing the muscle mRNA expression of deiodinase DIO3. Under standard rearing conditions, the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, such as transcription factor PGC-1α, was affected by TM in the muscle, whereas for other genes regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, TM seemed to mitigate the decrease induced by the heat challenge. TM increased DIO2 mRNA expression in the liver (only at 21°C) and reduced the citrate synthase activity involved in the Krebs cycle. The phosphorylation level of p38 Mitogen-activated-protein kinase regulating the cell stress response was higher in the muscle of TM groups compared to controls. In conclusion, markers of energy utilization and growth were either changed by TM in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver by thermal manipulation during incubation as a possible long-term adaptation limiting energy metabolism, or mitigated during heat challenge. PMID:25180913

  1. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. PMID:23952606

  2. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, J E; van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van de Linde, I B; Montijn, R C; van der Vossen, J M B M

    2014-04-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for compatibility with in ovo inoculation. Two of these probiotics, one being a Enterococcus faecium and the other a Bacillus subtilis, were selected for colonizing the chick gut without compromising hatchability. In a second study, these 2 products were administered in ovo and in the feed to chicks reared until 18 d in comparison with noninoculated chicks and with chicks fed an antibiotic. All chicks were orally challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis at 4 d of age. Results showed reduced performance of Salmonella Enteritidis challenged chicks fed no additives compared with challenged chicks fed antibiotic, but no significant differences in mortality was observed. Probiotics offered in ovo or through the diet could only partially recover performance compared with antibiotic-fed chicks. A significant reduction in the number of Salmonella Enteritidis positive chicks was observed when chicks were in ovo inoculated with E. faecium and continued receiving it in the diet. This work establishes standards for future in ovo colonization research and emphasizes its value as a promising method to deliver individual precise dose of probiotics to poultry in mass scale at the earliest possible age based on the competitive exclusion concept. In ovo colonization with probiotic can therefore become an important ally in combination with other approaches to combat Salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections in poultry. PMID:24706958

  3. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhat, Amani [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Buick, Julie K.; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; O' Brien, Jason M. [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Chiu, Suzanne [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.

  4. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  5. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  6. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata;

    2012-01-01

    vascular endothelial growth factor. We have therefore tested if silver nanoparticles can affect muscle development of chicken embryos and, furthermore, if they can be used in in ovo nutrition as carriers of nutrients e.g. glutamine into muscle cells. Methods: 160 broiler eggs were randomly divided into the...... control group (Control) without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag), glutamine (Glu) and the complex of nanoparticles of silver and glutamine (Nano-Ag/Glu). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. Samples of the breast muscles were collected...... for gene expression analysis or fixed for electron microscopy preparation. Results: Results indicate a significant role of silver nanoparticles and the complex Nano-Ag/Glu in muscle development. Conclusion: Nanoparticles of Ag, glutamine and the complexes of Ag and glutamine were without negative...

  8. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage

  9. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  10. Pipping success and liver mRNA expression in chicken embryos exposed in ovo to C8 and C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and C10 perfluorinated sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Crump, Doug; Mundy, Lukas J; Chu, Shaogang; McLaren, Kristina K; Vongphachan, Viengtha; Letcher, Robert J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2009-10-28

    Several perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that can biomagnify in species at high trophic levels including wild birds. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been detected in wild birds and are known to reduce hatching success of laboratory-exposed chicken embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations. Limited toxicity data are available regarding avian exposure to PFCs of chain lengths greater than C(8), which are of increasing environmental relevance following the recent phase-out of PFOS and PFOA. In this study, linear PFOA, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) were injected into the air cell of white leghorn chicken eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus) prior to incubation to determine effects on embryo pipping success. Furthermore, mRNA expression of key genes involved in pathways implicated in PFC toxicity was monitored in liver tissue. PFOA, PFUdA or PFDS had no effect on embryonic pipping success at concentrations up to 10 microg/g. All PFCs accumulated in the liver to concentrations greater than the initial whole-egg concentration as determined by HPLC/MS/MS. Hepatic accumulation was highest for PFOA (4.5 times) compared to PFUdA and PFDS. Cytochrome P450 1A4 and liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA expression increased after exposure to PFUdA but was only statistically significant at 10 microg/g; several orders of magnitude higher than levels found in wild bird eggs. Based on the present results for white leghorn chickens, current environmental concentrations of PFOA, PFUdA and PFDS are unlikely to affect the hatching success of wild birds. PMID:19595750

  11. Study on Injection of Zedoary Turmeric Volatile Oil against Newcastle Disease Virus in SPF Chicken Embryo Inoculation%莪术油注射液鸡胚接种抗新城疫病毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学理; 鄢长庆; 刘珂飞; 杨明; 杨明霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the inhibiting and killing effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the newcastle disease virus. [ Method] The inhibitory effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the multiplication of the newcastle disease virus was determined by the SPF chicken embryo culture and hemagglutination test. [ Result] The zedoary turmeric volatile oil had no toxicity effect on the SPF chicken embryo. Inoculating SPF chicken embryo synchronously with the zedoary turmeric volatile oil and the virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit the reproduction of the newcastle disease virus in the SPF chicken embryo. [Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for the application of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil in the Veterinary Clinical.%[目的]探讨莪术油对新城疫病毒的抑制和杀灭作用.[方法]用鸡胚培养法和血凝试验,测定莪术油对鸡新城疫病毒增殖的抑制作用.[结果]莪术油对鸡胚无毒性作用;莪术油与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城疫病毒在鸡胚中的增殖.[结论]结果为莪术油在兽医临床上的应用提供了理论依据.

  12. 不同酶酶解鸡胚蛋白工艺比较研究%Comparative Studies of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chicken Embryo Protein by Different Proteases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琼; 张培正; 高伟; 孙合美

    2011-01-01

    以鸡胚蛋白为底物,通过单因素及正交试验,确定菠萝蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶对鸡胚蛋白水解的最佳工艺。结果表明:菠萝蛋白酶酶解鸡胚蛋白最佳工艺条件为底物质量分数6%、酶解温度55℃、pH5、酶解时间6h、酶与底物质量比([E/S])为1.5%,水解度可达45.53%;胰蛋白酶酶解鸡胚蛋白最佳工艺条件为底物质量分数6%、酶解温度55℃、pH5、酶解时间6h、酶与底物质量比([E/S])为1.5%,水解度可达38.17%。菠萝蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶在最佳水解条件下水解度分别为45.53%、38.17%,可溶性蛋白含量分别为20.15、22.69mg/mL,多肽含量分别为62.55、50.26mg/mL。菠萝蛋白酶比胰蛋白酶更适宜酶解鸡胚蛋白。%The optimal process conditions for hydrolyzing chicken embryo protein by trypsin or bromelain were determined using one-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method. Under the optimal process conditions, the degree of hydrolysis of chicken embryo protein by trypsin and bromelain were 45.53% and 38.17%, and the resulting hydrolyates contained 20.15 mg/mL and 22.69 mg/mL soluble protein and 62.55 mg/mL and 50.26 mg/mL polypeptides, respectively. These results demonstrate that bromelain is more suitable to hydrolyze chicken embryo protein than trypsin.

  13. 转基因DT40细胞导入早期鸡胚后的分布及绿色荧光蛋白表达的研究%The Distribution and Green Fluorescent Protein Expression of Transfected Chicken DT40 Cells after Transplanted into Early Chicken Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 赵晨; 燕丽; 靳文静; 张文新; 李赞东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the genetically modified somatic cells can survive and express foreign gene for a long time after being transplanted into avian embryo. Methods Chicken DT40 cells as a cell vehicle for delivering foreign protein were transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and were introduced into early chicken embryos via blood vessel microinjection at 65 - 70 h of incubation at 38. 5 ℃.. The manipulated eggs were continued to incubate at same condition. The chimerisms of the transplanted DT40 cells were preliminarily observed under fluorescence microscopy at the different stages in the embryos and the hatchlings. Meanwhile, the chimeric positions of the donor DT40 cells and the expression of GFP were further examined by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results The results showed that fluorescent-labeled DT40 cells embed in the different organs of the recipients including brain, heart, liver, etc. And can survive before chicken hatch and the GFP gene can be expressed normally. Conclusion Long-term survival of the donor DT40 cells in recipient and normal expression of the GFP gene imply that this approach can be explored for continuous production of target protein in the host chicken, which may provide a basis for avian immune tolerance research and the production of bioreactor.%目的 为了研究经过基因修饰的体细胞导入到禽类胚胎以后,供体细胞及外源基因是否能在受体胚胎中成活并且外源基因是否可以长期表达.方法 筛选得到稳定整合绿色荧光蛋白基因的鸡DT40细胞作为外源蛋白的运载工具,通过血管微注射的方法将其导入到于38.5℃温度条件下孵化65~70 h的鸡胚中,并将操作后的鸡胚在原孵化条件下继续孵化.在孵化的不同时期取移植了DT40细胞的嵌合体胚胎在荧光显微镜下观察荧光细胞的存活与分布情况.并通过PCR以及免疫组织化学方法检测供体细胞在受

  14. The opisthonephric blood vascular system of the chicken embryo as studied by scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts and critical point dried preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, H; Splechtna, H

    1989-06-01

    Microvascular corrosion casts of chicken embryos between four and 19 days after fertilization have been prepared. The developing kidney was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The injection technique and resin composition were modified in order to facilitate the complete replication of native blood vascular systems of specimens as small as 15 mm body length. The development of the opisthonephros was followed from near the beginning of its function until a vascular development comparable to the adult situation was reached. Critical point dried glomeruli show the differentiation of the glomerular visceral epithelium (podocytes) from initially epithelioid to highly branched forms. The embryonic kidney (cranial part of the opisthonephros-mesonephros) shows a construction-principle resembling amphibians that is entirely different from the definitive excretory organ (caudal part of the opisthonephros-metanephros). PMID:2814402

  15. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50%) i...

  16. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  17. In ovo effects of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorohexanoate on pipping success, development, mRNA expression, and thyroid hormone levels in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Cristina G; Vongphachan, Viengtha; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L; Letcher, Robert J; Pelletier, Eric; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2012-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), specifically perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates, are synthetic substances known for their chemical stability, resistance to degradation, and potential to biomagnify in food chains. The toxicological and biological effects of PFAAs in avian species are not well characterized, although there is some evidence to suggest that they can impact neurodevelopment and hatching success. Our laboratory recently reported significant effects of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) on messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of thyroid hormone (TH)-responsive genes in chicken embryonic neuronal cells. In this study, we determined in ovo effects of PFHxS and PFHxA exposure (maximum dose = 38,000 and 9700 ng/g egg, respectively) on embryonic death, developmental endpoints, tissue accumulation, mRNA expression in liver and cerebral cortex, and plasma TH levels. Pipping success was reduced to 63% at the highest dose of PFHxS; no effects were observed for PFHxA. PFHxS exposure (38,000 ng/g) decreased tarsus length and embryo mass. PFHxS and PFHxA accumulated in the three tissue compartments analyzed as follows: yolk sac > liver > cerebral cortex. Type II and type III 5'-deiodinases (D2 and D3) and cytochrome P450 3A37 mRNA levels were induced in liver tissue of chicken embryos exposed to PFHxS, whereas D2, neurogranin (RC3), and octamer motif binding factor 1 mRNA levels were upregulated in cerebral cortex. Plasma TH levels were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner following PFHxS exposure; PFHxA had no effect. This in ovo study successfully validated previous in vitro results concerning the modulation of TH-responsive genes and identified adverse effects associated with TH homeostasis in response to PFHxS treatment. PMID:22302310

  18. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50% in the ratio 5:5:90 was used. The clearing solution was prepared from lactic acid (85%, chloral hydrate, phenol, clove oil and xylene in the ratio 2:2:2:2:1 by weight. Both the clearing and the enzymic maceration techniques proved effective in revealing embryo sacs of I. glandulifera and N. tabacum

  19. Toxicity of petroleum crude oils and their effect on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the chicken embryo in ovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Z.; O' Brien, P.J.; Payne, J.F.; Rahimtula, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Microliter quantities of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) applied to the shell of fertile chick eggs during various stages of development induced cytochrome P-450 levels and mixed-function oxidase activities within the liver of the embryo. PBCO (5 ..mu..l) applied on Day 11 of incubation was found to maximally induce within 24 hr embryo hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels (fourfold), naphthalene hydroxylase (sixfold), benzo(a)pyrene 3-hyroxylase (14-fold), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (24-fold). Glutathione S-transferase was not induced. Crude oils are known to be highly toxic to avian embryos, especially during the early stages of development. The LD/sub 50/ of PBCO and Hibernia crude oil applied to the egg shell on Day 8 of incubation was found to be 1.3 and 2.2 ..mu..l, respectively. Mixed-function oxidase-dependent metabolism of crude oil components may be required for toxicity since administration of 20 ..mu..g of disulfiram in dioxane 1 hr prior to application of 1.3 ..mu..l of PBCO reduced embryo mortality from 60 to 20%.

  20. Course of hatch and developmental changes in thyroid hormone concentration in blood of chicken embryo following in ovo riboflavin supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    TRZECIAK, Karolina Barbara; LIS, Marcin Wojciech; SECHMAN, Andrzej; Plytycz, Barbara; RUDOLF, Agata; WOJNAR, Tomasz; NIEDZIOLKA, Jerzy Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The influence of riboflavin on the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis during chicken embryogenesis is poorly understood. Therefore, examination of the effects of in ovo riboflavin supplementation on the possible linkage between the thyroid gland function and chick embryonic development seems to be interesting. Eggs on the sixth day of incubation were injected with 0 (control), 60, or 600 µg of riboflavin/egg. Blood samples were collected on the 12th, 15th, 18th, and 20th days ...

  1. In vitro and in ovo effects of four brominated flame retardants on toxicity and hepatic mRNA expression in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Manning, Gillian; McLaren, Kristina K; Cassone, Cristina G; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2011-11-10

    Some currently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), are persistent organic contaminants detected in various environmental matrices, including wild birds. Data on potential toxicological and molecular responses to exposure of these BFRs are lacking for avian species. A combined in vitro/in ovo approach was used to determine the concentration-dependent effects of these BFRs on overt toxicity and hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 11 transcripts in (1) primary cultures of chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH; all four BFRs) and (2) chicken embryos (HCDBCO and BTBPE only). Neither hepatocyte viability nor embryonic pipping success were affected by the BFRs at any of the administered concentrations (CEH: 0.001-30 μM, egg injection: 0.1-10 μg/g nominal dose). In CEH, 10 μM HCDBCO induced cytochrome P450 2H1 (CYP2H1) and CYP3A37, while CYP1A4/5 were down-regulated at all tested concentrations. In contrast, only transthyretin was down-regulated by HCDBCO in embryonic liver. There was concordance between the BTBPE-induced transcriptional responses in vitro and in ovo for CYP1A4/5 (up-regulated) and type III iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (DIO3; down-regulated). DBDPE induced CYP1A4/5 29- and 59-fold at 0.2 μM in CEH and increased DIO1. None of the gene targets were responsive to BEHTBP exposure in CEH. The multi-tiered in vitro/in ovo screening approach was effective for assessing toxicological and molecular biological effects of these BFRs in an avian species. PMID:21893176

  2. The effects of Dechlorane Plus on toxicity and mRNA expression in chicken embryos: a comparison of in vitro and in ovo approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Gauthier, Lewis T; Hickey, Nathan J; Letcher, Robert J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2011-08-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is an additive chlorinated flame retardant comprising two major isomers, syn- and anti-DP, that is used in a variety of commercial/industrial products. It has been detected in biotic and abiotic matrices including the eggs of herring gulls collected from the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, data on potential toxicological and molecular responses to exposure are lacking, especially for avian species. A combined in vitro/in ovo approach was used to determine concentration-dependent effects of DP in chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH) and chicken embryos following injection of DP into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. Overt toxicity (i.e. cytotoxicity and pipping success) and mRNA expression levels of transcripts previously determined to be responsive to a brominated flame retardant were assessed in CEH and hepatic tissue. DP was not cytotoxic up to a maximum concentration of 3 μM in CEH, and no effects on pipping success were observed up to the highest nominal dose group of 500 ng/g egg. A significant shift in isomeric content of syn- and anti-DP was detected between stock solutions of the commercial mixture and hepatic tissue; the proportion of the syn-DP isomer increased from 0.34 to 0.65 with a concomitant decrease of anti-DP from 0.66 to 0.35. None of the mRNA transcripts changed as a result of in vitro or in ovo exposure to DP indicating that, although there was concordance between the two approaches, DP may evoke its toxicity through other modes of action. At current environmental exposure levels, no adverse effects of DP on embryonic viability or pathways associated with the genes assessed are predicted. PMID:21539933

  3. Expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in lipoprotein-synthesizing tissues of the developing chicken embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Eresheim, Christine; Plieschnig, Julia; Ivessa, N. Erwin; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Hermann, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, in the chicken major sites of lipoprotein synthesis and secretion are not only the liver and intestine, but also the kidney and the embryonic yolk sac. Two key components in the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). We have analyzed the expression of MTP in the embryonic liver, small intestine, and kidney, and have studied the expression of MTP in, and the secretion of apoB from, t...

  4. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...... insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used...

  5. In vivo studies on angiogenic activity of two designer self-assembling peptide scaffold hydrogels in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xiumei; Horii, Akihiro; Wang, Xiujuan; Qiao, Lin; Zhang, Shuguang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    The rapid promotion of angiogenesis is critical for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The angiogenic activity of tissue-engineered scaffolds has already been the major criterion for choosing and designing ideal biological materials. We here report systematic in vivo studies on the angiogenic activity of two functionalized self-assembling peptides PRG (Ac-(RADA)4GPRGDSGYRGDS-CONH2) and KLT (Ac-(RADA)4G4KLTWQELYQLKYKGI-CONH2) using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. 3D migration/sprouting bead assays showed that the two functional motifs PRGDSGYRGDS and KLTWQELYQLKYKGI improved the bioactivities of the self-assembling peptide RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2) dramatically and provided ideal synthetic microenvironments for endothelial cell migration and cordlike structure sprout formation. A CAM assay was carried out to assess the efficiency of various peptide scaffolds in inducing capillary invasion in vivo. Among these three peptide scaffolds, the functionalized peptide scaffold RAD/KLT presented a significantly better angiogenic activity inducing CAM tissue invasion and new capillary vessel formation within the scaffolds in the absence of VEGF. With the addition of VEGF, more newly formed vessel lumen could be observed in all peptide scaffolds. Our results suggested that the functionalized peptide scaffolds had satisfactory angiogenic properties, and may also have wide potential applications in tissue regeneration.

  6. Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Marek’s Disease Vaccines Derived from Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Dhanutha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the endogenous ALVs in cell associated MD vaccine. Chicken embryo fibroblast cell associated Marek’s disease vaccine was tested for possible contamination with Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs. Initially the vaccine cell lysate was tested for presence of group specific antigen (p27 of ALVs by ELISA and found positive for GSA. Subsequently total DNA and RNA was isolated from vaccine CEFs and analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR using primers specific for ALV subgroups A-E and J. Subgroup specific PCR and RT-PCR revealed that the CEFs were positive for ALV-E and negative for all other exogenous ALV subgroups (ALV-A, B, C, D and J. Envelope gp85 gene sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ALV sequences found in CEFs of MD vaccine were belongs to endogenous ALV-E. Further this sequence has high homology with endogenous loci ev-1, ev-3 and ev-6. Amplification of genomic DNA with endogenous virus locus specific primers revealed that the CEFs of MD vaccine possess ev-1 and ev-6 and negative for ev-3, ev-9 and ev-21. In conclusion, the data in this study clearly demonstrated that the cell associated commercial MD vaccine tested was contaminated with an endogenous subgroup E and also possess ev-loci such as ev1 and ev-6.

  7. The constitutive activation of the CEF-4/9E3 chemokine gene depends on C/EBPbeta in v-src transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagliardi, M; Maynard, S; Bojovic, B;

    2001-01-01

    The CEF-4/9E3 chemokine gene is expressed constitutively in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) transformed by the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). This aberrant induction is controlled at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Transcriptional activation depends on multiple elements of the CEF......-4 promoter composing a Src-responsive-Unit or SRU. The SRU includes a TPA responsive element, a PRDII/kappaB domain and a CAAT box. In this report, we identify C/EBPbeta as a component of the trans-acting factor interacting with the CAAT box of the CEF-4 promoter. In addition, we show that C....../EBPbeta (designated Delta184-C/EBPbeta) in RSV-transformed CEF. Delta184-C/EBPbeta decreased the accumulation of the CEF-4 mRNA and activation of the CEF-4 promoter by pp60(v-src). The induction of the Cox-2 gene (CEF-147) was also reduced by Delta184-C/EBPbeta. The effect of the dominant negative mutant was observed...

  8. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Maricarmen; Volkening, Jeremy; Riblet, Sylva; Spatz, Stephen

    2013-05-25

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of available full genomes grouped strains into three major clades: TCO, CEO, and Australian. Comparative genomics revealed that TCO attenuation is likely the result of an ORF C truncation. Genes involved in attenuation are generally clade-specific, however four genes ORF C, UL27, UL28 and UL39 commonly contained various mutations across the CEO and TCO lineages. The Thr644 mutation in the UL27 gene encoding glycoprotein B was identified in all virulent US strains. The US10 gene was identified as a potential virulence factor for the TCO revertant 81658. The UL41 gene was responsible for the robust gain in virulence of CEO-Fowl Laryngotracheitis(®) after 20 passages in chickens. PMID:23537957

  9. Breeder age and bone development in broiler chicken embryos Idade da matriz e desenvolvimento ósseo em embriões de frango de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Alfonso-Torres

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of breeder age on long bone development was studied in chicken embryos from 12 days of incubation until hatching. Fertile eggs were incubated and randomly assigned in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (two breeder ages - 38 and 60 weeks and six incubation days - 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 21. Enzymatic activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in tibial epiphyses and weights as well as length and width in tibias and femurs of the embryos were determined. Tartrate-resistant acid and alkaline phosphatases activity in epiphyses was not affected by breeder age. Absolute weight and width of femur and tibia were larger in 60-week-old embryos compared to 38-week-old. Enzymatic activity and morphometric measurements increased with incubation day, independently of breeder age. The results showed that the process of endochondral ossification during the last two thirds of embryo development was not influenced by the age of the breeders. Although, in terms of absolute weight, the long bones of embryos from older breeders were heavier, which was associated with the larger width of the bones, but and not with their length.O efeito da idade da matriz sobre o desenvolvimento dos ossos longos foi estudado em embriões de frango de 12 dias de incubação até o nascimento. Ovos férteis foram incubados e distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 2 x 6 (duas idades de matriz - 38 e 60 semanas e seis dias de incubação - 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 e 21 dias. Determinou-se a atividade enzimática das fosfatase alcalina e ácida-resistente ao tartrato no peso e nas epífises da tíbia, no comprimento e na largura da tíbia e do fêmur. A atividade das fosfatases não foi afetada pela idade da matriz. O peso absoluto e a largura de fêmur e tíbia foram maiores nos embriões das matrizes com 60 semanas de idade. Atividade enzimática e medidas morfométricas aumentaram com o dia de incubação independentemente da idade da matriz

  10. Expression of Sex-Related Genes in Chicken Embryos During Male-to-Female Sex Reversal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Li-xiu; XIN Rui; CHE Yi; XU Shi-qing

    2013-01-01

    Sex emerges out of a delicate dance between a variety of promale, anti-male, and possibly profemale genes. To investigate the role that sex-related genes play in sex determination and gonadal differentiation of fowl, we constructed a male-to-female sex-reversal model of chick induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) at onset of incubation (E0). The results of semi-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of Sf1, the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 gene, was put forward from E7d to E5d and up-regulated during E5-7d;the Dmrt1, the double sex and the Mab-3 related to transcription factor 1 gene, was down-regulated during E3-7d. Meanwhile, anti-Müllerian hormone gene (Amh) expressed at a similar level in the genetic females and sex-reversal females before E7d, while no expression products of the three female-specific genes Wpkci, Fet1 and Foxl2 were detected in male-to-female embryos. These findings suggest that the expression of some certain sex-related genes, induced by the exogenous estrogen during period of sex determination and gonadal differentiation, results in the male-to-female sex reversal. Moreover, high activity of Sf1 gene during E5-7d might be related to the profemale process, while low activity of Dmrt1 gene during E3-5d might be anti-male. The expression activity of Amh gene might only contribute to the promale process after E7d, however, it is possibly not an anti-female gene in chick embryos.

  11. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  12. In Ovo effects of two organophosphate flame retardants--TCPP and TDCPP--on pipping success, development, mRNA expression, and thyroid hormone levels in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Amani; Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-07-01

    Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) are organic flame retardants detected in the environment and biota for which avian toxicological data are limited. In this study, domestic chicken eggs were injected with TCPP or TDCPP (maximum dose = 51,600 and 45,000ng/g egg, respectively) to determine dose-dependent effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) pathway, and TH levels following 20-22 days of incubation. Neither compound reduced pipping success; however, TCPP significantly delayed pipping at 9240 and 51,600ng/g and reduced tarsus length at 51,600ng/g. TDCPP exposure resulted in significant decreases in head plus bill length, embryo mass, and gallbladder size at 45,000ng/g and reduced plasma free T4 levels at 7640ng/g. Type I deiodinase, liver fatty acid-binding protein, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A37 mRNA levels were significantly induced by TCPP, whereas TDCPP induced CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. Chemical analysis of egg contents at incubation days 0, 5, 11, 18, and 19 revealed that > 92% of the injected TCPP or TDCPP concentration was detectable up to day 5; however, < 1% was detected by day 19. The observed phenotypic responses to TCPP and TDCPP exposure may be associated with disruption of the TH axis, which is critical for normal growth and development in birds. The effects of TDCPP on the gallbladder indicate that the disturbance of lipid metabolism is a likely mechanism of toxicity. PMID:23629516

  13. In Ovo administration of silver nanoparticles and/or amino acids influence metabolism and immune gene expression in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanja, Subrat K.; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Mehra, Manish;

    2015-01-01

    heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control...... embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ among amino acids, Nano......, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2) expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that Nano...

  14. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Hervé, Jessica C; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Yang, Yinfei; Jones, Paul D; Wan, Yi; Collins, Brian; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Egg injection studies were performed to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of birds to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In this model, species are classified as belonging to one of three categories of sensitivity based on amino acid substitutions in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Embryo lethality and relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) were compared with TCDD for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; least sensitive), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; moderately sensitive), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus; most sensitive). Doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 pmol/g egg (0.015-12 ng/g egg) were injected into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. LD(50) (95% confidence intervals) values, based on rate of hatching for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, were 30 (25-36), 4.9 (2.3-9.2), and 15 (11-24) pmol/g egg for the quail, 3.5 (2.3-6.3), 0.61 (0.28-1.2), and 1.2 (0.62-2.2) pmol/g egg for pheasant, and 0.66 (0.47-0.90), 0.75 (0.64-0.87), and 0.33 (0.23-0.45) pmol/g egg for chicken, respectively. LD(50)-based relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF were 6.1 and 2.0 for quail, 5.7 and 2.9 for pheasant, and 0.88 and 2.0 for chicken, respectively. TCDD was not the most potent compound among the species tested, with PeCDF and TCDF being more potent than TCDD in the quail and pheasant. TCDF was the most potent in chicken. Species sensitivity was as expected for TCDD and TCDF, whereas for PeCDF, the chicken and pheasant were similar in sensitivity and both were more sensitive than the quail. Results from companion in vitro studies are generally similar to those reported here with a few exceptions. PMID:20861070

  15. In vitro microarray analysis identifies genes in acute-phase response pathways that are down-regulated in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) is one of the most highly detected perfluoroalkyl compounds in wild bird tissues and eggs. Although PFUdA does not affect hatching success, many PFCs are known to impair post-hatch development and survival. Here we use microarrays to survey the transcriptional response of cultured chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH) to PFUdA for potential targets of PFUdA action that could lead to developmental deficiencies in exposed birds. At 1 μM and 10 μM PFUdA significantly altered the expression of 346 and 676 transcripts, respectively (fold-change>1.5, p<0.05, false discovery rate-corrected). Using functional, pathway and interactome analysis we identified several potentially important targets of PFUdA exposure, including the suppression of the acute-phase response (APR). We then measured the expression of five APR genes, fibrinogen alpha (fga), fibrinogen gamma (fgg), thrombin (f2), plasminogen (plg), and protein C (proC), in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA. The expression of fga, f2, and proC were down-regulated in embryo livers (100 or 1000 ng/g, p<0.1) as predicted from microarray analysis, whereas fibrinogen gamma (fgg) was up-regulated and plg was not significantly affected. Our results demonstrate the utility of CEH coupled with transcriptome analysis as an in vitro screening tool for identifying novel effects of toxicant exposure. Additionally, we identified APR suppression as a potentially important and environmentally relevant target of PFUdA. These findings suggest in ovo exposure of birds to PFUdA may lead to post-hatch developmental deficiencies, such as impaired inflammatory response. PMID:23602845

  16. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline; Woods, Anne

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  17. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Egloff, Caroline; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  18. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  19. Generation of transforming viruses in cultures of chicken fibroblasts infected with an avian leukosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Stavnezer, E; Gerhard, D S; Binari, R C; Balazs, I.

    1981-01-01

    During serial passages of an avian leukosis virus (the transformation-defective, src deletion mutant of Bratislava 77 avian sarcoma virus, designated tdB77) in chicken embryo fibroblasts, viruses which transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro emerged. Chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with these viruses (SK770 and Sk780) had a distinctive morphology, formed foci in monolayer cultures, and grew independent of anchorage in semisolid agar. Bone marrow cells were not transformed by these...

  20. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  1. Developmental and posthatch effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    An egg injection study was conducted to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of three avian species to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. It was previously reported that the order of species sensitivity to in ovo exposure to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 picomoles (pmol)/g egg was the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) based on embryo mortality and hepatic enzyme induction. In the present study, the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses, and organ pathology of hatchlings as additional indicators of species sensitivity were assessed; in addition, embryo mortality in the three species was categorized by stage of development. Embryo mortality varied temporally with significant increases generally occurring after organogenesis and just prior to hatching. A significant increase in the percentage of developmental deformities was observed only in Japanese quail exposed to TCDF. Body and relative organ masses of quail, pheasants, and chickens dosed in ovo with TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF were not consistently affected. Chemical-related pathology occurred only in livers of quail at the greatest doses of each compound. These results indicated that the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses and organ pathology could not be used as indicators of species sensitivity or chemical potency. PMID:21509806

  2. Use of chicken cell line LSCC-H32 for titration of animal viruses and exogenous chicken interferon.

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, S.; Kaaden, O R

    1985-01-01

    The chicken embryo cell line LSCC-H32 was tested for the propagation and titration of several animal viruses of the families Toga-, Reo-, Rhabdo-, Herpeto-, Orthomyxo-, Paramyxo-, and Poxviridae and compared with secondary chicken embryo cells. The LSCC-H32 cells were demonstrated to be as susceptible for most of the tested viruses as were secondary chicken embryo cells. Both produced comparably sized virus plaques. The titers of Sindbis and Semliki Forest viruses in LSCC-H32 cells were 5- to...

  3. Structural Analysis of the Angiogenesis in the Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoelst, Eva

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, the poultry sector is in search of ways to monitor chicken embryonic growth, health and quality, as to control and optimize the incubation conditions, especially the gas concentrations. One of the parameters of chicken development which may change under different gas concentrations is the angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), the organ for gas exchange of the chicken embryo. To be able to perform large incubation experiments under different gaseous condi...

  4. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  5. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2013-01-01

    -toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with L-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND) and L-glutamine (Gln) on expression of growth and differentiation...... differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  6. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  7. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  8. Mx Is Dispensable for Interferon-Mediated Resistance of Chicken Cells against Influenza A Virus ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schusser, Benjamin; Reuter, Antje; von der Malsburg, Alexander; Penski, Nicola; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Staeheli, Peter; Härtle, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in antiviral defense against influenza A viruses (FLUAV), which are natural chicken pathogens. Studies of mice identified the Mx1 protein as a key effector molecule of the IFN-induced antiviral state against FLUAV. Chicken Mx genes are highly polymorphic, and recent studies suggested that an Asn/Ser polymorphism at amino acid position 631 determines the antiviral activity of the chicken Mx protein. By employing chicken embryo fibrobla...

  9. Gene Transfer into the Chicken Auditory Organ by In Ovo Micro-electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsen, Lale; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Chicken embryos are ideal model systems for studying embryonic development as manipulations of gene function can be conducted with relative ease in ovo. The inner ear auditory sensory organ is critical for our ability to hear. It houses a highly specialized sensory epithelium that consists of mechano-transducing hair cells (HCs) and surrounding glial-like supporting cells (SCs). Despite structural differences in the auditory organs, molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the auditory organ are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and aves. In ovo electroporation is largely limited to early stages at E1 - E3. Due to the relative late development of the auditory organ at E5, manipulations of the auditory organ by in ovo electroporation past E3 are difficult due to the advanced development of the chicken embryo at later stages. The method presented here is a transient gene transfer method for targeting genes of interest at stage E4 - E4.5 in the developing chicken auditory sensory organ via in ovo micro-electroporation. This method is applicable for gain- and loss-of-functions with conventional plasmid DNA-based expression vectors and can be combined with in ovo cell proliferation assay by adding EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) to the whole embryo at the time of electroporation. The use of green or red fluorescent protein (GFP or RFP) expression plasmids allows the experimenter to quickly determine whether the electroporation successfully targeted the auditory portion of the developing inner ear. In this method paper, representative examples of GFP electroporated specimens are illustrated; embryos were harvested 18 - 96 hr after electroporation and targeting of GFP to the pro-sensory area of the auditory organ was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridization. The method paper also provides an optimized protocol for the use of the thymidine analog EdU to analyze cell proliferation; an example of an EdU based cell proliferation assay that combines immuno

  10. Vibrating Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; CUI Yi-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ As a manipulation with unique therapeutic effect in TCM Tuina manipulations, Vibrating manipulation has significantly stronger effection on viscera, blood vessel, smooth muscle and gland secretion than other Tuina manipulations and it is mainly used in internal medicine, gynecology and miscellaneous diseases.

  11. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  12. Methylome Analysis in Chickens Immunized with Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Luo, Juan; Menendez, Kimberly R.; Tablante, Nathaniel L.; Zhao, Keji; Paulson, Joseph N; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the methylome of chickens immunized with Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine derived from chicken embryos. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) method was employed in the detection of the 1,155 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the entire genome. After validation, we ascertained the genomic DMRs distribution and annotated them regarding genes, transcription start sites (TSS) and CpG islands. We found that glo...

  13. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle:the effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Hyttel, Poul; Sawosz, Ewa; Szmidt, Maciek; Niemiec, Tomasz; Chwalibog, André

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been demonstrated that concentrations of certain amino acids in the egg, in late-term embryos, are not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One of the methods to assure an adequate nutrient content in the egg is in ovo administration of nutrients, which increases hatching weight and the size of the breast muscle. The small size of silver nanoparticles allows for penetration inside tissues and even enables them to cross cell membranes. Indeed it has been shown ...

  14. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  15. Feed restriction in broiler chickens production

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraei M.

    2012-01-01

    The feed restriction program is on of the main techniques in growth curve manipulation for increasing production efficiency in broiler chicken. Quantities and qualitative feed restriction are procedures that can be used to manipulate the feeding strategies of poultry in order to decrease growth and metabolic rate to some extent and so alleviate the incidence of some metabolic diseases such as ascites, lameness, mortality, and sudden death syndrome and so im...

  16. Electroporation, an alternative to biolistics for transfection of Bombyx mori embryos and larval tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Luc Thomas

    2003-01-01

    There are few powerful techniques available to transfect insect tissues. We previously used biolistics to transfect Bombyx mori embryos, and larval and pupal tissues (Thomas J-L et al. 2001. Journal of Insect Science 1/9, Kravariti L et al. 2001. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 31: 473–479). As the main limitation was the irregularity in results we explored electroporation as an alternative technique by adapting techniques used for chicken embryos to B. mori embryos. By injecting th...

  17. Evaluation of Sheep Embryo Quality by Morphologic Methods – Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Angela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on one of the most important steps in embryo technology evaluating embryo quality. During three years, we have conducted embryo transfer experiments on sheep. The evaluation of embryo quality was made using morphologic methods. We have evaluated embryos immediately after recovery (surgical methods recovery or after throwing of frozen embryo under a optical microscope were used for evaluation. International Embryo Transfer Society standards for embryo quality classification. There are four grades of quality: excellent, good, medium and poor. The morphological method’s advantages are: it is very fast, not so expensive and does not require excessive embryo manipulation. Disadvantages of this method are: grading is subjective, depending on the experience of the evaluator, metabolic, genetic or epigenetic disorders of embryos are not detectable.

  18. Preservation of proliferating pancreatic progenitor cells by Delta-Notch signaling in the embryonic chicken pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serup Palle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies have shown that formation of pancreatic endocrine cells in mice is dependent on the cell autonomous action of the bHLH transcription factor Neurogenin3 and that the extent and timing of endocrine differentiation is controlled by Notch signaling. To further understand the mechanism by which Notch exerts this function, we have investigated pancreatic endocrine development in chicken embryos. Results In situ hybridization showed that expression of Notch signaling components and pro-endocrine bHLH factors is conserved to a large degree between chicken and mouse. Cell autonomous inhibition of Notch signal reception results in significantly increased endocrine differentiation demonstrating that these early progenitors are prevented from differentiating by ongoing Notch signaling. Conversely, activated Notch1 induces Hes5-1 expression and prevents endocrine development. Notably, activated Notch also prevents Ngn3-mediated induction of a number of downstream targets including NeuroD, Hes6-1, and MyT1 suggesting that Notch may act to inhibit both Ngn3 gene expression and protein function. Activated Notch1 could also block endocrine development and gene expression induced by NeuroD. Nevertheless, Ngn3- and NeuroD-induced delamination of endodermal cells was insensitive to activated Notch under these conditions. Finally, we show that Myt1 can partially overcome the repressive effect of activated Notch on endocrine gene expression. Conclusion We conclude that pancreatic endocrine development in the chicken relies on a conserved bHLH cascade under inhibitory control of Notch signaling. This lays the ground for further studies that take advantage of the ease at which chicken embryos can be manipulated. Our results also demonstrate that Notch can repress Ngn3 and NeuroD protein function and stimulate progenitor proliferation. To determine whether Notch in fact does act in Ngn3-expressing cells in vivo will require further

  19. Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massino De Marchi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

  20. Desenvolvimento folicular de embriões de frangos de corte de diferentes genótipos expostos ao estresse térmico crônico Folicular development of chicken broiler embryos of different genotypes, exposed to chronic thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Dahlke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as alterações tegumentares (morfogênese da pena, em embriões de frangos de corte de linhagens de diferentes padrões de crescimento, obtidos de ovos incubados sob diferentes temperaturas. Os ovos foram obtidos de matrizes das linhagens Cobb 500 e ISA JA57, distribuídos proporcionalmente em três incubadoras. Do primeiro (D1 ao sexto dia (D6 de incubação, utilizou-se uma temperatura padrão (37,8°C. A partir do sétimo dia (D7 e até o momento do nascimento aos 21 dias (D21, uma das incubadoras teve a temperatura reduzida para 36,8°C (fria e uma outra alterada para 38,8°C (quente. A terceira incubadora foi mantida a 37,8°C (controle. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (temperatura de incubação e linhagem. A temperatura de incubação e a linhagem não alteraram a densidade dos folículos da pena (número médio de folículos por área de 337,5µm² nas regiões femural e dorsopélvica dos embriões até os 11 dias (D11. Entretanto, observou-se aumento na densidade folicular na região dorsal dos embriões aos 16 dias (D16 devido ao aumento da temperatura, permanecendo até o momento do nascimento. É possível oncluirque embriões incubados em temperatura acima da recomendada (38,8°C apresentam uma maior densidade de folículos na região dorsopélvica. Apesar disso, a morfogênese dos folículos permaneceu inalterada.The objective of this research was to evaluate the tegument modification (feather morphogenesis in embryos of broiler chicken, of different growth standard breeder lines, obtained from eggs incubated under different temperatures. Eggs of Cobb 500 and ISA JA57 breeders lines, were proportionally distributed in three incubators. From the first (D1 to the sixth day (D6 of incubation, temperature was maintained standard at 37.8°C. From the seventh day (D7 until the moment of the birth on the twenty one days (D21, temperature was reduced to 36

  1. Effects of thyroid hormones on cartilage sulphation in sex-linked dwarf chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was undertaken to see if exogenous thyroid hormone could stimulate cartilage sulphation in vivo and in vitro in sex-linked dwarf chickens. L-thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine injection for 7 consecutive days stimulated in vivo 35SO42- incorporation into trachea cartilages of the dwarf chicken. Both thyroid hormones added to the incubation medium with or without 2,5% dwarf chicken serum also stimulated in vitro 35SO42- incorporation into pelvic rudiment from 11-day chick embryos. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormones, like insulin-like growth factor I, might be responsible for the reduced growth rate of dwarf chickens. (author)

  2. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence. PMID:26996410

  3. Replacement of primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) by the DF-1 cell line for detection of avian leucosis viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der R.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Oei, H.L.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    International regulations prescribe that the absence of avian leucosis viruses (ALV) in avian live virus vaccines has to be demonstrated. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special SPF chicken lines are normally used for detection of ALV. The suitability of the DF-1 cell line for ALV-dete

  4. Development of an endogenous virus-free line of chickens susceptible to all subgroups of avian leukosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special specific pathogen free chicken lines are normally used for detection of contamination with avian leukosis viruses (ALV). The suitability and efficiency of such tests mostly depend on the susceptibility of CEF to varied subgroups of ALV. The ideal...

  5. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhongzan; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Geng, Heyuan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electropho...

  6. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangang; Geng Heyuan; Shao Yuhao; Han Zongxi; Cao Zhongzan; Liu Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel e...

  7. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani; Dewi Ratih Agung Priyono; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I), vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial...

  8. 益气化瘀解毒方含药血清对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的影响%Study on Influence of Prescription of Strengthening Qi and Resolving Stasis and Eliminating Toxin on Serum Chicken Embryos Allantoic Membrane Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜文辉; 曾普华; 潘敏求; 唐珍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨益气化瘀解毒含药血清对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的影响.方法:取孵育7d的种蛋制成CAM模型,加入益气化瘀解毒整方高、中、低3个剂量组的含药血清,继续孵育3d,固定标本,拍照,计数新生毛细血管数目.结果:高、中、低剂量组与不含药血清组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);高、中剂量组与低剂量组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);高、中剂量组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)结论:益气化瘀解毒方能抑制CAM血管新生,具有抗血管生成作用.%Objective: To study the influence of prescription of strengthening Qi and resolving stasis and eliminating toxin on serum chicken embryos allantoic membrane angiogenesis. Methods :Eggs incubated for 7d were made into CAM model,joined high,medium and low doses of the serum containing medicine,and they were continuely to incubate for 3d. The specimens were fixed,took pictures,and the number of new blood capillary was counted. Results:The high,medium and low dose groups and no medicine group comparison differences were statistically significant (P 0. 05 ). Conclusion : The prescription of strengthening Qi and resolving stasis and e-liminating toxin can inhibit CAM angiogenesis, and has the antiangiogenic effect.

  9. Multidisciplinary Inquiry-Based Investigation Learning Using an Ex Ovo Chicken Culture Platform: Role of Vitamin A on Embryonic Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Gould, Russell A.; Curran, Susan; Archer, Shivaun D.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development offers a unique perspective on the function of many biological processes because of embryos' heightened sensitivity to environmental factors. This hands-on lesson investigates the effects of elevated vitamin A on the morphogenesis of chicken embryos. The active form of vitamin A (retinoic acid) is applied to shell-less (ex…

  10. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  11. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini Mahajan; Ila Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transf...

  12. Gas-permeable ethylene bags for the small scale cultivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and other viruses in embryonated chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCurdy Kimberly S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryonated chicken eggs (ECE are sometimes used for the primary isolation or passage of influenza viruses, other viruses, and certain bacteria. For small-scale experiments with pathogens that must be studied in biosafety level three (BSL3 facilities, inoculated ECE are sometimes manipulated and maintained in small egg incubators within a biosafety cabinet (BSC. To simplify the clean up and decontamination of an egg incubator in case of egg breakage, we explored whether ethylene breather bags could be used to encase ECE inoculated with pathogens. This concept was tested by determining embryo survival and examining virus yields in bagged ECE. Results Virus yields acceptable for many applications were attained when influenza-, alpha-, flavi-, canine distemper-, and mousepox viruses were propagated in ECE sealed within ethylene breather bags. Conclusions For many small-scale applications, ethylene breather bags can be used to encase ECE inoculated with various viruses.

  13. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

  14. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  15. Feeling manipulated: cytomegalovirus immune manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparer Tim E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract No one likes to feel like they have been manipulated, but in the case of cytomegalovirus (CMV immune manipulation, we do not really have much choice. Whether you call it CMV immune modulation, manipulation, or evasion, the bottom line is that CMV alters the immune response in such a way to allow the establishment of latency with lifelong shedding. With millions of years of coevolution within their hosts, CMVs, like other herpesviruses, encode numerous proteins that can broadly influence the magnitude and quality of both innate and adaptive immune responses. These viral proteins include both homologues of host proteins, such as MHC class I or chemokine homologues, and proteins with little similarity to any other known proteins, such as the chemokine binding protein. Although a strong immune response is launched against CMV, these virally encoded proteins can interfere with the host's ability to efficiently recognize and clear virus, while others induce or alter specific immune responses to benefit viral replication or spread within the host. Modulation of host immunity allows survival of both the virus and the host. One way of describing it would be a kind of "mutually assured survival" (as opposed to MAD, Mutually Assured Destruction. Evaluation of this relationship provides important insights into the life cycle of CMV as well as a greater understanding of the complexity of the immune response to pathogens in general.

  16. Maintenance of chicken embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the methods we have used to show that chicken leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated state in culture. Recombinant chicken LIF (rchLIF) was expressed as a fusion protein linked to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified to greater than 90% purity in two chromatography stages, the first an affinity step using the GST tail, which was cleaved before further purification by gel chromatography. Chicken ES cells were obtained by culturing chicken blastodermal cells isolated from stage X embryos of freshly laid chicken eggs. These cells can be maintained in media containing rchLIF for at least 9 d without any other cytokines or feeder cells. Chicken ES cells were characterized by the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1. In addition, the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 by LIF, which is sufficient to maintain the undifferentiated state of ES cells, was detected by Western blotting analysis. PMID:16845981

  17. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...

  18. Effect of microgravity on primordial germ cells (PGCs) in silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Li, Zandong

    2011-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of germline cells, display a variety of antigens during their migration to target gonads. Here, we used silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos subjected to space microgravity to investigate the influence of microgravity on PGCs. The ShenZhou-3 unmanned spaceship carried nine fertilized silk chicken eggs, named the flight group, returned to Earth after 7 days space flight. And the control group has the same clan with the flight group. PGCs from flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos were examined during migration by using two antibodies (2C9 and anti-SSEA-1), in combination with the horseradish peroxidase detection system, and using periodic acid-Schiff's solution (PAS) reaction. After incubation for about 30 h, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in the germinal crescent of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 2-2.5 days, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in embryonic blood vessels of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 5.5 days, PGCs in the dorsal mesentery and gonad could also be identified in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos by using SSEA-1 and 2C9 antibodies. Based on location and PAS staining, these cells were identified as PGCs. Meanwhile, at the stage of PGCs migration and then becoming established in the germinal ridges, no difference in SSEA-1 or 2C9 staining was detected between female and male PGCs in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. Although there were differences in the profiles of PGC concentration between male and female embryos during the special circulating stage, changing profile of PGCs concentration was similar in same sex between flight and control group offspring embryos. We concluded that there is little effect on PGCs in offspring embryos of microgravity-treated chicken and that PGC development appears

  19. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  20. Formation of sulphite, cysteic acid and taurine from sulphate by the egg embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the formation of taurine from sulphate by the chicken embryo involves the reduction of sulphate to sulphite (I), the synthesis of cysteic acid (II) and its decarboxylation (Ill). The reaction (I) takes place in the vitellin sac. The reaction (II) results from the condensation of the sulphite with a-amino-acrylic acid and is carried out by the yolk. The enzymes responsible for the decarboxylation (III) are distributed both in the embryo and in its appendages. (author)

  1. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  2. Metabolomic Assessment of Embryo Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Uyar, Asli; Seli, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Preimplantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the developmental potential of embryos. On this basis, metabolite content of culture media was hypothesized to reflect the implantation potential of individual embryos. This hypothesis was tested in consecutive studies reporting a significant association between culture media metabolites and embryo development or clinical pregnancy. The need for a noninvasive, reliable, and rapid embryo assessment strat...

  3. Manipulating Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyack, Alexander; Blees, Melina; Roberts, Samantha; Martin, Chris; Barnard, Arthur; McEuen, Paul L.

    2013-03-01

    Graphene is both strong and flexible, making it a promising material for nanoscale hinges and other three-dimensional structures. Using sacrificial layers and surfactants, we are able to demonstrate control over the adhesion of monolayer graphene to a substrate. By patterning gold on the surface of the graphene, we created arrays of rigid pads bridged by graphene strips that can be decoupled from the surface in an aqueous environment. The pads allow us to manipulate the graphene both on and off the surface using lasers or micromanipulators. Our methods yield fundamental material data on graphene such as the macroscopic bending stiffness, and demonstrate the feasibility of a graphene hinge. We are currently exploring the use of magnetic control as a method for applying forces to stretch and fold graphene. We have already created micron-sized permanent magnets made of iron and successfully released them from the substrate, and are now integrating them into graphene devices.

  4. Changes in thickness of each layer of developing chicken cornea after administration of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hieronim Bartel; Dariusz Tosik; Monika Kujawa-Hadryś

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the presentation of changes in thickness of each layer of a developing cornea, that came into being under an influence of caffeine which was administered to chicken embryos. Research materials were 26 chicken embryos from breeding eggs that had been incubated. Breeding eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30) in which Ringer liquid was given, and experimental (n=30) in which teratogenic dose of caffeine was administrated - 3.5 mg/egg. In 36th hour of incubati...

  5. Attenuation, transmission, and immunogenicity of an ORF-C gene deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in specific pathogen free chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...

  6. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch. PMID:23243240

  7. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangang; Geng Heyuan; Shao Yuhao; Han Zongxi; Cao Zhongzan; Liu Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel e...

  8. Manipulating Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  9. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  10. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors

  11. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  12. Modulation of EVI-1 expression in chicken embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová Balková, Simona; Horáková, D.; Buchtová, Marcela

    Martin : Slovenská anatomická společnost, 2013. s. 57-57. [International Congress of the Slovak Anatomical Society /43./ and Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /50./. 04.06.2013-06.06.2013, Martin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/09/0725 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : ecotropical viral integration site 1 Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  13. Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

  14. Whole genome microarray analysis of chicken embryo facial prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Kuo, W. P.; Nimmagadda, S.; Benson, S. L.; Geetha-Loganathan, P.; Logan, C.; Au-Yeung, T.; Chiang, E.; Fu, K.; Richman, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2010), s. 574-591. ISSN 1058-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pharyngeal arch * mandibular arch * maxillary prominence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2010

  15. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  16. Digital Microfluidic Dynamic Culture of Mammalian Embryos on an Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Shen, Hsien-Hua; Tien, Chang-Hung; Li, Chin-Jung; Fan, Shih-Kang; Liu, Cheng-Hsien; Hsu, Wen-Syang; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Current human fertilization in vitro (IVF) bypasses the female oviduct and manually inseminates, fertilizes and cultivates embryos in a static microdrop containing appropriate chemical compounds. A microfluidic microchannel system for IVF is considered to provide an improved in-vivo-mimicking environment to enhance the development in a culture system for an embryo before implantation. We demonstrate a novel digitalized microfluidic device powered with electrowetting on a dielectric (EWOD) to culture an embryo in vitro in a single droplet in a microfluidic environment to mimic the environment in vivo for development of the embryo and to culture the embryos with good development and live births. Our results show that the dynamic culture powered with EWOD can manipulate a single droplet containing one mouse embryo and culture to the blastocyst stage. The rate of embryo cleavage to a hatching blastocyst with a dynamic culture is significantly greater than that with a traditional static culture (pculture of mouse embryos in a dynamic environment. To test the reproductive outcome of the embryos collected from an EWOD chip as a culture system, we transferred embryos to pseudo-pregnant female mice and produced live births. These results demonstrate that an EWOD-based microfluidic device is capable of culturing mammalian embryos in a microfluidic biological manner, presaging future clinical application. PMID:25933003

  17. Structural damage of chicken red blood cells exposed to platinum nanoparticles and cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Chwalibog, André

    2014-01-01

    platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) and cisplatin with blood compartments are important for future applications. This study investigated structural damage, cell membrane deformation and haemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC) after treatment with cisplatin and NP-Pt. Cisplatin (4 μg/ml) and NP-Pt (2...

  18. A chicken consultation with ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M

    2005-04-15

    In Madison I once worked with two postdoctoral fellows who had spent their youth in New York City and who, when asked what birds they knew both responded "why, pigeons and LBJ's!" (little brown jobbies). Despite their undoubted brilliance, they clearly had an educational deficiency not fixed by buying eggs and poultry at a grocery store. Though of enormous economic and nutritional importance to humans, turkeys and chickens constitute only a minute fraction of the disappearing avian life in our ecology. One could easily teach an entire middle or high school biology course around the reproduction, embryology, evolution, genetics, anatomy, special adaptations, virology, bacteriology, taxonomy, behavior, and extinctions of birds, as paradigmatic of all of life. Where would developmental or evolutionary biology be without the Galapagos finches, chick embryo, or neurobiology without the Zebra Finch? The modifications of the original red jungle fowl of India and South East Asia into hundreds of races through artificial selection and breeding practices provide as beautiful an example of developmental plasticity, well-known to Darwin, as the domestic dog, cat, laboratory mice, and guinea pigs. In what follows I have begun to repay my indebtedness to my mentor Emil Witschi who introduced me to developmental biology, physiology, and genetics and its historical study on the basis of birds (and amphibians); and to Mark Leppert, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Utah for collaborative support, and bird-watching fieldtrips. PMID:15666310

  19. Dynamic Manipulability of 3-RRR Planar Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dois, H. A.; Jha, A. K.; Mishra, R. B.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a simulation study is proposed to study the factors influencing the dynamic manipulability of 3-RRR planar manipulator with and without payload. Different combinations of robot parameters are examined using design of experiment technique while performing variety of tasks. The kinematic and dynamic models are derived symbolically and used to simulate the dynamic performance of 3-RRR planar manipulator while following different trajectories. Finally, the results generated from the simulation of various parameter combinations are analyzed using analysis of variance and discussed to include the optimization of robot's performance based on the dynamic manipulability measure.

  20. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  1. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  2. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Oxygen diffusion in fish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2002-01-01

    All vertebrate embryos pass through a developmental period of remarkably low morphological variability. This period has been called phylotypic period. During the phylotypic period, organogenesis takes place, including blood vessel development. Before the phylotypic period, the embryos

  4. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  5. Safety and efficacy of a turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine for chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Motoyuki; Noland, Lauren; Eddins, Tim; Godoy, Alecia; Saeki, Sakiko; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

    2013-06-01

    Turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine (HVT/LT) expressing the glycoprotein B gene of laryngotracheitis virus (LTV) has been developed. In vitro growth kinetics of HVT/LT were similar to those of parental turkey herpesvirus (HVT), FC-126 strain. Genetic and phenotypic stabilities of HVT/LT after in vitro (in cell culture) or in vivo (in chickens) passage were confirmed by various assays, including Southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Safety of HVT/LT was assessed by an overdose study as well as by a backpassage study in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The overdose study indicated that HVT/LT did not cause any adverse effects in chickens. The backpassage study confirmed that HVT/LT does not revert to virulence after five passages in chickens. The vaccine did not transmit laterally from vaccinated chickens to commingled nonvaccinated chickens. Efficacy of HVT/LT was evaluated in SPF layer chickens after vaccination by the subcutaneous route at 1 day of age. The majority of the vaccinated chickens (92%-100%) were protected against challenge with virulent LTV at 7 wk of age. Efficacy of HVT/LT was further evaluated in broiler chickens from a commercial source after in ovo vaccination to embryos at 18 days of incubation. After challenge with virulent LTV at 21 and 35 days of age, 67% and 87% of HVT/LT-vaccinated chickens did not develop LT clinical signs, respectively, while 100% (21 days of age) and 73% (35 days of age) of the challenge control chickens showed clinical signs of LT. These results suggest that HVT/LT is a safe and efficacious vaccine for control of laryngotracheitis (LT). PMID:24689173

  6. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  7. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  8. A Robot-Assisted Cell Manipulation System with an Adaptive Visual Servoing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted cell manipulation is gaining attention for its ability in providing high throughput and high precision cell manipulation for the biological industry. This paper presents a visual servo microrobotic system for cell microinjection. We investigated the automatic cell autofocus method that reduced the complexity of the system. Then, we produced an adaptive visual processing algorithm to detect the location of the cell and micropipette toward the uneven illumination problem. Fourteen microinjection experiments were conducted with zebrafish embryos. A 100% success rate was achieved either in autofocus or embryo detection, which verified the robustness of the proposed automatic cell manipulation system.

  9. The MET Gene Is a Common Integration Target in Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J-Induced Chicken Hemangiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, James; Malhotra, Sanandan; Ruano, Miguel; Li, Yingying; Zavala, Guillermo; Lee, Nathan; Morgan, Robin; Beemon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a simple retrovirus that can cause hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens and is currently a major economic problem in Asia. Here we characterize ALV-J strain PDRC-59831, a newly studied U.S. isolate of ALV-J. Five-day-old chicken embryos were infected with this virus, and the chickens developed myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas within 2 months after hatching. To investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis, we employed high-throughput sequencing to ...

  10. Construction of the mammalian expressing vector pEGFP-N1-P53 and its expression successful in chicken fibroblast cells and blastoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Li, Z H; Lei, X Q; Xu, T S; Zhang, X H; Li, Y J; Zhang, G M; Xi, S M; Yang, Y B; Wei, Z G

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) pEGFP-N1-P53 eukaryotic expression vector, which contains the human tumor suppressor p53, was constructed and transfected into chicken fibroblast cells and stage-X blastoderm to analyze the transfection efficiency. The complementary DNA of the human p53 gene was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from human peripheral blood and inserted into the pEGFP-N1 vector by HindIII and BamHI double digestion. The pEGFP-N1-P53 vector was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblasts by Lipofectamine 2000 liposomes, and the transfection efficiency was analyzed by fluorescence microscope after 36 h of transfection. The stage-X blastoderm was also transfected by blastoderm injection using Lipofectamine 2000 liposomes at room temperature after 12-24 h; then hatching occurred until seventh day, and the transfection efficiency was analyzed by fluorescence microscope in the dead embryo. A total of 90 hatching eggs were transfected by the pEGFP-N1-P53 vector, and 20 chicken embryos expressed the reporter gene, which indicated that recombinant pEGFP-N1-P53 could be transfected and expressed in stage-X blastoderm by liposomes. Chicken embryo fibroblasts were transfected and expressed the reporter gene. The pEGFP-N1-P53 vector was constructed successfully and could be transfected and expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts and stage-X blastoderms efficiently. PMID:25730031

  11. Effects of thyroid hormones on cartilage sulphation in sex-linked dwarf chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, S.; Wakita, M.; Kobayashi, Y. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)); Kakegawa, T.; Suzuki, M. (Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to see if exogenous thyroid hormone could stimulate cartilage sulphation in vivo and in vitro in sex-linked dwarf chickens. L-thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine injection for 7 consecutive days stimulated in vivo /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ incorporation into trachea cartilages of the dwarf chicken. Both thyroid hormones added to the incubation medium with or without 2,5% dwarf chicken serum also stimulated in vitro /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ incorporation into pelvic rudiment from 11-day chick embryos. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormones, like insulin-like growth factor I, might be responsible for the reduced growth rate of dwarf chickens. (author).

  12. Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel Hieronim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells.

  13. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  14. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  15. Differential Expression Levels of Genes Related to Myogenesis During Embryogenesis of Quail and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ban, Yaowei Liang, Zongsheng Zhao§*, Xiaojun Liu§ and Qingfeng Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the expression dynamics of genes during myogenesis in quail and chicken. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of MyoD, MyoG, MLP and MSTN in breast muscle of quail and chicken embryos during the period of embryonic days E7-17. Results showed that expression profiles of each gene displayed similar trend in the experiment period between quail and chicken, however, the expression concentration between the two species differed at the same time detected. MyoD mRNA expression in quail was significantly lower in the early phase of the experiment period (E7-9 (P<0.01 on E7; P<0.05 on both E8 and E9. For MyoG and MLP, the mRNA expressions were both lower in quail than that in chicken during the experiment period. Additionally, the embryonic day when quail reached its peak expression was earlier than that in chicken (MyoG: quail E12 vs. chicken E13; MLP: quail E14 vs. chicken E15, and the peak expression for both in quail was significantly lower than that in chicken (P<0.01 for both. For MSTN, expression in quail was significantly higher in quail than that in chicken at each time detected (P<0.01. It is concluded that differential expression of these genes might or at least partially contributed to the different development of muscle development in quail and chicken.

  16. Heat shock protein expression enhances heat tolerance of reptile embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Dang, Wei; Mou, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Bao-Jun; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in heat tolerance has been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal tissues, but rarely in whole organisms because of methodological difficulties associated with gene manipulation. By comparing HSP70 expression patterns among representative species of reptiles and birds, and by determining the effect of HSP70 overexpression on embryonic development and hatchling traits, we have identified the role of HSP70 in the heat tolerance of amniote embryos. Consi...

  17. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  18. Transcriptome-wide investigation of genomic imprinting in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Dehais, Patrice; Cristobal, Magali San; Marsaud, Nathalie; Vignoles, Florence; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Beaumont, Catherine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Vignal, Alain; Morisson, Mireille; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism by which alleles of some specific genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. It has been observed in mammals and marsupials, but not in birds. Until now, only a few genes orthologous to mammalian imprinted ones have been analyzed in chicken and did not demonstrate any evidence of imprinting in this species. However, several published observations such as imprinted-like QTL in poultry or reciprocal effects keep the question open. Our main objective was thus to screen the entire chicken genome for parental-allele-specific differential expression on whole embryonic transcriptomes, using high-throughput sequencing. To identify the parental origin of each observed haplotype, two chicken experimental populations were used, as inbred and as genetically distant as possible. Two families were produced from two reciprocal crosses. Transcripts from 20 embryos were sequenced using NGS technology, producing ∼200 Gb of sequences. This allowed the detection of 79 potentially imprinted SNPs, through an analysis method that we validated by detecting imprinting from mouse data already published. However, out of 23 candidates tested by pyrosequencing, none could be confirmed. These results come together, without a priori, with previous statements and phylogenetic considerations assessing the absence of genomic imprinting in chicken. PMID:24452801

  19. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  20. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  1. Automatic Dissection Position Selection for Cleavage-Stage Embryo Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenan; Ang, Wei Tech

    2016-03-01

    Embryo biopsies are routinely performed for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). In order to avoid blastomere membrane rupture and cell lysis, correct selection of a suitable dissection position on the zona pellucida (ZP) is necessary. Although, the technology for automated cell manipulation has advanced greatly over the past decade, fully automated embryo biopsy in PGD has not been realized yet. Automated PGD may ultimately set a new clinical standard that improves the consistency of outcomes, increases cell survival rates, flattens the learning curve of the manual procedure, and reduces the effects of human fatigue. In this paper, we present the first approach to automatically select a suitable ZP dissection position prior to embryo biopsy from a single focused embryo image based on edge detection. The proposed method consists of a technique that estimates the elliptical ZP boundaries and another two techniques that select the suitable position for ZP dissection. These techniques achieved success rates of 96%, 94%, and 94% respectively. In addition, the proposed ZP boundary estimation technique has the potential to perform ZP thickness variation (ZPTV) test and other ZP morphology measurements with further improvement in the future. Our methods provide a starting point for fast position selection prior to automatic embryo biopsy. PMID:26259216

  2. Effect of Low Dose Radiation Upon Antioxidant Parameters in Skeletal Muscle of Chick Embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs with low dose ionizing radiation upon lipid peroxide (TBARS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle of chick embryo and newly hatched chicks. The eggs of a heavy breeding chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the irradiated chick embryos, there was a control group of non-irradiated chick embryos. The antioxidant parameters were measured in breast muscle (m. pectoralis superficialis) and thigh muscle (m. biceps femoris) of chick embryos on 1, 3, 6, 24 and 72 h after egg irradiation. All parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Lipid peroxidation, GSH level and CAT activity decreased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the first hour after irradiation, while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the thigh muscle on the 1st hour after irradiation. CAT activity decreased in the breast muscle of chick embryos on the hour 24 after irradiation. The GSH level increased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the hour 72 after irradiation while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the breast muscle. At the same time CAT activity decreased in breast muscle while lipid peroxidation decreased in thigh muscle. The obtained results showed that acute irradiation of chicken eggs on the 19th day of incubation with the dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation could be an oxidative stress in both types of muscles immediately after irradiation. However, at the one-day old chicks (72 hours after irradiation) this dose could have a stimulating effect upon GSH level in both breast and thigh muscle.(author)

  3. A shell-less chick embryo culturing technique, reproduced successfully under local circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate shell-less chick embryo culturing as a potential experimental model in the field of developmental anatomy. Freshly laid, fertilized chicken eggs of Egyptian Fayoumi breed were obtained from Poultry Research Institute Punjab, Rawalpindi. The fertilized chicken eggs were preincubated for 33 hours under standard conditions of 37.5 degree C and 65-75% humidity, to bring them to stage 9 (29-33 hours embryo, 7 somites) of Hamburger and Hamilton staging system. After this period, the eggs were taken out of the incubator, placed horizontally, wiped with 70% ethanol and permitted to air-dry for 10 minutes to reduce contamination from the egg surface and also to ensure that the embryo was properly positioned. The eggs contents were then transferred into the culture containers by cracking the undersides against an edge. The formation and growth of the embryonic membranes, the central nervous system - beginning from the vesicle stage, the circulatory system - including the heart, the eyes, beak, limbs, skin, feathers, wings and folding of the body were directly observed. Repeated successful culturing was attempted, tracing the developmental process of the embryo upto the 15th day of embryonic life at least after which the survivability period varied in different embryo cultures. The most advanced age reached in this project was day 19 of the embryonic life, which in researchers understanding is the latest developmental stage in shellless environment described as yet. The normal hatching time of this breed is 21-22 days. The size of these embryos was smaller as compared to the embryos of the same age that carried out their development inside their shells. (author)

  4. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  5. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  6. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Qian; Haibo Huang; Liguo Chen; Xiangpeng Li; Zunbiao Ge; Tao Chen; Zhan Yang; Lining Sun

    2014-01-01

    As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presente...

  7. Circular-rubbing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ "Mo" literally means "rubbing between two things"and "eliminating". Circular-rubbing is one of the earliest manipulations used in clinical practice. Circular-rubbing differs from pressing actually. Pressing is a static manipulation and acts to inhibit motion; circular-rubbing is a movable manipulation and serves to eliminate stationary. Circular-rubbing can be performed by either the palm or the finger.

  8. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens. PMID:23515571

  9. Manipulators in teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  10. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FP...

  11. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  12. The localization and uptake of in ovo injected soluble and particulate substances in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochemsen, P; Jeurissen, S H M

    2002-12-01

    The localization of in ovo injected substances in the chicken was investigated. We determined that localization is dependent on the nature of substances and the time of in ovo injection. In ovo injections with soluble bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU), particulate colloidal carbon, 40 nm fluorescent microspheres, and live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) were performed with a 25-mm (1-in) needle at Days 16 and 18 of incubation (DI-16 and DI-18, respectively). Localization of injected substances was determined in several organs using immunocytochemical methods. At DI-16, approximately 50% of the substances were detected in the organs; therefore, the localization of substances was not consistent. At DI-18, the substances were injected into the amnion. The substances entered the embryo by the mouth and were ingested into the intestinal and respiratory tract. All substances reached the lungs of the embryo via the trachea and the bronchi and were absorbed by the gas exchange tissue. In addition, the substances were absorbed by the bursa. Particulate colloidal carbon and microspheres remained in the organs where they were taken up initially for the rest of time of the experiment. Live IBDV, however, was distributed to other organs of the embryo. Soluble BrdU was found in all investigated organs of the embryo in high amounts. These results demonstrate that in ovo injection at DI-18 is an effective route to introduce substances into the chicken embryo, whereby the characteristics of the substance determine its final localization. PMID:12512571

  13. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  14. Cryopreservation of embryos: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Florent

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation (liquid nitrogen, -196°C) is the only safe and cost-effective option for long-term -conservation of genetic resources of non-orthodox seed species. Cryopreservation protocols have been developed for various materials including seeds, dormant buds, cell suspensions, calli, apices, zygotic, and somatic embryos of numerous plant species. Zygotic embryos or embryonic axes of almost 100 different species and somatic embryos of almost 40 different species from both temperate and tropical climates, comprising crops, fruit, and forest trees as well as wild species, whose seeds displayed orthodox, intermediate, and recalcitrant storage characteristics, have been successfully cryopreserved. With zygotic embryos and embryonic axes, the desiccation technique has been used with the majority of the species tested, leading to highly variable survival and recovery after freezing, especially during earlier experiments. More recently, new cryopreservation techniques viz. encapsulation-dehydration and vitrification have been employed, leading to generally improved results. With somatic embryos, different cryopreservation methods have been used viz. desiccation, pre-growth-desiccation, encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification, and droplet-vitrification. There are also a few examples of the utilisation of slow controlled freezing, which correspond to the earlier experiments performed with somatic embryos. The development and application of cryopreservation is significantly more advanced for somatic embryos, in comparison with zygotic embryos, mainly because of the different origin and characteristics of the species treated. In most cases, zygotic embryos originate from tropical, wild species, for which knowledge and techniques relevant to the development of cryopreservation protocols are limited, or even non-existent. By contrast, somatic embryos are generally produced from cultivated species, which have already been studied extensively

  15. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  16. Calculating Clearances for Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. L.; Peticolas, J. D.; Ray, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Set of algorithms rapidly calculates minimum safe clearances for remote manipulators. Such calculations are used in design of trajectories for manipulators to ensure they do not accidentally strike surrounding objects. Structural parts are considered as cylindrical shells having circular plane areas for ends. Clearance calculation method offers special benefits in industrial robotics, particularly in automated machining.

  17. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  18. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  19. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  20. Auxin control of embryo patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, B.K.; Weijers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Plants start their life as a single cell, which, during the process of embryogenesis, is transformed into a mature embryo with all organs necessary to support further growth and development. Therefore, each basic cell type is first specified in the early embryo, making this stage of development exce

  1. Nonsurgical embryo recovery and transfer in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jeferson F; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Oliveira, Maria Emília F; Leite, Ceci R; Nascimento-Penido, Paula Maria P; Brandão, Felipe Z; Lehloenya, Khoboso C

    2016-07-01

    The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats. PMID:27177961

  2. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  3. Stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the activity of chicken liver and spleen plasma membrane Ca+2 ATPase during different periods of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of pre incubative irradiation of chickens on the activity of chicken liver and spleen plasma membrane Ca+2-ATPase in 13, 15, 17 day embryos and 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 day chickens has been studied. Low doses of radiation are discovered to stimulate liver and spleen enzyme activity. On the basis of data obtained it is suggested that in the cells of radiosensitive and radio resistive organs molecular mechanisms of stimulating effect of low doses are similar. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  4. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  5. Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones and Shaped Offspring Growth and Behavior in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Bertin; Marine Chanson; Joël Delaveau; Frédéric Mercerand; Erich Möstl; Ludovic Calandreau; Cécile Arnould; Christine Leterrier; Anne Collin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature--within the thermotolerance range--would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laying hens were raised under a...

  6. Psittacine pox virus: virus isolation and identification, transmission, and cross-challenge studies in parrots and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosinger, T R; Winterfield, R W; Feldman, D S; Dhillon, A S

    1982-01-01

    An avian pox virus was isolated from Amazon parrots dying with severe diphtheritic oral, esophageal, and crop lesions. The virus was propagated on chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 10-day-old chicken embryos, and a homogenate of the infected CAM was rubbed vigorously onto the conjunctiva, oral mucosa, and defeathered follicles of two healthy Amazon parrots and three conures. All experimental birds developed cutaneous and ocular pox lesions, and one parrot developed oral pox lesions. Specific-pathogen-free chicks inoculated with the virus isolate developed skin lesions identical to those of the parrots. Chickens vaccinated with fowl and pigeon pox vaccines and inoculated with the psittacine isolate developed lesions typical of avian pox. Chickens vaccinated with the psittacine virus were susceptible to fowl and pigeon pox virus infection. This pox virus isolate may thus be regarded as a potential pathogen for chickens. PMID:6285884

  7. Simulation of robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories' Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment

  8. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  9. Sound visualization and manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-01-01

    Unique in addressing two different problems - sound visualization and manipulation - in a unified way Advances in signal processing technology are enabling ever more accurate visualization of existing sound fields and precisely defined sound field production. The idea of explaining both the problem of sound visualization and the problem of the manipulation of sound within one book supports this inter-related area of study.  With rapid development of array technologies, it is possible to do much in terms of visualization and manipulation, among other technologies involved with the spatial dis

  10. Differential gene expression of phosphoglyceric kinase (PGK) and hypoxic adaptation in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Phosphoglyceric Kinase (PGK) gene were discov- ered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and Shouguang chicken). Gel-shift results indicate that one of these SNPs, an A→G mutation at position 59 in exon10, is able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-l (HIF-1), functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The mutant gene results in M→T mutation at position 379 amino acid. The combined activity of this HRE and HIF-1 could increase correspondingly under a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos; while the M→T mutation described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions, thus it may repre- sent an adaptation to hypoxia. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription PCR results revealed that HIF-1 upregulates the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme PGK in the brain and skeletal mus- cle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis, allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this SNP to be an adaptation to the external anoxic environment.

  11. Molecular Characteristics of S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Chicken Proventriculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-qin; ZHOU Ji-yong; John Dikki; SHEN Xing-yan; CHEN Ji-gang; ZHANG De-yong

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from swollen proventriculi of clinically ill chicken. Thesuspected virus samples (2/97, 3/97, 1/98) were adapted in SPF chicken embryos for virus isolation andidentification. All the virus isolates were able to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes after treatment with trypsin,and interfer with the reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chicken embryos, and have low antigenic relat-edness values with reference positive IBV. The isolates 2/97, 3/97, 1/98 RNAs extracted from the allantoicfluid of inoculated embryonated eggs were converted to cDNA by reverse transcription with 3'-primer of S1gene of (IBV). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with two primers which span the S1 gene.Amplified product of 1.93 kb was subjected to EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ digestion and the fragments obtainedwere the same as expected size. The PCR product was ligated to pBlueScript-SK (+) vector, and its nucleotidesequence was determined by the dideoxy-mediated chain termination method. Nucleotide sequence analysisshowed 73.6 - 99.7 % homology between the isolated IBV and the IBV strains in GenBank. The homology ofamino acid was 71.4 - 99.4 %.

  12. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested.

  13. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  14. Manipulating Strings in Python

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Turkel; Adam Crymble

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  15. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  16. Non-surgical embryo transfer in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Embryo transfer in pigs has been performed surgically for a long time. However, a less invasive, non-surgical, procedure of embryo transfer could be a valuable tool for research (to study embryo survival and embryo-uterus interactions) and practical applications (export, prevention of disease transm

  17. Research of blastocyte-like structure in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jia; PAN; Qiuzhen; LI; Junying; HAN; Hongbing; SUN; Shu

    2005-01-01

    The chicken embryo is a classic model used to investigate embryonic development, gene expression, and tissue differentiation, and is also an important research tool in studying the animal functional genomics. The whole blastoderms of fresh unincubated eggs from White Leghorn chickens were collected with a paper ring, mechanically broken into small pieces and cultured in medium. Then the small pieces would develop into blastocyte-like structures (BLS), which could be facilitated by an addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the primary culture and their diameter was nearly doubled from 12 to 24 h. The additional yolk had no positive effect on the development in the first 12 h but encouraged the BLSs attaching and inner cells differentiating instead in 24 h. The inner cells of the BLS showing a high alkaline-phosphatase activity similar to those in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and also expressing a large amount of the specific stage embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) on the surface, which was known to be the characteristic of non-differentiated mouse and avian ES cells, could finally differentiate into nerve-like cells, fibroblast cells and so on in the medium. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) facilitated the cells' proliferation and prevented differentiation in the suspended culture of the BLSs. So we drew the conclusion that the BLS obtained from broken blastoderm can be used to amplify avian ES cells so as to initiate a new method of producing transgenic chickens.

  18. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  19. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Dara E

    2015-01-01

    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. PMID:26242955

  20. A Novel Ex Ovo Banding Technique to Alter Intracardiac Hemodynamics in an Embryonic Chicken System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinal; Junor, Lorain; Balhaj, Marwa; Eberth, John F; Potts, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    The new model presented here can be used to understand the influence of hemodynamics on specific cardiac developmental processes, at the cellular and molecular level. To alter intracardiac hemodynamics, fertilized chicken eggs are incubated in a humidified chamber to obtain embryos of the desired stage (HH17). Once this developmental stage is achieved, the embryo is maintained ex ovo and hemodynamics in the embryonic heart are altered by partially constricting the outflow tract (OFT) with a surgical suture at the junction of the OFT and ventricle (OVJ). Control embryos are also cultured ex ovo but are not subjected to the surgical intervention. Banded and control embryos are then incubated in a humidified incubator for the desired period of time, after which 2D ultrasound is employed to analyze the change in blood flow velocity at the OVJ as a result of OFT banding. Once embryos are maintained ex ovo, it is important to ensure adequate hydration in the incubation chamber so as to prevent drying and eventually embryo death. Using this new banded model, it is now possible to perform analyses of changes in the expression of key players involved in valve development and to understand the role of hemodynamics on cellular responses in vivo, which could not be achieved previously. PMID:27213265

  1. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  2. MODELS FOR MOUSE CHIMERA PRODUCTION: AGGREGATION OF ES CELLS WITH CLEAVAGE STAGE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCA CLAUDIA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mutant ES cells↔ wild-type embryo chimera, ES cells behave more like epiblastcells. They can contribute to the primitive ectoderm layers, which give rise to all theembryonic tissues and some extraembryonic tissues (Beddington and Robertson,1989, but not to trophectoderm or primitive endoderm. Using transgenic ES celllines, aggregated with cleavage stage host embryo, ES cells can integrate randomlyin the embryo proper. If they will be take part in the formation of ICM (inner cellmass, it will be possible to obtain germline chimera animals. To generate ES cells↔ cleavage stage host embryo chimeras, we used (CD-1 mice as donors of hostembryos as well as recipients of manipulated embryos. For chimera production, weused fluorescent-labeled ES cell line (CD1/EGFP, because in this case we canfollow the fate of ES cells during the embryonic development. We produced thechimers using “aggregation chimera technique”. 8 cells stage zona pellucida free,mouse embryos were aggregated in an aggregation plates, with a clump of ES cells(10 – 15 cells. The chimera embryos were cultivated for 24 hours in the incubator(at 37 °C, 5% CO2 in air. The chimera blastocysts resulted after cultivation, weretransferred to the uterus of the 2.5-dpc pseudo pregnant females.

  3. Diagnosis of a naturally occurring dual infection of layer chickens with fowlpox virus and gallid herpesvirus 1 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ibrahim S; Taylor, Jim; Gibson, John; Hoad, John; De Jong, Amanda; Hewitson, Glen; Corney, Bruce G; Rodwell, Barry J

    2010-02-01

    An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in layers was diagnosed as being of dual nature due to fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis using a multidisciplinary approach including virus isolation, histopathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis was based on virus isolation of gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) in chicken kidney cells and fowlpox virus (FWPV) in 9-day-old chicken embryonated eggs inoculated via the chorioallantoic membrane. The histopathology of tracheas from dead birds revealed intra-cytoplasmic and intra-nuclear inclusions suggestive of poxvirus and herpesvirus involvement. The presence of FWPV was further confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR and histology. All FWPV isolates contained the long terminal repeats of reticuloendotheliosis virus as demonstrated by PCR. GaHV-1 isolates were detected by PCR and were shown to have a different restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern when compared with the chicken embryo origin SA2 vaccine strain; however, they shared the same pattern with the Intervet chicken embryo origin vaccine strain. This is a first report of dual infection of chickens with GaHV-1 and naturally occurring FWPV with reticuloendotheliosis virus insertions. Further characterization of the viruses was carried out and the results are reported here. PMID:20390533

  4. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras; REMEDIOS D. CATAMIN; Delia A. Paragados; AILEEN C. DE LA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefu...

  5. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment. PMID:26895726

  6. In ovo administration of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate positively influences chicken performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mroczek-Sosnowska, Natalia; Łukasiewicz, Monika; Wnuk, Agnieszka;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Copper (Cu) is a key trace mineral involved in a variety of physiological processes, and is commonly used in poultry production. However, regardless of the inclusion level the majority of Cu is excreted with poultry faeces. We hypothesise that in ovo administration will allow for better...... utilisation of Cu during embryo development than when supplied post-natally with feed to growing chickens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of in ovo administration of NanoCu and copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) on broiler chicken performance. RESULTS: The study showed the positive influences...

  7. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  8. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  9. KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS MANIPULATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Квасніков, В. П.; Національний авіаційний університет; Вохмянін, М. М.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2013-01-01

    Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy or otherwise have an effect. Thus the ‘hands’ of a robot are often referred to as end-effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. A common effector is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands. These highl...

  10. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  11. 9 CFR 98.16 - The embryo collection unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding them (either natural breeding or artificial insemination). (b) Embryo collection area. The embryo... equipment used for artificial insemination or for collection, processing, or storage of embryos. The...

  12. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  13. Induction of autophagy improves embryo viability in cloned mouse embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, XingHui; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhenDong; Bai, GuangYu; Zheng, Zhong; Gu, YanLi; Wu, YanShuang; Liu, Hui; Zhou, DongJie; Lei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Moreover, autophagy is essential for preimplantation development in mammals. Here we show that autophagy is also important for reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our data indicate that unlike fertilized oocytes, autophagy is not triggered in SCNT embryos during 6 hours of activation. Mechanistically, the inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation is due to the cytochalasin B (CB) caused depolymerization of actin filaments. In this study, we induced autophagy during SCNT activation by rapamycin and pp242, which could restore the expected level of autophagy and significantly enhance the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when compared with the control (68.5% and 68.7% vs. 41.5%, P autophagy is important for development of SCNT embryos and inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation might be one of the serious causes of low efficiency of SCNT. PMID:26643778

  14. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  15. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  16. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  17. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  18. DNA repair in mammalian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroudi, Souraya; SenGupta, Sioban

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian cells have developed complex mechanisms to identify DNA damage and activate the required response to maintain genome integrity. Those mechanisms include DNA damage detection, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which operate together to protect the conceptus from DNA damage originating either in parental gametes or in the embryo's somatic cells. DNA repair in the newly fertilized preimplantation embryo is believed to rely entirely on the oocyte's machinery (mRNAs and proteins deposited and stored prior to ovulation). DNA repair genes have been shown to be expressed in the early stages of mammalian development. The survival of the embryo necessitates that the oocyte be sufficiently equipped with maternal stored products and that embryonic gene expression commences at the correct time. A Medline based literature search was performed using the keywords 'DNA repair' and 'embryo development' or 'gametogenesis' (publication dates between 1995 and 2006). Mammalian studies which investigated gene expression were selected. Further articles were acquired from the citations in the articles obtained from the preliminary Medline search. This paper reviews mammalian DNA repair from gametogenesis to preimplantation embryos to late gestational stages. PMID:17141556

  19. Feminists on the inalienability of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carolyn; Baylis, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    The feminist literature against the commodification of embryos in human embryo research includes an argument to the effect that embryos are "intimately connected" to persons, or morally inalienable from them. We explore why embryos might be inalienable to persons and why feminists might find this view appealing. But, ultimately, as feminists, we reject this view because it is inconsistent with full respect for women's reproductive autonomy and with a feminist conception of persons as relational, embodied beings. Overall, feminists should avoid claims about embryos' being inalienable to persons in arguments for or against the commodification of human embryos. PMID:17111554

  20. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF. In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.

  1. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  2. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  3. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Sundvik; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Ari Salmi; Pertti Panula; Edward Hæggström

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) a...

  4. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  5. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection. PMID:27232188

  6. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  7. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  8. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost. PMID:25285460

  9. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  10. MANIPULATOR FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Grimson, J.H.; Kohut, F.A.

    1961-04-01

    A remote-control manipulator comprising two stationary master units, two slave units on a movable vehicle, and electrical connections between the master and slave units is reported. The slave units are side by side with a minimum over-all width, which is made feasible by an arrangement of transducers producing most movements of each slave unit to one side of the support of said slave unit.

  11. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Russell M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  12. Prophylactic administration of chicken cathelicidin-2 boosts zebrafish embryonic innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Viktoria A F; van Dijk, Albert; van der Sar, Astrid M; Kraaij, Marina D; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-07-01

    Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is a host defense peptide that exhibits immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties. Here we examined effects of CATH-2 in zebrafish embryos in the absence and presence of infection. Yolk-injection of 0.2-1.5 h post-fertilized (hpf) zebrafish embryos with 2.6 ng/kg CATH-2 increased proliferation of phagocytic cells at 48 hpf by 30%. A lethal infection model was developed to test the prophylactic protective effect of CATH-2 peptide. Embryos (0.2-1.5 hpf) were injected with 2.6 ng/kg CATH-2, challenged with a lethal dose of fluorescently labeled Salmonella enteritidis pGMDs3 at 28 hpf and monitored for survival. Prophylactic treatment with CATH-2 was found to delay infection starting at 22 h post-infection (hpi). At 18-20 hpi, significantly lower (2-fold) fluorescence intensity and decreased bacterial loads were detected in peptide-treated embryos. Thus prophylactic administration of low CATH-2 concentrations confer partial protection in zebrafish embryos by boosting the innate immune system. PMID:26920462

  13. Cuspidal and Noncuspidal Robot Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article synthezises the most important results on the kinematics of cuspidal manipulators i.e. nonredundant manipulators that can change posture without meeting a singularity. The characteristic surfaces, the uniqueness domains and the regions of feasible paths in the workspace are defined. Then, several sufficient geometric conditions for a manipulator to be noncuspidal are enumerated and a general necessary and sufficient condition for a manipulator to be cuspidal is provided. An explicit DH-parameter-based condition for an orthogonal manipulator to be cuspidal is derived. The full classification of 3R orthogonal manipulators is provided and all types of cuspidal and noncuspidal orthogonal manipulators are enumerated. Finally, some facts about cuspidal and noncuspidal 6R manipulators are reported.

  14. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mantikou

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  15. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds germinated

  16. Free energy of multicomponent embryo formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurasov, Victor

    2002-01-01

    An expression for the free energy of embryo formation is constructed and analyzed. The Gibbs dividing surfaces method is used to attain a coincidence between Laplace formula for critical embryo and integral definitions of concenterations inside the embryo. A global structure of free energy is analyzed and some useful properties are extracted.

  17. Preimplantation embryo-endometrial signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklenburg, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a common and distressing disorder. Chromosomal errors in the embryo are the single most common cause whereas uterine factors are invariably invoked to explain non-chromosomal miscarriages. These uterine factors are, however, poorly defined. The ability of a conceptu

  18. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  19. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  20. The sulphation of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic chicken cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Whole tissue preparations and subcellular fractions from embryonic chicken cartilage were used to measure the rate of incorporation of inorganic sulphate into chondroitin sulphate in vitro. 2. In cartilage from 14-day-old embryos, [35S]sulphate is incorporated to an equal extent into chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate at a rate of 1·5nmoles of sulphate/hr./mg. dry wt. of cartilage. 3. Microsomal and soluble enzyme preparations from embryonic cartilage catalyse the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate into both chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate. 4. The effects of pH, ionic strength, adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate concentration and acceptor chondroitin sulphate concentration on the soluble sulphotransferase activity were examined. These factors all influence the activity of the sulphotransferase, and pH and incubation time also influence the percentage of chondroitin 4-sulphate formed. PMID:5807213

  1. Characterization of recombinant Raccoonpox Vaccine Vectors in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, S.-H.; Iams, K.P.; Hall, J.S.; Kingstad, B.A.; Osorio, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

  2. Embryo technologies in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E L; Carnevale, E M; McCue, P M; Bruemmer, J E

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that zwitterionic buffers could be used for satisfactory storage of equine embryos at 5 degrees C. The success of freezing embryos is dependent upon size and stage of development. Morulae and blastocysts transfer. The majority of equine embryos are collected from single ovulating mares, as there is no commercially available product for superovulation in equine. However, pituitary extract, rich in FSH, can be used to increase embryo recovery three- to four-fold. Similar to human medicine, assisted reproductive techniques have been developed for the older, subfertile mare. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes from young, healthy mares into a recipient's oviduct results in a 70-80% pregnancy rate compared with a 30-40% pregnancy rate when the oocytes are from older, subfertile mares. This procedure can also be used to evaluate in vitro maturation systems. In vitro production of embryos is still quite difficult in the horse. However, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been used to produce several foals. Cleavage rates of 60% and blastocyst rates of 30% have been reported after ICSI of in vitro-matured oocytes. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is a possible treatment for subfertile stallions. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes with 200,000 sperm into the oviduct of normal mares resulted in a pregnancy rate of 55-82%. Oocyte freezing is a technique that has proven difficult in most species. However, equine oocytes vitrified in a solution of ethylene glycol, DMSO, and Ficoll and loaded onto a cryoloop resulted in three pregnancies of 26 transfers and two live foals produced. Production of a cloned horse appears to be likely, as several cloned pregnancies have recently been produced. PMID:12499026

  3. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  4. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...

  5. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.)

  6. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; R Godbout

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternati...

  7. Reactivation of chicken erythrocyte nuclei in heterokaryons results in expression of adult chicken globin genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, S.; Zuckerman, S H; Ringertz, N R

    1981-01-01

    Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte--rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins.

  8. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  9. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  10. Muskmelon embryo rescue techniques using in vitro embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Palenius, Hector Gordon; Ramírez-Malagón, Rafael; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2011-01-01

    Among the major cucurbit vegetables, melon (Cucumis melo) has one of the greatest polymorphic fruit types and botanical varieties. Some melon fruits have excellent aroma, variety of flesh colors, deeper flavor, and more juice compared to other cucurbits. Despite numerous available melon cultivars, some of them are exceedingly susceptible to several diseases. The genetic background carrying the genes for tolerance and/or resistance for those diseases is found in wild melon landraces. Unfortunately, the commercial melon varieties are not able to produce viable hybrids when crossed with their wild melon counterparts. Plant tissue culture techniques are needed to surpass those genetic barriers. In vitro melon embryo rescue has played a main role to obtain viable hybrids originated from commercial versus wild melon crosses. In this chapter, an efficient and simple embryo rescue melon protocol is thoroughly described. PMID:21207265

  11. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  12. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  13. Cholesterol induces proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Meijuan; Lu, Zhenping; Yang, Mengmeng; Xie, Long; Zhang, Wenxin; Xu, Huiyan; Lu, Kehuan; Lu, Yangqing

    2016-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of sperm and eggs and may serve as suitable cells for use in research in developmental biology and transgenic animals. However, the long-term propagation of PGCs in vitro has so far been plagued by the loss of their germ cell characteristics. This is largely because of the scarcity of knowledge concerning cell division and proliferation in these cells and the poor optimization of the culture medium. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in proliferation of many types of cells, but little is known about its role in chicken PGCs. The results of the current study indicate that the proliferation of chicken PGCs increases significantly when cholesterol, a molecule that facilitates the trafficking of HH ligands, is supplemented in the culture medium. This effect was attenuated when an SHH antagonist, cyclopamine was added, suggesting the involvement of SHH signaling in this process. The characterization of PGCs treated with cholesterol has shown that these cells express germ-cell-related markers and retain their capability to colonize the embryonic gonad after re-introduction to vasculature of stage-15 HH embryos, indicating that proliferation of PGCs induced by cholesterol does not alter the germ cell characteristics of these cells. PMID:27269880

  14. Methylome Analysis in Chickens Immunized with Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Carrillo

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the methylome of chickens immunized with Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT vaccine derived from chicken embryos. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq method was employed in the detection of the 1,155 differentially methylated regions (DMRs across the entire genome. After validation, we ascertained the genomic DMRs distribution and annotated them regarding genes, transcription start sites (TSS and CpG islands. We found that global DNA methylation decreased in vaccinated birds, presenting 704 hypomethylated and 451 hypermethylated DMRs, respectively. Additionally, we performed an enrichment analysis detecting gene networks, in which cancer and RNA post-transcriptional modification appeared in the first place, followed by humoral immune response, immunological disease and inflammatory disease. The top four identified canonical pathways were EIF2 signaling, regulation of EIF4 and p70S6K signaling, axonal guidance signaling and mTOR signaling, providing new insight regarding the mechanisms of ILT etiology. Lastly, the association between DNA methylation and differentially expressed genes was examined, and detected negative correlation in seventeen of the eighteen genes.

  15. Methylome Analysis in Chickens Immunized with Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, José A; He, Yanghua; Luo, Juan; Menendez, Kimberly R; Tablante, Nathaniel L; Zhao, Keji; Paulson, Joseph N; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the methylome of chickens immunized with Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine derived from chicken embryos. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) method was employed in the detection of the 1,155 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the entire genome. After validation, we ascertained the genomic DMRs distribution and annotated them regarding genes, transcription start sites (TSS) and CpG islands. We found that global DNA methylation decreased in vaccinated birds, presenting 704 hypomethylated and 451 hypermethylated DMRs, respectively. Additionally, we performed an enrichment analysis detecting gene networks, in which cancer and RNA post-transcriptional modification appeared in the first place, followed by humoral immune response, immunological disease and inflammatory disease. The top four identified canonical pathways were EIF2 signaling, regulation of EIF4 and p70S6K signaling, axonal guidance signaling and mTOR signaling, providing new insight regarding the mechanisms of ILT etiology. Lastly, the association between DNA methylation and differentially expressed genes was examined, and detected negative correlation in seventeen of the eighteen genes. PMID:26107953

  16. Hexabrachion proteins in embryonic chicken tissues and human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, H P; Taylor, H C

    1987-09-01

    Cell cultures of chicken embryo and human fibroblasts produce a large extracellular matrix molecule with a six-armed structure that we called a hexabrachion (Erickson, H. P., and J. L. Iglesias, 1984, Nature (Lond.), 311:267-269. In the present work we have determined that the myotendinous (M1) antigen described by M. Chiquet and D. M. Fambrough in chicken tissues (1984, J. Cell Biol., 98:1926-1936), and the glioma mesenchymal extracellular matrix protein described by Bourdon et al. in human tumors (Bourdon, M. A., C. J. Wikstrand, H. Furthmayr, T. J. Matthews, and D. D. Bigner, 1983, Cancer Res. 43:2796-2805) have the structure of hexabrachions. We also demonstrate that the M1 antigen is present in embryonic brain, where it was previously reported absent, and have purified hexabrachions from brain homogenates. The recently described cytotactin (Grumet, M., S. Hoffman, K. L. Crossin, and G. M. Edelman, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:8075-8079) now appears to be identical to the chicken hexabrachion protein. In a search for functional roles, we looked for a possible cell attachment activity. A strong, fibronectin-like attachment activity was present in (NH4)2SO4 precipitates of cell supernatant and sedimented with hexabrachions in glycerol gradients. Hexabrachions purified by antibody adsorption, however, had lost this activity, suggesting that it was due to a separate factor associated with hexabrachions in the gradient fractions. The combined information in the several, previously unrelated studies suggests that hexabrachions may play a role in organizing localized regions of extracellular matrix. The protein is prominently expressed at specific times and locations during embryonic development, is retained in certain adult tissues, and is reexpressed in a variety of tumors. PMID:3654758

  17. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  18. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvik, Maria; Nieminen, Heikki J; Salmi, Ari; Panula, Pertti; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) at 2-14 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 1000 (n = 47) or 2000 seconds (n = 47). We compared the size and number of trunk neuromasts and otoliths in sonicated samples to controls (n = 94), and found no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). While mortality rate was lower in the control group (22.3%) compared to that in the 1000 s (34.0%) and 2000 s (42.6%) levitation groups, the differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The results suggest that acoustic levitation for less than 2000 sec does not interfere with the development of zebrafish embryos, but may affect mortality rate. Acoustic levitation could potentially be used as a non-contacting wall-less platform for characterizing and manipulating vertebrae embryos without causing major adverse effects to their development. PMID:26337364

  19. In vitro fertilization and embryo culture strongly impact the placental transcriptome in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fauque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART are increasingly used in humans; however, their impact is now questioned. At blastocyst stage, the trophectoderm is directly in contact with an artificial medium environment, which can impact placental development. This study was designed to carry out an in-depth analysis of the placental transcriptome after ART in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blastocysts were transferred either (1 after in vivo fertilization and development (control group or (2 after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Placentas were then analyzed at E10.5. Six percent of transcripts were altered at the two-fold threshold in placentas of manipulated embryos, 2/3 of transcripts being down-regulated. Strikingly, the X-chromosome harbors 11% of altered genes, 2/3 being induced. Imprinted genes were modified similarly to the X. Promoter composition analysis indicates that FOXA transcription factors may be involved in the transcriptional deregulations. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study shows that in vitro fertilization associated with embryo culture strongly modify the placental expression profile, long after embryo manipulations, meaning that the stress of artificial environment is memorized after implantation. Expression of X and imprinted genes is also greatly modulated probably to adapt to adverse conditions. Our results highlight the importance of studying human placentas from ART.

  20. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found

  1. Development of the interferon system. I. In chicken cells development in ovo continues on time in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekellick, M J; Biggers, W J; Marcus, P I

    1990-10-01

    When confluent monolayers of cells derived from chicken embryos of different gestational age were cultured for several days without a medium change, a condition termed in vitro aging, the cells' developed an increased capacity to express the interferon (IFN) system. The capacity to both produce IFN and to respond to its antiviral action were enhanced up to 1000- and 100-fold, respectively. Remarkably, the programmed development of the IFN system in these cells seemed to continue virtually uninterrupted after monodispersion of the cells and seeding at high cell density. Cells prepared from young embryos required more time to develop the IFN system than cells from older embryos with the yield of IFN, and sensitivity to its action, related directly to the total in ovo and in vitro age of the cells in culture. For example, essentially the same yields of IFN were obtained from cell cultures made from 5-d-old embryos "aged" for 10 d in vitro, as were obtained from 10-d-old embryos whose cells were aged in vitro for 5 d. In contrast, inducibility of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase by IFN and the induction of heat shock genes by elevated temperature are not enhanced with in vitro aging. The programmed development of the IFN system that starts in ovo seems to continue on schedule in vitro, making the development of the IFN system in chick embryo cells appear as a time-dependent process. PMID:1700777

  2. Dynamics of Liver Development in Dandarawi Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa, M. Mokhtar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 50 chick embryo of Dandarawi chicken collected from Assiut University Farm at a 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19 day of prehatching life. At the 3rd day of incubation, the hepatic diverticulum gave dorsal and ventral parts in relation to the ductus venosus. At the 7th day, the dorsal and ventral parts became the left and right lobes respectively where the gall bladder was located on visceral surface of the right lobe and a transverse fissure dividing the left lobe into dorsal and ventral parts. Also, the vitelline veins caudal to the liver anastomosed together forming the portal vein, which gave off left portal branch to the left lobe of liver and continued as right portal branch to the right lobe. At the 9th day, the right lobe was longer and higher than the left one where the right lobe was in contact dorsally with the mesonephros and the left one was separated from the mesonephros by the glandular stomach. At the 11th day, the interlobar fissure was occupied mainly by the umbilical vein. At the 13th day, the parietal surface of the two lobes was related to the heart and body wall and the gall bladder increased in size and extended laterally. At the 15th day, the cranial end of the right lobe had three processes dorsal, middle and ventral but the cranial end of the left lobe had two processes dorsal and ventral. The duct system of the right lobe was hepatocystic and cystoenteric, but that of the left was hepatoenteric duct.

  3. The endocrine control of embryonic lung maturation in the chicken. I. Morphological and biochemical differentiation of lungs after "in ovo" decapitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, L; Tordet, C; Dameron, F

    1978-02-20

    The effects of "in ovo" hypophysectomy on lung maturation of the chick embryo were investigated. Both biochemical and morphological aspects of differentiation were markedly delayed in experimental embryos: the phospholipid content of lungs was lower than in controls at all stages, whereas the water content remained very high. The type II pneumocytes, which normally appear within the epithelium on day 16 of incubation, started to differentiate only between days 18 and 20 of incubation in the decapitated embryos. The differentiation of type I pneumocytes leading to the formation of air capillaries was also slowed down: they did not appear until the end of incubation in decapitated embryos, whereas they normally start to appear on day 19. The presence of an intact hypophysis is thus essential for normal lung maturation in the chicken. PMID:655431

  4. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  5. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  6. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

  7. In ovo carbohydrate supplementation modulates growth and immunity-related genes in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, S K; Goel, A; Pandey, N; Mehra, M; Majumdar, S; Mandal, A B

    2015-02-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the role of in ovo administrated carbohydrates on the expression pattern of growth and immune-related genes. In ovo injections (n = 400) were carried out on the 14th day of incubation into the yolk sac/amnion of the broiler chicken embryos. Expression of growth-related genes: chicken growth hormone (cGH), insulin-like growth factor-I & II (IGF-I & II) and mucin were studied in hepatic and jejunum tissues of late-term embryo and early post-hatch chicks. Expression of candidate immune genes: Interleukin-2, 6, 10 and 12 (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12), Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were studied in peripheral blood monocyte cells of in ovo-injected and control birds following antigenic stimulation with sheep RBC (SRBC) or mitogen concanavalin A (Con-A). Glucose injection significantly increased the expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic period and both cGH and IGF-II in early post-hatch period, while ribose-injected chicks had higher expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic stage. Enhanced mucin gene expression was also observed in fructose-injected chicks during embryonic age. Glucose-injected chicks had higher expression of IL-6 or IL-10, while those injected with fructose or ribose had higher expression of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN gamma. It is concluded that in ovo supplementation of carbohydrates might help in improving the growth of late-term embryos and chicks. In ovo glucose could modulate humoral-related immunity, while fructose or ribose might help in improving the cellular immunity in broiler chickens. PMID:24797673

  8. Kinetics of chicken embryonic thymocyte development in ovo and in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, N J; Chen, C H; Boyd, R L

    1992-06-01

    Thymocyte development was monitored in an embryonic thymus organ culture system to establish a model in the chicken in which the functional nature of the thymic microenvironment could be assessed. Thymus lobes were removed from 10-day-old embryos and cultured for 2-10 days. Cell yield increased to a maximum in 4-8 days of culture with a corresponding decrease in average cell size. An initial thymocyte population of predominantly CD3-CD4-CD8- cells gave rise to all CD3/CD4/CD8-defined subpopulations in vitro, maintaining high levels of CD3-CD4-CD8+ and CD3+CD4-CD8+ cells and a low representation of CD3-CD4+CD8-, CD3+CD4+CD8-, CD3-CD4+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. This is the first observation of a CD3-CD4+CD8- population in the chicken. Developmental kinetics of CD3+ cells were similar to that in the embryo, suggesting that the in vitro environment is sufficient to promote and maintain thymocyte maturation. Thymocytes of both the gamma delta and alpha beta T cell receptor (TcR) lineages developed in that order, confirming in ovo data and the lineage potential of the first wave of thymocyte precursors. One unusual finding was a relative accumulation of gamma delta TcR+ thymocytes in culture, incorporating all CD4/CD8 subsets, including a previously undetected population, CD4+CD8-. This may indicate a favorable developmental environment or simply a lack of normal cellular emigration. A detailed comparison with T cell development in the embryo demonstrated that the chicken thymus organ culture system reflects thymic events in ovo during a limited time period and thus should prove useful in the identification of functionally relevant thymic molecules. PMID:1534758

  9. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  10. Mixing in manipulated turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kuczaj, A K; Geurts, Bernard J.; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.

    2006-01-01

    A new computational framework for the simulation of turbulent flow through complex objects and along irregular boundaries is presented. This is motivated by the application of metal foams in compact heat-transfer devices, or as catalyst substrates in process-engineering. The flow-consequences of such complicated objects are incorporated by adding explicit multiscale forcing to the Navier-Stokes equations. The forcing represents the simultaneous agitation of a wide spectrum of length-scales when flow passes through the complex object. It is found that a considerable modulation of the traditional energy cascading can be introduced with a specific forcing strategy. In spectral space, forcing yields strongly localized deviations from the common Kolmogorov scaling law, directly associated with the explicitly forced scales. In addition, the accumulated effect of forcing induces a significant non-local alteration of the kinetic energy including the spectrum for the large scales. Consequently, a manipulation of turbu...

  11. Manipulation with molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D Barnes

    2002-09-01

    For many years now, researchers in materials and photonics have been keenly interested in the design and fabrication of structures that confine and manipulate electromagnetic fields on length scales comparable to optical wavelengths. The ultimate goal is an all-optical information processing and computation platform using photons in ways analogous to electrons in silicon devices on similar length scales. Specific focus areas such as wafer-scale integration, parallel processing, and frequency management (e.g. add-drop filters, on micron or sub-micron length scales are active areas of photonics research. While a great deal of progress has been made in the burgeoning field of microphotonics, we are still a long way off from realizing important goals such as the optical transistor and all-optical integrated circuits1.

  12. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  13. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  14. Structural analysis of fibrinogen synthesized by cultured chicken hepatocytes in the presence or absence of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D L; Plant, P W; Pindyck, J; Mosesson, M W; Grieninger, G

    1983-03-30

    Hepatocyte monolayers, derived from chick embryos and cultured in chemically defined medium without hormones, synthesize and secrete fibrinogen that resembles chicken plasma fibrinogen immunochemically and structurally. Addition of a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, to the cultured cells resulted in an appreciable and relatively selective increase in fibrinogen synthesis. Autoradiography of fibrinogen that had been metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine and then subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, unreduced or under disulfide-reducing conditions, revealed that only dimeric forms of fibrinogen, containing undegraded A alpha, B beta, and gamma chains, were secreted under stimulated and unstimulated culture conditions. PMID:6830818

  15. Studies on ossification of embryonal chicken femurs with and without irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the stage of development of embryonal femurs in organ culture using Bigger's nutrient medium a continued differentiation in the sense of an ossification takes place or is omitted. This step of differentiation is for femurs of chicken embryos between the 9th and the 11th day after the beginning of the incubation. When this step of differentiation of the femurs has elapsed in ovo in the osteoblasts then it cannot be interrupted, neither by an explantation and subsequent further incubation in vitro nor by an irradiation with 175 Gy after the explantation. (author)

  16. In vitro embryo outgrowth is a bioassay of in vivo embryo implantation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Natalie K.; Hannan, Natalie J; David K. Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of embryo outgrowth on fibronectin as a low cost, high throughput alternative to embryo transfer to model embryo attachment and the initial stages of implantation. Methods: Following in vitro embryo culture, embryo quality was assessed via embryo transfer or embryo outgrowth with metabolic assessment. Results: This study shows that blastocysts attach to fibronectin at the same rate that they implant in vivo, and that the carbohydrate utilisation of e...

  17. Radioactive labeling of proteins in cultured postimplantation mouse embryos. I. Influence of the embryo preparation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for optimum incorporation of radioactive amino acids into proteins of cultured postimplantation mouse embryos were investigated under the aspect of using these proteins for two-dimensional electrophoretic separations followed by fluorography. The aim was to obtain highly radioactive proteins under conditions as physiological as possible. Embryos at Days 10, 11, and 12 of gestation were prepared in different ways and incubated for 4 h in Tyrode's solution containing [3H]amino acids (mixture) at a concentration of 27 microCi/ml medium. The preparations were: (a) yolk sac opened, placenta and blood circulation intact; (b) yolk sac and amnion opened, placenta and blood circulation intact (Day 10 embryos only); (c) placenta, yolk sac, and amnion removed (embryo naked); (d) naked embryos cut randomly into pieces (Day 10 embryos only). After incubation whole embryos or certain parts (tail, liver, rest body) were investigated by determining the radioactivity taken up by the protein. The results are given in dpm per mg protein per embryo. Radioactivity of proteins was about 3 times higher in naked embryos than in embryos left in their yolk sacs. This was true for all three stages investigated. However, the degree of radioactivity in the various parts of naked embryos differed by a factor of 15, whereas radioactivity was evenly distributed in embryos incubated in their yolk sacs. Therefore, embryos prepared according to the first method (see above) fulfilled the conditions required at the best

  18. Killer cells in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)

  19. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  20. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  1. Symbolic Manipulation of Code Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinidis, Stavros; Meijer, Casey; Moreira, Nelma; Reis, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    The FAdo system is a symbolic manipulator of formal languages objects, implemented in Python. In this work, we extend its capabilities by implementing methods to manipulate transducers and we go one level higher than existing formal language systems and implement methods to manipulate objects representing classes of independent languages (widely known as code properties). Our methods allow users to define their own code properties and combine them between themselves or with fixed properties s...

  2. Mobile Manipulation: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hentout, A.; Bouzouia, B.; Akli, I.; Toumi, R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presented a multi-agent control architecture of mobile manipulators. The architecture consists of six agents: Supervisory Agent (SA), Local Mobile Robot Agent (LMRA), Local Manipulator Robot Agent (LARA), Vision System Agent (VSA), Remote Mobile Robot Agent (RMRA) and Remote Manipulator Robot Agent (RARA). The first four agents are installed on an off-board PC while the two other agents are installed on the on-board PC of the robot. The controller was applied successfully to foll...

  3. A Method of Permeabilization of Drosophila Embryos for Assays of Small Molecule Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila embryo has long been a powerful laboratory model for elucidating molecular and genetic mechanisms that control development. The ease of genetic manipulations with this model has supplanted pharmacological approaches that are commonplace in other animal models and cell-based assays. Here we describe recent advances in a protocol that enables application of small molecules to the developing fruit fly embryo. The method details steps to overcome the impermeability of the eggshell while maintaining embryo viability. Eggshell permeabilization across a broad range of developmental stages is achieved by application of a previously described d-limonene embryo permeabilization solvent (EPS1) and by aging embryos at reduced temperature (18 °C) prior to treatments. In addition, use of a far-red dye (CY5) as a permeabilization indicator is described, which is compatible with downstream applications involving standard red and green fluorescent dyes in live and fixed preparations. This protocol is applicable to studies using bioactive compounds to probe developmental mechanisms as well as for studies aimed at evaluating teratogenic or pharmacologic activity of uncharacterized small molecules. PMID:25046169

  4. A study of inoculation route and dosage levels on embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing tea mistlestoe (Scurrula oortiana extract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana has cytotoxic activity which is potential to be used in preventing viral induced-chicken tumor. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of different inoculation routes, dosage levels, and strains of embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing the tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana antiviral activity. Proper inoculation route was examined by inoculation of the extract at dose level of 0,2 mg/egg into embryonated layer eggs via allantoic cavity, chorio-allantoic membrane, and yolk sac. Effect of dose level of tea mistlestoe extract on embryo development was examined in groups of embryonated broiler eggs inoculated with the extract at 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 mg/egg. Inoculation of tea mistlestoe extract into allantoic cavity was the safest procedure as indicated by the absence of embryos mortality, and faster embryo growth compared to those of chorio-allantoic membrane and yolk sac-inoculated eggs. The extract induced different growth effects when inoculated into embryonated layer or broiler eggs. Administration of the extract at dose levels between 0,02–200 mg/egg reduced significantly the weight of broiler embryoes, but not the relative weights of liver, heart and spleen. Administration of similar dosage in layer embryoes did not cause any significant difference in the embryoes weight. This study suggests that the study of antiviral activity of tea mistlestoe extract in embryonated chicken eggs should be carried out on embryonated eggs of layer breeds and the extract should be inoculated via allantoic cavity.

  5. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  6. Outcome in children from cryopreserved embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, A. G.; D'Souza, S W; Cadman, J; Richards, B.; McKinlay, I A; Lieberman, B.

    1995-01-01

    A cohort of 91 children from cryopreserved embryos and 83 control children who were conceived normally had their development assessed using the Griffiths's scales of mental development. The controls (81 singletons and two twins) of a similar age, sex, and social class were selected from siblings, cousins, and peers of the cryopreserved embryo group (68 singleton, 20 twins, and three triplets). Children from cryopreserved embryos had a lower mean birth weight and mean gestational age and a hig...

  7. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we hav...

  8. Research on human embryos--a justification.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Brown

    1986-01-01

    The philosophical debate surrounding the moral status of the embryo has reached the public arena. The author of this paper examines some of the common arguments against embryo experimentation, including an influential article by Professor Ian Kennedy. He concludes that these arguments do not succeed in demonstrating that the intentional creation of embryos for research purposes is wrong, unless they also succeed in demonstrating that contemporary liberal abortion laws are also wrong. The auth...

  9. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload. PMID:17190684

  10. Quantitation of muscle-specific mRNAs by using cDNA probes during chicken embryonic muscle development in ovo.

    OpenAIRE

    Saidapet, C R; Munro, H N; Valgeirsdóttir, K; Sarkar, S.

    1982-01-01

    The emergence of abundant-class mRNAs specific for contractile muscle proteins and their distribution between polysomal and free mRNP fractions were studied in skeletal muscle excised from chicken embryos during the transition from myoblasts (day 9) to myotubes (day 18). Muscle-specific cDNA was selectively prepared by hybridizing cDNA to template RNA (polysomal poly(A)+ mRNA) from day-14 embryos followed by isolation of the abundant class, which represents approximately 20% of total mRNA. Th...

  11. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates

  12. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  13. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  14. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  15. Nanoparticle manipulation by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, non-uniform electric field proved to be the most promising technique for nanoparticles manipulation with applications in fields such as medicine, biology, physics or nano technology. The paper presents a set of numerical results concerning the influence of the dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces on a nanoparticle suspension. The DEP force depends on the electric properties of the nanoparticles, as well as their shape, size and mass, and the properties of the surrounding medium. The numerical study was performed in the frame of a mathematical model describing the electric field distribution and the suspended nanoparticle movement in a dense and viscous fluid. The equations are solved, together with the appropriate boundary conditions using a code based on the finite element method. The dielectrophoretic force distribution, the particle trajectories and the nanoparticle concentration profile are computed. This type of analysis leads to the optimization of the control parameters and is crucial in the designing process of an experimental micro fluidic device with application in the separation of submicronic particles. (Author)

  16. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Zungur; Berker Nacak; Meltem Serdaroglu

    2015-01-01

    Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking ...

  17. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens and small ruminants in particular play importantsoci-economic roles in developing countries. Production of village chickens is a source of easy and regular income for rural farmers in developing countries in general and inBurkina Fasoin particular. Unfortunately efforts to improve this production system were not very effective and village chickens still h...

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host....

  19. Isolation and number of circulated primordial germ cells (circulated-PGCs on stages of embryonic development of Gaok chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian primordial germ cell (PGCs show a unique migration pathway during early development. During the early embryonic development, as soon as the formation of blood vessels, PGCs enter the circulatory system and migrate to the gonadal primordial. The aim of this study was to examine the number of circulated-PGCs from Gaok chicken at different developmental stages of embryo. One hundred fertile eggs were divided into 5 groups and incubated in a portable incubator at 38oC and humidity 60%. Hatching was set according to the embryonic development stage between 14-18. The blood collection was done through the dorsal aorta using micropipette under microscope. The collected blood was grouped based on the embryonic stages and placed on a 1.5 ml eppendorf tube which had been filled with 1.000 µl of Calcium and Magnesium-free phosphate buffered saline (PBS -. The PGCs were then purified using nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. The results showed that the average number of circulated-PGCs per embryo from Gaok chicken were significantly affected by the stage of embryonic development (P < 0.05. The number of circulated-PGCs at stages 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 were 42.8 ± 8.9, 51.0 ± 5.8, 37.6 ± 5.9, 32.8 ± 3.6 and 32.6 ± 3.2, respectively. However, the number of circulated-PGCs was no different between stage of 17 and 18. At Gaok chicken, the number of circulated-PGCs reach the peak at stage 15, it is recommended that collection of PGCs embryonic chicken from blood circulation was the best on stage 15. This information is useful in efficiency production of germline chimera and to preserve PGCs of other Indonesian native chicken.

  20. CLIMAN - a mobile manipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing age the integrity of more remote parts of reactors, such as the core restraints, is questioned so there is a need for a means of access to these places to carry out inspection, minor repairs and alterations. Conventional standpipe manipulators are about 20 m long so that extending them further presents difficulties of load capacity, rigidity, dexterity and control which must increase steeply with range. The proposal outlined here is for a mobile manipulator which can climb at the end of a cable (CLImbing MANipulator - CLIMAN) into a reactor and reach well beyond the range of a fixed base machine. In addition to virtually unlimited range such a mobile manipulator has twice as many degrees of freedom as a fixed base machine. Its body or base can be manoeuvred with six degrees of freedom so as to obtain the maximum coverage and obstacle avoidance for its manipulator. It is proposed that it should be manually controlled. (author)

  1. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.Keywords: Manipulation, Discourse, Cognitive, Power Abuse, Persuasion, Social representation, J.R.R. Tolkien

  2. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFL...

  3. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    OpenAIRE

    Deogade; A H; Zanjad; P. N.; Ambadkar; R. K. and Raziuddin; M

    2008-01-01

    Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0...

  4. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA. Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4 with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5 suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in

  5. Method of Electroporation for the Early Chick Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji

    Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.

  6. A role for epidermal growth factor in the growth and development of embryonic chicken lung systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to be mitogenic for a variety of growing tissues, and is thought to play a role in embryonic development. The first aim of this study was to establish whether embryonic chicken lung explants respond to mouse EGF and if so, to determine whether this responsiveness varies with the age of the embryo. Autoradiographic analysis of thymidine incorporation into 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-day old explants revealed them to be highly responsive mitogenically to EGF, with this responsiveness increasing with the age of the explant. Binding studies using 125I-EGF were then carried out to determine whether embryonic chicken lung explants contained specific receptors for EGF. It was found that the lung explants rapidly bound EGF, with a gradual plateau in binding occurring after six hours, suggesting that EGF receptors might be present. Finally an attempt was made to demonstrate the presence of an EGF-like molecule in extracts of embryonic chickens. Furthermore it was found that while both fractions were equally able to compete with 125I-EGF in receptor-binding assays, the LMW fraction was far more potent a stimulator of DNA synthetic acticity than the HMW fraction. The incorporation, by labelling, of 3H-TdR was used in this experimental studies. The results presented in this study show that embryonic chicken lungs contain specific EGF receptors, respond mitogenically to mouse EGF and furthermore it would appear that they produce and endogenous EGF-like molecule. These results strongly suggest that EGF plays and important role in embryonic chicken lung growth

  7. Obtaining chicken primordial germ cells used for gene transfer: in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Sawicka, Dorota; Lakota, Paweł; Plucienniczak, Grazyna; Bednarczyk, Marek; Plucienniczak, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to create a generation of transgenic chickens via chimeric intermediates produced by primordial germ cells (PGCs) transfer. This study aimed to compare the influences of different chicken PGCs isolated from circulating blood (bPGCs) or gonads (gPGCs), purification (ACK, Percoll or trypsin) and transfection methods (electroporation or lipofection) on the expression of transgenes in vitro and the migration of modified donor cells to the recipient gonads. The highest average frequency of pEGFP-N1 plasmid-transfected bPGCs (75.8%) was achieved with Percoll density gradient centrifugation and electroporation. After ammonium chloride-potassium (ACK) treatment and lipofection, in vitro transgene expression was only detected in 35.2% of bPGCs. Chimeric chickens were produced from these purified, transfected and cultured cells, and the transgene was detected in the gonads of 44 and 42% of the recipient embryos that had been injected with bPGCs and gPGCs, respectively. These data confirmed that the combination of PGC purification via Percoll centrifugation and electroporation was an effective method for producing transgenic chickens. Subsequently, we used this method with expression vectors for gene hIFNα 2a/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) under the control of the ovalbumin promoter to generate G0 transgenic chickens. Consequently, we observed that 4.9% of the hens and 3.5% of the roosters carried the hIFNα 2a gene, whereas 16.7% of the hens and 2.4% of the roosters carried the HBsAg gene, thus undisputedly confirming the exceptional effectiveness of the applied methods. PMID:25737138

  8. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  9. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Teresia J; Kumar, Ranjit; Gresham, Cathy R; Burgess, Shane C.; McCarthy, Fiona M

    2009-01-01

    Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually...

  10. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator

  11. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  12. Embryo development in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Forde, Niamh; Rizos, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    During the past 50 years, the fertility of high-producing lactating dairy cows has decreased, associated with intensive selection for increased milk production. The physiological and metabolic changes associated with high milk production, including decreased (glucose, insulin, IGF-I) or increased (nonesterified fatty acids, ketone bodies) concentrations of circulating metabolites during nutrient partitioning associated with negative energy balance as well as uterine and nonuterine diseases have been linked with poor reproductive efficiency. Fertilization is typically above 80% and does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in dairy cows. However, early embryonic development is compromised in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first 2 weeks after fertilization and may be linked to compromised oocyte quality due to a poor follicular microenvironment, suboptimal reproductive tract environment for the embryo, and/or inadequate maternal-embryonic communication. These and other factors related to embryo development will be discussed. PMID:27158131

  13. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  14. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Tike Sartika; Sri Sulandari; M.S.A. Zein; Sri Paryanti

    2006-01-01

    Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF) trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine...

  15. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  16. Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) and Collagen on the Quality Characteristics of Semi-dried Chicken Jerky

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (p

  17. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high morta...

  18. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos I: Convergence of Embryos in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N C; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    According to the core-accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses ($M_p$) in the range of a few Earth masses ($M_\\oplus$) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When $M_p > 10 M_\\oplus$, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use numerical simulation to show that, despite streamline interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torque by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in the...

  19. Xenogeneic Transfer of Adult Quail (Coturnix coturnix) Spermatogonial Stem Cells to Embryonic Chicken (Gallus gallus) Hosts: A Model for Avian Conservation1

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mandi; McDonald, Nastassja; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As advanced reproductive technologies have become routine for domesticated species, they have begun to be applied in the field of endangered species conservation. For avian conservation, the most promising technology is the transfer of germ stem cells of exotic species to domestic hosts for the production of gametes. In this study, adult quail (model for exotic species) spermatogonial stem cells were xenogeneically transferred to stages 14–17 chicken host embryos. Fluorescent cellular dyes, q...

  20. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Challenge Strain of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus of Chickens and Their Use in an Indirect Immunofluorescent Diagnostic Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Abbas*, James Andreasen1, Rockey Becker1, Masroor Ahmed, M Arif Awan, Abdul Wadood and Anita Sonn1

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to produce monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) against the USDA challenge strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and to perform an initial investigation of their use in an indirect immunofluorescence diagnostic test. Fourteen-day old chicken embryo liver cells were grown in tissue culture plates. Confluent monolayers were obtained after 48 hours. Monolayers were infected with the USDA challenge strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Cytop...

  1. Embryo culture and rapid propagation of Syringa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; SU Bao-ling

    2003-01-01

    Embryo of lilacs (Syringa L) culture in vitro and the rapid propagation were studied. The orthogonal experiments, including the selection of basal medium, embryo age and other factors such as sugar, benzyladenine (BA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and glutamine (Gln), were carried out. The results indicated that the optimal medium for embryo culture was Monnier medium supplemented with NAA (0.001 mg@L-1), BA (0.1 mg@L-1), sugar (50 g@L-1), and Gln (400 mg@L-1), with a germination rate of 91.7% at least; the optimal embryo age was 50 d; and Gln had significant effects on the germination rate of embryo. Moreover, the optimal medium for subculture was MS+BA (2 mg@L-1)+NAA (0.001 mg@L-1)+Gln (0.5 mg@L-1), with the propagation coefficient of 3.6 at least.

  2. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  3. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva;

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  4. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods. PMID:26739999

  5. Stabilization system for a manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patent is claimed for the invention of a stabilization system for a manipulator. The invention proposes a low cost, functional and easily operated device. The system can be used in a manipulator carried by an equipment which is in motion in a working area and is equipped with a moving arm and a prehension tool at one end. The manipulator system is suspended to the displacement device and equipped with several coils and cables ended with fixation systems. The diagrams, the advantages and the operation of the invention are described

  6. General expression of manipulator kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a general description for kinematic modelling of all types of manipulators is presented by expanding the concept of the homogeneous transformation (Ai-matrix) based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation. Unlike the previous matrix method, the expression of recursive relationships which is suitable for computer-aided design makes it possible to derive automatically the position and orientation of manipulator hand. Two algorithms which take into consideration of the order of operation result in identical relations with respect to the kinematics between the reference system and the final link, which was proved by an application to a six-link manipulator. (author)

  7. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for sampl...

  8. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  9. CROWING SOUND ANALYSIS OF GAGA??? CHICKEN: LOCAL CHICKEN FROM SOUTH SULAWESI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  10. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  11. Sexing domestic chicken before hatch: a new method for in ovo gender identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, A; Reitemeier, S; Hahn, A; Gottschalk, J; Einspanier, A

    2013-08-01

    Male chicks are an unwanted by-product when producing laying hens. The common practice to kill them directly after they have hatched gives rise to ethical concerns worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop an endocrine method to determine the sex of domestic chicken before hatch. On Days 7 to 10 of incubation, the allantoic fluid from brown layers' eggs (n = 750) was analyzed via enzyme immunoassay for their content of estradiol, estrone sulfate, and testosterone in order to detect gender differences. We successfully established a reliable method for in ovo sex identification on Day 9 of incubation by estrone sulfate measurement in the allantoic fluid. Female embryos displayed significantly higher hormone levels in the allantoic fluid than males (female: median = 0.312 ng/mL; male: median = 0.110 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.001). Our method allows the sexing of domestic chicken at a very early stage of embryonic development, even before the onset of pain perception. The possibility to eliminate eggs containing male embryos on Day 9 of incubation represents a vast improvement compared with culling day-old chicks. PMID:23726296

  12. Changes in thickness of each layer of developing chicken cornea after administration of caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronim Bartel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the presentation of changes in thickness of each layer of a developing cornea, that came into being under an influence of caffeine which was administered to chicken embryos. Research materials were 26 chicken embryos from breeding eggs that had been incubated. Breeding eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was given, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine was administrated - 3.5 mg/egg. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through a hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with paraffin, eggs were put back into incubator. On 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphometric and morphological analysis. In experimental groups reduction of corneal thickness, thickening of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium as well as Bowman's and Descemet's membranes, decrease of thickness of corneal stroma in comparison with the control group have been observed. Caffeine causes thickness changes of all layers and decreases the total thickness of a developing cornea.

  13. Sex-specific effects of androgen and estrogen on proliferation of the embryonic chicken hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ailing; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2007-04-01

    Effects of androgen and estrogen on proliferation of hypothalamic neurons were evaluated by a chicken hypothalamic neuron-glia coculture model. Hypothalamic cells were dispersed from 17-day-old embryos and challenged with testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) alone or combined with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen, or aromatase inhibitor letrozole for 48 h. The neuron number was counted and the proliferating cells were identified by immunocytochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Results showed that both E2 and T stimulated proliferation of hypothalamic neurons. E2 showed more intensive effect on females and this promoting effect was abrogated by tamoxifen. T played more intensive effect on males and the effect was inhibited by flutamide, tamoxifen, or letrozole. The above results indicated that E2 stimulated neuron proliferation through estrogenic actions with more sensitive effect on females and T promoted neuron proliferation through both androgenic and estrogenic actions with more intense effect on males. These observations suggested that steroid hormones influence the proliferation of hypothalamic neurons in a sexually dimorphic manner during the development of chicken embryos. PMID:17873328

  14. Effect of cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation on the hatching process of chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on fertilized chicken eggs was carried out to determine the effects of 60Co irradiation on the embryos, their fatality, and growth impairment or deformity, in particular. The experimental groups, consisting of 10 eggs each, recieved a 60Co irradiation of 50 to 2,000 rads on any one day between day 0 and day 20 of incubation. The larger the irradiation dose, the greater was the number of dead embryos. The fatality was higher in the groups receiving irradiation in the earlier stage (1st week). The resultant death was a chronic one. The irradiation also caused body weight decrease and growth impairment. A decrease in the brain and liver weights was noted, suggesting insufficiency in these organs. Deformity occurred in 4%, most of which involved impairments of skeletal growth, of the bones of the extremities and the bill, in particular. Administration of the SH amino acid, cysteine tended to alleviate the adverse effects of the 60Co irradiation. These results for fertilized chicken eggs suggest the possibility of abortion and the occurrence of deformities in human fetuses if they should be subjected to 60Co irradiation. (author)

  15. Part II: morphological analysis of embryonic development following femtosecond laser manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, V.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2008-02-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model system that has received wide attention for its usefulness in the study of development and disease. This organism represents a closer analog to humans than the common invetebrates Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, making this species an ideal model for human health research. Non-invasive manipulation of the zebrafish has been challenging, owing to the outer proteinaceous membrane and multiple embryonic barriers. A novel tool capable of manipulating early cleavage stage embryonic cells would be important for future advancements in medial research and the aquaculture industry. Herein, we demonstrate the laser surgery of early cleavage stage (2-cell) blastomere cells using a range of average laser powers and beam dwell times. Since the novelty of this manipulation tool depends on its non-invasive application, we examined short- and long-term laser-induced developmental defects following embryonic surgery. Laser-manipulated embryos were reared to 2 and 7 days post-fertilization and compared to control embryos at the same developmental stages. Morphological analysis was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Developmental features that were examined included the antero- and dorsal-lateral whole body views of the larvae, the olfactory pit, dorsal, ventral and pectoral fins, notochord, pectoral fin buds, otic capsule, otic vesicle, neuromast patterning, and kinocilia of the olfactory pit rim and cristae of the lateral wall of the ear. Laser-manipulated embryos developed normally relative to the controls, with developmental patterning and morphology at 2 and 7 days indistinguishable from control larvae.

  16. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information

    CERN Document Server

    Conitzer, Vincent; Xia, Lirong

    2011-01-01

    We consider manipulation problems when the manipulator only has partial information about the votes of the nonmanipulators. Such partial information is described by an information set, which is the set of profiles of the nonmanipulators that are indistinguishable to the manipulator. Given such an information set, a dominating manipulation is a non-truthful vote that the manipulator can cast which makes the winner at least as preferable (and sometimes more preferable) as the winner when the manipulator votes truthfully. When the manipulator has full information, computing whether or not there exists a dominating manipulation is in P for many common voting rules (by known results). We show that when the manipulator has no information, there is no dominating manipulation for many common voting rules. When the manipulator's information is represented by partial orders and only a small portion of the preferences are unknown, computing a dominating manipulation is NP-hard for many common voting rules. Our results t...

  17. Chiropractic Manipulation: Reasons for Concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, LO; Castanho, P.; Ferreira, JJ; Guedes, MM; Falcão, F; Pinho e Melo, T

    2007-01-01

    Chiropractic's popularity is rising among the general population. Moreover, few studies have been conducted to properly evaluate its safety. We report three cases of serious neurological adverse events in patients treated with chiropractic manipulation. The first case is a 41 years old woman who developed a vertebro-basilar stroke 48 h after cervical manipulation. The second case represents a 68 years old woman who presented a neuropraxic injury of both radial nerves after three sessions of s...

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs that were produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mA...

  19. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  20. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  1. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  2. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham M Ittyachen; Mohan B Jose; Varghese Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  4. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  5. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  6. Effect of low-dose gamma-radiation upon hatchability and weight of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M. [Zagreb Univ., Veterinary faculty (Croatia); Miljanic, S. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Although any dose of ionizing radiation has generally been recognized to be detrimental to living being, low dose ionizing radiation seems to invoke primary stimulative effects. Stimulatory effects of low dose ionizing radiation include many aspects such as growth, fecundity and longevity stimulation, accelerated development, enhance biological responses for immune systems, enzymatic repair, physiological functions, and the removal of cellular damage, including prevention and removal of cancers and other diseases. Low dose ionizing radiation might also cause changes in the concentration of some biochemical parameters in blood plasma of chickens such as changes in the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation before incubation and on the seventh day of incubation on hatchability of eggs and body weight of chickens. This study includes three independent experiments. In the first experiment, six-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Avian-line 34, were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. In the second experiments also involving six-hundred-line 34 eggs were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation on the seventh day of incubation. In the third experiment three-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Ross 308 were irradiated by dose 0.30 Gy gamma irradiation before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. Hatchability was calculated in terms of all eggs divided with fertile eggs which hatched. The individual weights of the chickens were determined on the first and on the forty second day. Growth data were analyzed statistically by t-test. Irradiation of chicken eggs and embryos at rates o f 0.15 Gy increases

  7. Vitrification-based cryopreservation of Drosophila embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreuders, P.D.; Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Currently, over 30,000 strains of Drosophila melanogaster are maintained by geneticists through regular transfer of breeding stocks. A more cost effective solution is to cryopreserve their embryos. Cooling and warming rates >10,000{degrees}C/min. are required to prevent chilling injury. To avoid the lethal intracellular ice normally produced at such high cooling rates, it is necessary to use {ge}50% (w/w) concentrations of glass-inducing solutes to vitrify the embryos. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to develop and evaluate ethylene glycol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone based vitrification solutions. The resulting solution consists of 8.5M ethylene glycol + 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone in D-20 Drosophila culture medium. A two stage method is used for the introduction and concentration of these solutes within the embryo. The method reduces the exposure time to the solution and, consequently, reduces toxicity. Both DSC and freezing experiments suggest that, while twelve-hour embryos will vitrify using cooling rates >200{degrees}C/min., they will devitrify and be killed with even moderately rapid warming rates of {approximately}1,900{degrees}C/min. Very rapid warming ({approximately}100,000{degrees}C/min.) results in variable numbers of successfully cryopreserved embryos. This sensitivity to warming rite is typical of devitrification. The variability in survival is reduced using embryos of a precisely determined embryonic stage. The vitrification of the older, fifteen-hour, embryos yields an optimized hatching rate of 68%, with 35 - 40% of the resulting larvae developing to normal adults. This Success rite in embryos of this age may reflect a reduced sensitivity to limited devitrification or a more even distribution of the ethylene glycol within the embryo.

  8. Inhibition of MEK and GSK3 supports ES cell-like domed colony formation from avian and reptile embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanoh, Shota; Okazaki, Kenji; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2013-07-01

    As amniotes diversified, mammals may have modified mechanisms of cellular pluripotency along with the acquisition of a placenta. What then defined pluripotent states in the ancestral amniotes? To study the evolutionary background of pluripotency in amniotes, we tested the effects of extracellular effectors on primary culture cells from avian and reptile embryos in serum-free medium. When treated with a combination of a MEK inhibitor and a GSK3 inhibitor (2i condition), chicken early embryos formed domed colonies (DCs), which were morphologically indistinguishable from the colonies formed by mouse and rat naïve embryonic stem cells. However, no DCs formed when cells from further-developed embryos were cultured in the 2i condition, indicating that there is a clear boundary of DC-forming ability at around the stage of primitive streak elongation. Quail embryos at the blastoderm and cleavage stages also formed DCs in the 2i condition, which is consistent with the notion that the appearance of DCs corresponds with the presence of pluripotent cells in embryos. Gecko blastoderms also formed DCs in the 2i condition, but gastrulas did not. ERK activation by bFGF caused an effect opposite to that of the 2i condition, namely, it dispersed colonies of cells even from early embryos in all species examined. These results suggest that the regulation of pluripotency by FGF/ERK signaling may date back at least to the common ancestor of mammals, birds, and reptiles. However, gene expression analysis indicated the possibility that mammalian pluripotency transcription factors function differently in non-mammalian amniotes. PMID:23829214

  9. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  10. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relativ...

  11. Evaluating recipient and embryo factors that affect pregnancy rates of embryo transfer in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, A R; Beal, W E; Corah, L R; Lamb, G C

    2001-07-15

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corpus luteum characteristics, progesterone concentration, donor-recipient synchrony, embryo quality, type, and developmental stage on pregnancy rates after embryo transfer. We synchronized 763 potential recipients for estrus using one of two synchronization protocols: two doses of PGF2alpha (25 mg i.m.) given 11 d apart (Location 1); and, a single norgestomet implant for 7 d with one dose of PGF2alpha (25 mg i.m.) 24 h before implant removal (Location 2). At embryo transfer, ovaries were examined by rectal palpation and ultrasonography. Of the 526 recipients presented for embryo transfer, 122 received a fresh embryo and 326 received a frozen embryo. Pregnancy rates were greater (P 0.1). There was a significant, positive simple correlation between CL diameter or luteal tissue volume and plasma progesterone concentration (r = 0.15, P quality. PMID:11480620

  12. Mechanical Properties of Chicken Embryo Somites to Analyze Cell Migration during Somitegenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sarit; Taneyhill, Lisa; Wu, Chyong; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2013-03-01

    Somites develop as round segments on the sides of the neural tube and are responsible for the development of the vertebrae and other structures. Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Micropipette techniques, we were able to apply a known force to obtain data about the differences in the mechanical properties of the somites. Using contact mode in AFM, we obtained graphs that relate distance travelled by the cantilever versus deflection of the sample. We then used Matlab to analyze the data and find the material properties of the somites. We measured the Young's modulus of the anterior and posterior parts of the somites to be around 2 +/- 0.8 kPa, but further data is needed to finalize our conclusion. Finding the mechanical properties of the posterior and anterior parts of the somites helped us to mimic those mechanical properties on polyacrylamide gels with different stiffness to determine the physiological functions of the somites and predict any mechanical abnormalities that might affect the migration of stem cells. By observing the major steps of migration, we were able to better understand how cell migration orchestrates embryonic morphogenesis with respect to their known mechanical properties.

  13. Molecular analysis of the TGF-beta controlled gene expression program in chicken embryo dermal myofibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosla, Jan; Dvořák, Michal; Čermák, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 513, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-100. ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : microarray * myofibroblastic phenotype * inhibition of TGF-beta signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.082, year: 2013

  14. Determination of uric acid in plasma and allantoic fluid of chicken embryos by capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějčková, J.; Tůma, P.; Samcová, E.; Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2007), s. 1947-1952. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0972 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/0896 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * microsamples of plasma * uric acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2007

  15. THE COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHICKEN AND DUCK EMBRYOS TO CADMIUM DURING IN OVO EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dżugan M.; Lis M.; Głodek K.; Droba M.; Niedziółka J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium gives a real threat for living organisms due to its enhancing environmental contamination, a unique ability to bioaccumulation and multidirectional toxic effects. All birds are exposed to cadmium in their natural habitats, but in the case of water fowl the exposure seems to be much higher as a result of the contact with polluted bottom sediments. It is confirmed that reproductive disturbances of wild waterfowl have this etiology and avian eggs are considered to be sensitive indicators...

  16. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  17. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  18. The post-humanist embryo: genetic manipulation, assisted reproductive technologies and the principle of procreative beneficence

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Güell Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    El principio de beneficencia procreativa (PPB), propuesto por Julian Savulescu, establece que los padres tienen la obligación moral de utilizar las técnicas de manipulación genética y reproducción humana asistida disponibles para crear niños que tengan la mejor oportunidad de disfrutar de la mejor vida posible. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, por un lado, hasta qué punto la manipulación genética para la obtención de rasgos concretos tienen en consideración el paradigma actual de la c...

  19. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID:26479388

  20. Selenoprotein W was Correlated with the Protective Effect of Selenium on Chicken Myocardial Cells from Oxidative Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Wenchao; Shi, Yuguang; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) mainly performs its function through Se-containing proteins. Selenoprotein W (SelW), one member of the selenoprotein family, plays important roles in the normal function of the heart. To investigate the possible relationship between Se and SelW for the regulation of oxidative damage in chicken embryo myocardial cells, we treated myocardial cells with Se and H2O2. Then, the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in the culture media, levels of SelW, inflammatory genes NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, p53, and the cell cycle were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between SelW and the levels of these factors was determined. The results indicated that Se treatment increased the expression of SelW (P chicken myocardial cells. PMID:26463750

  1. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  2. Valuing embryos as both commodities and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2016-03-11

    An argument put forward against gamete and embryo donation, sale and research, is that to do so would treat the gametes or embryos as objects with no intrinsic value as human. Instead, gametes and embryos created and used for donation, sale or research, can be considered more like a commodity created and traded for economic exchange--something that is valuable only for the amount of money or other goods and services that others are willing to exchange. While Kant asserts that humans have dignity rather than object worth, the provision of human gametes and embryos are progressively becoming utilities for resolving childlessness and for certain research investigations. In this paper we discuss the commodity market and the relationship to human reproduction material. PMID:27005877

  3. Bovine in vitro embryo production : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Suthar

    Full Text Available Dairy industry perfected the application of the first reproductive biotechnology, i.e. artificial insemination (AI - a great success story and also remains the user of embryo transfer technology (ETT. In addition, recently the researchers taking interest to embraced the field of Transvaginal OocyteRecovery (TVOR and in vitro production (IVEP of embryos. IVF provides the starting point for the generation of reproductive material for a number of advanced reproduction techniques including sperm microinjection and nuclear transfer (cloning. In several countries commercial IVF facilities are already being employed by cattle ET operators. Various research groups have reported on modification of TVOR technique to give greater efficiency. Much research is still needed in domestic animal (Especially Indian species on mechanisms controlling embryo development and on development of totally in vitro system for embryo culture. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 478-479`

  4. Predator recognition in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia duboulayi, embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Jane Oulton

    Full Text Available Exposure to olfactory cues during embryonic development can have long term impacts on birds and amphibians behaviour. Despite the vast literature on predator recognition and responses in fishes, few researchers have determined how fish embryos respond to predator cues. Here we exposed four-day-old rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi embryos to cues emanating from a novel predator, a native predator and injured conspecifics. Their response was assessed by monitoring heart rate and hatch time. Results showed that embryos have an innate capacity to differentiate between cues as illustrated by faster heart rates relative to controls. The greatest increase in heart rate occurred in response to native predator odour. While we found no significant change in the time taken for eggs to hatch, all treatments experienced slight delays as expected if embryos are attempting to reduce exposure to larval predators.

  5. Tissue morphodynamics shaping the early mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ann E

    2016-07-01

    Generation of the elongated vertebrate body plan from the initially radially symmetrical embryo requires comprehensive changes to tissue form. These shape changes are generated by specific underlying cell behaviors, coordinated in time and space. Major principles and also specifics are emerging, from studies in many model systems, of the cell and physical biology of how region-specific cell behaviors produce regional tissue morphogenesis, and how these, in turn, are integrated at the level of the embryo. New technical approaches have made it possible more recently, to examine the morphogenesis of the mouse embryo in depth, and to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the cellular basis for the early fundamental events that establish the basic form of the embryo. PMID:26820524

  6. The Characteristic and The Use of Pelung Chicken in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sofjan Iskandar; Triana Susanti

    2007-01-01

    Pelung chicken is one of livestock genetic resources in Indonesia, which has been playing an important role for years in the villagers in West Java Province. Pelung chicken originally came from Cianjur district in West Java area. It has been raised as a singing cockerel. This singing ability of the cockerel has become the main criteria for Pelung chicken regular competition in Cianjur. A serious attention on Pelung chicken can maintain the existence of Pelung chicken. The specific character o...

  7. Seed and Embryo Germination in Ardisia crenata

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Oda; Shuji Shiozaki; Hideyuki Tanaka; Hisa Yokoyama; Takahiro Tezuka

    2012-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is an evergreen shrub with attractive bright red berries. Although this species is usually propagated by seed, the seeds take a long time to germinate with conventional sowing methods. We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later show...

  8. Defining embryo donation: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Building families through the adoption of children has been supported by human society throughout history. The ethical appropriateness of patients donating embryos to other patients for family building, or for research, is well established and is affirmed by this Committee. The use of the term ''adoption'' for embryos is inaccurate and should be avoided. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee statement by the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;99:1846-7). PMID:27001380

  9. Advanced optical imaging in living embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Canaria, Christie A.; Lansford, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Developmental biology investigations have evolved from static studies of embryo anatomy and into dynamic studies of the genetic and cellular mechanisms responsible for shaping the embryo anatomy. With the advancement of fluorescent protein fusions, the ability to visualize and comprehend how thousands to millions of cells interact with one another to form tissues and organs in three dimensions (xyz) over time (t) is just beginning to be realized and exploited. In this review, we explore recen...

  10. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  11. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    OpenAIRE

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested th...

  12. Rape embryogenesis. II. Development of embryo proper

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    It was found in the continued studies on rape embryogenesis, started by the description of the proembryo (Tykarska, 1976) that the development of embryo is extremely regular and based on differentiating divisions. It appeared that the transverse segmentation boundary and cell walls separating the mother cells of the histogens in the proembryo can be distinguished in all the later stages of the embryo. The border between the cytoledons and epicotyl part of the embryonal axis, and the hypocotyl...

  13. Comparative radiosensitivity of Medfly cells and embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalloro, R.; Muñiz, M; Pozzi, G

    1984-01-01

    This research is dealing with the effect of 6O Co gamma radiation on cultured "In vitro" cells and on embryos at different developmental stages, of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann. The parameters ana1yzed for both the cells and the embryos were growrh, survival and mortality rates. The immediate and late effects of irradiation were also studied at the level of egg hatching, larval life cycle, emergence of adults and their fertility. A particular result that became evident in the cormparison of t...

  14. Effects of the Food Additive Sodium Benzoate on Developing Chicken Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal KARAKAHYA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of sodium benzoate (E-211 (SB on the liver tissues of chicken embryos which were exposed to different doses of SB and for different durations were histopathologically investigated. SB was injected into vitellus at three different doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg on the 5th day of the incubation. The embryos of the control and experimental groups were collected on the 7th day (stage 31 and 10th day (stage 36 of incubation and weighed. It was statistically detected that SB caused rise to a significant decrease (P<0.001 on the total weights of the embryos depending in the dose and duration. At microscopic level deterioration of vein structures, congestion, edema, sinusoidal dilation, deterioration of hepatocyte arrangements, swelling, vacuolization, chromatin condensation, karyolysis, shape deformation and eccentric located of the nuclei decrease in Nuclear Organization Regions (NOR and mitotic division, stickiness of chromosomes, anaphase bridge, nuclei budding and the formation of micronuclei were observed.

  15. To transfer fresh or thawed embryos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide freezing and thawing of embryos has been increasingly used since the first infant was born as a result of this technique in 1984. The use of frozen embryo replacement (FER) currently even exceeds the number of fresh cycles performed in some countries. This article discusses the pros and...... the subsequent development of fetus and child. Because larger and more detailed data sets are available for early cleavage-stage embryo freezing and slow freezing, they are the main focus of this review.......Worldwide freezing and thawing of embryos has been increasingly used since the first infant was born as a result of this technique in 1984. The use of frozen embryo replacement (FER) currently even exceeds the number of fresh cycles performed in some countries. This article discusses the pros and...... cons of FER versus fresh-embryo transfer with regard to both single-cycle and cumulative pregnancy and delivery rates. The review discusses the obvious advantages of FER: minimizing the proportion of pharmacological and surgical treatments, and lowering the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and...

  16. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles. PMID:24441368

  17. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  18. Evaluation of the ejaculate quality of the red jungle fowl, domestic chicken, and bantam chicken in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Abdul; HARON, Abd Wahid; YUSOFF, Rosnina; NESA, M.; BUKAR, Muhammad; Kasim, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the semen quality of 3 chicken breeds: the red jungle fowl, domestic chicken, and bantam chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 27 cocks, including 9 cocks each of red jungle fowl, domestic chicken, and bantam chicken, were used in this study. Semen was collected once a week by dorso-abdominal massage method. The semen was evaluated for volume, concentration, motility, live/dead ratio, and percentage abnormalities. There were no significa...

  19. Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty-nine Marek's disease virus (MDV strains were isolated during a 3 year period (2007-2010 from vaccinated and infected chicken flocks in Poland. These strains had caused severe clinical symptoms and lesions. In spite of proper vaccination with mono- or bivalent vaccines against Marek's disease (MD, the chickens developed symptoms of MD with paralysis. Because of this we decided to investigate possible changes and mutations in the field strains that could potentially increase their virulence. We supposed that such mutations may have been caused by recombination with retroviruses of poultry - especially reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV. Methods In order to detect the possible reasons of recent changes in virulence of MDV strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses for meq oncogene and for long-terminal repeat (LTR region of REV were conducted. The obtained PCR products were sequenced and compared with other MDV and REV strains isolated worldwide and accessible in the GeneBank database. Results Sequencing of the meq oncogene showed a 68 basepair insertion and frame shift within 12 of 24 field strains. Interestingly, the analyses also showed 0.78, 0.8, 0.82, 1.6 kb and other random LTR-REV insertions into the MDV genome in 28 of 29 of strains. These genetic inserts were present after passage in chicken embryo kidney cells suggesting LTR integration into a non-functional region of the MDV genome. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of a recombination between MDV and REV under field conditions in Polish chicken farms. The genetic changes within the MDV genome may influence the virus replication and its features in vivo. However, there is no evidence that meq alteration and REV insertions are related to the strains' virulence.

  20. Isolation of avian reoviruses associated with diseases of chickens in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarasena, C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available During 1994-1999, infectious agents associated with different disease conditions were investigated in three separate outbreaks of disease in southern Thailand. The first outbreak was in native chickens from Nakhon Si Thammarat province resulting in sudden death with liver and kidney congestions. The second was in 38-day-old broilers from Krabi province. The lame birds showed signs of depression and bilateral hock joints swelling. The last case was in 19-week-old laying chickens from Phang-nga province manifested by depression, paleness and greenish-diarrhea. The causative agents were isolated in embryonating chicken eggs and chick embryo liver (CELi cells. A characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE of multinucleated syncytial cells and progressive detachment of cells from the monolayer into culture fluid was apparent in the first passage in CELi cells within 24 hours postinoculation (PI. The isolates were adapted to replicate in Vero cells and the CPE characterized by focal areas of cell fusion occurred 48 hours PI. The indirect fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens characterized by granular fluorescent masses in the cytoplasm of large multinucleated syncytial cells in both cell types. Cross-virus neutralization test revealed an antigenic relationship between the three separate isolates and avian reovirus strain S1133. Transmission electron microscopic study of 3 agents showed the nonenveloped, icosahedral particles, 60-80 nm in diameter with a double-capsid shell and it formed crystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of infected Vero cells. The viruses designated NK 917/ 37, Kb 538/40 and Pn 1212/42 were classified in the family Reoviridae. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus were also recovered from the lame bird of the second outbreak and considered as a secondary invader. These findings confirmed a variety of clinical signs caused by avian reovirus infection in three species of chicken in southern Thailand.