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Sample records for chicken embryo intestinal

  1. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs) by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C...... in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process....

  2. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs) by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...

  3. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Dang D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C. jejuni strains are capable of invading the CEICs and stimulate these cells in a pro-inflammatory manner and during this interaction the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes ciaB, dnaJ and racR is increased. Furthermore, incubation of bacteria with conditioned cell- and bacteria-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process.

  4. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  5. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  6. Transmission OF Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Daise Aparecida; Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Felipe, Gutembergue da Silva; da Silva, Paulo Lourenço; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples. PMID:24031861

  7. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  8. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression....... jejuni strains are capable of invading the CEICs and stimulate these cells in a pro-inflammatory manner and during this interaction the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes ciaB, dnaJ and racR is increased. Furthermore, incubation of bacteria with conditioned cell- and bacteria......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...

  9. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  10. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  11. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in transgenic chicken promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium in the intestine and improves postnatal growth of chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai; Wu, Hongping; Wang, Kejun; Cao, Zhichen; Yu, Kun; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysozyme is one kind of antimicrobial proteins and often used as feed additive which can defend against pathogenic bacteria and enhance immune function of animals. In this study, we have injected the lentiviral vector expressing recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) gene into the blastoderm of chicken embryo to investigate the effect of recombinant human lysozyme on postnatal intestinal microbiota distribution and growth performance of chicken. Successfully, we generated 194 transgenic chickens i...

  12. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....

  13. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine specif

  14. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  15. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  16. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section 113.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1)...

  17. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

  18. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p chickens.

  19. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non...... and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  20. Availability of avidin-bound biotin to the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H B; Orth, W H; Schreiber, R W; Whitehead, C C

    1992-10-01

    Avidin, an exceptionally stable protein in egg white, binds the vitamin biotin with very high affinity and can induce biotin deficiency when fed to animals. To determine if biotin bound to avidin is available to the chicken embryo, the fate of [3H]biotin complexed to avidin was monitored during embryonic development. The majority (greater than 85%) of the [3H]biotin was extraembryonic until the day before hatching, when embryos swallow egg white and withdraw the yolk sac into their abdomen. Thus, biotin in the egg white of chicken eggs contributes little to the biotin status of the chick prior to hatching. After hatching, much of the [3H]biotin was assimilated. About 30% of the total was found in the liver and kidneys by 4 days of age. The biotin in liver was associated with large proteins and not with avidin. In a separate experiment, biotin injected into the egg white of biotin-deficient eggs failed to increase embryonic development or hatchability. Both experiments suggest that biotin in egg yolk is the primary and virtually sole source of biotin for the chicken embryo.

  1. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  2. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Li, J; Li, J; Li, R X; Lv, C F; Li, S; Mi, Y L; Zhang, C Q

    2016-07-01

    The Paneth cells are highly specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine of many vertebrate species. These cells reside at the base of crypts of the Lieberkühn and contain abundant secretory granules. Previous studies suggesting the existence of Paneth cells in the chicken (Gallus gallus) remained controversial. Here we seek to identify the Paneth cells in the chicken small intestine through morphological examination and specific gene expression. Histological staining and transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of granulated secretory cells at the base of the crypts in the chicken small intestine. Western blotting experiment also manifested the expression of lysozyme protein, which is specifically secreted by the Paneth cells in the small intestine. Moreover, lysozyme c and lysozyme g mRNAs were expressed in the small intestine of chickens at different ages. Lysozyme c mRNA, in particular, was located at the base of the small intestinal crypts as displayed by in situ hybridization. Collectively, we provide evidences that the Paneth cells indeed exist in the small intestine of the chicken.

  3. Effect of eggshell temperature and oxygen concentration on survival rate and nutrient utilization in chicken embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions during incubation such as temperature and O2 concentration affect embryo development that may be associated with modifications in nutrient partitioning. Additionally, prenatal conditions can affect postnatal nutrient utilization. Using broiler chicken embryos, we studied the

  4. Animal model: dysmorphogenesis and death in a chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, R M; Schoenwolf, G C

    1987-07-01

    The chicken embryo is a useful animal model for investigating problems in developmental biology and teratology. Here we report data that further define the causes of 2 different patterns of malformation (one associated with amnion abnormalities, the other with isolated neural tube defects) and death induced by making a window in the shell and subshell membranes during the first day of incubation. The interpretation of these data suggests to us the following hypotheses. An early amnion deficit spectrum or syndrome (EADS) in chicken embryos is caused by a brief (less than 10 sec) perturbation that occurs during the windowing procedure. This perturbation results in an acute increase in mechanical tension to the developing embryo and support structures, dehydration localized to the area of the blastoderm, and/or increased friction between the blastoderm and overlying vitelline and shell membranes. Isolated neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by a longer perturbation (greater than 3 hr) consisting of increased mechanical stress across the blastoderm. The mechanical stress is associated with the introduction of a new air space over the animal pole of the yolk during windowing. The new air space causes the shape of the yolk to change (ie, to be deformed), resulting in an increase in mechanical tension across the vitelline membrane and blastoderm. NTDs involving the head are associated with significant early embryonic mortality, whereas those involving the trunk are not. Death may also be caused by cardiovascular anomalies observed in EADS. It is concluded that disturbances in morphogenesis and death in this model are, therefore, the result of extrinsic forces (eg, mechanical stress, localized dehydration, or friction) acting on different tissue types at various critical times in development. Intensity and duration of these forces on the developing blastoderm are important variables.

  5. Microbial community mapping in intestinal tract of broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingping; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Jinggang; Li, Kaifeng; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-06

    Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. As a result, 1,502,554 sequences were clustered into 796 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity value and identified into 15 phyla and 288 genera. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the major microbial groups and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon accounting for > 60% of sequences, while Bacteroidetes was the dominant phylum in cecum (>50% of sequences), but little in the other four gut sections. At the genus level, the major microbial genera across all gut sections were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Corynebacterium. Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (>35%), but was rarely present in cecum, and Bacteroides was the most dominant group in cecum (about 40%), but rarely present in the other 4 intestinal sections. Differences of microbial composition between the 5 intestinal locations might be a cause and consequence of gut functional differences and may also reflect host selection mediated by innate or adaptive immune responses. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between intestinal microbiota and broiler chicken growth performance as well as health.

  6. Fluorescent angiography of chicken embryo and photobleaching velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namykin, Anton A.; Stiukhina, Elena S.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescent angiography approach in application to a living chicken embryo is discussed. It provides precise vessel wall detection and demonstrates usefulness for real time monitoring of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation related to self regulation of vascular network as well as to response to external factors. On the other hand, high stability of fluorescence and long period of dye elimination makes variations of fluorescent intensity practically independent from fast variations of blood flow rate. Therefore, we proposed the improvement of fluorescent angiography technique by introduction of photobleaching fluorescent velocimetry approach. We have developed the imaging system for intravital microscopic photobleaching velocimetry and tested it by using a glass capillary tube as a model of blood vessel. We demonstrated high potential of the technique for instant flow velocity distribution profile measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution up to 2 μm and 60 ms, respectively.

  7. Innocuity and anti-Newcastle-virus-activity of Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Avila, Laura M; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Regina; Rodriguez-Santillan, Patricia; Aguilar-Briseño, Jose Alberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Cruz-Suarez, L Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the potential toxicity and antiviral activity of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one of the most serious threats to the poultry industry in the world. Toxicity was assayed on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) secondary cultures at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1500 μg per mL culture medium, assessing the cell viability by the yellow tetrazolium MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and on 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by inoculation of 2 to 500 μg doses in the allantoic cavity, assessing the embryos morphology and liver histology. At 48 h post-inoculation, viability of CEF exposed to concentrations up to 10 μg/mL was not significantly affected, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration was estimated as of 1062 μg/mL; after exposure in ovo, some chick embryos showed liver steatosis when treated with fucoidan doses over 20 μg per egg (15 to 28% at 200 μg, 27 to 56% at 500 μg), but no change was detected in their size or aspect. Antiviral activity was tested by treating 9-day-old embryos via the allantoic route with 0.25 to 16 μg fucoidan doses that were applied at different times (-1, 0 and +1 h) relative to the inoculation of 10,000 folds the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) of the NDV, La Sota strain. At 72 h post infection, virus titration in the allantoic fluid by hemagglutination assay (HA) showed a considerable and significant inhibition of infectivity for all doses, the best result (a 90% decrease) being obtained in embryos treated with 1 μg fucoidan one hour before infection. Viral RNA semi-quantification in pooled liver and small intestine of embryos that had been treated with 4 and 16 μg fucoidan 1 h before the infection showed reductions of the virus replication by 60 and 99.8%, respectively. Since this high anti-NDV activity in ovo was obtained with quite innocuous doses, fucoidan from C. okamuranus could be a potential

  8. In situ DNA transfer to chicken embryos by biolistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilized chicken eggs were bombarded with a biolistic device. Transient expression of the lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was assessed after in situ gene transfer using this approach. The influence of different pressures, vacuum levels and particles was tested. Survival rate improved as particle velocity decreased, but resulted in lower levels of expression. The best survival and expression were obtained with gold particles, a helium gas pressure of 600 psi and a vacuum of 600 mmHg. Under these conditions, all bombarded embryos showed b-galactosidase activity, indicating that this was an effective method for transformation of chicken embryos.Ovos fertilizados de galinha foram bombardeados através da técnica de biobalística. A expressão transiente do gene lacZ, sob o controle do promotor humano citomegalovírus, foi verificada após a transferência in situ. Diferentes níveis de pressão de gás hélio, vácuo e tipos de partículas foram testados. A taxa de sobrevivência aumentou à medida que a velocidade das partículas diminuíram, entretanto, o nível de expressão foi menor. Os melhores resultados, combinando taxa de sobrevivência e expressão, foram obtidos com partículas de ouro, 600 libras por polegada ao quadrado de hélio e 600 mmHg de vácuo. Nestas condições, todos os embriões bombardeados apresentaram atividade da b-galactosidase, indicando que esta técnica é eficiente para a transformação de embriões de galinhas.

  9. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

  10. Improved Method for Ex Ovo-Cultivation of Developing Chicken Embryos for Human Stem Cell Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Schomann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Here, we present an improved ex ovo-cultivation method enabling the embryos to survive 13 days in vitro. Optimized cultivation of chicken embryos resulted in a normal development regarding their size and weight. Our ex ovo-approach closely resembles the development of chicken embryos in ovo, as demonstrated by properly developed nervous system, bones, and cartilage at expected time points. Finally, we investigated the usability of our method for trans-species transplantation of adult stem cells by injecting human neural crest-derived stem cells into late Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH26–HH28/E5—E6 of ex ovo-incubated embryos. We demonstrated the integration of human cells allowing experimentally easy investigation of the differentiation potential in the proper developmental context. Taken together, this ex ovo-method supports the prolonged cultivation of properly developing chicken embryos enabling integration studies of xenografted mammalian stem cells at late developmental stages.

  11. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing....... Results: We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62%) in the mean body weight of salinomycin...

  12. Effect of in ovo administration of an adult-derived microbiota on establishment of the intestinal microbiome in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Batal, Amy B; Lee, Margie D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of in ovo administration of a probiotic on development of the intestinal microbiota of 2 genetic lineages (modern and heritage) of chickens. SAMPLE 10 newly hatched chicks and 40 fertile eggs to determine intestinal microbiota at hatch, 900 fertile eggs to determine effects of probiotic on hatchability, and 1,560 chicks from treated or control eggs. PROCEDURES A probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota was administered in ovo to fertile eggs of both genetic lineages. Cecal contents and tissues were collected from embryos, newly hatched chicks, and chicks. A PCR assay was used to detect bacteria present within the cecum of newly hatched chicks. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and vitality staining were used to detect viable bacteria within intestines of embryos. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by use of 16S pyrosequencing. RESULTS Microscopic evaluation of embryonic cecal contents and tissues subjected to differential staining techniques revealed viable bacteria in low numbers. Development of the intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks of both genetic lineages was enhanced by in ovo administration of adult microbiota. Although the treatment increased diversity and affected composition of the microbiota of chicks, most bacterial species present in the probiotic were transient colonizers. However, the treatment decreased the abundance of undesirable bacterial species within heritage lineage chicks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In ovo inoculation of a probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota may be a viable method of managing development of the microbiota and reducing the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in chickens.

  13. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, J.E. de; Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Linde, I.B. van de; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for

  14. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, J.E. de; Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Linde, I.B. van de; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for compa

  15. Immunological and gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Besides infection in humans, Salmonella enteritidis can also cause serious illness in young chickens. However, the genetic and immunological parameters important for the disease in chickens are not well characterized. In this study, processes in the chicken intestine in response to a Salmonella infe

  16. Avidin is induced in chicken embryo fibroblasts by viral transformation and cell damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Korpela, J; Kulomaa, M; Tuohimaa, P; Vaheri, A.

    1983-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of avidin was studied in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with transforming retroviruses (Rous sarcoma virus, its mutants temperature-sensitive for transformation, OK-10 virus) or a nontransforming retrovirus (RAV-1). Avidin was detectable in both transformed and untransformed cultures, and was identical to chicken egg white avidin by several criteria: biotin-binding, heat-induced biotin exchange, subunit size (mol. wt. 15 600), immunoprecipitation of metab...

  17. Microbial Hazards of Street-Vended Grilled Chicken Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Patricia Azanza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial hazards associated with street-vended grilled chicken intestine (isaw were studied. Grilling of isaw effected ≥89.00% decrease in the total microbial load of the sample. Cooked isaw contained about 105-106 cfu/g aerobic plate counts and 103-104 MPN/g coliform counts. Salmonella per 25 g sample was isolated from cooked isaw samples. Grilling eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes cells initially present in pre-cooked samples. Different sauces of isaw showed increasing numbers of total aerobic microorganisms and coliform during vending operations. The total plate counts and coliform counts of the sour sauce, which ranged from 103-105 cfu/g and 101 MPN/g, respectively, were observed to be lower than those found in the sweet sauce. Sources of microbial contaminants of grilled chicken isaw included the natural flora of the raw materials, contaminations from food-contact surfaces, bamboo skewers, and the hands of the food handlers. Among the critical control points identified in the street-vending operation of chicken isaw were the control of time and temperature during cooking and hold-on periods during vending operations.

  18. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Karl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ionophoric coccidiostat salinomycin is widely used in chicken feed. In the near future the use of ionophore coccidiostats may be banned as has been the case for other antimicrobial growth promoters. This study was conducted to examine the effect of salinomycin on Campylobacter jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, cloning and sequencing. Results We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62% in the mean body weight of salinomycin treated chickens compared to un-treated controls. Conclusion Termination of the use of ionophore coccidiostats will not affect food safety related to campylobacter, but will increase the risk of necrotic enteritis in the broilers.

  19. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liheng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ, high concentration of glucose (high-glucose, or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT. In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.

  20. Effect of copper nanoparticles on metabolic rate and development of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Sawosz, E.; Vadalasetty, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    chickens were distributed into four groups that were administered colloidal CuNano on: day 1 and/or 10. Gaseous exchange was measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and HP was calculated for 16- and 19-day-old embryos. Yolk free body weight (YFBW) at 24h after hatching and the relative organ...... of embryos and depressed the development of organs; however, it did not affect YFBW, immunoglobulin concentrations and the expression of immuno-related genes....

  1. Identification of the Sex of Earlier Embryos from Generic Hybrids of Chicken-Quail by Wpkci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ai-jun; MA Wen-xia; LI Da-quan; MENG Qing-mei

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a protocol was deveolped the sex of earlier embryos of chicken(♂)-quail(♀)hybrids and successfully tested the sex proportion of each period (66-120 h). We acquired cross bred eggs by artificial insemination, hatched them in the same batch according to the standard hatching condition of chicken, and collected earlier living embryos at 66,72,78, 84,90,96,102,108,114, and 120 h randomly. We adopted RT-PCR protocol and multiple PCR, made the known sex quail as the external control, employed β-actin as the internal control, and used primers that were designed according to conservative area of gene Wpkci of quail to identify the sex of earlier hybrid embryos. The results indicated that the primer of Wpkci can be used to identify the sex of hybrid embryos accurately; there were more male than female in earlier embryos, the sex proportion of earlier embryos compared with academic numerical value was significantly different (P0.05). In the present study, we concluded that a simple, fast, credible and stable protocol to identify the sex of earlier hybrids embryos had been established by using primer of Wpkci; in earlier embryos, the death rate of female was higher than that of male and there was no fluctuant peak.

  2. Gluconeogenesis, non-essential amino acid synthesis and substrate partitioning in chicken embryos during later development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q; Agarwal, U; Bequette, B J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to quantify the rate of gluconeogenesis (GNG), non-essential amino-acid (NEAA) synthesis, and substrate partitioning to the Krebs cycle in embryonic (e) day e14 and e19 chicken embryos. An in ovo continuous tracer infusion approach was employed to test the hypotheses that GNG and NEAA synthesis in developing chicken embryo increases from e14 to e19. [(13)C6]Glucose or [(13)C3]glycerol was continuously infused (8 h) into the chorio-allantoic compartment of eggs on e14 and e19. Glucose entry rate, Cori cycling, and GNG were higher (P cycle was higher (P cycle. In summary, the in ovo continuous tracer infusion approach allowed for a measurement of chicken embryo whole body and liver metabolism over a shorter window of development. This study provided quantitative estimates of the developmental shifts in substrate utilization, GNG, and NEAA synthesis by chicken embryos, as well as qualitative estimates of the activities of enzymes central to the Krebs cycle, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Exploring the chicken embryo as a possible model for studying Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eGripenland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Many different animal models exist to study L. monocytogenes pathogenicity, and we have investigated the chicken embryo as an infection model: What are the benefits and possible drawbacks? We have compared a defined wild-type strain with its isogenic strains lacking well-characterized virulence factors. Our results show that wild-type L. monocytogenes, already at a relatively low infection dose (~5 x 102 cfu, caused death of the chicken embryo within 36 hours, in contrast to strains lacking the main transcriptional activator of virulence, PrfA, or the cytolysin LLO. Surprisingly, strains lacking the major adhesins InlA and InlB caused similar mortality as the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our results suggest that the chicken embryo is a practical model to study L. monocytogenes infections, especially when analyzing alternative virulence pathways independent of the InlA and InlB adhesins. However, the route of infection might be different from a human infection. The chicken embryo model and other Listeria infection models are discussed.

  4. Are Chicken Embryos Endotherms or Ectotherms? A Laboratory Exercise Integrating Concepts in Thermoregulation and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Sara M; Noveral, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    This investigative laboratory exercise uses the different relations between ambient temperature and metabolic rate in endotherms and ectotherms as a core concept to answer the following question: What thermoregulatory mode is employed by chicken embryos? Emphasis is placed on the physiological concepts that can be taught with this exercise,…

  5. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  6. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    -host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...

  7. A biolistic process for in vitro gene transfer into chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Ribeiro

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken embryos kept in culture medium were bombarded using a high helium gas pressure biolistic device. To optimize the factors that affect transformation efficiency, the lacZ gene under control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter was used as a reporter gene. There was an inverse relationship between survival rate and transformation efficiency. The best conditions obtained for high embryo survival and high transformation efficiency were achieved with 800 psi helium gas pressure, 500 mmHg vacuum, gold particles, an 8 cm DNA-coated microparticle flying distance to the embryo and embryo placement 0.5 cm from the center of the particle dispersion cone. Under these conditions, transformation efficiency was 100%, survival rate 25% and the number of expression units in the embryo body cells ranged from 100 to 1,000. Expression of green fluorescent protein was also detected in embryos bombarded under optimal conditions. Based on the results obtained, the biolistic process can be considered an efficient method for the transformation of chicken embryos and therefore can be used as a model system to study transient gene expression and tissue-specific promoters.

  8. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J;

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  9. Onset of meiosis in the chicken embryo; evidence of a role for retinoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopman Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiosis in higher vertebrates shows a dramatic sexual dimorphism: germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. Here we report the molecular analysis of meiosis onset in the chicken model and provide evidence for conserved regulation by retinoic acid. Results Meiosis in the chicken embryo is initiated late in embryogenesis (day 15.5, relative to gonadal sex differentiation (from day 6. Meiotic germ cells are first detectable only in female gonads from day 15.5, correlating with the expression of the meiosis marker, SCP3. Gonads isolated from day 10.5 female embryos and grown in serum-free medium could still initiate meiosis at day 16.5, suggesting that this process is controlled by an endogenous clock in the germ cells themselves, and/or that germ cells are already committed to meiosis at the time of explantation. Early commitment is supported by the analysis of chicken STRA8, a pre-meiotic marker shown to be essential for meiosis in mouse. Chicken STRA8 is expressed female-specifically from embryonic day 12.5, preceding morphological evidence of meiosis at day 15.5. Previous studies have shown that, in the mouse embryo, female-specific induction of STRA8 and meiosis are triggered by retinoic acid. A comprehensive analysis of genes regulating retinoic acid metabolism in chicken embryos reveals dynamic expression in the gonads. In particular, the retinoic acid-synthesising enzyme, RALDH2, is expressed in the left ovarian cortex at the time of STRA8 up-regulation, prior to meiosis. Conclusion This study presents the first molecular analysis of meiosis onset in an avian embryo. Although aspects of avian meiosis differ from that of mammals, a role for retinoic acid may be conserved.

  10. Antibacterial properties of chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of chicken group-IIA PLA2 (ChPLA2-IIA in the intestinal secretion suggests that this enzyme plays an important role in systemic bactericidal defence. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of purified ChPLA2-IIA, on several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by using the diffusion well and dilution methods. Results ChPLA2-IIA displays potent bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria but lacks bactericidal activity against gram negative ones. We have also demonstrated a synergic action of ChPLA2-IIA with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to ChPLA2-IIA. The bactericidal efficiency of ChPLA2-IIA was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Interestingly ChPLA2-IIA displays a higher dependence to Ca2+ ions than to Mg2+ions. Conclusion We conclude that the main physiological role of ChPLA2-IIA could be the defence of the intestine against bacterial invasions.

  11. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  12. Evaluation of biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. using the chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Bednarczyk, Marek; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (cat's claw) was evaluated by application of the chicken embryo model. Among three groups of eggs (n = 360) with twelve-day old embryos, two were injected with different doses of cat's claw extracts (0.0492 and 0.492 mg/200 lambda). To the third control group 200 lambda of physiological salt was applied. All eggs were incubated in conventional forced-air apparatus until hatched. Hatchability, chicken weight and wholesomeness were analyzed. Selected parameters of blood including number of erythrocytes (RBC), number of leukocytes (WBC), mean red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), mean amount of cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and embryo weight (MAS) were assayed and compared. Significant differences with ANOVA were observed for MCV (P = 0.002), MCHC (P = 0.00001) and MCH (P = 0.02). Applying the chicken embryo model brought new information about the biological activity of U. tomentosa showing an unfavourable effect on some morphological blood parameters.

  13. Green fluorescent protein gene-transfected peafowl somatic cells participate in the development of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongmei; Nada, Yoich; Soh, Tomoki; Fujihara, Noboru; Hattori, Masa-Aki

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the embryonic somatic cells are capable of reconstituting and participating in the embryonic development of chickens to produce chimeras. In order to track the migration behavior of the donor cells, a cell line, originally isolated from an Indian peafowl embryo, was fluorescent-labeled by transfection of the cells with enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and Neomycin resistant (Neo) genes prior to injection into the stage X blastoderm of White Leghorn chickens. The injection was performed with a medium in the presence of 1-5% polyethylene glycol. The development of putative chimeric embryos between the stages three and 24 was examined for GFP expression under fluorescent light. To trace the peafowl cells in the developing chicken embryos, both a species-specific genetic marker originating from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and a DNA fragment of GFP gene were used. Of the 185 fertile eggs manipulated, 173 developed into embryos. Fifty-five of them showed positive GFP patches in extra-embryonic tissues, and 15 expressed GFP in intra-embryonic tissues such as those of the head, heart, and gonad. PCR analysis revealed that PCR fragments for the peafowl mitochondrial DNA cyt b and GFP genes were detected in the samples of the GFP positive extra- and intra-embryonic tissues of the chimeras. The present results provide evidence that fluorescent-labeled peafowl embryonic cells carrying GFP and Neo genes are able to participate in the development of chicken embryos to generate chimeras. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  15. Assessment of angiogenic properties of biomaterials using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Joseph; Ihnat, Michael A; Kropp, Bradley P; Warnke, Linda A; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2007-06-01

    The angiogenic potential of a biomaterial is a critical factor for successful graft intake in tissue engineering. We developed a modified, rapid and reproducible chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to evaluate the ability of biomaterials in inducing blood vessel density. Five biomaterials including one-layer porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), two-layer SIS, four-layer vacuum pressed (VP) SIS, polyglycolic acid (PGA) and PGA modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were analyzed. A circular section (1.2 mm diameter) of each biomaterial was placed near a group of blood vessels in the CAM. Blood vessels around the biomaterials were captured with black and white images at 96 h post implantation; and the images were subjected to densitometry evaluation. One-layer SIS induced a significant increase in blood vessel density as compared to the cellulose nitrate negative control, and had the greatest increase in blood vessel density as compared to four-layer VP SIS, PGA, or PLGA modified PGA. Although two-layer SIS has enhanced physical structure for surgical manipulation, its induction in blood vessel density was significantly lower than the one-layer SIS. Stripping the SIS proteins or incubating one-layer SIS with neutralizing antibodies against basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) resulted in decreased angiogenesis. Consistent with results obtained from bladder augmentation animal models, these results confirmed that angiogenic growth factors were present in SIS and affected the angiogenic potential of biomaterials. These data also demonstrated that the CAM assay can be used to ascertain methodically the angiogenic potential of biomaterials.

  16. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  17. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  18. Evaluation of embryonic age and the effects of different proteases on the isolation and primary culture of chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; He, Qiang; Li, Jun-ming; Azzam, Mahmoud Mostafa; Lu, Jian-jun; Zou, Xiao-ting

    2015-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of embryonic age and proteolytic enzymes on the isolation and primary culture of chicken enterocyte and to establish an effective technique for chicken intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) cultivation. Fourteen-day-old, 16-day-old and 18-day-old embryos (average weight: 52.23 ± 0.76 g, 50.86 ± 0.99 g, 48.98 ± 1.03 g) were the source for preparation of enterocyte culture, and trypsin-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, collagenase, thermolysin and combination of collagenase and thermolysin were used for digestion medium. Optimal culture protocols were determined by qualitative assays of proliferation. Cells isolated by using 14-day-old embryo and collagenase obtain the best attachment and growth in culture, and the production of continuously growing IEC cultures. Thus, we conclude that the use of collagenase as a dissociating enzyme and 14-day-old embryo as a source can be advantageously applied to the isolation of chicken IEC and this method may be useful for various applications and basic studies of the intestinal tract concerning such objects as physiology, immunology and toxicology.

  19. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  20. Gene Expression Profiles of Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts in Response to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Szmolka

    Full Text Available The response of chicken to non-typhoidal Salmonella infection is becoming well characterised but the role of particular cell types in this response is still far from being understood. Therefore, in this study we characterised the response of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs to infection with two different S. Enteritidis strains by microarray analysis. The expression of chicken genes identified as significantly up- or down-regulated (≥3-fold by microarray analysis was verified by real-time PCR followed by functional classification of the genes and prediction of interactions between the proteins using Gene Ontology and STRING Database. Finally the expression of the newly identified genes was tested in HD11 macrophages and in vivo in chickens. Altogether 19 genes were induced in CEFs after S. Enteritidis infection. Twelve of them were also induced in HD11 macrophages and thirteen in the caecum of orally infected chickens. The majority of these genes were assigned different functions in the immune response, however five of them (LOC101750351, K123, BU460569, MOBKL2C and G0S2 have not been associated with the response of chicken to Salmonella infection so far. K123 and G0S2 were the only 'non-immune' genes inducible by S. Enteritidis in fibroblasts, HD11 macrophages and in the caecum after oral infection. The function of K123 is unknown but G0S2 is involved in lipid metabolism and in β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria.

  1. Canine Distemper Virus Utilizes Different Receptors to Infect Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts and Vero cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Xiu Liang; Pei-fu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Inducing animal viruses to adapt to chicken embryos or chicken embryo fibroblasts(CEF)is a common method to develop attenuated live vaccines with full security.Canine distemper virus(CDV)also does this,but the mechanisms and particular receptors remain unclear.Virus overlay protein blot assays were carried out on CEF membrane proteins,which were extracted respectively with a Mem-PERTM kit,a radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer or a modified co-immunoprecipitation method,and revealed a common 57 kDa positive band that differed from the 42-kDa positive band in Vero cells and also from those receptors reported in lymphocytes and293 cells,indicating a receptor diversity of CDV and the possibility of the 57-kDa protein acting as a receptor that is involved in adaptive infection of CDV Kunming strain to CEF.

  2. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  3. The effect of hypoxia on facial shape variation and disease phenotypes in chicken embryos

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    Francis Smith

    2013-07-01

    Craniofacial anomalies can arise from both genetic and environmental factors, including prenatal hypoxia. Recent clinical evidence correlates hypoxia to craniofacial malformations. However, the mechanisms by which hypoxia mediates these defects are not yet understood. We examined the cellular mechanisms underlying malformations induced by hypoxia using a chicken (Gallus gallus embryo model. Eggs were incubated in either hypoxic (7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 or 19% O2 or normoxic (21% O2 conditions. Embryos were photographed for morphological analysis at days 3–6. For analysis of skeletal development, 13-day embryos were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. Quantitative analysis of facial shape variation was performed on images of embryos via geometric morphometrics. Early-stage embryos (day 2 were analyzed for apoptosis via whole-mount and section TUNEL staining and immunostaining for cleaved caspase-3, whereas later-stage embryos (days 4–6 were sectioned in paraffin for analysis of cell proliferation (BrdU, apoptosis (TUNEL and metabolic stress (phospho-AMPK. Results demonstrate that survival is reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Hypoxic embryos displayed a spectrum of craniofacial anomalies, from mild asymmetry and eye defects to more severe frontonasal and cephalic anomalies. Skull bone development was delayed in hypoxic embryos, with some skeletal defects observed. Morphometric analysis showed facial shape variation relative to centroid size and age in hypoxic groups. Hypoxia disrupted cell proliferation and, in early-stage embryos, caused apoptosis of neural crest progenitor cells. Hypoxic embryos also displayed an increased metabolic stress response. These results indicate that hypoxia during early embryonic craniofacial development might induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to apoptosis of the neural crest progenitor cells that are crucial to normal craniofacial morphogenesis.

  4. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

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    Marta Grodzik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND and l-glutamine (Gln on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2 and differentiation (MyoD1. Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  5. Micro-PIV measurements of blood flow in extraembryonic blood vessels of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Ji, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2007-10-01

    The hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow are important in the diagnosis of circulatory diseases, since such diseases are related to wall shear stress of cardiovascular vessels. In chicken embryos at early stages of development, it is possible to directly visualize blood flow inside blood vessels. We therefore employed a micro-PIV technique to assess blood flow in extraembryonic venous and arterial blood vessels of chicken embryos, using red blood cells (RBCs) as tracers and obtaining flow images of RBCs using a high-speed CMOS camera. The mean velocity field showed non-Newtonian flow characteristics. The blood flow in two venous vessels merged smoothly into the Y-shaped downstream vein without any flow separation or secondary flow. Vorticity was high in the inner regions, where the radius of curvature varied greatly. A periodic variation of temporally resolved velocity signals, due to beating of the heart, was observed in arterial blood vessels. The pulsating frequency was obtained by fast Fourier transform analysis using the measured velocity data. The measurement technique used here was useful in analyzing the hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo blood flow in chicken embryos.

  6. Experimental infection of chicken embryos with recently described Brucella microti: Pathogenicity and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Böttcher, Denny; Melzer, Falk; Shehata, Awad Ali; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf

    2015-08-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens causing disease in a wide range of domestic and wild animals as well as in humans. Brucella (B.) microti is a recently recognized species and was isolated from common voles (Microtus arvalis), red foxes and soil in Austria and the Czech Republic. Its pathogenicity for livestock and its zoonotic potential has not been confirmed yet. In the present study 25 SPF chicken embryos were inoculated at day 11 of age with 1.6×10(3) and 1.6×10(5)B. microti by yolk sac and allantoic sac routes. Re-isolation of B. microti indicated rapid multiplication of bacteria (up to 1.7×10(12)CFU). B. microti provoked marked gross lesions, i.e. hemorrhages and necroses. All inoculated embryos were dead (100% mortality) in between 2nd and 4th day post inoculation. The predominant histopathological lesion was necroses in liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, spinal meninges, yolk sac and chorioallantoic membrane. Immunohistochemical examination showed the presence of Brucella antigen in nearly all of these organs, with infection being mainly restricted to non-epithelial cells or tissues. This study provides the first results on the multiplication and pathogenicity of the mouse pathogenic B. microti in chicken embryos. These data suggest that, even though chicken are not mammals, they could provide a useful tool for understanding the pathogenesis of B. microti associated disease.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of host gene expression in chicken embryo lung cells infected with laryngotracheitis virus

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    Li Xianyao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 causes acute respiratory diseases in chickens often with high mortality. To better understand host-ILTV interactions at the host transcriptional level, a microarray analysis was performed using 4 × 44 K Agilent chicken custom oligo microarrays. Results Microarrays were hybridized using the two color hybridization method with total RNA extracted from ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post infection (dpi. Results showed that 789 genes were differentially expressed in response to ILTV infection that include genes involved in the immune system (cytokines, chemokines, MHC, and NF-κB, cell cycle regulation (cyclin B2, CDK1, and CKI3, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and cellular metabolism. Differential expression for 20 out of 789 genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of 789 differentially expressed genes revealed that 21 possible gene networks with intermolecular connections among 275 functionally identified genes. These 275 genes were classified into a number of functional groups that included cancer, genetic disorder, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell death. Conclusion The results of this study provide comprehensive knowledge on global gene expression, and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in chicken embryo lung cells in response to ILTV infections.

  8. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos was ca...

  9. Shared mechanism of teratogenicity of anti-angiogenic drugs identified in the chicken embryo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedie, Shaunna L.; Mahony, Chris; Walker, Heather M.; Chau, Cindy H.; Figg, William D.; Vargesson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for tumor growth, stabilization and progression. Angiogenesis inhibitors are now widely used in the clinic; however, there are relatively few published studies on the mechanism of their presumed teratogenic effects. To address this issue, we screened a variety of angiogenesis inhibitors in developing zebrafish and chicken embryo models to assess for developmental defects and potential teratogenic effects. We confirmed previous reports that sunitinib, sorafenib and TNP-470 are teratogenic and demonstrate that axitinib, pazopanib, vandetanib, and everolimus are also teratogens in these models. A dose response study identified the drugs inhibit HUVEC cell proliferation in vitro, and also target the developing blood vessels of embryos in vivo. This provides further evidence for the potential risk of fetal toxicity when using these drugs in a clinical setting, and emphasizes the importance of the development and maintenance of the vasculature in the embryo. We conclude that angiogenesis inhibitors, regardless of the molecular target, are teratogenic when exposed to chicken embryos. PMID:27443489

  10. Proliferation of exogenously injected primordial germcells (PGCs) into busulfan-treated chicken embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Fumta; N.Fujihara

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of busulfan treatment on the proliferation of chicken primordialgerm cells (Fgcs) in vivo, focusing on the preferential settlement of PGCs onto the germinal ridges of chicken em-bryos. Methods: Bustdfan (250 rig/egg) was injected into the egg white of freshly oviposited fertilized eggs, whichwere then incubated. Embryonic developnent and viability were examined, and exogenous PGCs collected from embry-onic blood vessels were injected into the germinal crescent region of recipient enthryos. The nttmber of PGCs residedonto germinal ridges of the right and left sides were compared. Results: Bustdfan had a slight harmful effect on theembryo viabihty and the PGCs proliferation. The number of PGCs resided onto the left side of germinal ridges wasslightly higher as compared with the right side. Conclusion: Busulfan suppressed the viability of embryos and the pro-liferation of endogenous PGCs in the recipient embryos. However, the number of exogenous PGCs proliferated washigher in embryos treated with busnlfan than those without busulfan. Data also suggest the possibihty of a preferentialresidence of PCCs toward the left side of the germinal crescent region as compared with the right, which may be due toa more advanced functional development of the left gonad than the right. (Asian JAndro11999 Dec; 1 : 187 - 190)

  11. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

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    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  12. Comparison of pretectal genoarchitectonic pattern between quail and chicken embryos.

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    Paloma eMerchán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization of the central nervous system is controlled by local networks of transcription factors that establish and maintain the identities of neuroepithelial progenitor areas and their neuronal derivatives. The conserved cerebral Bauplan of vertebrates must result essentially from conserved patterns of developmentally expressed transcription factors. We have previously produced detailed molecular maps for the alar plate of prosomere 1 (the pretectal region in chicken (Ferran et al., 2007, 2008, 2009. Here we compare the early molecular signature of the pretectum of two closely related avian species of the family Phasianidae, Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail and Gallus gallus (chicken, aiming to test conservation of the described pattern at a microevolutionary level. We studied the developmental pretectal expression of Bhlhb4, Dbx1, Ebf1, Gata3, Gbx2, Lim1, Meis1, Meis2 Pax3, Pax6, Six3, Tal2, and Tcf7l2 (Tcf4 mRNA, using in situ hybridization, and PAX7 immunohistochemistry. The genoarchitectonic profile of individual pretectal domains and strata was produced, using comparable section planes. Remarkable conservation of the combinatorial genoarchitectonic code was observed, fundamented in a tripartite anteroposterior subdivision. However, we found that at corresponding developmental stages the pretectal region of G. gallus was approximately 30% larger than that of C. japonica, but seemed relatively less mature. Altogether, our results on a conserved genoarchitectonic pattern highlight the importance of early developmental gene networks that causally underlie the production of homologous derivatives in these two evolutionarily closely-related species. The shared patterns probably apply to sauropsids in general, as well as to more distantly related vertebrate species.

  13. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S D; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  14. Teratogenic and cytotoxic effects of VOsalen complex on chicken embryos, hepatic and fibroblastic- cell cultures

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    Abdolmaleki A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salen metal complexes are used successfully in a wide range of asymmet-ric reactions and important in the pharmaceutical and industry. On the toxicity of salen vanadium oxide (VOsalen on embryo and cell cultures, little information is available. In the present study, the toxic and teratogenic effects of VOsalen was evaluated against chicken embryos as a animal model and liver and fibroblast cell cultures which was derived from the embryo.Methods: The VOsalen compound was synthesized. The compound solution was inject-ed in triplicate examination, in the air sac of the eggs, at third day of incubation. Treat-ed and control eggs, on day 19 of incubation opened and embryos were weighted, then mortality rate was recorded. The liver and fibroblast cell culture were treated by this and survival fraction was recorded.Results: The survived fraction of the embryos depends on the compound concentration. In concentration of 300μM/egg, 36/32% of the embryos survived and the Lethal dose 50% (LD50 was 226/37 μM/egg. Morphological study of the treated embryos showed retarded growth, and skeletal staining showed the deletion of caudal vertebrate. The compound was inhibited liver and fibroblast cells growth with IC50 1047/25 and 1036/82μM respectively. The cytoplasm of treated cells became dense and their interco-nnections were loosed.Conclusion: The VOsalen compound had low toxic effects against the embryos and the cultured cells at the concentrations. Significant cytotoxic effect was not observed in the treated cells. However the proliferative cells were affected significantly in comparison with the cells which their growth was stopped. The effect of VOsalen compound against replication of liver cells were lower than fibroblast cells.

  15. Histological alterations of intestinal villi in chickens fed dried Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanya, Mongkol; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2002-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, chickens were fed dried Bacillus subtilis var. natto for 3 or 28 days. Growth performance and internal organs were not different from controls, but feed efficiency tended to be improved in the 28-day feeding. In these birds, blood ammonia concentration was decreased (Psubtilis natto depressed ammonia concentration. In experiment 2, chickens were fed dietary B. subtilis natto for 28 days. These birds had a tendency to display greater growth performance and intestinal histologies, such as villus height, cell area and cell mitosis, than the controls. Flat cell outline on the duodenal villus surface in controls developed large, protruded cell clusters and cell protuberances after feeding of dietary B. subtilis natto. These results indicate that intestinal function was activated by the depressed blood ammonia concentration in the body of the chicken. The present results may suggest that the B. subtilis natto has the potential to be a beneficial microorganism in chickens.

  16. Bisphenol-A Induces Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Chicken Embryos

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    Soraya Gharibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress mechanisms are involved in the embryotoxicity. The objective of this study was to assess hepatotoxicity of bisphenol-A (BPA in chicken embryos.Materials and Methods: Fertile eggs were randomly divided into 4 groups; three experimental and one control groups, (N=15, for each group. Embryos were administered 50, 100 and 200 PPM BPA, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C with a relative humidity of 63%. The experiment was terminated on day 20 of incubation. Then, the embryos were decapitated and livers of embryos were collected for biochemical analysis. The total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, carotenoid and total protein levels were measured by spectrophotometer.Results: The result of the present study indicated that the levels of total antioxidant in the livers of embryos exposed to 200 PPM BPA were higher than control and other groups, as well as the levels of MDA compared to control group (p<0.05. The levels of GSH, total carotenoids and total protein were higher in all groups exposed to BPA than control group (p<0.05. In addition, protein concentration in 200 PPM group was higher than of other groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: So far, BPA may lead to induce toxic response of oxidative system in liver throughout embryonic period.

  17. Analysis of Gene Expression Responses to a Infection in Rugao Chicken Intestine Using GeneChips

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    D. Q. Luan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to infection. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Salmonella in young chickens of 2 wk old, a cDNA Microarray containing 13,319 probes was performed to compare gene expression profiles between two chicken groups under control and Salmonella infected conditions. Newly hatched chickens were orally infected with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Since the intestine is one of the important barriers the bacteria encounter after oral inoculation, intestine gene expression was investigated at 2 wk old. There were 588 differentially expressed genes detected, of which 276 were known genes, and of the total number 266 were up-regulated and 322 were down-regulated. Differences in gene expression between the two chicken groups were found in control as well as Salmonella infected conditions indicating a difference in the intestine development between the two chicken groups which might be linked to the difference in Salmonella susceptibility. The differential expressions of 4 genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and the results indicated that the expression changes of these genes were generally consistent with the results of GeneChips. The findings in this study have lead to the identification of novel genes and possible cellular pathways, which are host dependent.

  18. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  19. Toxicity of different forms of graphene in a chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Maciej; Sawosz, Ewa; Urbańska, Kaja; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Hotowy, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Grodzik, Marta; Lipińska, Ludwika; Chwalibog, André

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the toxicity of three forms of graphene: pristine graphene (pG), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was investigated using a chicken embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the control group and groups administered with pG, GO, and rGO, in concentrations of 50, 500, and 5000 μg/ml. The experimental solutions were injected in ovo into the eggs, and at day 18 of incubation, the embryo survival, body and organ weights, the ultrastructure of liver samples, and the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the livers were measured. Survival of embryos decreased significantly after treatment with all types of graphene, but not in a dose-dependent manner. The body weights were only slightly affected by the highest doses of graphene, while the organ weights were not different among treatment groups. In all experimental groups, atypical hepatocyte ultrastructure and mitochondrial damage were observed. The concentration of the marker of DNA damage 8-OHdG in the liver significantly decreased after pG and rGO treatments. Further in vivo studies with different animal models are necessary to clarify the level of toxicity of different types of graphene and to estimate the concentrations appropriate to evaluate their biomedical applications and environmental hazard.

  20. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

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    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  1. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available The yellow fever (YF 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system.

  2. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-11-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring tissues. Furthermore, stage 6 Hensen's node contains approximately 3 times more retinoid than that of stage 4 embryos. These endogenous retinoids may establish a concentration gradient from Hensen's node to adjacent tissues and play a role in establishing the primary embryonic axis in the vertebrate. The results also suggest that the retinoid concentration in Hensen's node is developmentally regulated.

  3. Avidin is induced in chicken embryo fibroblasts by viral transformation and cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, J; Kulomaa, M; Tuohimaa, P; Vaheri, A

    1983-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of avidin was studied in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with transforming retroviruses (Rous sarcoma virus, its mutants temperature-sensitive for transformation, OK-10 virus) or a nontransforming retrovirus (RAV-1). Avidin was detectable in both transformed and untransformed cultures, and was identical to chicken egg white avidin by several criteria: biotin-binding, heat-induced biotin exchange, subunit size (mol. wt. 15 600), immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled proteins and immunoblotting. Transformation increased the production of avidin up to 50-fold, but several experiments suggested that the induction was not a direct consequence of virus-induced cell transformation. The production of avidin seemed to relate to cellular damage both in cultures of virus-transformed and of normal fibroblasts. It may represent a response to cellular damage and viral transformation may activate the process. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6315397

  4. Avidin is induced in chicken embryo fibroblasts by viral transformation and cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, J; Kulomaa, M; Tuohimaa, P; Vaheri, A

    1983-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of avidin was studied in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with transforming retroviruses (Rous sarcoma virus, its mutants temperature-sensitive for transformation, OK-10 virus) or a nontransforming retrovirus (RAV-1). Avidin was detectable in both transformed and untransformed cultures, and was identical to chicken egg white avidin by several criteria: biotin-binding, heat-induced biotin exchange, subunit size (mol. wt. 15 600), immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled proteins and immunoblotting. Transformation increased the production of avidin up to 50-fold, but several experiments suggested that the induction was not a direct consequence of virus-induced cell transformation. The production of avidin seemed to relate to cellular damage both in cultures of virus-transformed and of normal fibroblasts. It may represent a response to cellular damage and viral transformation may activate the process.

  5. Changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins due to an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) diazinon linked to several noncholinergic OPI effects in mice and chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify proteins in mouse livers and chicken embryo yolk sac membranes whose quantities were altered by an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) treatment and which might be linked, based on their functionality, to the recognized noncholinergic effects of OPI. Mice and fertile chicken eggs were treated with an OPI representative diazinon. The quantitative changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins caused by diazinon were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins whose quantity was affected by diazinon were identified by the mass spectrometry. In mouse livers, the altered levels of several enzymes of glucose metabolism were considered with regards to amelioration of hyperglycemia due to diazinon; the reduced levels of 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase to the changes in the l-tryptophan to NAD metabolism caused by pyrimidinyl and crotonamide OPI; the reduced levels of catalase, peroxiredoxin and superoxide dismutase to OPI-increased lipid and/or kynurenine oxidation, the latter effect resulting also in increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids; and an increase in glutathione S-methyltransferase to OPI detoxification. In chicken embryo yolk sac membranes, the reduced availability of procollagen-proline dioxygenase may be the factor in micromelia caused by OPI in chicken embryos.

  6. Reverse transcriptase activity in chicken embryo fibroblast culture supernatants is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus EAV-0 RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Weissmahr, R N; Schüpbach, J; Böni, J

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown that live attenuated virus vaccines produced on chicken-derived cells contain low levels of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT). In both virus and corresponding control harvests produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts, these activities were present at significantly higher concentrations than in the vaccines. In order to identify the putative retrovirus sequence responsible for this activity, a novel method for the selective PCR amplification of particle-associ...

  7. In Ovo administration of silver nanoparticles and/or amino acids influence metabolism and immune gene expression in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanja, Subrat K.; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Mehra, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but...... alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken....

  8. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  9. Toxicity of a dichlorvos containing insecticide formulation and an atrazine containing herbicide formulation in chicken embryos after individual administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, R; Keseru, M; Fejes, S; Budai, P; Juhász, E; Pongrácz, A

    2004-01-01

    A 50% dichlorvos containing insecticide formulation (Unifosz 50 EC) and a 50% atrazine containing herbicide formulation (Hungazin PK 50 WP) were studied in chicken embryos after administration as single compounds. Applied concentrations of dichlorvos were 0.1% (corresponding to the plant protection practice), 0.05%, 0.02%, 0.01%. Applied concentrations of atrazine were 0.66% (corresponding to the plant protection practice), 0.33%, 0.132%, 0.066%. The test materials were injected directly into the air-chamber of eggs on day 0 of the hatching period and evaulation was carried out on day 19 of incubation. The chicken embryos were examined for the following: rate of embryo mortality, body mass, type of developmental anomalies. After the single administrations of dichlorvos containing insecticide formulation and atrazine containing herbicide formulation on day 0 of incubation, the average body weight of chicken embryos significantly did not decrease as compared to the control. After the individual administrations of pesticides the incidence of developmental anomalies was sporadic. The embryonic mortality markedly increased at the highest concentrations of pesticides. The rate of embrio mortality were 61% (dichlorvos insecticide containing formulation) and 52% (atrazine containing herbicide formulation). In summary, the 50% dichlorvos containing insecide formulation (Unifosz 50 EC) and the 50% atrazine containing herbicide formulation (Hungazin PK 50 WP) were toxic to the developing chicken embryos at the highest concentration in our study. The toxic effect was expressed in the high rate of embrio mortality.

  10. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mattsson

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of the intestinal bacterial community in commercially raised broiler chickens during growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ; Keuzenkamp, DA; Lipman, LJA; van Knapen, F; Biesterveld, S

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether host, compartment, or environmental specific factors play an important role in the establishment of the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens during growth. This objective was addressed using a 16S rDNA approach. PCR-amplicons from the V6 to V

  12. Effect of probiotics on intestinal mucosal immunity and ultrastructure of cecal tonsils of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Yang; Ruiping, She; Shimin, Zheng; Yibao, Jiang

    2005-08-01

    Sixty chickens were randomly divided into two groups to determine the effect of oral administration of probiotics on the intestinal mucosal immune response and ultrastructure of cecal tonsils. The first group (control) was fed with a basic diet without antibiotic or probiotics. The second group was fed with the same diet as the control, except they received drinking water with probiotics (4 x 10(9) cfu per chicken and day) from posthatch to day 3 of age. The probiotic preparation was composed of Bacillus subtilis Bs964, Candida utilis BKM-Y74 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LH1F. Intestinal fluid, Peyer's Patch and cecal tonsils were taken at day 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18 after administration of probiotics. The results showed: (i) Compared to the control, probiotics enhanced the content of following items: immunglobulin (Ig)A in the intestinal fluid at day 7 (p probiotics. (iii) The density of microvilli and length of cecal tonsils increased after probiotics were administrated at day 3. With chicken ageing, the efficiency of probiotics would decrease. These results suggested that probiotics enhance intestinal mucosal immunity of chicken at the early age.

  13. Recombinant Mouse Canstatin Inhibits Chicken Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong HOU; Tian-Yun WANG; Bao-Mei YUAN; Yu-Rong CHAI; Yan-Long JIA; Fang TIAN; Jian-Min WANG; Le-Xun XUE

    2004-01-01

    Human canstatin, a 24 kD fragment of the α2 chain of type Ⅳ collagen, has been proved to be one of the most effective inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth. To investigate in vivo antiangiogenesis activity and in vitro effects on endothelial cell proliferation of recombinant mouse canstatin, the cDNA of mouse canstatin was introduced into an expression vector pQE40 to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pQE-mCan. The recombinant mouse canstatin efficiently expressed in E. coli M 15 after IPTG induction was monitored by SDS-PAGE and by Western blotting with an anti-hexahistidine tag antibody. The expressed mouse canstatin, mainly as inclusion bodies, accounted for approximately 35% of the total bacterial proteins. The inclusion bodies were washed, lysed and purified by the nickel affinity chromatography to a purity of approximately 93%. The refolded mouse canstatin was tested on the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), and a large number of newly formed blood vessels were significantly regressed. In addition, recombinant mouse canstatin potently inhibited endothelial cell proliferation with no inhibition on non-endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the recombinant mouse canstatin effectively inhibited angiogenesis of the chicken embryo in a dose-dependent manner and specially suppressed in vitro the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  14. The importance of carbonic anhydrase II in red blood cells during exposure of chicken embryos to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, N; Willemsen, H; Hulikova, A; Brown, H; Decuypere, E; Swietach, P; Bruggeman, V

    2010-07-31

    The importance of carbonic anhydrase (CA) during exposure of chicken embryos to CO(2) during the second half of incubation was investigated. The protein abundance and activity of CAII in erythrocytes was significantly higher in CO(2)-exposed embryos compared to normal conditions. Daily injections of acetazolamide (ATZ), an inhibitor of CA, increased blood P(CO2) and decreased blood pH in both control and CO(2)-incubated embryos. ATZ increased blood bicarbonate concentration in embryos exposed to normal atmosphere and in day-12 embryos exposed to high CO(2). The tendency of an increased blood potassium concentration in ATZ-injected embryos under standard atmospheric conditions might indicate that protons were exchanged with intracellular potassium. However, there was no evidence for such an exchange in CO(2)-incubated ATZ-treated embryos. This study shows for the first time that chicken embryos adapt to CO(2) during the second half of incubation by increasing CAII protein expression and function in red blood cells. This response may serve to "buffer" elevated CO(2) levels.

  15. The development of the chicken small intestine: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatakou, O; Paraskevakou, E; Tseleni-Balafouta, S; Athanasiadis, A; Fasseas, K

    2003-07-01

    The surface pattern of the small intestine of the chicken was studied using SEM in stages ranging from 11th day of foetal development to 60 days of post-natal life. The definite villi of the small intestine were preceded by the development of the previllous ridges. The villi were finger like and of unequal length during incubation. After hatching, gradually, the villi were longer, well formed with furrows along their sides. Respectively, the crypts, being present at late incubation, increased with age. Columnar epithelial cells with dense microvilli lined the luminal surface of the intestine with obvious goblet cells openings among them.

  16. In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat K. Bhanja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2 expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4 expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken.

  17. Gene expression profiling reveals new potential players of gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenn-Aël Carré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors

  18. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale.

  19. Heat stress impairs performance and induces intestinal inflammation in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Gomes, A V S; Pinheiro, M L; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2012-10-01

    Stressful situations reduce the welfare, production indices and immune status of chickens. Salmonella spp. are a major zoonotic pathogens that annually cause over 1 billion infections worldwide. We therefore designed the current experiment to analyse the effects of 31±1°C heat stress (HS) (from 35 to 41 days) on performance parameters, Salmonella invasion and small intestine integrity in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. We observed that HS decreased body weight gain and feed intake. However, feed conversion was only increased when HS was combined with Salmonella Enteritidis infection. In addition, we observed an increase in serum corticosterone levels in all of the birds that were subjected to HS, showing a hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Furthermore, mild acute multifocal lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, characterized by foci of heterophil infiltration in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, was observed in the HS group. In contrast, similar but more evident enteritis was noted in the heat-stressed and Salmonella-infected group. In this group, moderate enteritis was observed in all parts of the small intestine. Lastly, we observed an increase in Salmonella counts in the spleens of the stressed and Salmonella-infected chickens. The combination of HS and Salmonella Enteritidis infection may therefore disrupt the intestinal barrier, which would allow pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa to the spleen and generate an inflammatory infiltrate in the gut, decreasing performance parameters.

  20. Intestinal bacterial community and growth performance of chickens fed diets containing antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment.

  1. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eTellez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group. At 10d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate bacterial translocation (BT. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated.

  2. Mechanisms of calcium transport in small intestine. Progress report, March 1, 1976--September 30, 1977. [Chickens, rats, lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: subcellular location of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/(1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) in intestine of chickens; studies on receptor proteins in intestine for 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D3; studies on intestinal cytosol receptors in chickens and rats; control of intestinal calcium transport; effect of calcitonin on 25-OH-D/sub 3/-1-hydroxylase; isolation and identification of the active principle of Solonum glaucophyllum, the South American plant that causes metastatic calcification and death to grazing animals; and studies on lead transport in vitro and in vivo. (HLW)

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, Which Can Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chicken Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Michael J

    2016-04-14

    We present the 2.05-Mb draft genome sequence ofLactobacillus crispatusJCM5810, a chicken intestinal isolate with the ability to reduceCampylobacter jejunicolonization in chickens. The genome sequence will provide insights on the probiotic mechanisms ofL. crispatusJCM5810.

  4. Early host gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the intestine of chickens with different genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smith, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    So far the responses of chickens to Salmonella have not been studied in vivo on a whole genome-wide scale. Furthermore, the influence of the host genetic background on gene expression responses is unknown. In this study gene expression profiles in the chicken (Gallus gallus) intestine of two genetic

  5. Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo using laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozdova, M. A.; Stiukhina, E. S.; Sdobnov, A. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Postnov, D. E.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results on in ovo application of developed Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 9-13 days chicken embryos was used as a biological model that allows an easy access to both arterial and venous vessels of different size. The key point of our study was to find out how the periodic and aperiodic pulsations of blood flow (which are inevitable in living organism) will affect the LDA functions and measuring capability. Specifically, we (i) developed the technique to extract and refine the pulse rhythm from the signal received from a vessel, and (ii) analyzed the changes in power spectra of LDA signal that are caused by heart beating and considerably complicate the reliable measurement of Doppler shift. Our main conclusion is that the algorithm of LDA data processing need to be improved, and this possibly can be done by counting the information on current phase of cardiac cycle.

  6. Neural tuning characteristics of auditory primary afferents in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Primary afferent activity was recorded from the cochlear ganglion in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) at 19 days of incubation (E19). The ganglion was accessed via the recessus scala tympani and impaled with glass micropipettes. Frequency tuning curves were obtained using a computerized threshold tracking procedure. Tuning curves were evaluated to determine characteristics frequencies (CFs), CF thresholds, slopes of low and high frequency flanks, and tip sharpness (Q10dB). The majority of tuning curves exhibited the typical 'V' shape described for older birds and, on average, appeared relatively mature based on mean values for CF thresholds (59.6 +/- 20.3 dBSPL) and tip sharpness (Q10dB = 5.2 +/- 3). The mean slopes of low (61.9 +/- 37 dB/octave) and high (64.6 +/- 33 dB/octave) frequency flanks although comparable were somewhat less than those reported for 21-day-old chickens. Approximately 14% of the tuning curves displayed an unusual 'saw-tooth' pattern. CFs ranged from 188 to 1623 Hz. The highest CF was well below those reported for post-hatch birds. In addition, a broader range of Q10dB values (1.2 to 16.9) may related to a greater variability in embryonic tuning curves. Overall, these data suggest that an impressive functional maturity exists in the embryo at E19. The most significant sign of immaturity was the limited expression of high frequencies. It is argued that the limited high CF in part may be due to the developing middle ear transfer function and/or to a functionally immature cochlear base.

  7. Associations of chicken Mx1 polymorphism with antiviral responses in avian influenza virus infected embryos and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Brahmakshatriya, V; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S; Okimoto, R; Li, X; Chiang, H; Zhou, H

    2012-12-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major respiratory disease of poultry that causes catastrophic losses to the poultry industry. The Mx protein has been shown to confer antiviral responses to influenza viruses in mice. One nonsynonymous substitution (S631N) in the chicken Mx protein is reported to be associated with resistance to AIV infection in vitro. The previous studies suggested controversy over whether this substitution in the Mx protein plays an important antiviral role in AIV infection in the chicken. It would be intriguing to investigate if the substitution is associated with resistance to AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in chickens. In this study, the embryos and young chicks were generated from the cross of Mx1 heterozygous (S631N) parents with an expected segregating ratio of 1:2:1 in the progeny. A PCR length polymorphism was developed to genotype the Mx1 gene from 119 embryos and 48 chickens. The embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose (EID(50)) H5N9 AIV on d 13. Hemagglutinating units in allantoic fluid were determined at 48 h postinoculation. For the in vivo study, twenty-four 1-wk-old broilers were inoculated with 10(6) EID(50) H5N3, and virus titers in lungs were evaluated at d 4 postinoculation. This is the first report revealing no significant association between Mx1 genotypes and low pathogenesis AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in the chicken. Total RNA samples were isolated from chicken lung tissues in the in vivo study, and the Mx1 mRNA expression assay among 3 genotypes also suggested that only heterozygote birds had significantly greater expression with AIV infection than noninfected birds. A recombination breakpoint within Mx1 gene was also first identified, which has laid a solid foundation for further understanding biological function of the Mx1 gene in chickens. The current study provides valuable information on the effect of the Mx1 gene on the genetic resistance to AIV in chickens, and

  8. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Background: The ionophoric coccidiostat salinomycin is widely used in chicken feed. In the near future the use of ionophore coccidiostats may be banned as has been the case for other antimicrobial growth promoters. This study was conducted to examine the effect of salinomycin on Campylobacter....... Results: We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62%) in the mean body weight of salinomycin...

  9. GROWTH REGULATION IN ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS INFECTED CHICKEN EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS: THE ROLE OF THE src GENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.; Bartholomew, J.A.; Blssell, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    We report here a study of the mechanisms leading to loss of growth control in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). We have been particularly concerned with the role of the src gene in this process, and have used RSV mutants temperature sensitive (ts) for transformation to investigate the nature of the growth regulatory lesion. The two principal findings were (1) the stationary phase of the cell cycle (G{sub 1}) in chick embryo fibroblasts seems to have two distinct regulatory compartments (using the terminology of Brooks et al. we refer to these as 'Q' and 'A' states). When rendered stationary at 41.5 C by serum deprivation, normal cells enter a Q state, but cells infected with the ts-mutant occupy an A state. (2) Whereas normal cells can occupy either state depending on culture conditions, the ts-infected cells, at 41.5 C, do not seem to enter Q even though a known src gene product, a kinase, is reported to be inactive at this temperature. We discuss the possibility that viral factors other than the active src protein kinase influence growth control in infected cultures.

  10. Chicken intestinal microbiota function with a special emphasis on the role of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, A A; Binek, M

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of the chicken gut by environmental microbes begins immediately after hatching. Composition of the intestinal microbiota is dependent on the surrounding environment, diet variation, pathological conditions, antibiotic therapy, and others. The genomes of all these intestinal microbes form a microbiome which by far outnumbers the host's genome. As a consequence, the microbiome provides additional metabolic functions to the host, including nutrient utilization and absorption, fermentation of non-digestible dietary fiber, synthesis of some vitamins, biotransformation of bile acids, and the well-being of their chicken host. Microorganisms can also directly interact with the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, which may alter the physiology and immunological status of the bird. Since newly hatched broiler chickens demonstrate delayed commensal colonization and low bacterial diversity, the most effective and harmless method available to control the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota is a competitive exclusion treatment by applying probiotic bacteria. Additionally, recent research has shown that probiotic bacteria have a variety of beneficial effects, including counteraction of dysbiosis, promotion of gut health and homeostasis, enhancement of immune defenses and antagonization of infectious agents.

  11. In ovo gene manipulation of melanocytes and their adjacent keratinocytes during skin pigmentation of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Hidetaka; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Sakai, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-04-01

    During skin pigmentation in avians and mammalians, melanin is synthesized in the melanocytes, and subsequently transferred to adjacently located keratinocytes, leading to a wide coverage of the body surface by melanin-containing cells. The behavior of melanocytes is influenced by keratinocytes shown mostly by in vitro studies. However, it has poorly been investigated how such intercellular cross-talk is regulated in vivo because of a lack of suitable experimental models. Using chicken embryos, we developed a method that enables in vivo gene manipulations of melanocytes and keratinocytes, where these cells are separately labeled by different genes. Two types of gene transfer techniques were combined: one was a retrovirus-mediated gene infection into the skin/keratinocytes, and the other was the in ovo DNA electroporation into neural crest cells, the origin of melanocytes. Since the Replication-Competent Avian sarcoma-leukosis virus long terminal repeat with Splice acceptor (RCAS) infection was available only for the White leghorn strain showing little pigmentation, melanocytes prepared from the Hypeco nera (pigmented) were back-transplanted into embryos of White leghorn. Prior to the transplantation, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)(+) Neo(r+) -electroporated melanocytes from Hypeco nera were selectively grown in G418-supplemented medium. In the skin of recipient White leghorn embryos infected with RCAS-mOrange, mOrange(+) keratinocytes and transplanted EGFP(+) melanocytes were frequently juxtaposed each other. High-resolution confocal microscopy also revealed that transplanted melanocytes exhibited normal behaviors regarding distribution patterns of melanocytes, dendrite morphology, and melanosome transfer. The method described in this study will serve as a useful tool to understand the mechanisms underlying intercellular regulations during skin pigmentation in vivo.

  12. High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

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    Roos Molenaar

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C or normal (37.8°C EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13C]glucose administration, (13C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C increased (13C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g and 21.7 (-3.81 g of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43% at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.

  13. Effects of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allograft in the thymus of chicken embryos: thymostimulin localization and enzymatic activities

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    M Aita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis and hypophyseal allograft were investigated. Chicken embryos were partially decerebrated at 36-40 hr of incubation and on day 12 received a hypophyseal allograft from 18-day-old donor embryos. The embryonic thymuses were collected on day 18 and examined with histological methods, tested for the anti-thymostimulin- like immune-reaction, and for histoenzymatic activities and compared with normal and sham-operated embryos at the same age. After partial decerebration, the thymic cortical and medullary compartments diminished markedly in size. Anti-thymostimulin, succinic dehydrogenase and ATPase enzymatic activities tested, yielded negative reactions. In partially decerebrated hypophyseal allografted embryos, the same thymic compartments improved and anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction and enzymatic activities partially recovered. These findings confirmed the key role of hypophysis in thymic ontogenic development and provided new information in metabolic enzymatic pathways and synthesis of a thymostimulin-like substance in the thymus

  14. Intestinal spirochete infections of chickens: a review of disease associations, epidemiology and control.

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    Stephens, C P; Hampson, D J

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of intestinal spirochete infections of chickens. It focuses particularly on studies in Australia, where recent surveys of 136 layer and broiler breeder flocks have revealed a high rate of infection (>40%) with intestinal spirochetes. Infection was not detected in broiler flocks. Approximately 50% of isolates from infected flocks were Brachyspira (Serpulina) intermedia or B. pilosicoli, with the other isolates being B. innocens, B. murdochii or the proposed species 'B. pulli'. No isolates of B. alvinipulli were found. Intestinal spirochetes were significantly associated with wet litter problems and/or reduced egg production. Experimental infection of point-of-lay birds with either B. intermedia or B. pilosicoli caused reduced egg production, and, with B. intermedia, a significant increase in fecal moisture content. Infection with B. innocens caused no significant changes. In-water treatment of a flock with a mixed spirochete infection using lincospectin resulted in a slimy diarrhea lasting for 2-3 weeks, followed by absence of spirochetes for 3 months. Birds treated with tiamulin remained healthy, and had a reduced level of infection with intestinal spirochetes (30%) for 3 months. Trials are under way to test the efficacy of antimicrobials in point-of-lay chickens experimentally infected with either B. intermedia or B. pilosicoli.

  15. Interaction of Campylobacter spp. and human probiotics in chicken intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganan, M; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Vesterlund, S; Salminen, S; Satokari, R

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. The principal risk of human contamination is handling and consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To colonize poultry, Campylobacter adheres to and persists in the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium. Inhibiting adhesion to the mucus could prevent colonization of the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of defined commercial human probiotic strains on the adhesion of Campylobacter spp. to chicken intestinal mucus, in a search for alternatives to antibiotics to control this food-borne pathogen. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and a starter culture strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis adhered well to chicken intestinal mucus and were able to reduce the binding of Campylobacter spp. when the mucus was colonized with the probiotic strain before contacting the pathogen. Human-intended probiotics could be useful as prophylactics in poultry feeding for controlling Campylobacter spp. colonization. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. In ovo Administration of Ghrelin and Subsequent Intestinal Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP Activity in Broiler Chickens

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    J. Ghiasi Ghaleh-kandi,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigation on effect of in ovo administration of ghrelin on subsequent Leucine Aminopeptidase (LAP activity in broiler chickens. In this experiment 250 fertilized eggs were collected from commercial breeder flock. The eggs were divided into five experimental groups; control T1 (without injection, group T2 (in ovo injected with solution, group T3 (in ovo injected with 50 μg/egg ghrelin, group T4 (in ovo injected with 100 μg/egg ghrelin and group T5 (in ovo injected with 150 μg/egg ghrelin. All of groups were incubated. In ovo injection was done at day 7 of incub ation. in ovo administration of 150 μg/egg ghrelin in embryonic period, could stimulate LAP activity at 21-day- old chicks in 10, 30 and 50% of intestine with 3520.4, 266.9, 4595.6 IU/g protein, also in ovo injected 50 and 150 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 50 and 70% of intestine with 3071.4, 4779.3 and 5013.4 IU/g. In 42-day-old chicks, in ovo injected 50 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 10, 30, 40, 70, and 90% percent of intestine. These findings demonstrated stimulatory effects of ghrelin in low doses (50 μg in chicken intestine LAP activity.

  17. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  18. Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sakai, M; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2010-09-01

    Studies on environmental consequences of stress on animal production have grown substantially in the last few years for economic and animal welfare reasons. Physiological, hormonal, and immunological deficits as well as increases in animals' susceptibility to diseases have been reported after different stressors in broiler chickens. The aim of the current experiment is to describe the effects of 2 different heat stressors (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C/10 h per d) applied to broiler chickens from d 35 to 42 of life on the corticosterone serum levels, performance parameters, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity, correlating and discussing the obtained data under a neuroimmune perspective. In our study, we demonstrated that heat stress (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) increased the corticosterone serum levels and decreased BW gain and food intake. Only chickens submitted to 36 +/- 1 degrees C, however, presented a decrease in feed conversion and increased mortality. We also showed a decrease of bursa of Fabricius (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C), thymus (36 +/- 1 degrees C), and spleen (36 +/- 1 degrees C) relative weights and of macrophage basal (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) and Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative burst (31 +/- 1 degrees C). Finally, mild multifocal acute enteritis characterized by an increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the jejunum's lamina propria was also observed. The stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was taken as responsible for the negative effects observed on the chickens' performance and immune function and also the changes of the intestinal mucosa. The present obtained data corroborate with others in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  19. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

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    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  20. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  1. In situ detection of transcripts of the myogenic factor MyoD in whole chicken embryos

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    Jane E. Gabriel

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization has provided insights into the molecular basis of skeletal myogenesis during embryonic development. In situ detection of different muscle-specific regulatory factors in whole embryos has been described. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of these factors differed among species. The expression pattern of MyoD in whole chicken embryos was studied via in situ hybridization using a probe obtained by the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique. In newly formed somites (embryos of stage 12, MyoD mRNA transcripts were detected along the anterior to posterior axis of somites immediately adjacent to the neural tube, whereas in mature somites (embryos of stage 24, MyoD transcripts were detected throughout the entire somite. These results indicate that MyoD expression is important for initiating and maintaining the avian myogenic system.A detecção in situ de diferentes fatores regulatórios músculo-específicos vem sendo uma prática muito empregada para o entendimento das bases moleculares envolvidas no processo de formação do tecido muscular esquelético durante o desenvolvimento embrionário em diferentes organismos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o padrão de expressão dos transcritos do fator miogênico MyoD em embriões inteiros de galinha por análises de hibridização in situ, usando uma sonda obtida a partir de ensaios de transcrição reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Nos somitos recém-formados (embriões no estádio 12, os transcritos de MyoD foram detectados na porção mediana dos somitos posicionados imediatamente adjacentes ao tubo neural, enquanto nos somitos maduros (embriões no estádio 24, a expressão do gene do MyoD foi observada em toda a região dos somitos. Tais resultados indicam que a expressão do MyoD é importante no processo de determinação e manutenção da miogênese nas aves.

  2. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, J E; van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van de Linde, I B; Montijn, R C; van der Vossen, J M B M

    2014-04-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for compatibility with in ovo inoculation. Two of these probiotics, one being a Enterococcus faecium and the other a Bacillus subtilis, were selected for colonizing the chick gut without compromising hatchability. In a second study, these 2 products were administered in ovo and in the feed to chicks reared until 18 d in comparison with noninoculated chicks and with chicks fed an antibiotic. All chicks were orally challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis at 4 d of age. Results showed reduced performance of Salmonella Enteritidis challenged chicks fed no additives compared with challenged chicks fed antibiotic, but no significant differences in mortality was observed. Probiotics offered in ovo or through the diet could only partially recover performance compared with antibiotic-fed chicks. A significant reduction in the number of Salmonella Enteritidis positive chicks was observed when chicks were in ovo inoculated with E. faecium and continued receiving it in the diet. This work establishes standards for future in ovo colonization research and emphasizes its value as a promising method to deliver individual precise dose of probiotics to poultry in mass scale at the earliest possible age based on the competitive exclusion concept. In ovo colonization with probiotic can therefore become an important ally in combination with other approaches to combat Salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections in poultry.

  3. The influence of restricted feeding on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-containing cells in the chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monir, M M; Hiramatsu, K; Yamasaki, A; Nishimura, K; Watanabe, T

    2014-04-01

    The influence of restricted feeding on the distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-containing endocrine cells in the chicken small intestine was investigated using immunohistochemical and morphometrical techniques. This study demonstrated that the restricted feeding had an influence on the activity of GLP-1-immunoreactive cells in the chicken small intestine. There were differences in the localization and the frequency of occurrence of GLP-1-immunoreactive cells in the small intestine between control and restricted groups, especially 25% feed supply group provided with 25% of the intake during the adapting period. GLP-1-immunoreactive cells in the control chickens were mainly located in epithelium from crypts to the lower part of intestinal villi. Those in restricted groups, however, tended to be located from crypts to the middle part of intestinal villi. The frequency of occurrence of GLP-1-immunoreactive cells was lowest in the control group, medium in 50% feed supply group and highest in 25% feed supply group at each intestinal region examined in this study, that is, increased with the advancement of restricting the amount of feed supply. These data show that the quantity of food intake is one of signals that have an influence on the secretion of GLP-1 from L cells in the chicken small intestine.

  4. Changes in the levels of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and propionyl-l-carnitine are involved in perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qixiao; Wang, Chunbo; Xue, Chan; Xue, Lingfang; Wang, Meiting; Li, Changhao; Deng, Ziwen; Wang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is associated with developmental toxicity. This study investigated the mechanism of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, focusing on the interactions between developmental exposure to PFOA and the levels of l-carnitine (LC), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) in the heart. To evaluate the developmental cardiotoxicity, fertile chicken eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5mg/kg PFOA via air cell injection. Furthermore, exposure to 2mg/kg PFOA, with or without 100mg/kg LC were applied to investigate the effects of LC supplement. The results of functional and morphological assessments confirmed PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, which could be alleviated by co-exposure to LC. LC-MS/MS results also revealed remarkable decrease in LC, ALC and PLC levels in embryonic day six (ED6) chicken embryo hearts as well as LC level in embryonic day fifteen (ED15) chicken embryo hearts following developmental exposure to 2mg/kg PFOA. Meanwhile, co-exposure to 100mg/kg LC significantly elevated the levels of LC, ALC and PLC in chicken embryo hearts. Significantly elevated expression level of carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) in PFOA-exposed ED6 chicken embryo hearts was observed via western blotting, while LC co-exposure counteracted such changes. In conclusion, changes in the levels of LC, ALC and PLC in early embryonic stages are associated with PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos.

  5. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (‑) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken.

  6. Toxicity of pristine graphene in experiments in a chicken embryo model

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    Sawosz E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz,1 Slawomir Jaworski,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Anna Hotowy,1 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Marta Grodzik,1 Natalia Kurantowicz,1 Barbara Strojny,1 Ludwika Lipinska,2 André Chwalibog3 1Division of Nanobiotechnology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Evaluation of the potential cytotoxicity of graphene is a key factor for medical applications, where flakes or a surface of graphene may be used as bioactive molecules, drug carriers, or biosensors. In the present work, effects of pristine graphene (pG on the development of a living organism, with an emphasis on morphological and molecular states of the brain, were investigated using a chicken embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the control group and groups administered with pG suspended in milli-Q water at concentrations of 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, 500 µg/L, 1,000 µg/L, 5,000 µg/L, and 10,000 µg/L (n=30 per group. The experimental solutions were injected in ovo into the albumin and then the eggs were incubated. After 19 days of incubation, the survival, weight of the body and organs, and blood serum biochemical indices were measured. The brain samples were collected for microscopic examination of brain ultrastructure and measurements of gene and protein expression. Survival of embryos was significantly decreased after treatment with pG, but the body and organ weights as well as biochemical indices were not affected. In all treatment groups, some atypical ultrastructures of the brain were observed, but they were not enhanced by the increasing concentrations of pG. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at the messenger ribonucleic acid level was downregulated, and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei was significantly reduced in the 500–10,000 µg

  7. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  8. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chicken embryo fibroblasts from chickens resistant and susceptible to Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the innate immune defense mechanisms against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the role of TLR in non-MHC genetic resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the chicken is yet to be elucidated. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from MD susceptible and resistant lines were infected either with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or treated with polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of dsRNA, and the expression of TLR and pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied at 8 and 36 h posttreatment by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Findings of the present study reveal that MDV infection and polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment significantly elevated the mRNA expression of TLR3, IL6, and IL8 in both susceptible and resistant lines. Furthermore, basal expression levels in uninfected CEF for TLR3, TLR7, and IL8 genes were significantly higher in resistant chickens compared with those of susceptible chickens. Our results suggest that TLR3 together with pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a significant role in genetic resistance to MD.

  9. Effect of litter treatment on growth performance, intestinal development, and selected cecum microbiota in broiler chickens

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    Gilaneh Taherparvar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of bedding materials (sand, wood shavings, and paper and of two chemical amendments (lime and bentonite could interfere with litter quality (moisture, pH, and total bacterial counts, thereby influencing also the growth performance and the development of intestinal traits and cecum microbiota of chickens. Two hundred and seventy male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into nine treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Broiler productive parameters, relative weight of different intestinal segments, content of cecal total bacterial counts (total aerobic bacteria, Lactobacilli, and coliforms, as well as litter moisture, pH, and total aerobic bacteria and coliforms counts, were assessed. Litter material, per se, did not significantly affect the productivity parameters at the end of the experimental period (42 days with the exception of protein efficiency. A significant trend was found among treatments with regard to weight gain and feed intake, with lower performance in birds on sand beddings. Litter pH was relatively homogenous between bedding types and amendments, but the moisture was significantly lower when sand was used. Litter type did not influence the relative weight of the different intestinal segments; however, the type of amendment affected the relative jejunum weight, which was increased in bentonite-treated litter. The use of lime and bentonite treatments may be helpful to decrease the differences in litter moisture associated with particular bedding materials. The tested amendments do not interfere with the productive performance of birds.

  10. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively.

  11. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  12. Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalita,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

  13. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones (FQs are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w. were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Acinetobacter and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group

  14. Characterization of intestinal microbiota and response to dietary virginiamycin supplementation in the broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonceaux, Tim J; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Van Kessel, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    The inclusion of antibiotic growth promoters, such as virginiamycin, at subtherapeutic levels in poultry feeds has a positive effect on health and growth characteristics, possibly due to beneficial effects on the host gastrointestinal microbiota. To improve our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and the effect of virginiamycin on its composition, we characterized the bacteria found in five different gastrointestinal tract locations (duodenal loop, mid-jejunum, proximal ileum, ileocecal junction, and cecum) in 47-day-old chickens that were fed diets excluding or including virginiamycin throughout the production cycle. Ten libraries (five gastrointestinal tract locations from two groups of birds) of approximately 555-bp chaperonin 60 PCR products were prepared, and 10,932 cloned sequences were analyzed. A total of 370 distinct cpn60 sequences were identified, which ranged in frequency of recovery from 1 to 2,872. The small intestinal libraries were dominated by sequences from the Lactobacillales (90% of sequences), while the cecum libraries were more diverse and included members of the Clostridiales (68%), Lactobacillales (25%), and Bacteroidetes (6%). To assess the effects of virginiamycin on the gastrointestinal microbiota, 15 bacterial targets were enumerated using quantitative, real-time PCR. Virginiamycin was associated with increased abundance of many of the targets in the proximal gastrointestinal tract (duodenal loop to proximal ileum), with fewer targets affected in the distal regions (ileocecal junction and cecum). These findings provide improved profiling of the composition of the chicken intestinal microbiota and indicate that microbial responses to virginiamycin are most significant in the proximal small intestine.

  15. Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Kalantary, Sima

    2011-09-01

    There are several reports indicating linkages between exposures to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development. Based on our previous published research carried out at the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white leghorn hen eggs were investigated. Three hundred healthy fresh fertilized eggs (55-65 gr) were divided into three groups of experimental (n = 50), control (n = 75), and sham (n = 75). Experimental eggs (inside the coil) were exposed to 3 different intensities of 1.33, 2.66, and 7.32 mT and sham groups were located inside the same coil with no exposure, for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were all incubated in an incubator (38 ± 0.5(°)C, 60% humidity) for 14 days. 14-day old chicken embryos were removed by C-sections, and the brains of all embryos of all groups were fixed in formalin(10%), stained with H&E and TUNEL assay, for studying the histopatholog and process of apoptosis. The brains of other embryos were prepared for Scanning Electeron Microscope. Results showed electromagnetic fields have toxic effects on brain cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells and degeneration of brains' tissues of exposed chicken embryos. These findings suggest that the electromagnetic fields induce brain damages at different levels.

  16. Fluoroscence in situ hybridization of chicken intestinal samples with bacterial rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Francesch, M.; Christensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to develop a fast and accurate molecular method for the quantification of the intestinal flora in chickens by rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seven weeks old conventionally reared Lohmann hens were used to set up the method. To sample ileal intestinal content......, the distal part from Meckels diverticulum to the ileo-caecal junction was removed. Fixation was performed in ethanol and phosphate buffered saline. After washing by centrifugation, the sample was resuspended in pre-heated hybridization buffer with oligonucleotide probe labelled with Cy3 (10ng/µl). The cells...... were hybridized for 24-72h, centrifuged, washed with pre-heated hybridization buffer, centrifuged and resuspended in Millipore quality water before filtration onto a 0.22 µm black polycarbonate filter. The probes used in this study were, LGC354A, LGC354B, LGC354C, Strc493, Bacto1080, Sal3, Chis150, EUB...

  17. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-10-01

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.

  18. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Characterization of the avian GLUT1 glucose transporter: differential regulation of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, P; Kang, H Y; Mylott, D; Robbins, P J; White, M K

    1995-01-01

    Vertebrate cells that are transformed by oncogenes such as v-src or are stimulated by mitogens have increased rates of glucose uptake. In rodent cells, the mechanisms whereby glucose transport is up-regulated are well understood. Stimulation of glucose transport involves an elevation in mRNA encoding the GLUT1 glucose transporter that is controlled at the levels of both transcription and mRNA stability. Cloning and sequencing of chicken GLUT1 cDNA showed that it shares 95% amino acid sequence similarity to mammalian GLUT1s. Nevertheless, unlike mammalian GLUT1 mRNA, it was not induced by v-src, serum addition, or treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Rather, the induction of glucose transport in chicken embryo fibroblasts by v-src, serum, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate was associated with induction of GLUT3 mRNA level and GLUT3 transcription. Rat fibroblasts were also found to express both GLUT1 and GLUT3 isoforms, but v-src induced GLUT1 and not GLUT3. This suggests that animal cells require both a basal and an upregulatable glucose transporter and that these functions have been subsumed by different GLUT isoforms in avian and mammalian cells. Images PMID:8589457

  20. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.

  1. Effects of glutamine on performance and intestinal mucosa morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Carla Luquetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of glutamine as feed additive on performance and intestinal mucosa morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis. A total of 400 day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments (NVNG – no vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; NVG – no vaccination, glutamine supplementation (10 g kg−1; VNG – vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; VG – vaccination, glutamine supplementation replicated four times with 25 birds per replicate. A commercial sprayed-on vaccine against coccidiosis containing Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, E. mivati, and E. tenella was administered at the hatchery. Broiler performance was evaluated from 1-28 days, and morphometric parameters were analyzed at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Body weight gain and feed intake were negatively affected by vaccination, but not by glutamine. Vaccination increased crypt depth in the duodenum and jejunum at 21 and 28 days. In conclusion, this study showed that glutamine was not able to increase weight gain of broiler chickens, irrespective of whether the animals were vaccinated or not against coccidiosis. Glutamine supplementation was able to improve feed conversion in vaccinated birds suggesting trophic effect on intestinal epithelium improving.

  2. In Ovo administration of silver nanoparticles and/or amino acids influence metabolism and immune gene expression in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanja, Subrat K.; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Mehra, Manish;

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers...... but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control...... embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ among amino acids, Nano...

  3. Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Bryony N.; Paul Wigley; Simpson, Hannah L.; Williams, Jonathan M; Suzie Humphrey; Anne-Marie Salisbury; Watson, Alastair J. M.; FRY, STEPHEN C.; David O'Brien; Roberts, Carol L.; Niamh O'Kennedy; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D.; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet ...

  4. Plasma thyroid hormones and corticosterone levels in blood of chicken embryos and post hatch chickens exposed during incubation to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pawlak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study attempted to determine the effect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF (only carrier frequency on thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and corticosterone (CORT concentrations in the blood plasma of chick embryos, and to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF exposure during embryogenesis on the level of these hormones in birds that are ready for slaughter. Material and Methods: Throughout the incubation period, embryos from the experimental group were exposed to a 1800 MHz EMF with power density of 0.1 W/m2, 10 times during 24 h for 4 min. Blood samples were collected to determine T4, T3 and CORT concentrations on the 12th (E12 and 18th (E18 day of incubation, from newly hatched chicks (D1 and from birds ready for slaughter (D42. Results: The experiment showed that T4 and T3 concentrations decreased markedly and CORT levels increased in the embryos and in the newly hatched chicks exposed to EMF during embryogenesis. However, no changes were found in the level of the analyzed hormones in the birds ready for slaughter. Differences in T4 and T3 plasma concentrations between the EMF-exposed group and the embryos incubated without additional EMF were the highest in the newly hatched chicks, which may be indicative of the cumulative effect of electromagnetic field on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT. Discussion: The obtained results suggest that additional 1800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic field inhibits function of HPT axis, however, it stimulates hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal axis by inducing adrenal steroidogenic cells to synthesize corticosterone. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which radio EMFs affect HPT and HPA axis function in the chicken embryos.

  5. Intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens as affected by litter management regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtang eYu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age and mature birds (35 days of age. Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  6. Sex-dimorphic gene expression and ineffective dosage compensation of Z-linked genes in gastrulating chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of sex determination and dosage compensation mechanisms in model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and M. musculus. Strikingly, the mechanism involved in sex determination and dosage compensation are very different among these three model organisms. Birds present yet another situation where the heterogametic sex is the female. Sex determination is still poorly understood in birds and few key determinants have so far been identified. In contrast to most other species, dosage compensation of bird sex chromosomal genes appears rather ineffective. Results By comparing microarrays from microdissected primitive streak from single chicken embryos, we identified a large number of genes differentially expressed between male and female embryos at a very early stage (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 4, long before any sexual differentiation occurs. Most of these genes are located on the Z chromosome, which indicates that dosage compensation is ineffective in early chicken embryos. Gene ontology analyses, using an enhanced annotation tool for Affymetrix probesets of the chicken genome developed in our laboratory (called Manteia, show that among these male-biased genes found on the Z chromosome, more than 20 genes play a role in sex differentiation. Conclusions These results corroborate previous studies demonstrating the rather inefficient dosage compensation for Z chromosome in birds and show that this sexual dimorphism in gene regulation is observed long before the onset of sexual differentiation. These data also suggest a potential role of non-compensated Z-linked genes in somatic sex differentiation in birds.

  7. Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on small intestinal morphology in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Nourmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of citric acid (CA (0, 3 and 6% and microbial phytase (MP (0, 500 and 1000 IU/kg on morphology of different segments of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum in broiler chickens fed on corn and soybean meal based diets. The effect of 9 experimental treatments (3×3 factorial design were assessed using 270 7-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete block design in three replicates of 10 birds each. The mean villi length (VL, crypt depth (CD and goblet cell number (GCN in duodenum, jejunum and ileum and villi width (VW and VL:CD ratio in duodenum was significantly greater for the birds fed on acidified diets compared to the control birds at day 42 of age (P<0.01. Inclusion of 3% CA in diet significantly decreased the epithelial thickness (ET in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P<0.01. The birds received diets with 1000 IU/kg of MP showed significant increase in CD (P<0.01 and GCN in jejunum (P<0.05, and significant decrease in VL:CD ratio and ET in the duodenum (P<0.01, jejunum (P<0.05 and ileum (P<0.01 segments. No variable of interest were affected by CA × MP interaction. It was concluded that CA and MP independently exhibit positive impact on morphometery of small intestine, toward facilitating the nutrient absorption and reducing the metabolic demands of the intestinal tract in broiler chickens.

  8. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide, digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine of E. praecox-infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease of poultry, caused by several species of the protozoan Eimeria. The objective of this study was to examine changes in expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide following an Eimeria praecox challenge of chickens at d...

  9. The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress in intestinal damage induced by selenium deficiency in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao; Yao, Haidong; Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential messenger molecule and is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Although NO has important biological functions in mammals, its role in the mechanism that occurs after intestinal injuries in chickens remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the real role of NO and oxidative stress in the intestinal injuries of chickens induced by selenium (Se) deficiency. A total 150 chickens were randomly divided into the following two groups: a low-Se group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.020 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a commercial diet containing 0.2 mg/kg Se). The activities and mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the production of glutathione (GSH) and NO, and the protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were examined in the intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and rectum) at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days. Methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) levels were also detected by assay kits. Then, the morphologies of the tissues were observed under the microscope after hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E staining). The results showed that Se deficiency induced higher inflammatory damage and MDA levels (P chickens and that low levels of GSH-Px and high contents of NO may exert a major role in the injury of the intestinal tract induced by Se deficiency.

  10. Pathway underlying small intestine apoptosis by dietary nickel chloride in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  11. Purification and biochemical characterization of a secreted group IIA chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (IIA PLA2 is a protein shown to be highly expressed in the intestine of mammals. However, no study was reported in birds. Results Chicken intestinal group IIA phospholipase A2 (ChPLA2-IIA was obtained after an acidic treatment (pH.3.0, precipitation by ammonium sulphate, followed by sequential column chromatographies on Sephadex G-50 and mono-S ion exchanger. The enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of around 14 kDa. The purified enzyme showed a substrate preference for phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and didn't hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine. Under optimal assay conditions, in the presence of 10 mM NaTDC and 10 mM CaCl2, a specific activity of 160 U.mg-1 for purified ChPLA2-IIA was measured using egg yolk as substrate. The fifteen NH2-terminal amino acid residues of ChPLA2-IIA were sequenced and showed a close homology with known intestinal secreted phospholipases A2. The gene encoding the mature ChPLA2-IIA was cloned and sequenced. To further investigate structure-activity relationship, a 3D model of ChPLA2-IIA was built using the human intestinal phospholipase A2 structure as template. Conclusion ChPLA2-IIA was purified to homogeneity using only two chromatographic colomns. Sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA indicates that the enzyme is highly basic with a pI of 9.0 and has a high degree of homology with mammalian intestinal PLA2-IIA.

  12. Bisphenol S alters embryonic viability, development, gallbladder size, and messenger RNA expression in chicken embryos exposed via egg injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L

    2016-06-01

    Amid concerns about the toxicological effects and environmental prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA), efforts to find suitable, safer replacement alternatives are essential. Bisphenol S (BPS) is a potential chemical substitute for BPA; however, few studies are available confirming that it has a more desirable ecotoxicological profile. In the present study, BPS was injected into the air cell of unincubated, fertilized chicken embryos at 6 concentrations ranging from 0 μg/g to 207 μg/g egg to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Concentrations of BPS increased in a dose-dependent manner in whole-embryo homogenates, and exposure to the highest dose, 207 μg/g, resulted in decreased pipping success (estimated median lethal dose  = 279 μg/g; 95% confidence interval = 161-486 μg/g). Exposure to BPS also reduced growth metrics including embryo mass and tarsus length, whereas the most pronounced phenotypic effect was the concentration-dependent, significant increase in gallbladder size at concentrations ≥52.8 μg/g. These adverse phenotypic outcomes were associated with the modulation of gene targets from a chicken ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array, which are involved with xenobiotic metabolism, lipid homeostasis, bile acid synthesis, and the thyroid hormone pathway. Expression levels of 2 estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin, were too low at the sampling time point assessed (i.e., pipping embryos) to quantify changes, and no effects were observed on circulating free thyroxine or bile acid concentrations. The present study provides novel, whole-animal toxicological data for a BPA replacement alternative that is not well characterized. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1541-1549. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Expression analysis of cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway genes in the intestinal mucosal layer of necrotic enteritis-induced chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Truong, Anh Duc; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2016-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a serious problem to the poultry farms, which report NE outbreaks more than once per year, as a result of the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the feed. The NE affected bird die rapidly as a result of various pathophysiological complications in the intestine and immune system. Also, several studies have reported that the genes exclusively related to intestine and immune functions are significantly altered in response to NE. In this study, NE was induced in two genetically disparate chicken lines that are resistant (line 6.3) and sensitive (line 7.2) to avian leukosis and Marek's disease. The intestinal mucosal layer was collected from NE-induced and control chickens, and subjected to RNA-sequencing analysis. The involvement of differentially expressed genes in the intestinal mucosal layer of line 6.3 and 7.2 with the immune system-related pathways was investigated. Among the identified immune system-related pathways, a candidate pathway known as chicken cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway (CDS pathway) was selected for further investigation. RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis identified a total of 21 genes that were involved in CDS pathway and differentially expressed in the intestinal mucosal layer of lines 6.3 and 7.2. The expression of CDS pathway genes was further confirmed by real-time qPCR. In the results, a majority of the CDS pathway genes were significantly altered in the NE-induced intestinal mucosal layer from lines 6.3 and 7.2. In conclusion, our study indicate that NE seriously affects several genes involved in innate immune defense and foreign DNA sensing mechanisms in the chicken intestinal mucosal layer. Identifying the immune genes affected by NE could be an important evidence for the protective immune response to NE-causative pathogens.

  14. Thermographic analysis of the radiant heat of chicken and duck eggs in relation to the embryo's oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Kim, John; Lorzadeh, Alireza; Leurer, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    In eggs, the metabolic activities of the developing embryo produce heat (H) that is dissipated in various forms, including radiation. Given that much of the total heat radiated by an egg (Htot) is heat acquired passively, we asked whether it was possible to detect the fraction produced metabolically (Hmetab) and the extent of its correlation with the embryo's metabolic rate. In chicken and duck eggs at various incubation ages, under standardized experimental conditions of heat conduction and convection, Hmetab was measured by thermography as the difference in Htot between fertile and sterile eggs. Then, Hmetab was correlated to the embryo's oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ), measured by an open-circuit methodology. Heat loss by water evaporation was found to be less than 3% of the total. During the first half of incubation Hmetab was too small to be significantly separated from Htot. In the second half of incubation Hmetab was significant, represented 30-50% of the total energy consumed and correlated linearly with [Formula: see text] for a good fraction of incubation. We conclude that under standardized conditions of heat conduction and convection, in the second half of incubation thermography offers a simple tool not only to verify the progression of the embryo's incubation but also to estimate its metabolic rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GLUTAMIC ACID IMPROVES BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF BROILER CHICKENS SUBMITTED TO HEAT STRESS

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    ML Porto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1% dietary glutamic acid on the body weight, intestinal morphometry, and anti-Newcastle antibody titers of broiler chickens submitted to heat stress. One-d-old male broiler chicks (n=120 were distributed according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with two environmental temperatures (thermoneutral or heat stress and two diets (with 0 or 1% glutamic acid. Heat stress temperature was constantly maintained (24h/day 5 ºC higher than the thermoneutral temperature. Diets supplied the nutritional requirements of broilers in the pre-starter (1 to 7d and starter (8 to 21d phases. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 7 via eye drop. On days 5, 10, 15, and 20, individual body weight was determined, serum samples were collected from five birds, and duodenum samples were collected from four birds per treatment. Serum anti-Newcastle antibody titers were determined by enzyme immunoassay and transformed into log10. Villus height, crypt depth, and villus: crypt ratio were measured in the duodenum. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Chronic heat stress negatively affected body weight and intestinal morphometry during the pre-starter and starter phases, but had no effect on antibody titers. Dietary glutamic acid supplementation (1% improved body weight and intestinal integrity of birds submitted to heat stress when compared with non-supplemented and heat-stressed birds.

  16. Endogenous expression of ASLV viral proteins in specific pathogen free chicken embryos: relevance for the developmental biology research field

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    Canto-Soler M Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF eggs in combination with RCAS retrovirus, a member of the Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus (ASLV family, is of standard practice to study gene function and development. SPF eggs are certified free of infection by specific pathogen viruses of either exogenous or endogenous origin, including those belonging to the ASLV family. Based on this, SPF embryos are considered to be free of ASLV viral protein expression, and consequently in developmental research studies RCAS infected cells are routinely identified by immunohistochemistry against the ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Contrary to this generally accepted notion, observations in our laboratory suggested that certified SPF chicken embryos may endogenously express ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Since these observations may have significant implications for the developmental research field we further investigated this possibility. Results We demonstrate that certified SPF chicken embryos have transcriptionally active endogenous ASLV loci (ev loci capable of expressing ASLV viral proteins, such as p19 and p27, even when those loci are not capable of producing viral particles. We also show that the extent of viral protein expression in embryonic tissues varies not only among flocks but also between embryos of the same flock. In addition, our genetic screening revealed significant heterogeneity in ev loci composition even among embryos of the same flock. Conclusions These observations have critical implications for the developmental biology research field, since they strongly suggest that the current standard methodology used in experimental studies using the chick embryo and RCAS vectors may lead to inaccurate interpretation of results. Retrospectively, our observations suggest that studies in which infected cells have been identified simply by pan-ASLV viral protein expression may need to be considered with caution. For future studies, they

  17. Identification of proliferating cells in chicken embryos using 5-bromo- 2'-deoxyuridine immunohistochemical detection

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    Mário Lúcio Lopes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Chicken embryos were incubated with BrdU, embedded in plastic resin, sectioned and screened immunohistochemically to identify proliferating cells in the neural tube and somites. Fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde for 1 h was essential for detecting specific colorimetric signals of BrdU incorporation into cells during the S phase of the cell cycle. Transverse sections of the neural tube showed that the nuclei of proliferating cells (BrdU positive had a uniform and centralized distribution, whereas unstained nuclei were found only along the extremities of the neural tube. Transverse sections of differentiated somites showed proliferating cells in the scleratome and dermatome. However, no incorporation of BrdU was observed in myotomic cells, which give rise to axial skeletal muscle. In spite of their proximity, the dermatome and myotome showed marked differences in cell proliferation. The excellent preservation of morphological characteristics in the embryonic tissues facilitated identification of variations in BrdU incorporation.Embriões de frango foram incubados na presença de BrdU e montados em resina plástica. A detecção de células em proliferação nos somitos e tubo neural foi feita através de anticorpos contra BrdU. Um ponto essencial para a otimização do método foi a fixação dos embriões por apenas uma hora em paraformaldeído a 4%. Análise de cortes transversais revelou que no tubo neural os núcleos marcados se posicionavam na região central. Cortes transversais em somitos diferenciados revelaram a presença de células em proliferação no dermátomo e esclerótomo, no entanto não foi observado nenhum sinal no miótomo. A metodologia aqui apresentada permitiu identificar com clareza e boa resolução as células em proliferação presentes em tecidos embrionários.

  18. A study upon the influence of cyclophosphamide treatment on the red blood cells of the chicken embryo (Short Notes

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    Delia Anca HAS-LAZAU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the effect of cyclophosphamide on the eveloping red blood cells of the 3-4 days old chicken embryo, when the hematopoiesis is at its peack, located at the vitelline sack level.I have chosen to work with the chicken embryo red blood cells because they have an intense mitotic activity as well as a tumoural cell-like behaviour.It is vital to know the particularities of the cell cycle of the healthy and tumoural cells, keeping in mind that most of the cytostatics act upon the cell which are developing their cell cycle (Menkes B., Prelipceanu O., Checiu I., Căpălnăşan I. 1979.The cyclophosphamide is not stage-dependent, as it acts in all the stages of the cell cycle, its mutagen effect being accompanied also by a cell cycle stopping (Paşca C., Crăciun C., Ardelean A. 2000.Cyclophosphamide supply determines retrenchment of the cell division, transforming the normal cells into multinucleated cells, with normal ploydia. The cyclophosphamide is a cytostatic using for cancer therapy (Schiavoni G., Mattei F., Di Pucchio T., Santini S. M., Bracci L., Berardelli F., Proietti F. 2000.Reshearches have done lots of studies along the years both on mice and rats, concerning the effects of cyclophosphamide on: thymus and burse fabricio ( Giurgea R., Toma V., 1977, stromal cells of bone marrow (Anton E. 1997, pulmonary thrombocytopoiesis (Sulkowki S., Sulkowska M., Musiatowikz B. 1997.

  19. QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU YunSong; ZHANG AiQian; GAO ChangAn; PENG SuFen; WANG LianSheng

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls con-geners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might he related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.

  20. QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might be related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.

  1. Effect of Dietary Lead on Intestinal Nutrient Transporters mRNA Expression in Broiler Chickens

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    Roohollah Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead- (Pb- induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i basal diet containing no lead supplement (control and (ii basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine.

  2. Effect of colibacillosis or coccidiosis on expression of breast cancer resistance protein in small intestine and liver of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L; Dong, L; Bughio, S; Guo, M; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a member of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter superfamily that occurs in a variety of tissues including liver and small intestine of animals. As BCRP is involved in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination, modulation of its expression may affect the clinical efficacy of drugs. However, little is known about the effects of coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection on the levels of BCRP expression in chickens. Here, we studied the effect of infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Eimeriida mixture (E. necatrix and E. tenella) on the expression levels of ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP in the different segments of small intestine and liver in chickens. Expression of ABCG2 mRNA or BCRP was detected in the entire small intestine and liver of healthy chickens, and the expression levels in liver and ileum were significantly higher than duodenum and jejunum. Infection with E. coli or Eimeriida mixture resulted in significant decrease in ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP expression in liver, ileum, and jejunum, but not in duodenum, in comparison with noninfection control. The results indicate that coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection inhibits BCRP expression in chickens, which may consequently influence drug distribution and therapeutic efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Immunohistochemistry for detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus strain M41 in the proventriculus and nervous system of experimentally infected chicken embryos

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    Keil Günther M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis virus primarily induces a disease of the respiratory system, different IBV strains may show variable tissue tropisms and also affect the oviduct and the kidneys. Proventriculitis was also associated with some new IBV strains. Aim of this study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry (IHC the tissue tropism of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV strain M41 in experimentally infected chicken embryos. Results To this end chicken embryos were inoculated in the allantoic sac with 103 EID50 of IBV M41 at 10 days of age. At 48, 72, and 120 h postinoculation (PI, embryos and chorioallantoic membranes (CAM were sampled, fixed, and paraffin-wax embedded. Allantoic fluid was also collected and titrated in chicken embryo kidney cells (CEK. The sensitivity of IHC in detecting IBV antigens in the CAM of inoculated eggs matched the virus reisolation and detection in CEK. Using IHC, antigens of IBV were detected in nasal epithelium, trachea, lung, spleen, myocardial vasculature, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, sclera of the eye, spinal cord, as well as in brain neurons of the inoculated embryos. These results were consistent with virus isolation and denote the wide tissue tropism of IBV M41 in the chicken embryo. Most importantly, we found infection of vasculature and smooth muscle of the proventriculus which has not seen before with IBV strain M41. Conclusion IHC can be an additional useful tool for diagnosis of IBV infection in chickens and allows further studies to foster a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with IBV strains of different virulence. Moreover, these results underline that embryonic tissues in addition to CAM could be also used as possible source to generate IBV antigens for diagnostic purposes.

  4. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  5. ELT-2 Is the Predominant Transcription Factor Controlling Differentiation and Function of the C. elegans Intestine, from Embryo to Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, James D.; Fukushige, Tetsunari; Krause, Michael W.; Minnema, Stephanie E.; Goszczynski, Barbara; Gaudet, Jeb; Kohara, Yuji; Bossinger, Olaf; Zhao, Yongjun; Khattra, Jaswinder; Hirst, Martin; Jones, Steven J.M.; Marra, Marco A.; Ruzanov, Peter; Warner, Adam; Zapf, Richard; Moerman, Donald G.; Kalb, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with SAGE-libraries prepared from C. elegans FAC-sorted embryonic intestine cells (8E-16E cell stage), from total embryos and from purified oocytes, and taking advantage of the NextDB in situ hybridization data base, we define sets of genes highly expressed from the zygotic genome, and expressed either exclusively or preferentially in the embryonic intestine or in the intestine of newly hatched larvae; we had previously defined a similarly expressed set of genes from the adult intestine. We show that an extended TGATAA-like sequence is essentially the only candidate for a cis-acting regulatory motif common to intestine genes expressed at all stages. This sequence is a strong ELT-2 binding site and matches the sequence of GATA-like sites found to be important for the expression of every intestinal gene so far analyzed experimentally. We show that the majority of these three sets of highly expressed intestinal-specific/intestinal-enriched genes respond strongly to ectopic expression of ELT-2 within the embryo. By flow-sorting elt-2(null) larvae from elt-2(+) larvae and then preparing Solexa/Illumina-SAGE libraries, we show that the majority of these genes also respond strongly to loss-of-function of ELT-2. To test the consequences of loss of other transcription factors identified in the embryonic intestine, we develop a strain of worms that is RNAi-sensitive only in the intestine; however, we are unable (with one possible exception) to identify any other transcription factor whose intestinal loss-of-function causes a phenotype of comparable severity to the phenotype caused by loss of ELT-2. Overall, our results support a model in which ELT-2 is the predominant transcription factor in the post-specification C. elegans intestine and participates directly in the transcriptional regulation of the majority (> 80%) of intestinal genes. We present evidence that ELT-2 plays a central role in most aspects of C. elegans intestinal physiology: establishing the

  6. Development of the Intestinal RNA Virus Community of Healthy Broiler Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna D Shah

    Full Text Available Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age and (b the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.

  7. Histomorphometrical Study of the Prebiotic Effects on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

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    Reza Sayrafi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

  8. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring t...

  9. Contribution of Salmonella Enteritidis virulence factors to intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination in 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addwebi, Tarek M; Call, Douglas R; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common serovars associated with poultry and poultry product contamination in the United States. We previously identified 14 mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) with significantly reduced invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), chicken macrophages (HD-11), and chicken hepatocellular epithelial cells (LMH). These included Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with transposon insertions in 6 newly identified Salmonella Enteritidis-specific genes (pegD and SEN1393), and genes or genomic islands common to most other Salmonella serovars (SEN0803, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) along with 8 genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (hilA, pipA, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN). We hypothesized that Salmonella Enteritidis employs both common Salmonella enterica colonization factors and Salmonella Enteritidis-specific traits to establish infection in chickens. Four Salmonella Enteritidis mutants (SEN0034::Tn5, fliH::Tn5, SEN1393::Tn5, and spvR::Tn5) were indistinguishable from the isogenic wild-type strain when orally inoculated in 1-d-old chickens, whereas 2 mutants (CsgB::Tn5 and PegD::Tn5) were defective for intestinal colonization (P Salmonella Enteritidis pathogenesis, and the target genes identified here could potentially serve as targets for the development of live-attenuated or subunit vaccine.

  10. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Carum copticum Essential Oil

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    Falaki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  11. Effects of thymol and carvacrol supplementation on intestinal integrity and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Encun; Wang, Weiwei; Gan, Liping; Li, Zhui; Guo, Shuangshuang; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    Background Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens infection leads to serious economic losses in the global poultry production. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of essential oils (EO, which contained 25 % thymol and 25 % carvacrol as active components) supplementation on growth performance, gut lesions, intestinal morphology, and immune responses of the broiler chickens infected with C. perfringens. A total of 448 1-day-old male broiler chicks were all...

  12. CELO病毒与包涵体肝炎%Chicken embryo lethal orphan virus and inclusion body hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤雪; 王云峰

    2005-01-01

    CELO病毒(Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan Virus,CELOV)即鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,属于腺病毒科,禽腺病毒属,鸡腺病毒Ⅰ型,归于腺病毒A群。1954年Yates等人首次报告从鸡胚中分离到一种新病毒,并于1957年命名为鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,简称CELO病毒。由于CELO病毒具有禽腺病毒属各种的主要生物学特性及抗原特性,1982年国际病毒学分类委员会(ICTV)第四次报告把CELO病毒确定为禽腺病毒属的代表种。

  13. Dietary inclusion of feathers affects intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in growing Leghorn-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Bessei, W; Bessei, A W; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem that is often associated with feather eating. The intake of feathers may influence the gut microbiota and its metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different diets, with or without 5% ground feathers, on the gut microbiota and the resulting microbial fermentation products and to identify keratin-degrading bacteria in chicken digesta. One-day-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn chicks were divided into 3 feeding groups: group A (control), B (5% ground feathers in the diet), and C, in which the control diet was fed until wk 12 and then switched to the 5% feather diet to study the effect of time of first feather ingestion. The gut microbiota was analyzed by cultivation and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ileum and cecum digesta. Short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and lactate concentrations were measured as microbial metabolites. The concentration of keratinolytic bacteria increased after feather ingestion in the ileum (P < 0.001) and cecum (P = 0.033). Bacterial species that hydrolyzed keratin were identified as Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus reuteri-like species (97% sequence homology), and Lactobacillus salivarius-like species (97% sequence homology). Molecular analysis of cecal DNA extracts showed that the feather diet lowered the bacterial diversity indicated by a reduced richness (P < 0.001) and shannon (P = 0.012) index. The pattern of microbial metabolites indicated some changes, especially in the cecum. This study showed that feather intake induced an adaptation of the intestinal microbiota in chickens. It remains unclear to what extent the changed metabolism of the microbiota reflects the feather intake and could have an effect on the behavior of the hens.

  14. Efficient transfection of chicken cells by lipofection, and introduction of transfected blastodermal cells into the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazolot, C L; Petitte, J N; Etches, R J; Verrinder Gibbins, A M

    1991-12-01

    Chicken blastodermal cells (CBCs) and primary chicken fibroblasts (PCFs) have been lipofected with a variety of lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). A reporter construct (phspPTlacZpA) containing a mouse heat-shock protein 68 gene (hsp 68) promoter was used to establish conditions for efficient lipofection. The construct, in circular or linear plasmid form or as reporter sequences alone, was transferred efficiently by incubating the cells for 3.5 h in a mixture of 6.2 micrograms Lipofectin (a cationic liposome preparation from Bethesda Research Laboratories) and 1.55-3.1 micrograms DNA per mL DMEM. These lipofection conditions were used to transfer a reporter construct (pCBcMtlacZ) containing a Zn(2+)-inducible chicken metallothionein (cMt) promoter, and constructs showing constitutive expression due to Rous sarcoma virus plus chicken beta-actin (pmiwZ) or cytomegalovirus (pMaori3) promoters. Endogenous chicken beta-gal and transferred bacterial beta-gal activity could be distinguished clearly by incubating the cells with the substrate, Xgal, at pH 4.3 or 7.4, respectively. Expression of phspPTlacZpA in chicken cells did not appear to require specific induction of the mouse hsp68 promoter, whereas expression of pCBcMtlacZ required treatment of the cells for 6-12 h with 150 microM ZnCl2. Bacterial beta-gal activity was observed following lipofection of CBCs that were cultured in suspension or plated. The efficiency of lipofection was at least 1 in 25 for CBCs, judging by the proportion of cells shown to have beta-gal activity 16-24 h after lipofection treatment began; these events could represent transient or stable incorporation of the construct.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor β superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Shunsuke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Results Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFβ superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1, pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Conclusion Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  16. Effects of hypophyseal or thymic allograft on thymus development in partially decerebrate chicken embryos: expression of PCNA and CD3 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, M; Benedetti, F; Carafelli, E; Caccia, E; Romano, N

    2010-08-30

    Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis) and after hypophyseal or thymic allograft were investigated. Chicken embryos were partially decerebrated at 36-40 hr of incubation and on day 12 received a hypophysis or a thymus allograft from 18-day-old donor embryos. The thymuses of normal, sham-operated and partially decerebrate embryos were collected on day 12 and 18. The thymuses of the grafted embryos were collected on day 18. The samples were examined with histological method and tested for the anti-PCNA and anti-CD3 immune-reactions. After partial decerebration, the thymic cortical and medullary compartments diminished markedly in size. Anti-PCNA and anti-CD3 revealed a reduced immune-reaction, verified also by statistical analysis. In hypophyseal or grafted embryos, the thymic morphological compartments improved, the anti-PCNA and anti-CD3 immune-reactions recovered much better after the thymic graft, probably due to the thymic growth factors and also by an emigration of thymocytes from the same grafted thymus.

  17. Histopathological Evaluation of Dose Dependent Sulfadiazine-Associated Nephrotoxicity and Alteration on Oxidative Stress in Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sayrafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Numerous epidemiological and experimental researches indicate that in utero exposure to some environmental chemicals and prescribed drugs during pregnancy can mediate various embryonic abnormalities and complications via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which damages cellular macromolecules. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sulfonamide-associated nephrotoxicity with possible underlying mechanisms in chicken embryo. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, one hundred fertile eggs were obtained and divided into five groups: 1 control group (without injection, 2 group injected with 2 mg sulfadiazine, 3 group injected with 10 mg sulfadiazine, 4 group injected with 30 mg sulfadiazine and 5 group injected with 70 mg sulfadiazine. After hatching, the renal tissue from the newly hatched chick was harvested for histopathologic investigation and also measurement of oxidative stress parameters [the ferric reducing capacity assay, the glutathione content (GSH and the situation of lipid peroxidation (LPO] by spectrophotometer. Results Histologic examination of the renal tissue revealed that sulfadiazine induces hydropic degeneration, tubular necrosis, glomerular and tubular atrophy, formation of hyaline cast, congestion, hemorrhage, interstitial nephritis and fibrosis. Conclusions Result showed the dose-dependent administration of sulfadiazine significantly altered the histopathologic structure of renal tissues of chickens. Furthermore, the major histopathologic events in the course of sulfadiazine cytotoxicity are renal tubule epithelial cell necrosis, interstitial nephritis and fibrosis, formation of hyaline cast and congestion and hemorrhage, although sulfadiazine at dose 30 mg and 70 mg caused perturbation in antioxidant defense system by marked increase in LPO, and decrease in GSH.

  18. Alginate-whey protein dry powder optimized for target delivery of essential oils to the intestine of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Gong, J; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Defelice, C; Hernandez, M; Yin, Y; Wang, Q

    2014-10-01

    In poultry production, there is a lack of effective and convenient approaches to deliver bioactive compounds such as some essential oils, which have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this research was to develop a method for target delivery of essential oils in feed to the lower intestines of chickens. Carvacrol was used as a model essential oil, and 2 food-grade biopolymers, alginate and whey protein, were selected to encapsulate carvacrol in microparticles. The effects of a medium molecular weight alginate, a low molecular weight alginate (LBA), and whey protein concentrations on the properties of carvacrol-loaded microparticles were investigated using response surface methodology. The encapsulation efficiencies for all the tested formulations were ≥ 98% and carvacrol content in the dry microparticles was 72 ± 2% (wt/wt). The microparticles showed good gastric resistance and rapid intestinal release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Alginate concentrations had the strongest influence on the gastric resistance of microparticles, whereas whey protein was the dominant parameter in controlling the intestinal release. The concentration of LBA was found to be the critical factor affecting the mechanical strength of the microparticles. A predicted optimum formulation from in vitro optimization was tested in chickens. It was found that a negligible amount of carvacrol was detected in the intestines of chickens fed with unencapsulated carvacrol. Microparticles of predicted optimum formulation delivered a remarkably higher concentration of carvacrol to the jejunum and ileum regions. The high concentration was sustained for more than 3 h after oral administration. The in vivo release of carvacrol from the microparticles appeared faster than release from in vitro simulation. Nonetheless, the in vitro simulation provided good indications of the in vivo performance, and thus may serve as a useful tool for formula

  19. Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-09-23

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%).

  20. Nutrient digestibility parameters as a tool for analysis of the intestinal health of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed with the objective of verifying raw soy feed, oxidized oil feed, and a control group. Performance evaluation was done at 7, 14, and 21 days of age. Metabolism assay was carried out between the 17th and 20th days for nutrient digestibility analysis. On the 21st day, two birds per repetition were sent for necropsy and collection of intestine fragments (duodenum and jejunum for histomorphometric analysis. Eight to 14 days after treatment with Salmonella, individuals showed lower feed intake and feed conversion than the control group. Treatment with coccidiosis decreased all performance parameters in the control. Raw soybeans and oxidized oil induce lower weight gain and higher feed conversion compared to the control feed. Unlike after 14 days, at 21 days treatment with salmonella a decrease in weight gain was noted. For the group challenged by coccidiosis feed intake, the feed conversion remained lower than the control group. Undesirable effects on performance in the groups fed raw soybean and oxidized oil remained at up to 21 days. In the evaluation of digestibility, it was observed that raw soy had lower values for digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, and nitrogen balance due to intake. In addition, a lower ratio of villus:crypt measurements was observed. Lower villus height was found in the duodenum of the group challenged by coccidiosis. This group presented a positive correlation between the digestibility of ether extract and the duodenum, indicating that increased villus height implies an increased digestibility of ether extract. The results obtained for the jejunum showed a positive correlation with villus height in groups challenged by coccidiosis, raw soybeans, and oxidized oil; and to crypt depth in the group challenged with oxidized oil. The information obtained in the present study demonstrates that nutrient digestibility parameters can be useful tools for the analysis of the intestinal health of broiler

  1. Morphogenesis and morphometric scaling of lung airway development follows phylogeny in chicken, quail, and duck embryos

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    Daniel Tzou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New branches within the embryonic chicken lung form via apical constriction, in which epithelial cells in the primary bronchus become trapezoidal in shape. These branches form at precise locations along the primary bronchus that scale relative to the size of the organ. Here, we examined the extent to which this scaling relationship and branching mechanism are conserved within lungs of three species of birds. Findings Analyzing the development of embryonic lungs from chicken, quail, and duck, as well as lungs explanted and cultured ex vivo, revealed that the patterns of branching are remarkably conserved. In particular, secondary bronchi form at identical positions in chicken and quail, the patterns of which are indistinguishable, consistent with the close evolutionary relationship of these two species. In contrast, secondary bronchi form at slightly different positions in duck, the lungs of which are significantly larger than those of chicken and quail at the same stage of development. Confocal analysis of fixed specimens revealed that each secondary bronchus forms by apical constriction of the dorsal epithelium of the primary bronchus, a morphogenetic mechanism distinct from that used to create branches in mammalian lungs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that monopodial branching off the primary bronchus is driven by apical constriction in lungs of chicken, quail, and duck. The relative positions at which these branches form are also conserved relative to the evolutionary relationship of these species. It will be interesting to determine whether these mechanisms hold in more distant species of birds, and why they differ so significantly in mammals.

  2. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection.

  3. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    It has been considered that concentrations of certain amino acids in the egg are not sufficient to fully support embryonic development of modern broilers. In this study we evaluated embryo growth and development with particular emphasis on one of the major components of connective tissue, collagen....... Experiments were performed on Ross 308 chicken embryos from 160 fertilised eggs. Experimental solutions of silver nanoparticles (Ag), hydroxyproline solution (Hyp) and a complex of silver nanoparticles with hydroxyproline (AgHyp) were injected into albumen, and embryos were incubated until day 20....... An assessment of the mass of embryo and selected organs was carried out followed by measurements of the expression of the key signalling factors' fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Finally, an evaluation of collagen microstructure using scanning electron...

  4. In Vivo Characterization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Microbubble Spectroscopy in a Chicken Embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Faez (Telli); I. Skachkov (Ilya); M. Versluis (Michel); K. Kooiman (Klazina); N. de Jong (Nico)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe dynamics of coated microbubbles was studied in an in vivo model. Biotinylated lipid-coated microbubbles were prepared in-house and were injected into a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model on the fifth day of incubation. The microbubbles, ranging between 1.0 and 3.5 μm i

  5. In Vivo Characterization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Microbubble Spectroscopy in a Chicken Embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, T.; Skachkov, I.; Versluis, M.; Kooiman, K.; Jong, de N.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of coated microbubbles was studied in an in vivo model. Biotinylated lipid-coated microbubbles were prepared in-house and were injected into a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model on the fifth day of incubation. The microbubbles, ranging between 1.0 and 3.5 μm in diameter,

  6. Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Varasteh

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine is limited, especially in avian species. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the heat stress-induced sequence of events in the intestines of chickens. Furthermore, the gut health-promoting effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS was investigated in these heat stress-exposed chickens. Chickens were fed a control diet or diet supplemented with 1% or 2.5% GOS (6 days prior to and during a temperature challenge for 5 days (38-39°C, 8h per day. The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots. In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. In the jejunum, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-5, ZO-1, TLR-4, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and HSP70 protein expression were increased after heat stress exposure and a more pronounced increase in gene expression was observed in ileum after heat stress exposure, and in addition HSF1, claudin-1 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were upregulated. Furthermore, the IL-8 plasma levels were decreased in chickens exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, the heat stress-related effects in the jejunum were prevented in chickens fed a GOS diet, while dietary GOS did not alter these effects in ileum. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

  7. Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varasteh, Soheil; Braber, Saskia; Akbari, Peyman; Garssen, Johan; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine is limited, especially in avian species. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the heat stress-induced sequence of events in the intestines of chickens. Furthermore, the gut health-promoting effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) was investigated in these heat stress-exposed chickens. Chickens were fed a control diet or diet supplemented with 1% or 2.5% GOS (6 days) prior to and during a temperature challenge for 5 days (38-39°C, 8h per day). The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR) HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α) and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots). In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. In the jejunum, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-5, ZO-1, TLR-4, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and HSP70 protein expression were increased after heat stress exposure and a more pronounced increase in gene expression was observed in ileum after heat stress exposure, and in addition HSF1, claudin-1 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were upregulated. Furthermore, the IL-8 plasma levels were decreased in chickens exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, the heat stress-related effects in the jejunum were prevented in chickens fed a GOS diet, while dietary GOS did not alter these effects in ileum. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

  8. Supplemental glycine and threonine effects on performance, intestinal mucosa development, and nutrient utilization of growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Oliveira, C A L; Guerra, A F Q G

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Gly requirements in low-CP diets with different levels of digestible (dig) Thr, and their effects on performance, intestinal mucosal development, and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d age. A total of 240 twenty-one-day-old Cobb-Vantress male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized 4 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 5 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 4 levels of Gly+Ser (1.47, 1.57, 1.67, or 1.77%) and 2 levels of dig Thr (0.70 or 0.77%, corresponding to 100 or 110% of Thr requirements, respectively). Common diets were fed to broilers until 20 d of age. At d 35, an interaction (P ≤ 0.01) was observed between the Gly+Ser and dig Thr levels for G:F. Glycine supplementation resulted in a linear increase (P required (0.77%) improved (P requirement may be greater than 1.77% in diets with 0.70% Thr. Supplemental Gly may be essential to support maximum performance for broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d of age when they are fed diets based exclusively on vegetable ingredients and with low protein levels. Glycine can directly or indirectly influence the proper function of the intestinal mucosa and improve dietary energy utilization.

  9. Impact of Glutamine in Drinking Water on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to look into the impacts of glutamine in drinking water on performance, intestinal morphology and corticosterone level of chickens under different stocking densities. A total 300 male chicks randomly were divided to battery cages as 10 birds/(normal stocking density and 15 birds/(high stocking density. The chicks received feed as (i control diet and (ii control diet + 5g glutamine/ liter in drinking water under normal and high stocking density for the whole experiment. On d 42, 3 chicks from each cage were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect blood and duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in growth performance and longer villi when chicken were supplemented with glutamine via drinking water. High stocking density impaired performance of chicks in the control diet, but not in chicken supplemented with glutamine under high stocking density condition. Moreover, high stocking density increased the level of corticosterone in the both groups. More interestingly, the rate of mortality significantly decreased in chickens fed with glutamine supplemented diet (2% when supplemented with glutamine and 5.33% without supplementation. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation via drinking water resulted in better growth performance of birds subjected to high stocking density.

  10. Transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts by direct DNA transfection of single oncogenes: comparative analyses of src, erbB, myc, and ras.

    OpenAIRE

    Antczak, M; Kung, H J

    1990-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) have been used extensively to study the transformation parameters of a number of avian sarcoma-leukemia viruses. Previously, oncogene transformation of CEF has been conducted almost exclusively with replicating viruses, because of perceived difficulties with direct DNA transfection. Here, we show that CEF can be efficiently and stably transfected by selection for the neomycin resistance gene (neo). Cotransfection of neo with various oncogenes resulted in CEF t...

  11. Sprouting from chicken embryo dorsal root ganglia induced by nerve growth factor is specifically inhibited by affinity-purified antiganglioside antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M; Spirman, N

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of gangliosides in processes related to nerve regeneration and sprouting has been demonstrated recently. The type of interaction by which gangliosides may influence neuronal sprouting was investigated in the present work. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-GM1 antibodies were found to block the sprouting from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of chicken embryo induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Only a moderately inhibitory effect was produced by antibodies directed to GM2, suggesting a ...

  12. Oral and nasal administration of chicken type Ⅱ collagen suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats with intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qiu Zheng; Wei Wei; Yu-Xian Shen; Min Dai; Li-Hua Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the curative effects of oral and nasal administration of chicken type Ⅱ collagen (CⅡ) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats with meloxicam-induced intestinal lesions.METHODS: AA model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam was established and those rats were divided randomly into six groups which included AA model, AA model+meloxicam,AA model+oral CⅡ, AA model+nasal CⅡ, AA model+meloxicam+oral CⅡ and AA model+meloxicam+nasal CⅡ (n = 12). Rats was treated with meloxicam intragastrically for 7 d from d 14 after immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and then treated with chicken CⅡ intragastrically or nasally for 7 d. Histological changes of right hind knees were examined. Hind paw secondary swelling and intestinal lesions were evaluated. Synoviocyte proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT)method. Activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) from supernatants of intestinal homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometric analysis.RESULTS: Intragastrical administration of meloxicam (1.5 mg/kg) induced multiple intestinal lesions in AA rats.There was a significant decrease of intestinal DAO activities in AA+meloxicam group (P<0.01) and AA model group (P<0.01) compared with normal group. DAO activities of intestinal homogenates in AA+meloxicam group were significantly less than those in AA rats (P<0.01). There was a significant increase of intestinal MPO activities in AA+meloxicam group compared with normal control (P<0.01). Oral or nasal administration of CⅡ (20 μg/kg)could suppress the secondary hind paw swelling(P<0.05for oral CⅡ; P<0.01 for nasal CⅡ), synoviocyte proliferation (P<0.01) and histopathological degradation in AA rats, but they had no significant effects on DAO and MPO changes.However, oral administration of CⅡ (20 μg/kg) showed the limited efficacy on arthritis

  13. [Use of colchicine in studying the proliferative activity of chicken embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V I; El Zajat, M

    1977-07-01

    Manifestation of mitotic activity of colchicin in 4- and 5-day-old chick embryos was studied under different modes of colchicin injection into the eggs. Three methods were tested: colchicin solution was injected into the serous-amniotic cavity (1) and into the yolk sac (2) and also by dripping on the serous membrane over the enbryo (3). Perfect metastatic effect was observed only when colchicin was used in concentration of 1 X 10(-4) g/ml and injected by the third mehtod. Increase in the solution volume over 0.1 ml resulted in a greater percentage of embryo death. Lack of a definite inhibitory action after colchicin injection into the serous-amniotic cavity might be explained by decrease of the substance concentration as a result of its dilution by the cavity fluid. A complete lack of blocked mitoses in the embryo tissues after colchicin injection into the yolk sac can be explained, according to the authors, by the presence, in the yolk, of a great number of ovoflavins capable to inhibit mitotic activity of colchicin.

  14. Composition of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids in freeze-dried chicken embryo eggs with different days of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Célia Maria Teixeira de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids omega--3 and omega--6 composition and specially DHA were determined in freeze-dried chicken embryo eggs with pre-determined incubation periods. Fertile and embryo eggs presented palmitic (23.18 + 0.54%, stearic (7.70 + 0.28%, palmitoleic (3.00 + 0.19%, oleic (36.28 + 0.58%, linoleic (22.18 + 0.34%, linolenic (1.08 + 0.04%, arachidonic (2.04 + 0.03%, docosahexaenoic (0.91 + 0.03%, total omega-3 acids (2.26 + 0.10% and total omega-6 acids (24.62 + 0.33%. There were no significant differences in total contents of omega-3 fatty acids (p=0.1226 between freeze-dried chicken embryo eggs with different incubation periods (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days and fertile freeze-dried chicken eggs (day 0. However, there were significant differences in total medium contents of omega-6 fatty acids (p=0.0001. There was also a strong statistical evidence that quadratic model was related with expected values of DHA content (p= 0.0013.

  15. Immunomodulatory activity and control of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the intestinal tract of chickens by Lactobacillus based probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Díaz, Silvia Juliana Acelas; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Chang, Yung-Fu; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio; Berchieri Junior, Angelo

    2015-09-15

    Lactobacillus-based probiotics (LBP) are used as competitive exclusion to control pathogenic enterobacterial infections and improve the weight gain in broiler chickens. This study assessed the inhibition of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in one-week-old broiler chicks, using an experimental LBP containing four Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens (L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, L. salivarius). The immunomodulatory effects of this treatment were evaluated, through the analysis of cytokines and influx of macrophages, γδ, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the gut. The intestinal colonization by SE was reduced by 1.8 CFU/g (log10) in chicks treated with LBP (p<0.05). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, LITAF) were significantly reduced in treated chicks (p<0.05), whilst untreated chicks showed elevated inflammatory stimulus and an increased population of CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa after challenge (p<0.05). Additionally, the LBP stimulated TLR2 expression in caecal tonsils. The adjuvant property of the Lactobacillus cell wall (LCW) was evaluated, demonstrating good capability to stimulate T helper 2 (Th2) cell proliferation. Pretreatment of chicks with LBP decreased the intestinal colonization by SE, minimizing the tissue lesions and inflammation after challenge and showed a potential use as adjuvant with injectable killed vaccines.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM increased cell proliferation (6% at 7 days (p 4.92 nM increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30% at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of  Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell proliferation in human cell lines at concentrations higher than 4.92 n

  17. Evaluation of sildenafil pressurized metered dose inhalers as a vasodilator in umbilical blood vessels of chicken egg embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Hiranphan, Phetai; Laphanayos, Kampanart; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. The delivery of sildenafil directly to the lung could have several advantages over conventional treatments for pulmonary hypertension because of the local delivery, a more rapid onset of response, and reduced side effects. The major problem of sildenafil citrate is its limited solubility in water. Sildenafil citrate was complexed with cyclodextrins (CDs) to enhance its water solubility prior to development as an inhaled preparation. Four sildenafil citrate inhaled formulations were prepared with the aid of HP-β-CD (#1), α-CD (#2) and γ-CD (#3) and their effects were compared with the formulations without CDs (#4). The sildenafil citrate pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) used ethanol as a solvent, PEG400 as a stabilizing agent, sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant and HFA-134a as a propellant. All formulations consisted of sildenafil citrate equivalent to a sildenafil content of 20μg/puff. These products were evaluated according to a standard guideline of inhalation products. Vasodilation testing was performed to investigate the efficacy of sildenafil pMDIs in relieving a vasoconstricted umbilical blood vessel of the chicken egg embryo. The sildenafil contents of the pMDI formulations #1-#3 were within the acceptance criteria (80-120%). The emitted doses (ED) were 102.3±11.5%, the fine particle fractions (FPF) were 60.5±5.6% and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were 2.3±0.3μm. The vasodilatory activity of those formulations reduced umbilical blood pressure by 67.1-73.7% after treatment by intravenous injection whereas only a 50.1-58.0% reduced blood pressure was obtained after direct spraying of the sildenafil pMDI containing CDs. With sildenafil formulations of a pMDI without CD the blood pressure was reduced by only 39.0% (P-valuevessels of chicken egg embryos after spraying sildenafil-CDs pMDIs was

  18. Prevalence and distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in young scavenging chickens in upper eastern region of Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, J; Permin, A; Hindsbo, O; Yelifari, L; Nansen, P; Bloch, P

    2000-06-12

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and species of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in 100 chickens kept under extensive management systems in Ghana, West Africa. All the examined chickens (100%) were infected with gastro-intestinal helminths; a total of 18 species were detected. The species and their prevalences were: Acuaria hamulosa (25%), Allodapa suctoria (20%), Ascaridia galli (24%), Capillaria spp. (60%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (62%), Heterakis gallinarum (31%), H. isolonche (16%), Hymenolepis spp. (66%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), R. echinobothrida (81%), R. tetragona (59%), Strongyloides avium (2%), Subulura strongylina (10%), Tetrameres fissispina (58%), Trichostronygylus tenuis (2%), and finally one unidentified acanthocephalan (1%) and one unidentified trematode (1%). Thirty-five per cent of the chickens were infected with the haemoparasites Aegyptinella pullorum and Plasmodium juxtanucleare (prevalences 9% and 27%, respectively). Association between chicken sex and prevalences was not significant. An over-dispersed distribution was seen for most of the helminth species.

  19. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71intestinal weight (0.80intestinal weight (-0

  20. Characterization of the Culturable Subpopulations of Lactobacillus in the Chicken Intestinal Tract as a Resource for Probiotic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Adhikari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To gain better understanding of the distributions of the culturable Lactobacillus species in the chicken intestinal tract, we collected ceca, and distal ileum from 10 3-weeks-old broiler chickens. Lactobacillus strains from cecal lumen contents (M-CL, and those associated with mucosa of ceca (M-CM and ileum (M-IM were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS agar plates, and used for microbiota analysis. The total cecal content (T-CL was also used directly for microbiota analysis. We purposefully focused on MRS-recovered populations to gain understanding of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus, since the culturability is an important phenotype in order to exploit the chicken gut microbiota as a resource for development of probiotics. The V1–V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene was amplified from genomic DNA samples, and the pooled amplicons were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing with paired-end read 300 cycle option. Among MRS groups, Firmicutes were significantly higher in M-IM and M-CL as compared to M-CM, whereas Proteobacteria were significantly higher in M-CM as compared to M-IM and M-CL at p < 0.05. Among Lactobacillus, L. salivarius (36% and L. johnsonii (21% were higher in M-IM as compared to M-CL (L. salivarius, 28%; L. johnsonii, 15%, and M-CM (L. salivarius, 20%; L. johnsonii, 11%. L. crispatus was found significantly higher in M-CL as compared to M-IM (p < 0.01 whereas L. gasseri was found significantly higher in M-IM as compared to M-CM (p < 0.05. L. aviarius, and L. fornicalis were only observed in T-CL. In summary, Lactobacillus populations recovered on MRS vary with different regions and locations in chicken GIT, which might indicate their distinct functional roles in different gastrointestinal tract (GIT niches, and some species of Lactobacillus are not culturable on MRS agar media. This study is the first attempt to define culturable Lactobacillus subpopulations in the chicken intestinal tract comprehensively using 16S r

  1. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Host Gene Expression in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts Infected with Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Strain HA1101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Miao

    Full Text Available Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV, a member of the Gammaretrovirus genus in the Retroviridae family, causes an immunosuppressive, oncogenic and runting-stunting syndrome in multiple avian hosts. To better understand the host interactions at the transcriptional level, microarray data analysis was performed in chicken embryo fibroblast cells at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after infection with REV. This study identified 1,785 differentially expressed genes that were classified into several functional groups including signal transduction, immune response, biological adhesion and endocytosis. Significant differences were mainly observed in the expression of genes involved in the immune response, especially during the later post-infection time points. These results revealed that differentially expressed genes IL6, STAT1, MyD88, TLRs, NF-κB, IRF-7, and ISGs play important roles in the pathogenicity of REV infection. Our study is the first to use microarray analysis to investigate REV, and these findings provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of the host antiviral response and the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis.

  3. Expression of delta-protocadherins in the spinal cord of the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juntang; Wang, Congrui; Redies, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Protocadherins constitute the largest subfamily of cadherin genes and are widely expressed in the nervous system. In the present study, we cloned eight members of the delta-protocadherin subfamily of cadherins (Pcdh1, Pcdh7, Pcdh8, Pcdh9, Pcdh10, Pcdh17, Pcdh18, and Pcdh19) from the chicken, and investigated their expression in the developing chicken spinal cord by in situ hybridization. Our results showed that each of the investigated delta-protocadherins exhibits a spatially restricted and temporally regulated pattern of expression. Pcdh1, Pcdh8, Pcdh18, and Pcdh19 are expressed in restricted dorsoventral domains of the neuroepithelial layer at early developmental stages (E2.5–E4). In the differentiating mantle layer, specific expression profiles are observed for all eight delta-protocadherins along the dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal dimensions at intermediate stages of development (E6–E10). Expression profiles are especially diverse in the motor column, where different pools of motor neurons exhibit signal for subsets of delta-protocadherins. In the dorsal root ganglion, subpopulations of cells express combinations of Pcdh1, Pcdh7, Pcdh8, Pcdh9, Pcdh10, and Pcdh17. The ventral boundary cap cells are positive for Pcdh7, Pcdh9, and Pcdh10. Signals for Pcdh8, Pcdh18, and Pcdh19 are found in the meninges. Surrounding tissues, such as the notochord, dermomyotome, and sclerotome also exhibit differential expression patterns. The highly regulated spatiotemporal expression patterns of delta-protocadherins suggest that they have multiple and diverse functions during development of the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues.

  4. Gastric gross and microscopic lesions caused by the UNAM-97 variant strain of infectious bronchitis virus after the eighth passage in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorcia, M; Fortoul, T I; Petrone, V M; Galindo, F; López, C; Téllez, G

    2002-11-01

    Herein we report a description of gross and microscopic lesions found in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos caused by UNAM-97 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant strain after the eighth passage. Embryos were divided into three groups and were inoculated in the chorioallantoic sac with 0.2 mL of UNAM-97, Mass 41 IBV (positive control), or sterile PBS (negative control). Forty-eight hours later the allatoic fluid was taken and used to start a cycle of eight passages through 9-d-old embryos. Seven days after the last passage, embryos were harvested and macroscopic lesions in all organs were recorded. Proventriculus and gizzard samples were obtained from all embryos and routinely processed for microscopic and ultrastructural examinations. The UNAM-97 IBV variant strain caused two macroscopic lesions uncommon for Mexican strains: thin-walled proventriculus and gizzard, as well as urate accumulation within an extra-embryonic peritoneal sac, leaving the body through the umbilical duct and accompanied by the yolk sac. At microscopic level, two relevant findings were observed to be produced by this variant. In the proventriculus, there was a decrease in the gland papillary branching, while the gizzard showed a significant reduction in mucosa thickness and tubular-to-proliferative-cell ratio, as well as an absence of hyaline secretion in the lumen. Electrodense material scattered in proventricular and gizzard cells was observed, with a structure consistent with that of coronaviruses. These pathological chicken embryo findings have not been reported as being caused by other IBV strains in Mexico.

  5. Gene discovery in Eimeria tenella by immunoscreening cDNA expression libraries of sporozoites and schizonts with chicken intestinal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réfega, Susana; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Bourdieu, Christiane; Péry, Pierre; Labbé, Marie

    2003-04-02

    Specific antibodies were produced ex vivo from intestinal culture of Eimeria tenella infected chickens. The specificity of these intestinal antibodies was tested against different parasite stages. These antibodies were used to immunoscreen first generation schizont and sporozoite cDNA libraries permitting the identification of new E. tenella antigens. We obtained a total of 119 cDNA clones which were subjected to sequence analysis. The sequences coding for the proteins inducing local immune responses were compared with nucleotide or protein databases and with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) databases. We identified new Eimeria genes coding for heat shock proteins, a ribosomal protein, a pyruvate kinase and a pyridoxine kinase. Specific features of other sequences are discussed.

  6. Starch digestion in the small intestine of broiler chickens differs among feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, A.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van de P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary starch is the major energy source for broiler chickens, and knowledge about its digestive behavior can be important. In a digestibility trial with 720 broiler chickens, site, rate and extent of starch digestion were measured for 12 feedstuffs. Starch digestion was determined using the slaugh

  7. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  8. Bacillus subtilis PB6 improves intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sathishkumar; Thangavel, Gokila; Kurian, Hannah; Mani, Ravichandran; Mukkalil, Rajalekshmi; Chirakkal, Haridasan

    2013-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in significant economic losses, averaging damage of $0.05 per bird. The present study investigated the influence of a dietary supplement, Bacillus subtilis PB6, on performance, intestinal health, and gut integrity against C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 (ATCC-PTA 6737) is a natural strain isolated from healthy chicken gut that has been shown in in vitro to produce antimicrobial substances with broad activity against various strains of Campylobacter and Clostridium species. The animal study was conducted on broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for the period of 35 d using a completely randomized design. The experimental design included 3 treatments groups. Each treatment group contained 6 replicates, 3 male and 3 female, with 12 birds in each replicate. The 3 treatment groups were an uninfected control, an infected control, and an infected group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 at 500 g/t of feed, containing 5 × 10(11) cfu/kg. Necrotic enteritis was induced in the broiler birds via oral inoculation of 30,000 oocysts of mixed strains of Eimeria species on d 14 followed by C. perfringens (10(8) cfu/mL) on d 19 through 21 of trial. The birds were analyzed for BW gain, mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal lesion score, intestinal C. perfringens counts, and villus histomorphometry. The infected control group showed markedly thickened mucosa, hemorrhages, intestinal lesions, and ballooning of intestine. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 reduced the FCR (P < 0.05) and intestinal C. perfringens counts significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the infected control group. It was also observed that B. subtilis PB6 improved villi length by 10.88 and 30.46% (P < 0.05) compared with uninfected and infected control groups, respectively. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the villi length to crypt

  9. Mucin dynamics and microbial populations in chicken small intestine are changed by dietary probiotic and antibiotic growth promoter supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A; Perez, R; Amit-Romach, E; Sklan, D; Uni, Z

    2005-02-01

    The mucous layer that covers the intestinal absorptive surface acts as a barrier against bacterial translocation. The chicken gut contains a diverse bacterial population which interacts with the mucous layer. In this report, we studied the effect of changing the intestinal microbial populations on mucin dynamics by feeding 1-d-old chicks a control diet or that diet containing either antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) or a probiotic product for 14 d. Dietary AGP increased the proportions of Bifidobacterium species in the duodenum compared with the other groups. In AGP-fed chicks, the villous surface area was increased in the jejunum, goblet cell density was greater in the jejunum and ileum, and mucin glycoprotein levels in the duodenum were lower than in the other groups (P small intestine compared with the other groups. Expression of mucin mRNA and the levels of mucin glycoprotein were greater in the jejunum of the probiotic-fed chicks compared with controls (P thickness of the mucous adherent layer. These results indicate that both probiotic and AGP altered processes of mucin biosynthesis and/or degradation mediated via changes in the intestinal bacterial populations. These modifications in mucin dynamics influence gut function and health and may change nutrient uptake.

  10. Effect of dietary mannanase-hydrolysed copra meal on growth performance and intestinal histology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, M; Fukui, K; Yamauchi, K

    2014-08-01

    We investigated mannanase-hydrolysed copra meal (MCM), which contains β-1,4-mannobiose (MNB), for its capacity to improve growth performance and activate intestinal villus function. Seven-day-old chicks were separated into four flocks with an equal mean body weight and then fed a basal diet (control) or a diet supplemented with 0.02% or 0.1% MCM. After 7 weeks, the feed intake and body weight were determined and then used to calculate the feed efficiency (FE). Moreover, the intestinal segments were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for cellular and morphological changes in the villus. Although feed intake was not significantly different among the experimental groups, the body weight gain and FE were significantly higher in the 0.1% MCM group than in the control group (p absorption activity. Although intestinal villus height and area did not significantly differ among groups, the levels of these parameters tended to increase in the experimental groups relative to the control. The present morphological findings reveal that MNB might be effective for activating intestinal absorptive function, and that the functional activation promotes the growth of the chickens.

  11. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  12. Effect of doxycycline and Lactobacillus probiotics on mRNA expression of ABCC2 in small intestines of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanova, A; Pavlova, I; Yordanova, V; Danova, S

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics and antibiotics are widely used in poultry and may alter drug bioavailability by affecting the expression of intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters. Therefore the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacilli probiotics, administered alone or in combination with doxycycline, on the expression of ABCB1 (gene, encoding P-glycoprotein), ABCC2 (gene, encoding multidrug resistance protein 2, MRP2) and ABCG2 (gene, encoding breast cancer resistance protein) mRNAs in chicken using RT-PCR. Duc one-day-old chicks (n=24) were divided equally in four groups: untreated control, probiotics supplemented group, probiotics plus doxycycline treated chickens and antibiotic administered group. Expression of ABCC2 mRNA was affected by doxycycline or by combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis and L. bulgaricus and the antibiotic in the intestines. These results can be used as a basis for further functional studies to prove the beneficial effect on limitation of the absorption of toxins and improvement of efflux of endogenous substances and xenobiotics when the combination of doxycycline and Lactobacillus spp. probiotics are administered to poultry.

  13. Sex-dependent gene expression in early brain development of chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigson Michael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. Results Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head that may be independent of morphological differentiation of the gonads. Genes located on the sex chromosomes (ZZ in males and ZW in females were common among the differentially expressed genes, several of which (WPKCI-8, HINT, MHM non-coding RNA have previously been implicated in avian sex determination. A majority of the identified genes were more highly expressed in males. Three of these genes (CDK7, CCNH and BTF2-P44 encode subunits of the transcription factor IIH complex, indicating a role for this complex in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into sexually dimorphic gene expression in the embryonic chicken brain and its possible involvement in sex differentiation of the nervous system in birds.

  14. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...... effect of a C. jejuni infection on the ileal microflora of the broilers. In addition, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated from cecal and ileal contents revealed several DGGE bands that were present in the control chickens, but not in the chickens colonized with C. jejuni...

  15. Effect of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood and intestinal lymphocyte subpopulations in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revajová, Viera; Levkut, Mikuláš; Levkutová, Mária; Bořutová, Radka; Grešaková, Lubomíra; Košiková, Božena; Leng, Lubomír

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on peripheral blood leukocytes and duodenal immunocompetent cells in broiler chickens. From day 1 after hatching, all chickens were fed an identical control diet for two weeks. Then chickens of Group 1 continued to be fed the control diet, whereas Group 2 was fed the same diet supplemented with lignin at 0.5% level. Simultaneously, Group 3 started to receive a diet contaminated with DON (2.95 mg kg-1) and ZEA (1.59 mg kg-1), while Group 4 received an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin for further two weeks. Samples of blood and duodenal tissue were collected from 6 birds of each group at 4 weeks of age. Neither counts of white blood cells nor phagocytic function in the peripheral blood were significantly affected in the mycotoxin- and/or lignin-treated birds. As compared to the control, increased numbers of IgM-bearing cells were found in the peripheral blood in Group 3 fed the contaminated diet (P contaminated diet supplemented with lignin (P contaminated diet led to reduced numbers of duodenal CD4+ cells, in Group 2 treated only with lignin the number of duodenal CD4+ cells was increased. Lignin enrichment of the contaminated diet did not eliminate the mycotoxin-induced reduction in the number of duodenal CD4+ cells. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of lignin as an indigestible compound to poultry feed may increase the density of some intestinal immunocompetent cells without exerting effects on that in the peripheral blood. However, when added to a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, lignin did not prevent the mycotoxin-induced changes in the numbers of blood and intestinal immunocompetent cells.

  16. Assessment of dietary supplementation with probiotics on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Papadopoulos, E; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, El; Henikl, S; Teichmann, K; Tontis, D

    2012-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with different preparations of probiotics on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with 2 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella at 14 days of age. Three hundred, day-old, Cobb-500 chicks, as hatched, were separated into 10 equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one challenged with E. tenella oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls without medication. The other challenged groups were given the anticoccidial lasalocid (60 mg/kg) or Enterococcus faecium (5 × 10(8) or 5 × 10(9)cfu/kg feed), Bifidobacterium animalis (5 × 10(8)cfu/kg feed), Lactobacillus reuteri (5 × 10(8)cfu/kg feed), Bacillus subtilis (5 × 10(8)cfu/kg feed), or a multi-species probiotic mix at 5 × 10(8) or 5 × 10(9)cfu/kg feed, respectively. The trial lasted 6 weeks. Individual body weight, feed intake per pen and feed conversion ratio values were recorded weekly, along with the extent of bloody diarrhea, excreta oocyst numbers and bird mortality. Caecal lesions were assessed and intestinal samples were taken for histopathological and bacteriological evaluation from ileum and caecum. Overall growth performance of chickens fed the multi-species probiotic mix at both levels was higher (Pprobiotics are promising for further investigation on improving intestinal health and growth performance of broiler chickens experimentally challenged with E. tenella. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chicken intestinal development in health and disease : transcriptomic and modeling approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal health is an important condition for sustainable animal production. Since it is known that there is significant variation in intestinal health and functionality, there is much to gain in this respect. However, to fully exploit the biological potential of the animal’s gastro-intestin

  18. Spontaneous locomotor activity in late-stage chicken embryos is modified by stretch of leg muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Nina S; Ryu, Young U; Yeseta, Marie C

    2014-03-15

    Chicks initiate bilateral alternating steps several days before hatching and adaptively walk within hours of hatching, but emergence of precocious walking skills is not well understood. One of our aims was to determine whether interactions between environment and movement experience prior to hatching are instrumental in establishing precocious motor skills. However, physiological evidence of proprioceptor development in the chick has yet to be established; thus, one goal of this study was to determine when in embryogenesis proprioception circuits can code changes in muscle length. A second goal was to determine whether proprioception circuits can modulate leg muscle activity during repetitive limb movements for stepping (RLMs). We hypothesized that proprioception circuits code changes in muscle length and/or tension, and modulate locomotor circuits producing RLMs in anticipation of adaptive locomotion at hatching. To this end, leg muscle activity and kinematics were recorded in embryos during normal posture and after fitting one ankle with a restraint that supported the limb in an atypical posture. We tested the hypotheses by comparing leg muscle activity during spontaneous RLMs in control posture and ankle extension restraint. The results indicated that proprioceptors detect changes in muscle length and/or muscle tension 3 days before hatching. Ankle extension restraint produced autogenic excitation of the ankle flexor and reciprocal inhibition of the ankle extensor. Restraint also modified knee extensor activity during RLMs 1 day before hatching. We consider the strengths and limitations of these results and propose that proprioception contributes to precocious locomotor development during the final 3 days before hatching.

  19. Retracing liberalism and remaking nature: designer children, research embryos, and featherless chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dov

    2010-05-01

    Liberal theory seeks to achieve toleration, civil peace, and mutual respect in pluralistic societies by making public policy without reference to arguments arising from within formative ideals about what gives value to human life. Does it make sense to set aside such conceptions of the good when it comes to controversies about stem cell research and the genetic engineering of people or animals? Whether it is reasonable to bracket our world-views in such cases depends on how we answer the moral questions that the use of these biotechnologies presuppose. I argue that the moral language of liberal justice - of rights and duties, interests and opportunities, freedom and consent, equality and fairness - cannot speak to these underlying concerns about what the human embryo is, why the natural lottery matters to us, and whether 'animal nature' is worth preserving. I conclude that liberal theory is incapable of furnishing a coherent or desirable account to govern the way we use our emerging powers of biotechnology.

  20. Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Efstathios S; Robey, Rebecca C; Skinner, Natalie G; Tomlinson, Christopher D; Goodbourn, Stephen; Skinner, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Viruses that infect birds pose major threats-to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species defend themselves. The type I interferon-coordinated response constitutes the major antiviral innate defence. Although interferon was discovered in chicken cells, details of the response, particularly the identity of hundreds of stimulated genes, are far better described in mammals. Viruses induce interferon-stimulated genes but they also regulate the expression of many hundreds of cellular metabolic and structural genes to facilitate their replication. This study focusses on the potentially anti-viral genes by identifying those induced just by interferon in primary chick embryo fibroblasts. Three transcriptomic technologies were exploited: RNA-seq, a classical 3'-biased chicken microarray and a high density, "sense target", whole transcriptome chicken microarray, with each recognising 120-150 regulated genes (curated for duplication and incorrect assignment of some microarray probesets). Overall, the results are considered robust because 128 of the compiled, curated list of 193 regulated genes were detected by two, or more, of the technologies.

  1. Rabies neutralizing antibody detection by indirect immunperoxidase serum neutralization assay performed on chicken embryo related cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the indirect immunoperoxidase virus neutralization (IPVN and mouse neutralization test (MNT to detect antibodies against rabies virus from vaccinated dogs and cattle. The IPVN was set up for the ability to measure 0.5 International Units/ml (IU of antibody required by the World Health Organization and the Office International des Epizooties as the minimum response for proof of rabies immunization. IPVN was developed and standardized in chicken embryo related (CER cell line when 141 dog and 110 cattle sera were applied by serial five-fold dilutions (1:5, 1:25, 1:125 as well as the positive and negative reference controls, all added in four adjacent wells, of 96-well microplates. A 50 µl amount of CVS32 strain dilution containing 50-200 TCID50/ml was mixed to each serum dilution, and after 90 min 50 µl of 3 x 10(5 cells/mlcell suspension added to each well. After five days of incubation, the monolayers were fixed and the IPVN test performed. The correlation coefficient between the MNT and IPVN performed in CER cells was r = 0.9949 for dog sera (n = 100 and r = 0.9307 for cattle sera (n = 99, as well as good specificity (94.7%, sensitivity (87.5%, and agreement (96.6% were also obtained. IPVN technique can adequately identify vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, even from low-responding vaccinated animals, with the advantage of low cost and faster then MNT standard test.

  2. The inhibitory effect of carboxymethylcellulose with high viscosity on lipid absorption in broiler chickens coincides with reduced bile salt concentration and raised microbial numbers in the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, CHM; Veldman, A; Verkade, HJ; Beynen, AC

    1998-01-01

    Two diets, with or without a nonfermentable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with high viscosity, were fed to broiler chickens beginning at 2 wk of age to study whether the anti-nutritive effect of gelling fibers on Lipid digestibility maybe associated with reduced intestinal bile salt concentration. Mo

  3. Applying the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay to study treatment approaches in urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Margaretha A; Sathe, Anuja; Romano, Andrea; Hoffmann, Michèle J; Schulz, Wolfgang A; van Koeveringe, Gommert A; Albers, Peter; Nawroth, Roman; Niegisch, Günter

    2017-09-01

    Rapid development of novel treatment options demands valid preclinical screening models for urothelial carcinoma (UC). The translational value of high-throughput drug testing using 2-dimensional (2D) cultures is limited while for xenograft models handling efforts and costs often become prohibitive for larger-scale drug testing. Therefore, we investigated to which extent the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay might provide an alternative model to study antineoplastic treatment approaches for UC. The ability of 8 human UC cell lines (UCCs) to form tumors after implantation on CAMs was investigated. Epithelial-like RT-112 and mesenchymal-like T-24 UCCs in cell culture or as CAM tumors were treated with cisplatin alone or combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) romidepsin and suberanilohydroxamic acid. Tumor weight, size, and bioluminescence activity were monitored; tumor specimens were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure protein and mRNA expression. UCCs were reliably implantable on the CAM, but tumor development varied among cell lines. Expression of differentiation markers (E-cadherin, vimentin, CK5, CK18, and CK20) was similar in CAM tumors and 2D cultures. Cellular phenotypes also remained stable after recultivation of CAM tumors in 2D cultures. Bioluminescence images correlated with tumor weight. Cisplatin and HDACi decreased weight and growth of CAM tumors in a dose-dependent manner, but HDACi treatment acted less efficiently as in 2D cultures, especially on its typically associated molecular markers. Synergistic effects of HDACi and subsequent cisplatin treatment on UCCs were neither detected in 2D cultures nor detected in CAM tumors. Our results demonstrate that the CAM assay is a useful tool for studying tumor growth and response to conventional anticancer drugs under 3D conditions, especially cytotoxic drugs as cisplatin. With some

  4. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  5. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhat, Amani [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Buick, Julie K.; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; O' Brien, Jason M. [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Chiu, Suzanne [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.

  6. Changes in strain and blood flow in the outflow tract of chicken embryo hearts observed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenhe; Du, Linlin; Wang, Qiaoyun; Chu, Zhongdi; Zang, Xuan; Wang, Fengwen; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the use of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in visualizing and quantifying changes in cardiac wall strain and blood-flow velocities under normal and altered hemodynamic conditions in chicken embryos at an early stage of development, focusing on the heart outflow tract (OFT). OCT imaging allowed in vivo evaluation strain and strain rate of the myocardium of the OFT through analyzing the periodic variation of the myocardial wall thickness. We found that alterations in hemodynamic conditions, through OFT banding, Changed strain and blood-flow velocities through the OFT as expected.

  7. Dietary β-galactomannans have beneficial effects on the intestinal morphology of chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufau, M T; Martín-Venegas, R; Guerrero-Zamora, A M; Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Vilà, B; Brufau, J; Ferrer, R

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the leading causes of food-borne salmonellosis in humans. Poultry is the single largest reservoir, and the consumption of incorrectly processed chicken meat and egg products is the major source of infection. Since 2006, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has been banned in the European Union, and the dietary inclusion of β-galactomannans (βGM) has become a promising strategy to control and prevent intestinal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various βGM-rich products on intestinal morphology in chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. To assess this effect, a total of 280 male Ross 308 chickens were studied (40 animals per treatment housed in 5 cages). There were 7 treatments, including controls: uninoculated birds fed the basal diet (negative control) and inoculated birds fed the basal diet (positive control) or the basal diet supplemented with Salmosan (1 g/kg), Duraió gum (1 g/kg), Cassia gum (1 g/kg), the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.5 g/kg), or the antibiotic colistine (0.8 g/kg). The birds were fed these diets from the d 1 to 23, except the animals in the colistine group, which were fed the diet containing the antibiotic only from d 5 to 11. The inoculated animals were orally infected on d 7 with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. Bird performance per replicate was determined for the whole study period (23 d), and the distal ileum and cecal tonsil of 5 animals per treatment (1 animal per replicate) were observed at different magnification levels (scanning electron, light, and laser confocal microscopy). In the images corresponding to the treatments containing βGM we observed more mucus, an effect that can be associated with the observation of more goblet cells. Moreover, the images also show fewer M cells, which are characteristic of infected animals. Regarding the morphometric parameters, the animals that received Duraió and Cassia gums

  8. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    hatching weight and the size of the breast muscle. The small size of silver nanoparticles allows for penetration inside tissues and even enables them to cross cell membranes. Indeed it has been shown that nanoparticles of silver applied in ovo can up-regulate the expression of fibroblast growth factor...... and vascular endothelial growth factor. We have therefore tested if silver nanoparticles can affect muscle development of chicken embryos and, furthermore, if they can be used in in ovo nutrition as carriers of nutrients e.g. glutamine into muscle cells. Methods: 160 broiler eggs were randomly divided...... into the control group (Control) without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag), glutamine (Glu) and the complex of nanoparticles of silver and glutamine (Nano-Ag/Glu). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. Samples of the breast muscles were collected...

  9. Study of potential health effects of electromagnetic fields of telephony and Wi-Fi, using chicken embryo development as animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, Henri; de Wit, Agnes; Lourens, Alexander; Stockhofe, Norbert; Engel, Bas; Hulsegge, Ina; Schokker, Dirkjan; van Heijningen, Paula; Vossen, Stefan; Bekers, Dave; Zwamborn, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as used in modern wireless telecommunication in a well-controlled experimental environment using chicken embryo development as animal model. Chicken eggs were incubated under continuous experimental exposure to GSM (1.8 GHz), DECT (1.88 GHz), UMTS (2.1 GHz), and WLAN (5.6 GHz) radiation, with the appropriate modulation protocol, using a homogeneous field distribution at a field strength of approximately 3 V/m, representing the maximum field level in a normal living environment. Radiation-shielded exposure units/egg incubators were operating in parallel for exposed and control eggs in a climatized homogeneous environment, using 450 eggs per treatment in three successive rounds per treatment. Dosimetry of the exposure (field characteristics and specific absorption rate) were studied. Biological parameters studied included embryo death during incubation, hatching percentage, and various morphological and histological parameters of embryos and chicks and their organs, and gene expression profiles of embryos on day 7 and day 18 of incubation by microarray and qPCR. No conclusive evidence was found for induced embryonic mortality or malformations by exposure to the used EMFs, or for effects on the other measured parameters. Estimated differences between treatment groups were always small and the effect of treatment was not significant. In a statistical model that ignored possible interaction between rounds and exposure units, some of the many pairwise comparisons of exposed versus control had P-values lower than 0.05, but were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:186-203, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael

    2017-01-01

    can utilize tight junction proteins as receptors for attachment and subsequent internalization, while others modify or destroy the tight junction proteins by different pathways and thereby provide a gateway to the underlying tissue. This review aims to deliver an overview of the tight junction structures and function, and its role in enteric bacterial pathogenesis with a special focus on chickens. A main conclusion will be that the molecular mechanisms used by enteric pathogens to disrupt epithelial barrier function in chickens needs a much better understanding, explicitly highlighted for Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica and Clostridium perfringens. This is a requirement in order to assist in discovering new strategies to avoid damages of the intestinal barrier or to minimize consequences from infections. PMID:28208612

  11. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha A. Awad

    2017-02-01

    , because some pathogens can utilize tight junction proteins as receptors for attachment and subsequent internalization, while others modify or destroy the tight junction proteins by different pathways and thereby provide a gateway to the underlying tissue. This review aims to deliver an overview of the tight junction structures and function, and its role in enteric bacterial pathogenesis with a special focus on chickens. A main conclusion will be that the molecular mechanisms used by enteric pathogens to disrupt epithelial barrier function in chickens needs a much better understanding, explicitly highlighted for Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica and Clostridium perfringens. This is a requirement in order to assist in discovering new strategies to avoid damages of the intestinal barrier or to minimize consequences from infections.

  12. Isolation of deoxynivalenol-transforming bacteria from the chicken intestines using the approach of PCR-DGGE guided microbial selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiu-Zhen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON, has been an ongoing problem for Canada and many other countries. Mycotoxin contamination creates food safety risks, reduces grain market values, threatens livestock industries, and limits agricultural produce exports. DON is a secondary metabolite produced by some Fusarium species of fungi. To date, there is a lack of effective and economical methods to significantly reduce the levels of trichothecene mycotoxins in food and feed, including the efforts to breed Fusarium pathogen-resistant crops and chemical/physical treatments to remove the mycotoxins. Biological approaches, such as the use of microorganisms to convert the toxins to non- or less toxic compounds, have become a preferred choice recently due to their high specificity, efficacy, and environmental soundness. However, such approaches are often limited by the availability of microbial agents with the ability to detoxify the mycotoxins. In the present study, an approach with PCR-DGGE guided microbial selection was developed and used to isolate DON -transforming bacteria from chicken intestines, which resulted in the successful isolation of several bacterial isolates that demonstrated the function to transform DON to its de-epoxy form, deepoxy-4-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1, a product much less toxic than DON. Results The use of conventional microbiological selection strategies guided by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bacterial profiles for isolating DON-transforming bacteria has significantly increased the efficiency of the bacterial selection. Ten isolates were identified and isolated from chicken intestines. They were all able to transform DON to DOM-1. Most isolates were potent in transforming DON and the activity was stable during subculturing. Sequence data of partial 16S rRNA genes indicate that the ten isolates belong to four different bacterial groups

  13. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to

  14. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella carr

  15. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...

  16. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  17. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Sa

  18. Comparing the Effects of Supplementary Antibiotic, Probiotic, and Prebiotic on Carcass Composition, Salmonella Counts and Serotypes in Droppings and Intestine of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonge EO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of antibiotic, probiotic, and prebiotic as dietary feed additives on carcass composition as well as Salmonella counts and its serotypes in droppings and intestine of broiler chickens on days 1, 28, and 56 of experiment were investigated. Dietary treatments were control diet (basal diet without additives, OXYT diet (basal diet with 600 ppm of the antibiotic oxytetracycline, GRO-UP diet (basal diet with 500 ppm probiotic, and MOS-500 or MOS-1000 diets (basal diet with 500 or 1000 ppm mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic, respectively. From an initial total of 190 day-old Arbor acres broiler chicks, two birds were randomly selected from each treatment and sampled for Salmonella. The remaining 180 birds were randomly allotted to the five dietary treatments with three replicates of 12 birds each. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The results indicated that breast, neck, drumsticks and liver yields significantly affected by the inclusion of feed additives (P < 0.05. Significant differences were observed in average Salmonella counts in both the intestines and droppings of broiler chickens at different days of experiment (P < 0.05. Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Typhi were serotypes identified in the droppings and intestine of broiler chickens. Our findings reveal that the inclusion of prebiotic oligomanno or probiotic GRO-UP as antibiotic substitutes in diets of broiler chickens can rapidly reduce some Salmonella serotypes and aid to the control Salmonella organisms.

  19. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Antioxidant Function in Intestinal Tracts of Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming; Yu Xian-yi; Li Jin-long; Han Yan-hui; Li Shu; Xu Shi-wen

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of cold stress on the contents of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens. A total of 80 15-dayold male chickens were treated by cold stress with the duration of the acute cold stress being 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and the chronic cold stress was 5, 10, and 20 days, respectively. Cold stress temperature was (12±1)℃. The chemical colorimetric method was used to detect the changes of the T-AOC, SOD activities and MDA contents. The results showed that compared with the corresponding control group, effects of acute cold stress on the T-AOC in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens significantly (P〈0.05) increased firstly and then decreased. Under chronic cold stress, the T-AOC significantly (P〈0.05) decreased. Under acute cold stress and chronic cold stress, the MDA contents significantly (P〈0.05) increased in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens. The effects of acute cold stress on the SOD activities in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens significantly (P〈0.05) increased firstly and then decreased Under chronic cold stress the SOD activities significantly (P〈0.05) decreased in jejunum and ileum, but significantly (P〈0.05) decreased firstly and then increased in duodenum.

  20. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  1. Protective effects of levamisole, acetylsalicylic acid, and α-tocopherol against dioxin toxicity measured as the expression of AhR and COX-2 in a chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostomska-Pampuch, Kinga; Ostrowska, Alicja; Kuropka, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej; Całkosiński, Ireneusz

    2017-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are classed as persistent organic pollutants and have adverse effects on multiple functions within the body. Dioxins are known carcinogens, immunotoxins, and teratogens. Dioxins are transformed in vivo, and interactions between the products and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) lead to the formation of proinflammatory and toxic metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine whether α-tocopherol (vitamin E), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and levamisole can decrease the amount of damage caused by dioxins. Fertile Hubbard Flex commercial line chicken eggs were injected with solutions containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or containing TCDD and the test compounds. The chicken embryos and organs were analyzed after 7 and 13 days. The levels at which AhR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins (which are induced during inflammation) were expressed were evaluated by performing immunohistochemical analyses on embryos treated with TCDD alone or with TCDD and the test compounds. TCDD caused developmental disorders and increased AhR and COX-2 expression in the chicken embryo tissues. Vitamin E, levamisole, ASA, and ASA plus vitamin E inhibited AhR and COX-2 expression in embryos after 7 days and decreased AhR and COX-2 expression in embryos after 13 days. ASA, levamisole, and ASA plus vitamin E weakened the immune response and prevented multiple organ changes. Vitamin E was not fully protective against developmental changes in the embryos.

  2. β-1,3/1,6-Glucan alleviated intestinal mucosal barrier impairment of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yujing; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on gut morphology, intestinal epithelial tight junctions, and bacterial translocation of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Ninety Salmonella-free Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups: negative control group (NC), Salmonella Typhimurium-infected positive group (PC), and the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected group with dietary 100 mg/kg of β-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation (T) to determine the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on intestinal barrier function. Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone significantly decreased villus height (P cells (P cells at 14 dpi (P cells (P cells (P Salmonella Typhimurium in comparison with Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone. β-1,3/1,6-Glucan addition had significant inhibitory effects (P Salmonella colonization levels and liver Salmonella invasion of the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected birds compared with the PC group. Intestinal tight junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin mRNA expression in the jejunum at 14 dpi was significantly decreased by Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone (P Salmonella Typhimurium-infected birds in comparison with the PC group. Our results indicate that dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucan can alleviate intestinal mucosal barrier impairment in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium.

  3. Viral proliferation and expression of tumor-related gene in different chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with different tumorigenic phenotypes of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yajin; Liu, Litao; Niu, Yujuan; Qu, Yue; Li, Ning; Sun, Wei; Lv, Chuanwei; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Guihua; Liu, Sidang

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induced formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. To identify the molecular pathological mechanism underlying changes in host susceptibility and tumor classification induced by these two types of ALV-J strains, chicken embryo fibroblasts derived from chickens with different genetic backgrounds (broiler breeders and laying hens) and an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) were prepared and infected with strain NX0101 or HN10PY01, respectively. The 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and levels of ALV group-specific antigen p27 and heat shock protein 70 in the supernatant collected from the ALV-J infected cells were detected. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of tumor-related genes p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 in ALV-J-infected cells were quantified. The results indicated that the infection of ALV-J could significantly increase mRNA expression levels of p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 Strain HN10PY01 exhibited a greater influence on the three tumor-related genes in each of the three types of cells when compared with strain NX0101, and the TCID50 and p27 levels in the supernatant collected from HN10PY01-infected cells were higher than those collected from NX0101-infected cells. These results indicate that the infection of the two ALV-J strains influenced the gene expression levels in the infected cells, while the newly isolated strain HN10PY01 showed higher replication ability in cells and induced higher expression levels of tumor-related genes in infected cells. Furthermore, virus titers and expression levels of tumor-related genes and cellular stress responses of cells with different genetic backgrounds when infected with each of the two ALV-J strain were different

  4. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  5. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  6. Development of an in vivo model for study of intestinal invasion by Salmonella enterica in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    An in vivo loop test model for the investigation of the invasiveness of Salmonella enterica in chickens was developed. Ten jejunal loops were made in 10- to 12-week-old Lohman Brown chickens under isofluoran anaesthesia. Salmonella at 5.0 x 10(7) CFU was inoculated into each loop and left for 2 h......, followed by a 1-h incubation with gentamicin in order to kill noninvading bacteria. After euthanasia, Salmonella invasiveness was measured as tissue-associated counts relative to a reference strain. The ability of Salmonella invasion was 1 log(10) CFU higher per 42-mm(2) mucosal tissue in the anterior than...... in the posterior part of jejunum. A statistically significant (P model was shown to be able to show small differences in invasive capability and allows...

  7. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony N Parsons

    Full Text Available Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp., have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001. In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81; P<0.001 and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90; P<0.001. Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was

  8. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Bryony N; Wigley, Paul; Simpson, Hannah L; Williams, Jonathan M; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J M; Fry, Stephen C; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well

  9. Intestinal development and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Zhou, Y M; Wu, Y N; Wang, T

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  10. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group, or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group, respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05 effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p0.05 influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  11. Study on Injection of Zedoary Turmeric Volatile Oil against Newcastle Disease Virus in SPF Chicken Embryo Inoculation%莪术油注射液鸡胚接种抗新城疫病毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学理; 鄢长庆; 刘珂飞; 杨明; 杨明霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the inhibiting and killing effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the newcastle disease virus. [ Method] The inhibitory effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the multiplication of the newcastle disease virus was determined by the SPF chicken embryo culture and hemagglutination test. [ Result] The zedoary turmeric volatile oil had no toxicity effect on the SPF chicken embryo. Inoculating SPF chicken embryo synchronously with the zedoary turmeric volatile oil and the virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit the reproduction of the newcastle disease virus in the SPF chicken embryo. [Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for the application of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil in the Veterinary Clinical.%[目的]探讨莪术油对新城疫病毒的抑制和杀灭作用.[方法]用鸡胚培养法和血凝试验,测定莪术油对鸡新城疫病毒增殖的抑制作用.[结果]莪术油对鸡胚无毒性作用;莪术油与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城疫病毒在鸡胚中的增殖.[结论]结果为莪术油在兽医临床上的应用提供了理论依据.

  12. Sources of trophic action on performance and intestinal morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Sakamoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sources of trophic action (glutamine alone, glutamine associated with glutamic acid and yeast associated with vaccination against coccidiosis on the performance and morphometry of the small intestine of broilers. In the trial, 1,200 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 + 2 (trophic action x vaccination or not + control - free trophic factor factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 30 birds each. Vaccination negatively affected performance parameters and the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, but at the end of the experimental period, among the broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis, the group fed glutamine presented better recovery from epithelial losses of the intestinal mucosa compared with the control groups. Therefore, the dietary supplementation with the evaluated sources of trophic action could be a strategy to enhance the development of broilers submitted to vaccine stress, also considering the economic viability of the productive segment.

  13. Increased intracellular calcium level and impaired nutrient absorption are important pathogenicity traits in the chicken intestinal epithelium during Campylobacter jejuni colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Smorodchenko, Alina; Hess, Claudia; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Molnár, Andor; Dublecz, Károly; Khayal, Basel; Pohl, Elena E; Hess, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Although a high number of chickens carry Campylobacter jejuni, the mechanistic action of colonization in the intestine is still poorly understood. The current study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of C. jejuni on glucose uptake, amino acids availability in digesta, and intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i signaling in the intestines of broiler chickens. For this, we compared: control birds (n = 60) and C. jejuni-infected birds (n = 60; infected orally with 1 × 10(8) CFU of C. jejuni NCTC 12744 at 14 days of age). Our results showed that glucose uptake was reduced due to C. jejuni infection in isolated jejunal, but not in cecal mucosa at 14 days postinfection (dpi). The decrease in intestinal glucose absorption coincided with a decrease in body weight gain during the 2-week post-infectious period. A reduction in the amount of the amino acids (serine, proline, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine, and lysine) in ileal digesta of the infected birds at 2 and/or 7 dpi was found, indicating that Campylobacter utilizes amino acids as a carbon source for their multiplication. Applying the cell-permeable Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 and two-photon microscopy, we revealed that [Ca(2+)]i was increased in the jejunal and cecal mucosa of infected birds. The muscarinic agonist carbachol induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in jejunum and cecum mucosa of control chickens, a response absent in the mucosa of infected chickens, demonstrating that the modulation of [Ca(2+)]i by Campylobacter might be involved in facilitating the necessary cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the multifaceted interactions of C. jejuni with the gastrointestinal mucosa of broiler chickens. For the first time, it could be shown that a Campylobacter infection could interfere with intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and nutrient absorption in the small intestine with consequences on

  14. Effect of Scrophularia striata and Ferulago angulata, as alternatives to virginiamycin, on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Farhad; Ghasemi, Hossein A; Taherpour, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of Scrophularia striata, Ferulago angulata, and virginiamycin (VM) on performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broilers. A total of 300 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 5 replicates/treatment (10 chickens/pen). Birds were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg VM; 4 g/kg S. striata (SS1); 8 g/kg S. striata (SS2); 4 g/kg F. angulata (FA1); or 8 g/kg F. angulata (FA2). After 6 wk, the BW, ADG, and feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) of the VM, SS1, and FA1 groups were better (Pantibiotic growth promoter. Furthermore, a high dose of both herbs (8 g/kg diet) could beneficially affect the intestinal health and immune status of broilers.

  15. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  16. Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  17. Maternal diet influences gene expression in intestine of offspring in chicken (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Francis, R.M.; Balk, F.R.M.; Smits, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The diet of the mother during pregnancy influences the onset of different diseases and health-related traits in the offspring. We investigated the influence of the mother hen diet on the intestinal gene expression pattern in the offspring. Hens received for 11 weeks either a commercial feed or a

  18. Successive immunoglobulin and cytokine expression in the small intestine of juvenile chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Wieland, W.H.; Kruijt, L.; Jansma, A.; Straetemans, T.; Schots, A.; Hartog, den C.G.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is of major importance for immune development. To further study the ontogeny of avian mucosal immunity, mRNA levels of IgM, IgY and IgA, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and a number of cytokines were determined at different ages in jejunum and ileum of non-immunize

  19. A mathematical model representing cellular immune development and response to Salmonella of chicken intestinal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Bannink, A.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a dynamic mathematical model of the development of the cellular branch of the intestinal immune system of poultry during the first 42 days of life and of its response towards an oral infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The system elements were

  20. Replacing corn with sorghum in the diet alters intestinal microbiota without altering chicken performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, N S; Pereira, R; Bortoluzzi, C; Rafael, J M; Napty, G S; Barbosa, J G M; Sciencia, M C M; Menten, J F M

    2017-10-01

    Sorghum grain can be used to replace corn in broiler diets. However, the effects related to an abrupt change between these grains are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and intestinal health of broilers fed diets containing corn and/or sorghum during different periods of rearing. To accomplish this aim, 2100 male chicks were fed the following experimental diets: C100% (corn-based diet); S100% (sorghum-based diet); C:S50% (diet based on corn and sorghum 1:1); PC-S (corn-based diet in the pre-starter phase and sorghum-based diet in subsequent phases); and PS-C (sorghum-based diet in the pre-starter phase and corn-based diet in subsequent phases). The study was conducted with two simultaneous trials in a randomized block design as follows: a performance trial up to 40 days occurred in floor pens (n = 8), and the metabolism trial occurred in cages (n = 10). Performance, jejunal morphometry, number of goblet cells, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and the coefficient of apparent metabolizability of dry matter (CMDM) of the diets, and the intestinal microbiota of small intestine and caeca at 10 and 21 days of age (16S gene sequencing) were evaluated. The different experimental diets did not affect performance, jejunal epithelium, AME, AMEn or CMDM. However, the experimental diets altered the percentages of the genera Clostridium, Weissella, Bacillus and Alkaliphilus in the small intestine. In addition, the genera Lactobacillus and Desulfotomaculum in the caeca were altered. The age also affected the microbiota of the intestinal segments. In conclusion, feeding sorghum in place of corn as well as the grain change after the pre-starter phase does not alter broiler performance. However, sorghum alters the intestinal microbiota, resulting in a lower percentage of Clostridium and a higher percentage of Lactobacillus in the small intestine and caeca, respectively. Journal of

  1. A new oxidative stress model, 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride induces cardiovascular damages in chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Rong He

    Full Text Available It is now well established that the developing embryo is very sensitive to oxidative stress, which is a contributing factor to pregnancy-related disorders. However, little is known about the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the embryonic cardiovascular system due to a lack of appropriate ROS control method in the placenta. In this study, a small molecule called 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH, a free radicals generator, was used to study the effects of oxidative stress on the cardiovascular system during chick embryo development. When nine-day-old (stage HH 35 chick embryos were treated with different concentrations of AAPH inside the air chamber, it was established that the LD50 value for AAPH was 10 µmol/egg. At this concentration, AAPH was found to significantly reduce the density of blood vessel plexus that was developed in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of HH 35 chick embryos. Impacts of AAPH on younger embryos were also examined and discovered that it inhibited the development of vascular plexus on yolk sac in HH 18 embryos. AAPH also dramatically repressed the development of blood islands in HH 3+ embryos. These results implied that AAPH-induced oxidative stress could impair the whole developmental processes associated with vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, we observed heart enlargement in the HH 40 embryo following AAPH treatment, where the left ventricle and interventricular septum were found to be thickened in a dose-dependent manner due to myocardiac cell hypertrophy. In conclusion, oxidative stress, induced by AAPH, could lead to damage of the cardiovascular system in the developing chick embryo. The current study also provided a new developmental model, as an alternative for animal and cell models, for testing small molecules and drugs that have anti-oxidative activities.

  2. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  3. 鸡小肠上皮细胞的分离培养与鉴定%Culture of Chicken Intestine Epithelial Cells in vitro and its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 彭春燕; 梁榕旺; 赵国琦; 金晓君

    2011-01-01

    选择组织块法分离培养鸡小肠上皮细胞(intestinal epithelial cells,IEC),采用机械刮除法和相差消化-相差贴壁法纯化细胞,0.05%的Trypsin-EDTA对获得的IEC进行消化传代,免疫细胞化学法鉴定IEC.结果表明,组织块培养法可分离出活性较强的IEC,并获得纯化的上皮细胞;形态学和免疫细胞化学法检测显示获得的细胞表面抗原呈阳性,鉴定为IEC;纯化的IEC可在体外稳定传代.%In this study,we selected tissue culture method to isolation chicken intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), using curetrage, phase contrast digest and adherence methods to purify cells, with 0.05 % Trypsin to digest and passage, immunocytochemical method to identify intestinal epithelial cells.The results showed that hadro-activity intestinal epithelial cells could be dissociated by tissue culture method, and obtain purified intestine epithelium.Morphology and immunocytochemical method showed that intestinal epithelial cells surface antigen demonstrate masculine, and purified intestine epithelium could be passaged in vitro.

  4. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal.

  5. Feed-additive probiotics accelerate yet antibiotics delay intestinal microbiota maturation in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-03

    Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni colonization promotes the translocation of Escherichia coli to extra-intestinal organs and disturbs the short-chain fatty acids profiles in the chicken gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Dublecz, F; Hess, C; Dublecz, K; Khayal, B; Aschenbach, J R; Hess, M

    2016-10-01

    For a long time Campylobacter was only considered as a commensal microorganism in avian hosts restricted to the ceca, without any pathogenic features. The precise reasons for the symptomless chicken carriers are still unknown, but investigations of the gastrointestinal ecology of broiler chickens may improve our understanding of the microbial interactions with the host. Therefore, the current studies were conducted to investigate the effects of Campylobacter jejuni colonization on Escherichia coli translocation and on the metabolic end products (short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs). Following oral infection of 14 day old broiler chickens with 1 × 10(8) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 12744 in two independent animal trials, it was found that C. jejuni heavily colonized the intestine and disseminate to extra-intestinal organs. Moreover, in both animal trials, the findings revealed that C. jejuni promoted the translocation of E. coli with a higher number encountered in the spleen and liver at 14 days post infection (dpi). In addition, Campylobacter affected the microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers by reducing the amount of propionate, isovalerate, and isobutyrate in the cecal digesta of the infected birds at 2 dpi and, at 7 and 14 dpi, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate were also decreased. However, in the jejunum, the C. jejuni infection lowered only butyrate concentrations at 14 dpi. These data indicated that C. jejuni may utilize SCFAs as carbon sources to promote its colonization in the chicken gut, suggesting that Campylobacter cannot only alter gut colonization dynamics but might also influence physiological processes due to altered microbial metabolite profiles.Finally, the results demonstrated that C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and facilitates the translocation of Campylobacter itself as well as of other enteric microorganisms such as E. coli to extra-intestinal organs of infected birds. Altogether, our

  7. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  8. Reversible small bowel obstruction in the chicken foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Oetzmann von Sochaczewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ligation of the embryonic gut is an established technique to induce intestinal obstruction and subsequently intestinal atresia in chicken embryos. In this study, we modified this established chicken model of prenatal intestinal obstruction to describe (1 the kinetics of morphological changes, (2 to test if removal of the ligature in ovo is possible in later embryonic development and (3 to describe morphological adaptations following removal of the ligature. Materials and Methods: On embryonic day (ED 11, small intestines of chick embryos were ligated micro surgically in ovo. In Group 1 (n = 80 gut was harvested proximal and distal to the ligation on ED 12-19. In Group 2 (n = 20 the induced obstruction was released on day 15 and gut was harvested on ED 16-19. Acetyl choline esterase staining was used as to assess resulting morphological changes. Results: A marked intestinal dilatation of the proximal segment can be seen 4 days after the operation (ED 15. The dilatation increased in severity until ED 19 and intestinal atresia could be observed after ED 16. In the dilated proximal segments, signs of disturbed enteric nervous system morphology were obvious. In contrast to this, release of the obstruction on ED 15 in Group 2 resulted in almost normal gut morphology at ED 19. Conclusion: Our model not only allows the description of morphological changes caused by an induced obstruction on ED 11 but also-more important - of morphological signs of adaptation following the release of the obstruction on ED 15.

  9. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 Occurring from Hyperglycemia-Induced Neural Tube Defects Is Ameliorated by Carnosine But Not Folic Acid in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Huang, Wen-Shan; Tsoi, Bun; Hu, Dan; Wan, Xin; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Qi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of the embryonic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic gestation. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis influenced by hyperglycemia was investigated using chicken embryo models. High-concentration glucose was administered into chicken eggs and resulted in increased plasma and brain tissue glucose, and suppressed expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The rate of NTD positively correlated with hyperglycemia. Furthermore, abnormally increased O-GlcNAcylation, a nutritionally responsive modification, of the key neural tube marker Pax3 protein led to the loss of this protein. This loss was not observed in a folate-deficiency NTD induced by methotrexate. Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, showed significant recovery effects on neural tube development. In contrast, folic acid, a well-known periconceptional agent, surprisingly showed relatively minimal effect. Higher expression levels of the Pax3 protein were found in the carnosine-treated groups, while lower expression levels were found in folic acid groups. Furthermore, the abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of the Pax3 protein was restored by carnosine. These results suggest new insights into using endogenous nutrients for the protection of embryonic neurodevelopment affected by diabetes gestation. The abnormal excessive O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 may be responsible for the neural tube defects associated with hyperglycemia.

  10. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  11. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on digestive enzymes, absorption function, and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Xie, J; Wang, B; Tang, J

    2014-10-01

    To explore the effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on digestive enzyme activity, absorption function and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed Wenchang chicken were studied. One-day-old male Wenchang chickens were randomly divided into a control group (CK), heat stress group (HS), and GABA+HS group. The chickens from the GABA+HS group were administered with 0.2 mL of GABA solution daily. Chickens from HS and GABA+HS groups were subjected to heat stress treatment at 40 ± 0.5°C for 2 h during 1300 to 1500 h every day. Blood was drawn and 0.5 cm-long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected from the chickens on d 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 15. Results showed that the activity of Ca²⁺-Mg²⁺-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, maltase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase, the contents of secretory IgA, glutathione, and d-xylose, and the number of lymphocytes in HS group were significantly lower than those in the CK group. Among them, some were rescued after the treatment of GABA as the time extension. For maltase, d-xylose, alkaline phosphatase, and Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, it required 5 to 7 d for achieving the significant effect. For sucrase, 12 d for the alleviation effect was required. In the case of other parameters, no alleviation was observed during the whole period of the study. We have concluded that HS can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes and reduce absorption and immune functions of intestinal mucosa. γ-Aminobutyric acid can effectively alleviate these inhibitory effects. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effect of dietary fibres on small intestine histomorphology and lipid metabolism in young broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatnejad, E; Saki, A A

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary fibres on small intestine histomorphology and lipid metabolism in broilers from 1 to 21 day of age. In experiment 1, diets containing insoluble [cellulose (CEL); 2% and 4%] or soluble [carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); 2% and 4%] fibre were fed to broilers from day 1 to 21 post-hatch and ileal tissue was collected at day 21 of age for histological evaluation. In experiment 2, broilers diet was supplemented with 0%, 1% or 2% insoluble fibre (Arbocel) during day 7 to 21 post-hatch and plasma and liver lipid metabolism were evaluated at day 21. In experiment 1, inclusion of CMC reduced body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with others. Intestinal histomorphology was unaffected by CEL, but CMC led to an increase in crypt depth (CD) and serosa thickness and a decrease in villus height (VH), villus width (VW), VH:CD ratio and villus surface area (VSA), rather than control and CEL groups. Treatment did not affect goblet cell type. Moreover, the CMC-fed birds had greater total goblet cell count (GCC) as compared with others. In experiment 2, fibre inclusion was associated with increases in BWG from 7 to 14 day of age and an improvement in FCR, whereas FI was not influenced by treatments. Inclusion of fibre in the diet decreased the weight of the abdominal fat and cholesterol concentrations of liver and plasma. No significant effects on fatty acid composition of liver lipid were observed by fibre supplementation. These findings suggest dietary fibre affects performance, intestinal histomorphology and lipid metabolism in young chicks, which may directly affect poultry feeding strategies.

  13. 胚胎时期小鼠小肠的组织发生%Histogenesis of mouse small intestine in embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎尉雅; 贾琴; 张敏; 崔梦卿; 李良平; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the morphogenesis of mouse small intestine tissues and distribution of caliciform cells in embryo at different stages in order to provide morphological data for the development of mouse small intestine.Methods HE and PAS stain were used in the paraffin section of mouse embryo aged from embryo 13.5 day (E13.5 d) to postnatal 1 (P1) day.Rseults (1) At E13.5d,the small intestine of mouse was differentiated,the mucosa,submucosa,muscularis,serosa appeared.(2) At E15.5 d,the epithelium of intestine started differentiating into intestinal villus,and caliciform cell gradually formed at the day E16.5 embryo,at P1day embryo small intestinal gland builded up.At this time of embryo,the basic structure of small intestine came into being.(3)The number of the caliciform cells increased as mice age,that caliciform cells were most abundant at P1 day (P<0.05).Caliciform cells were distributed mainly over the epithelial villus,i predominate in the terminal ileum,and deminishing from ileum,jejunum to duodenum (P<0.05).Conclusion The differentiation of small intestine is fastest at E15.5~E17.5 d,the basic structure of the small intestine with certain digestive and absorptive function is formed during the embryonic period.%目的 观察小鼠胚胎各个时期小肠组织的形态结构及杯状细胞在小肠内的分布规律,为小鼠小肠的组织发生提供形态学依据.方法 采用HE染色和PAS染色,对小鼠胚胎第13.5天(E13.5d)至出生后第1天(Pld)胚胎的石蜡切片染色并行光学显微镜观察.结果 (1)小鼠肠壁于E13.5 d已分化出现黏膜层、黏膜下层、肌层及浆膜.(2)肠绒毛于E15.5 d分化形成,杯状细胞于E16.5 d逐渐发育分化出现,肠腺于E18.5~P1 d发育分化形成,此时小肠基本结构形成.(3)杯状细胞主要分布于小肠绒毛上皮,其中以回肠末端最多,回肠、空肠、十二指肠顺次递减(P<0.05).杯状细胞数量随胎龄逐渐增加而逐渐增多,于P1 d

  14. Tissue tropism in the chicken embryo of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle diseases strains that express green fluorescence protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Garib, S.O.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Gruys, E.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Koch, G.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue tropism of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated using 8-day-old and 14-day-old embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), inoculated with an infectious clone of the non-virulent La Sota strain (NDFL-GFP) or its virulent derivative (NDFLtag-GFP). Both strains expr

  15. Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Thodberg, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light...... across the day. However, DARK 4þ4 had a higher feed intake and weight gain. The occurrence and severity of foot pad dermatitis was similar between treatments. 6. In conclusion, broilers modify their feeding behaviour according to the prevailing light schedule. Eight consecutive hours of darkness reduced...

  16. Cytokine gene expression profiles in chicken spleen and intestinal tissues during Ascaridia galli infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne A.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.;

    2014-01-01

    and decreased expression of IFN-gamma from day 14 post infection. At the putative time of larvae invasion into the intestinal mucosa (day 7), an increased expression of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and TGF-beta 4 was observed in the spleen. At the putative onset of the innate immune response (day 10), a decreased...... expression of jejunal IFN-gamma and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 4 in spleen and IFN-gamma in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal...

  17. Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Akşit, M; Yalçin, S

    2014-08-01

    Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions.

  18. Metabolism of SFZ—47 in chicken embryo by liquid chroma—tography—electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGQing-Guang; GUJing-Kai; ZHONGDa-Fang; JPaulFAWCETT; ZHOUHui

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To develop an alternative method for investigation of drug metabolism by fertilized chicken eggs using 3H-1,2-dihydro-2-(4-methyl-phenylamino) methyl-1-pyrrolizinone (SFZ-47) as a probe drug. METHODS:SFZ-47(15 mg) was injected into the albumen of eggs from standardized breed chickens previously incubated for 10d. After 72 h of further incubation, the allantoic liquid was subjected to solid phase extraction on XAD-2 columns and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: Three major metabolites were identified, namely 4-(3H-1,2-dihydro-1-pyrrolizinone-2-methyl-amino) benzyl alcohol (SFZ-47-OH), 4-(3H-1,2-dihydro-1-pyrrolizinone-2-methyl-amino)-benzoic acid (SFZ-47-COOH), and its glucuronide conjugates. The metabolic profile was little different from that previously found in rabbits and dogs. CONCLUSION: The result demonstrates the usefulness of the fertilized chicken egg as a convenient source of both phase I and phase Ⅱ metabolites for further metabolism studies of SFZ-47.

  19. Comparative Efficacy of an Organic Acid Blend and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate as Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens: Effects on Performance, Gut Histology, and Small Intestinal Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Samanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs. Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1 g and 2 g/kg diet and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5 g and 1 g/kg diet for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (<.001 feed conversion ratio (FCR and increased protein accretion (<.001. Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (<.01 with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1 g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2 g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet.

  20. Effect of -based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjian Lei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control, and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30 or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21 and finisher (d 22 to 42. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21 and finisher (d 42 phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01 compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42 broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG and FCR than that of control (p<0.05. Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP, dry matter (DM and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05 compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control

  1. Comparative microarray analysis of intestinal lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella infection in the chicken.

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    Duk Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469 and secondary (1,459 infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063 vs. primary (890 infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down. With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of "Disease and Disorder" and "Physiological System Development and Function". Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies.

  2. Purification and amino acid sequence of a bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus salivarius K7 isolated from chicken intestine

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    Kenji Sonomoto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus K7, was isolated from a chicken intestine. The inhibitory activity was determined by spot-on-lawn technique. Identification of the strain was performed by morphological, biochemical (API 50 CH kit and molecular genetic (16S rDNA basis. Bacteriocin purification processes were carried out by amberlite adsorption, cation exchange and reverse-phase high perform- ance liquid chromatography. N-terminal amino acid sequences were performed by Edman degradation. Molecular mass was determined by electrospray-ionization (ESI mass spectrometry (MS. Lactobacillus K7 showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157T, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides JCM 6124T and Bacillus coagulans JCM 2257T. This strain was identified as Lb. salivarius. The antimicrobial substance was destroyed by proteolytic enzymes, indicating its proteinaceous structure designated as a bacteriocin type. The purification of bacteriocin by amberlite adsorption, cation exchange, and reverse-phase chromatography resulted in only one single active peak, which was designated FK22. Molecular weight of this fraction was 4331.70 Da. By amino acid sequence, this peptide was homology to Abp 118 beta produced by Lb. salivarius UCC118. In addition, Lb. salivarius UCC118 produced 2-peptide bacteriocin, which was Abp 118 alpha and beta. Based on the partial amino acid sequences of Abp 118 beta, specific primers were designed from nucleotide sequences according to data from GenBank. The result showed that the deduced peptide was high homology to 2-peptide bacteriocin, Abp 118 alpha and beta.

  3. Effects of two herbal extracts and virginiamycin supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microflora population and Fatty Acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Zulkifli, Idrus; Rahim, Nordiana Asyikin Abdul; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-03-01

    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, "day-old" chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at -20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens' breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens.

  4. Acute heat stress impairs performance parameters and induces mild intestinal enteritis in broiler chickens: role of acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

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    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Rodrigues, M V; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2012-06-01

    Studies on the environmental consequences of stress are relevant for economic and animal welfare reasons. We recently reported that long-term heat stressors (31 ± 1°C and 36 ± 1°C for 10 h/d) applied to broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from d 35 to 42 of life increased serum corticosterone concentrations, decreased performance variables and the macrophage oxidative burst, and produced mild, multifocal acute enteritis. Being cognizant of the relevance of acute heat stress on tropical and subtropical poultry production, we designed the current experiment to analyze, from a neuroimmune perspective, the effects of an acute heat stress (31 ± 1°C for 10 h on d 35 of life) on serum corticosterone, performance variables, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity in chickens. We demonstrated that the acute heat stress increased serum corticosterone concentrations and mortality and decreased food intake, BW gain, and feed conversion (P 0.05). Increases in the basal and the Staphylococcus aureus-induced macrophage oxidative bursts and a decrease in the percentage of macrophages performing phagocytosis were also observed. Finally, mild, multifocal acute enteritis, characterized by the increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the lamina propria of the jejunum, was also observed. We found that the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was responsible for the negative effects observed on chicken performance and immune function as well as for the changes in the intestinal mucosa. The data presented here corroborate with those presented in other studies in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  5. Analysis of JAK-STAT signaling pathway genes and their microRNAs in the intestinal mucosa of genetically disparate chicken lines induced with necrotic enteritis.

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    Truong, Anh Duc; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Hong, Yeojin; Hoang, Cong Thanh; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2017-05-01

    The JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays a key role in cytokine and growth factor activation and is involved in several cellular functions and diseases. The main objective of this study was to investigate the expression of candidate JAK-STAT pathway genes and their regulators and interactors in the intestinal mucosal layer of two genetically disparate chicken lines [Marek's disease (MD)-resistant line 6.3 and MD-susceptible line 7.2] induced with necrotic enteritis (NE). Through RNA-sequencing, we investigated 116 JAK-STAT signaling pathway-related genes that were significant and differentially expressed between the intestinal mucosa of the two lines compared with respective uninfected controls. About 15 JAK-STAT pathway genes were further verified by qRT-PCR, and the results were in agreement with our sequencing data. All the identified 116 genes were annotated through Gene Ontology and mapped to the KEGG chicken JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to represent the transcriptional analysis of a large number of candidate genes, regulators, and potential interactors in the JAK-STAT pathway of the two chicken lines induced with NE. Several key genes of the interactome, namely, STAT1/3/4, STAT5B, JAK1-3, TYK2, AKT1/3, SOCS1-5, PIAS1/2/4, PTPN6/11, and PIK3, were determined to be differentially expressed in the two lines. Moreover, we detected 68 known miRNAs variably targeting JAK-STAT pathway genes and differentially expressed in the two lines induced with NE. The RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analyses in this study provided an abundance of data that will be useful for future studies on JAK-STAT pathways associated with the functions of two genetically disparate chicken lines induced with NE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load.

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    Tanka P Prasai

    Full Text Available A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97% related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99% and Clostridium aldenense (95% related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens.

  7. The Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Intestinal and Cecal Coccidiosis in Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V. D.; Fernando, M. A.; Summers, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of interaction of crude protein level in the diet and coccidiosis of the cecum and small intestine of chicks was investigated. A total of 390 day-old chicks were divided in 36 groups of ten and six groups of five chicks each. Twelve groups of ten and two groups of six chicks each were fed one of the three diets based on dietary crude protein level (16%, 20% and 24%). All diets contained an equal energy concentration. The chicks were on the appropriate diet for 15 days prior to infection. Each group was then subjected to one of the three treatments (a) control, (b) a single dose infection with 100,000 oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and (c) a single dose infection with 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella. On the eighth day post infection all surviving E. tenella infected chicks and two replicates per dietary treatment of control and E. acervulina infected chicks were killed. An increase in dietary crude protein led to a linear (PCoccidiosis caused a reduction in daily gain, feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization, the effect being more severe in E. tenella infection. The effect of dietary crude protein was protective against weight reduction. Chicks infected with E. tenella fed 24% crude protein had a higher (P<0.01) mortality rate than those fed on 16% or 20% crude protein level. The oocyst production by E. acervulina infected chicks was also higher (P<0.01) at the 24% crude protein level. The E. acervulina infected chicks exhibited compensatory growth during the eight to 14 days post infection. The compensatory growth was superior at the higher crude protein levels. The mechanism of compensatory growth is discussed. PMID:4266700

  8. Thermal manipulation of the chicken embryo triggers differential gene expression in response to a later heat challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Thomas; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Coustham, Vincent; Berri, Cécile; Leduc, Marie; Crochet, Sabine; Sannier, Mélanie; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Tesseraud, Sophie; Brionne, Aurélien; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Moroldo, Marco; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Martin, Patrice; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Yahav, Shlomo; Collin, Anne

    2016-05-04

    Meat type chickens have limited capacities to cope with high environmental temperatures, this sometimes leading to mortality on farms and subsequent economic losses. A strategy to alleviate this problem is to enhance adaptive capacities to face heat exposure using thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis. This strategy was shown to improve thermotolerance during their life span. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of TM (39.5 °C, 12 h/24 vs 37.8 °C from d7 to d16 of embryogenesis) and of a subsequent heat challenge (32 °C for 5 h) applied on d34 on gene expression in the Pectoralis major muscle (PM). A chicken gene expression microarray (8 × 60 K) was used to compare muscle gene expression profiles of Control (C characterized by relatively high body temperatures, Tb) and TM chickens (characterized by a relatively low Tb) reared at 21 °C and at 32 °C (CHC and TMHC, respectively) in a dye-swap design with four comparisons and 8 broilers per treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was subsequently performed to validate differential expression in each comparison. Gene ontology, clustering and network building strategies were then used to identify pathways affected by TM and heat challenge. Among the genes differentially expressed (DE) in the PM (1.5 % of total probes), 28 were found to be differentially expressed between C and TM, 128 between CHC and C, and 759 between TMHC and TM. No DE gene was found between TMHC and CHC broilers. The majority of DE genes analyzed by RT-qPCR were validated. In the TM/C comparison, DE genes were involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial function, cell proliferation, vascularization and muscle growth; when comparing heat-exposed chickens to their own controls, TM broilers developed more specific pathways than C, especially involving genes related to metabolism, stress response, vascularization, anti-apoptotic and epigenetic processes. This study improved the understanding of the

  9. Selection of indigenous lactic acid bacteria to reinforce the intestinal microbiota of newly hatched chicken: relevance of in vitro and ex vivo methods for strains characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babot, Jaime D; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Saavedra, Lucila; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    Based on the natural benefits of the indigenous microbiota, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from poultry origin were isolated from hens and broilers intestine, and their probiotic potential was further studied. The tolerance to digestion, adhesion, capture of a mannose-binding lectin, absence of virulent factors and antibiotic resistances were studied. Different in vitro and ex vivo assays were performed to select tolerant and adherent strains because standardized protocols have not been defined. Fourteen strains highly tolerant to gastrointestinal digestion were genetically identified. Hydrophobic surfaces were not required for the bacterial adhesion and only nine strains adhered ex vivo to the intestinal mucosa. Three strains captured a lectin of the same specificity of Type-1 fimbriae. Virulence factors were absent but some strains evidenced multiple antibiotic resistances. These results provide bases for a future standardization of methods for the selection of probiotic strains intended to reinforce the microbiota of newly hatched chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  11. Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Marek’s Disease Vaccines Derived from Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

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    N.R. Dhanutha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the endogenous ALVs in cell associated MD vaccine. Chicken embryo fibroblast cell associated Marek’s disease vaccine was tested for possible contamination with Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs. Initially the vaccine cell lysate was tested for presence of group specific antigen (p27 of ALVs by ELISA and found positive for GSA. Subsequently total DNA and RNA was isolated from vaccine CEFs and analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR using primers specific for ALV subgroups A-E and J. Subgroup specific PCR and RT-PCR revealed that the CEFs were positive for ALV-E and negative for all other exogenous ALV subgroups (ALV-A, B, C, D and J. Envelope gp85 gene sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ALV sequences found in CEFs of MD vaccine were belongs to endogenous ALV-E. Further this sequence has high homology with endogenous loci ev-1, ev-3 and ev-6. Amplification of genomic DNA with endogenous virus locus specific primers revealed that the CEFs of MD vaccine possess ev-1 and ev-6 and negative for ev-3, ev-9 and ev-21. In conclusion, the data in this study clearly demonstrated that the cell associated commercial MD vaccine tested was contaminated with an endogenous subgroup E and also possess ev-loci such as ev1 and ev-6.

  12. In vivo studies on angiogenic activity of two designer self-assembling peptide scaffold hydrogels in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xiumei; Horii, Akihiro; Wang, Xiujuan; Qiao, Lin; Zhang, Shuguang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    The rapid promotion of angiogenesis is critical for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The angiogenic activity of tissue-engineered scaffolds has already been the major criterion for choosing and designing ideal biological materials. We here report systematic in vivo studies on the angiogenic activity of two functionalized self-assembling peptides PRG (Ac-(RADA)4GPRGDSGYRGDS-CONH2) and KLT (Ac-(RADA)4G4KLTWQELYQLKYKGI-CONH2) using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. 3D migration/sprouting bead assays showed that the two functional motifs PRGDSGYRGDS and KLTWQELYQLKYKGI improved the bioactivities of the self-assembling peptide RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2) dramatically and provided ideal synthetic microenvironments for endothelial cell migration and cordlike structure sprout formation. A CAM assay was carried out to assess the efficiency of various peptide scaffolds in inducing capillary invasion in vivo. Among these three peptide scaffolds, the functionalized peptide scaffold RAD/KLT presented a significantly better angiogenic activity inducing CAM tissue invasion and new capillary vessel formation within the scaffolds in the absence of VEGF. With the addition of VEGF, more newly formed vessel lumen could be observed in all peptide scaffolds. Our results suggested that the functionalized peptide scaffolds had satisfactory angiogenic properties, and may also have wide potential applications in tissue regeneration.

  13. Establishment of chicken embryo culture system and in vivo electroporation methods%鸡胚培养及活体电转基因方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慈清; 毛会丽; 林俊堂

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立和优化鸡胚胎带壳培养(in ovo culture)、去壳培养(ex ovo culture)和活体原位电转基因(in vivo electroporation)等技术.方法 鸡胚孵化第2~3天,带壳培养至2~3 d和去壳培养至5~6d,分别在脊髓和大脑视顶部位,在电压18V、电流60mA、间隔90ms和电脉冲6次(60ms/次)的条件下进行定时定位活体电转基因.结果 带壳和去壳培养样本数分别为20个和10个,成活率分别是85%和80%,胚胎发育至2~3 d和5~6 d在脊髓和视顶部位转染样本数分别为11个和10个,阳性表达率为54.5%和60%.结论 成功建立和优化了鸡胚培养和活体定时定位电转基因的方法.%Objective To establish the methods of in ovo and ex mo culture of chicken embryo as well as in vivo electroporation. Methods Fertile eggs were incubated for two to three days(E2-E3) , and in ovo electroporation in spinal cord at E2-E3, and ex ovo electroporation in the tectum of brain at E5-E6 for spatial and temporal gene transformation with the parameter such as volt 18V, current 60mA, pause 90ms, and pulse 60ms for six times were carried out. Results The number of samples were 20 eggs for in ovo culture and 10 eggs for ex ovo culture. The survival rate of the embryos at E2-E3 was 85% for in ovo culture and 80% for ex ovo culture. The number of samples were 11 in spinal cord at E2-E3 (in mo electroporation) and 10 in brain tectum at E5-E6 (ex ovo electroporation). The positive electroporation rate was 54.5% in spinal cord at E2-E3 (in ovo) and 60% in brain tectum at E5-E6 (ex ovo). Conclusion The methods of in ovo and ex ovo culture of chicken embryos and in vivo electroporation are established successfully.

  14. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Farivar, Shirin; Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh

    2011-09-01

    Reports have demonstrated occurrences of abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development due to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article was designed to investigate the effects of sinusoidal EMF on the histopathology, apoptosis, and expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes of the livers of preincubated White Leghorn chicken embryos, based on our published experiments. 300 healthy, fresh fertilized eggs were divided into control (n = 70), sham (n = 70), and four experimental (1-4,days 13, 14, 5, and 19, n = 40) groups. Experimental eggs were exposed to the most effective intensity in a coil with 7.32 mT density, and sham groups were also located in the same coil with no exposure, both for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were then incubated in an incubator (37°C, humidity 60%) for 13,14,15, and 19 days. Livers of 13-15 and 19 day-old chicken embryos were removed by C-section and fixed in formalin (10%), stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and TUNEL for histopathological and apoptosis studies. Others were used for investigating c-Fos and β-Catenin expressions, using RT-PCR. Results showed extensive hemorrhages all over the chicken embryos' bodies and livers, more lymphoid tissues, disturbed parenchymal tissues, sinusoid denaturation, vesiculizad cytoplasm, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and a decrease on the levels of expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes in experimental groups of 1-4, comparing control and sham groups.

  15. Analysis of the role of 13 major fimbrial subunits in colonisation of the chicken intestines by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis reveals a role for a novel locus

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    Barrow Paul A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen of worldwide importance. Over 2,500 serovars exist and infections in humans and animals may produce a spectrum of symptoms from enteritis to typhoid depending on serovar- and host-specific factors. S. Enteritidis is the most prevalent non-typhoidal serovar isolated from humans with acute diarrhoeal illness in many countries. Human infections are frequently associated with direct or indirect contact with contaminated poultry meat or eggs owing to the ability of the organism to persist in the avian intestinal and reproductive tract. The molecular mechanisms underlying colonisation of poultry by S. Enteritidis are ill-defined. Targeted and genome-wide mutagenesis of S. Typhimurium has revealed conserved and host-specific roles for selected fimbriae in intestinal colonisation of different hosts. Here we report the first systematic analysis of each chromosomally-encoded major fimbrial subunit of S. Enteritidis in intestinal colonisation of chickens. Results The repertoire, organisation and sequence of the fimbrial operons within members of S. enterica were compared. No single fimbrial locus could be correlated with the differential virulence and host range of serovars by comparison of available genome sequences. Fimbrial operons were highly conserved among serovars in respect of gene number, order and sequence, with the exception of safA. Thirteen predicted major fimbrial subunit genes were separately inactivated by lambda Red recombinase-mediated linear recombination followed by P22/int transduction. The magnitude and duration of intestinal colonisation by mutant and parent strains was measured after oral inoculation of out-bred chickens. Whilst the majority of S. Enteritidis major fimbrial subunit genes played no significant role in colonisation of the avian intestines, mutations affecting pegA in two different S. Enteritidis strains produced statistically significant

  16. Expression of Sex-Related Genes in Chicken Embryos During Male-to-Female Sex Reversal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Li-xiu; XIN Rui; CHE Yi; XU Shi-qing

    2013-01-01

    Sex emerges out of a delicate dance between a variety of promale, anti-male, and possibly profemale genes. To investigate the role that sex-related genes play in sex determination and gonadal differentiation of fowl, we constructed a male-to-female sex-reversal model of chick induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) at onset of incubation (E0). The results of semi-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of Sf1, the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 gene, was put forward from E7d to E5d and up-regulated during E5-7d;the Dmrt1, the double sex and the Mab-3 related to transcription factor 1 gene, was down-regulated during E3-7d. Meanwhile, anti-Müllerian hormone gene (Amh) expressed at a similar level in the genetic females and sex-reversal females before E7d, while no expression products of the three female-specific genes Wpkci, Fet1 and Foxl2 were detected in male-to-female embryos. These findings suggest that the expression of some certain sex-related genes, induced by the exogenous estrogen during period of sex determination and gonadal differentiation, results in the male-to-female sex reversal. Moreover, high activity of Sf1 gene during E5-7d might be related to the profemale process, while low activity of Dmrt1 gene during E3-5d might be anti-male. The expression activity of Amh gene might only contribute to the promale process after E7d, however, it is possibly not an anti-female gene in chick embryos.

  17. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhigang; Wen, Chao; Li, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) on performance, growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function in broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into three groups with six replicates of ten birds for a 21-day feeding period. Birds were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (29.1 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet) without supplemental zinc (control) or the same diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4 or Zn-ZCP. Zn-ZCP and ZnSO4 treatments had lower feed: gain ratio than that of control group (P < 0.05). Addition of Zn-ZCP increased (P < 0.05) the apparent retention of organic matter and ether extract during 14-17 days, and increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity at 14 and 21 days as well as amylase activity at 21 days. Addition of Zn-ZCP increased the villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenal (P < 0.05) and jejunal (P < 0.05) of broilers at 14 days. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had higher villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum (P < 0.05) and jejunum (P < 0.05) than those fed with control diet on day 21. Zn-ZCP treatment increased (P < 0.05) IgG and sIgA concentrations in jejunum at 21 days. The results indicated that Zn-ZCP supplementation which might have modified the release of Zn further down in the intestinal tract with the controlled-release characteristic, modulated digestive enzyme activities and intestinal structure and function, increased nutrient retention, and improved feed efficiency.

  18. Effects of Drinking Thyme Essence (Thymus vulgaris L. on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Intestinal Selected Bacterial Population in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki AA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of Drinking Thyme Essence (DTE (Zero, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mL/L on growth performance, immune response and changing of intestinal bacterial population in broiler chickens. A total number of 500 day old male broiler chicks (Ross 308, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 25 chickens per each, based on a completely randomized design (CRD. Growth performances were assessed during the range of 8-21, 22-42 and 8-42 d. At 21 and 42 d blood serum titers including: Newcastle Disease (ND, Avian Influenza (AI, Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD were sampled. Bacterial populations in intestinal digesta were determined at the age of 21 and 42 d. DTE levels significantly (P improved total weight gain and total feed conversion ratio  as compared with the control group during 1-42 d of age. The titer of serum antibodies did not show significant differences between different treatments at the 21 or 42 d. Total count, E. coli, and Gram negative bacteria (GNB at the age of 21 and 42 days showed a significantly (P lower number compared with the control group. There was a significantly (P higher number of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB in DTE groups compared with control group at both ages of 21 and 42 d. In conclusion, different levels of DTE (especially at level of 0.20 mL/L could improve the growth performance, immune response and intestinal lactic acid bacteria as a health index during different growth periods.

  19. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Ann Sattler

    Full Text Available A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350 in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3 cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5 cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7 cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5 cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days. With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  20. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  1. Influence of in ovo injection of disaccharides, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on the development of small intestine in duck embryos and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, R; Xiong, X L; Wan, H F; Xu, J; Peng, J

    2010-10-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of in ovo injection of disaccharides (DS), disaccharides and glutamine (DS + Gln) or disaccharides and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (DS + HMB) at d 23 of incubation on the development of the small intestine. 2. In DS + Gln-injected ducks, the greatest relative small intestine mass and muscularis layer thickness among 4 treatments was observed from d 25 of incubation to 7 d of age. 3. Jejunal sucrase activity in DS-injected ducks was significantly greater than in controls at hatch and on d 7. 4. In DS + HMB-treated ducks, a tendency toward slightly higher jejunal DNA concentration was observed throughout the experiment. 5. Greater body weight was found in DS + Gln and DS + HMB treated ducks in the first two weeks. However, there was no significant difference in the market weight (35 d) of ducks among the 4 treatments. 6. The results of present study suggest that administering disaccharides and Gln, or disaccharides and HMB, to the duck embryos exerted a beneficial effect on the early development of small intestine and on growth performance.

  2. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    -time RT-PCR is needed to a suitable internal control. We thus investigated the expression pattern of six chicken genes, including P-actin, 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, glyceral dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and beta-2-microglobulin, in chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures...... and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures. Also, beta-actin showed no significant variation in both normalized and non-normalized assays and virus dose-independent of inoculation, while other genes did. beta-Actin was further successfully used as an internal control to quantitate Bursine-2...... virus-specific RNA load in CE cell cultures. Thus, beta-actin was suggested as a suitable internal control in studying gene expression as well as virus-specific RNA load in CE cell after IBDV infection....

  3. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%).

  4. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal (SBM) mixture, and conventional SBM fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 barrows (initial BW: 14.6 ± 2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Six corn-based diets were formulated. The basal diet contained 98.1% corn (as-fed basis) and 5 diets contained corn and 11 to 16% chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, spent hen-SBM mixture, or SBM. All test ingredients were included in their respective diets at levels that were expected to result in similar concentrations of CP among diets. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. The ME was 3,957, 3,816, 4,586, 4,298, 4,255, and 4,091 kcal/kg DM for corn, chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, the spent hen-SBM mixture, and SBM, respectively. The ME in poultry byproduct meal was greater (P poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, or the spent hen-SBM mixture. The SID of CP and all AA, except Trp and Pro, was greater (P poultry byproduct meal. However, with the exception of Val and Lys, there were no differences between chicken meal and poultry byproduct meal. In conclusion, the ME in hydrolyzed porcine intestines and the spent hen-SBM mixture is greater than in chicken meal, but not different from the ME of SBM. Poultry by product meal provides more ME than SBM, chicken meal, and the spent hen-SBM mixture, and the SID of most indispensable AA is greater in the spent hen-SBM mixture than in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, but less than in SBM.

  5. Effect of Sugar Cane Extract, Commercial Probiotic and their Mixture on Growth Performance and Intestinal Histology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraya Khambualai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the intestinal function is intimately affected by fed diets, many kinds of natural substances and probiotics have been supplemented to broilers to raise poultry productivity due to activating intestinal function. Besides, the intestinal histology is clearly altered by intestinal functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Sugar Cane Extract (SCE and commercial probiotic (SPB, either alone or in combination, could improve growth performance and how intestinal histological alterations would be observed in these birds. Approach: A total of 64, 7-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, consisting of 4 replicates of 4 birds each. Commercial mash starter and finisher diets were supplemented with 0.05% SCE, 0.4% SPB, or a mixture of 0.05% SCE and 0.4% SPB (SCE + SPB. Results: Body weight gain was better in all the experimental groups than the control. The greatest improvement was observed in the SCE + SPB group. Most values of villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments were higher (pConclusion: The present results of enhanced light microscopic parameters and protuberant epithelial cells in SCE and SPB groups suggest that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells might be hypertrophied by SCE and SPB. The fact that a synergistic effect was observed with regard to growth performance and intestinal histology in the SCE + SPB group suggests that SCE is a good supplement to probiotics.

  6. Modeling the Inactivation of Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Uropathogenic E. coli in Ground Chicken by High Pressure Processing and Thymol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Yung; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Sommers, Christopher H; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in chicken meat using High Pressure Processing (HPP) in with (the hurdle concept) and without thymol essential oil as a sensitizer. UPEC was found slightly more resistant than E. coli O157:H7 (iPEC O157:H7) at 450 and 500 MPa. A central composite experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of pressure (300-400 MPa), thymol concentration (100-200 ppm), and pressure-holding time (10-20 min) on the inactivation of iPEC O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken. The hurdle approach reduced the high pressure levels and thymol doses imposed on the food matrices and potentially decreased food quality damaged after treatment. The quadratic equations were developed to predict the impact (lethality) on iPEC O157:H7 (R (2) = 0.94) and UPEC (R (2) = 0.98), as well as dimensionless non-linear models [Pr > F (<0.0001)]. Both linear and non-linear models were validated with data obtained from separated experiment points. All models may predict the inactivation/lethality within the same order of accuracy. However, the dimensionless non-linear models showed potential applications with parameters outside the central composite design ranges. The results provide useful information of both iPEC O157:H7 and UPEC in regard to how they may survive HPP in the presence or absence of thymol. The models may further assist regulatory agencies and food industry to assess the potential risk of iPEC O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken.

  7. The effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and immune responses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yue; Regassa, Alemu; Kim, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Woo Kyun

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, lymphoid organ weight, intestinal morphology, and immunological status in broilers (n=180) challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Birds were randomly assigned into a 3×2 factorial arrangement that included 1) 3 dietary treatments from d one to 21: positive control (PC), wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet contained antibiotics (virginiamycin and monensin); negative control (NC), as PC without antibiotics; and NC+FOS, as NC supplemented with 0.5% FOS, and 2) 2 intraperitoneal injections: 2 mg/kg Salmonella Enteritidis LPS or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on d 21. Growth performance and relative lymphoid organ weight were not significantly different among the treatments. Villus height, crypt depth, and total mucosa thickness were significantly increased (PSalmonella Enteritidis LPS challenge established significant differences in the immune responses in broiler chickens. FOS supplementation increased ileal mucosa thickness and elevated the expressions of certain cytokine genes. It also led to the alteration of leukocyte compositions and serum IgY levels in response to LPS challenge, suggesting FOS supplementation may be effective to induce protective outcomes in gut health and immunity of broiler chickens.

  8. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance profiles of cultivable lactic acid bacteria from intestinal tract of domestic chickens collected in Adjara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia L. Amiranashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elaboration and introduction of safe, effective probiotic preparations as alternatives to antibiotics are being actively conducted throughout the world. 66 LAB isolates were isolated from ileal, cecal and rectal samples collected from domestic chickens collected in different districts of Adjara, Georgia. Their resistance to 17 antibiotics and antibacterial activity were studied using the agar diffusion method. Among the isolates, widespread resistance was found to metronidazole and nystatin, sensitivity – to ampicillin, tylosin, rifampicin and bacitracin. Most of isolates have intermediate susceptibility to the majority of the antibiotics. 3 LAB isolates were selected by antibacterial action against the several bacterial indicator strains that makes them effective remedy to control antibiotic-independent pathogen through competitive exclusion and promotion of good protective microbiota and perspective probiotic additives for chicken food. Future investigations, proving the safety of the strains and their antimicrobial compounds will enable to apply in vivo probiotic properties on poultry production.

  10. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. In vitro microarray analysis identifies genes in acute-phase response pathways that are down-regulated in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) is one of the most highly detected perfluoroalkyl compounds in wild bird tissues and eggs. Although PFUdA does not affect hatching success, many PFCs are known to impair post-hatch development and survival. Here we use microarrays to survey the transcriptional response of cultured chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH) to PFUdA for potential targets of PFUdA action that could lead to developmental deficiencies in exposed birds. At 1 μM and 10 μM PFUdA significantly altered the expression of 346 and 676 transcripts, respectively (fold-change>1.5, pfgg), thrombin (f2), plasminogen (plg), and protein C (proC), in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA. The expression of fga, f2, and proC were down-regulated in embryo livers (100 or 1000 ng/g, pfgg) was up-regulated and plg was not significantly affected. Our results demonstrate the utility of CEH coupled with transcriptome analysis as an in vitro screening tool for identifying novel effects of toxicant exposure. Additionally, we identified APR suppression as a potentially important and environmentally relevant target of PFUdA. These findings suggest in ovo exposure of birds to PFUdA may lead to post-hatch developmental deficiencies, such as impaired inflammatory response.

  12. Effects of Supplemental Zinc in a Wheat-Based Diet on Performance, Intestinal Viscosity, Immune System and Lipid Peroxidation of 21-Day Old Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibaiee-nia G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a wheat-based diet (WBD supplemented with different levels of zinc on the performance, intestinal viscosity, immune system and lipid peroxidation of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks were weighed and assigned to six dietary treatments with four replicates (floor pens of ten birds per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a WBD without Zn supplement in mineral premix (control, or with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg of Zn in the diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were recorded after 21 days. On day 21, blood serum malondialdehyde concentration, intestinal digesta viscosity, and some internal organs were measured. Antibody titer against Sheep red blood cells (SRBC were measured on days 7 and 14 after injection. For evaluation of cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH response, on d 20, phytohemagglutinin was injected subcutaneously into toe web and 12 and 24 hrs after injection, the thickness of the web was measured. Supplementation of the WBD with 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Zn/kg significantly improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05. Supplementation of Zn significantly decreased the relative weight of abdominal fat pad as well as jejunal viscosity (P < 0.05. Also, Zn supplementation (at all concentrations except 20 mg/kg significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration (P< 0.05. Anti-SRBC titer was significantly increased by supplementation of the WBD with 20 mg/kg Zn (P < 0.05. Supplementation of the WBD with 40 mg/kg Zn significantly increased CBH response (P < 0.05. Overall, the results of this study indicate the importance of Zn supplementation in WBD for improvement of FCR and physicochemical properties of the intestinal contents. Also, supplementation of Zn in the WBD is effective in enhancing immune system responses and antioxidative defense.

  13. Effect of Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris on growth performance and intestinal bacterial count of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Asheg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of three native plants from El-Jabal al ELAkhdar, (Libya on performance and cecal coliform count of broiler chickens. A total of 1260 one-day-old male Cobb chickens were used in the experiment. The birds were assigned to 7 treatment groups (6 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments included basal diet with no additive (control, and 6 other dietary treatments (Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris each of which was added at the rate of 0.5 g and 1 g/kg of basal diet. Results explicitly revealed that all dietary treatments had a significant effect on body performance of broiler chickens compared to the control with the exception of the dietary treatment of S. officinalis at dosage of 0.5 g/kg that has expressed noticeable reduction in body weight. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 1% A. pavarii and 1% Z. Vulgaris were significantly lower (P ⩽ 0.05 than those of control group from early weeks of treatments, whereas all plant shows a significant lowering (P ⩽ 0.05 of cecal coliform count during the rest of experiment compared to control group. These results emphasize the potential biotic role of such plants together with the immune modulating effects on treated birds. However, further pharmacological and clinical work should be adopted in the future to present an obvious understandable theory behind the potential beneficial as well as side effects of such natural plants.

  14. Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varasteh, Soheil; Braber, Saskia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824631; Akbari, Peyman; Garssen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine

  15. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis is a major disease of poultry caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria acervulina mainly infects the duodenum, causing lesions in epithelial tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of E. acervulina infection on the expression of 18 nutrient transport...

  16. Experimental coccidiosis influences the expression of the ABCB1 gene, a physiological important functional marker of intestinal integrity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritova, Aneliya; Koinarski, Vencislav; Stanilova, Spaska

    2013-01-01

    Efflux transporters belonging to the family of ABC transporters have an important functional role in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier. As efflux transporters they prevent the absorption of toxic substances from feed, while at the same time facilitating the excretion of metabolic waste products as well as drugs from the circulation into the intestinal lumen. As Eimeria tenella infection significantly affects the integrity of caecum, the effects of experimental E. tenella infection on the levels of expression of ABCB1 mRNAs in the intestines and livers of broilers were evaluated. ABCB1 mRNA expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. Its expression levels were significantly down-regulated in the caecum of infected animals. The levels of ABCB1 mRNA were not changed in the duodenum and the liver. After treatment of the animals with sulfapyrazine for three days, not only a significant improvement of the clinical appearance but also a normalization of the P-gp expression was noticed. Although the current study cannot distinguish between the direct effect of the drug on the host and the drug action on the parasite, these results suggest that the treatment of coccidiosis with sulfachlorpyrazine also restored the expression of the investigated efflux transporter in the caecum. This is of clinical significance as P-glycoproteins contribute to the integrity of intestines and their function as important biological barriers, protecting poultry from pathogens and toxic compounds in animal feeds.

  17. Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varasteh, Soheil; Braber, Saskia; Akbari, Peyman; Garssen, Johan; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine

  18. Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Regiane R.; Awati, Ajay; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra J.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H. G.; Koolmees, Peter A.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperatur

  19. EFFECTS OF DIETARY FERMENTED GARLIC ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, RELATIVE ORGAN WEIGHTS, INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY, CECAL MICROFLORA AND SERUM CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Lee

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding broilers with garlic fermented by Leuconostoc citreum SK2556. A total of 250 male broiler chicks was randomly housed into 25 floor pens. Five dietary treatments with five replicates of 10 chicks each (n=50 chicks/treatment. A corn and soybean meal based diet was used as the control diet (NC. The experimental diets were formulated by mixing the basal diet either with antibiotics (10 ppm; PC or fermented garlic (FG at the concentrations of 0.1% (FG1, 0.3% (FG3 or 0.5% (FG5 in diets. Daily weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain ratio were not affected by any of the dietary treatments. Average daily gain on day 21 linearly increased (p= 0.024 with increasing FG levels. The relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius showed a progressive decline with increasing the FG levels. Jejunal villus height was not influenced by dietary treatments. Villus width linearly decreased as FG levels increased (p= 0.17. Jejunal crypt depth was significantly lower (p< 0.05 in the FG1 and FG3 groups compared with the NC group. Villus height:crypt depth ratio linearly increased (p= 0.018 with increasing FG levels. The population of cecal microflora was not altered by dietary treatments. Broiler chickens fed the FG5 diet exhibited (p< 0.05 higher blood levels of total protein and cholesterol compared with those fed the NC diet. Collectively, the results show that dietary FG marginally affected growth performance, especially during the first days rearing, improved intestinal morphology, and altered blood characteristics of broiler chickens.

  20. Desempenho e histomorfometria intestinal de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade recebendo melhoradores de crescimento Performance and intestinal histomorphometry of broiler chickens at 1 to 21 days of age fed growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiana de Siqueira Nunes Ramos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para avaliar o desempenho produtivo e a histomorfometria dos segmentos do intestino delgado em frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes aditivos melhoradores de crescimento: ração controle (sem melhorador de crescimento; ração controle + antibióticos (colistina e bacitracina de zinco; ração controle + probiótico; ração controle + prebiótico; ração controle + probiótico + prebiótico. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho, consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e as características morfométricas, altura, perímetro e profundidade de vilos, dos segmentos do intestino delgado no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O desempenho das aves e as características morfométricas dos segmentos dos intestino não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. O uso de probiótico, prebiótico, probiótico + prebiótico e antibiótico em rações para frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade em condições de baixo desafio sanitário não interfere no desempenho e nas características histomorfométricas dos segmentos do intestino delgado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and intestinal histomorphometry of small intestine segments in broiler chickens in 1 to 21-day of age period, fed diets with different growth promoter additives: control diet (without growth promoter; control diet + antibiotic (colistin and zinc bacitracin; control diet + probiotic (Protexin; control diet + prebiotic (Bio moss; control diet + probiotic + prebiotic. The birds were distributed in a random block design, with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated variables of performance, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion and the morphometric characteristics, height, circumference and depth of the

  1. The effects of natural and modified clinoptilolite on intestinal barrier function and immune response to LPS in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu Jue; Zhou, Yan Min; Wu, Ya Nan; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2013-05-15

    The protection of intestinal barrier function and the anti-inflammatory effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were investigated in broilers that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 288 1-d-old broiler chicks were divided equally into three treatment groups: control, NCLI-treated (2%) and MCLI-treated (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250μg/kg body weight, administered orally) at 16, 18 and 21d of age. The results indicated that, prior to LPS challenge, the diet had no effect on bird growth performance (P>0.05). The oral administration of LPS was also not associated with any significant changes in poultry performance (P>0.05). In LPS-challenged birds that were pretreated with NCLI (2%) or MCLI (2%), the LPS-induced increases in the plasma and intestinal mucosa concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, significant decreases in the plasma d-lactic acid and diamine oxidase (DAO) levels were found in birds that were pretreated with NCLI or MCLI. Furthermore, both NCLI and MCLI reduced the sICAM-1 concentration in the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, NCLI and MCLI are able to prevent the LPS-induced intestinal mucosa damage and inflammatory response in vivo. These beneficial effects suggest that NCLI and MCLI act as anti-inflammatory agents in part by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and hyperactivation and by suppressing the secretion of various plasma and intestinal mucosa inflammatory mediators.

  2. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers.

  3. 鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎性别的DNA分子鉴定%DNA Molecular Sex Identification for Chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail (Coturnix coturnix) Hybrids Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炜; 范丽娜; 翟曼君; 赵宗胜; 李青峰; 梁耀伟; 米拉

    2013-01-01

    According to our previous research, there was an obvious relationship between the early death of chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail(Cotumix cotunux) hybrids and sex differentiation. Meanwhile, current widespread adapted methods to indentify sex differentiation stayed at RNA level, experimental steps complicated and easy to make mistakes, and RNA samples, which are needed to be measured, was quite difficult to preserved longer, but could not be simply employed. So it is necessary to find a more simple and accurate way to identify the early embryo's sexing. In this study, there were two sections for CHD (chromobox-helicase-DNA binding) gene DNA level sex determination, at first,a total of 116 chicken-quail hybrid embryos at different incubate stages (2.5~5 d) was treated as experiment group and 10 mg embryonic organs were used to DNA extraction; then the DNA extraction from blood of 60 sex-known quails (male and female were half-and-half) was regarded as control. Wpkci (W-linked protein kinase C inhibitor) for mRNA level was known as a mature method to identify sexing, and then it is used to check the result of embryos' sex determination in our research. The result showed that CHD 2550F/2718R could identify the sex of chicken-quail hybrid embryos accurately. The amplication size of male embryo tissues was 613 bp and two bands in female were 613 and 446 bp, respectively. The experimental results provide basic data for the chicken-quail hybrids sex determination mechanism.%鸡(Gallus gallus)与鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)属间杂交胚胎早期死亡与性别分化存在着一定的关系,寻找简单、准确的早期胚胎性别鉴定方法是深入研究其死亡分子机制的前提.本实验室前期使用Wpkci引物从mRNA水平对早期胚胎进行准确的性别鉴定,而RNA提取对样品质量要求较高,鉴定程序较复杂.因此需要建立更加简单快捷的方法,对鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎进行准确性别鉴定.本

  4. Downregulation of chicken interleukin-17 receptor A during Eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-09-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection.

  5. Effect of doxycycline and Lactobacillus probiotics on mRNA expression of ABCC2 in small intestines of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Milanova, A.; Pavlova, I; Yordanova, V.; Danova, S.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics and antibiotics are widely used in poultry and may alter drug bioavailability by affecting the expression of intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters. Therefore the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacilli probiotics, administered alone or in combination with doxycycline, on the expression of ABCB1 (gene, encoding P-glycoprotein), ABCC2 (gene, encoding multidrug resistance protein 2, MRP2) and ABCG2 (gene, encoding breast cancer r...

  6. Peptidoglycan Acetylation of Campylobacter jejuni Is Essential for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity and Colonization in Chicken Intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Ayako; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Akiba, Masato

    2016-10-15

    Peptidoglycan (PG) acetylation of Gram-positive bacteria confers lysozyme resistance and contributes to survival in the host. However, the importance of PG acetylation in Gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The genes encoding putative PG acetyltransferase A (PatA) and B (PatB) are highly conserved in Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. To evaluate the importance of PatA and PatB of C. jejuni, we constructed patA and patB isogenic mutants and compared their phenotypes with those of the parental strains. Although transmission electron microscopy did not reveal morphological changes, both mutants exhibited decreased motility and biofilm formation in vitro The extent of acetylation of the PG purified from the patA and patB mutants was significantly lower than the PG acetylation in the parental strains. Both mutants exhibited decreased lysozyme resistance and intracellular survival in macrophage cells. In a chick colonization experiment, significant colonization deficiency was observed for both mutants. These results suggest that PatA and PatB of C. jejuni play important roles in maintaining cell wall integrity by catalyzing PG O-acetylation and that the loss of these enzymes causes decreased motility and biofilm formation, thus leading to colonization deficiency in chicken infection. The importance of peptidoglycan (PG) acetylation in Gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The genes encoding putative PG acetyltransferase A (PatA) and B (PatB) are highly conserved in Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. We evaluated the importance of these enzymes using isogenic mutants. The results of this study suggest that PatA and PatB of C. jejuni play important roles in maintaining cell wall integrity. The loss of these factors caused multiple phenotypic changes, leading to colonization deficiency in chicken infection. These data should be useful in developing novel

  7. Effects of co-fermented Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues and soybean hulls by Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, L P; Lee, M T; Chen, C S; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2015-12-01

    Soybean hulls are a by-product of soybean processing for oil and meal production; Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues (PESR) are by-products of the edible portion of the fruiting body enriched in bioactive metabolites. This study evaluated the effects of co-fermented PESR and soybean hulls with Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. The in vitro experimental results showed that xylananse and mannanase activity of solid-state fermented soybean hulls (100% SBH) and soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (75:25, SHP) reached peak at day 12; solid-state fermentation (SSF) enhanced the total phenolic content and trolox equivalency in both products as well. Additionally, FSHP had higher xylotriose and mannobiose levels than fermented FSBH did. A total of 400 broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly into four groups receiving the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% fermented SBH (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented SBHP (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% fermented SBHP (1.0% FSHP) until 35 d of age, respectively. Results demonstrated that 0.5% FSHP addition increased body weight gain as compared with corresponding normal diet fed control in birds during entire experimental period. Compared with the control group, 0.5% FSHP group significantly increased the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to Clostridium perfringens in ceca as well as ileum villus height and jejunum villus height/crypt depth ratio of 35 d old birds. In conclusion, 0.5% FSHP supplementation in the diet could obtain not only improved body weight gain, but optimal intestinal morphology by exerting its bioactive metabolite properties when fed to broilers.

  8. Effect of coccidia challenge and natural betaine supplementation on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal lesion scores of broiler chickens fed suboptimal level of dietary methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerah, A M; Ravindran, V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of coccidia challenge and natural betaine supplementation on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal lesion scores of broiler chickens fed suboptimal level of dietary methionine. The experimental design was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two levels of betaine supplementation (0 and 960 g betaine/t of feed) without or with coccidia challenge. Each treatment was fed to 8 cages of 8 male broilers (Ross 308) for 1 to 21d. On d 14, birds in the 2 challenged groups received mixed inocula of Eimeria species from a recent field isolate, containing approximately 180,000 E. acervulina, 6,000 E. maxima, and 18,000 E. tenella oocysts. At 21d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected for the determination of dry matter, energy, nitrogen, amino acids, starch, fat, and ash digestibilities. Lesion scores in the different segments of the small intestine were also measured on d 21. Performance and nutrient digestibility data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Lesion score data were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test to identify significant differences between treatments. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to assess the significance of linear or quadratic models to describe the response in the dependent variable to total lesion scores. Coccidia challenge reduced (PBetaine supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain or feed intake, but lowered (P0.05) between coccidia challenge and betaine supplementation was observed for performance parameters. Betaine supplementation increased (Pbetaine supplementation and coccidia challenge. The main effect of coccidia challenge reduced (PBetaine supplementation improved (Pbetaine supplementation reduced (Pbetaine supplementation reduced the impact of coccidia challenge and positively affected nutrient digestibility and the feed conversion ratio.

  9. Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Regiane R; Awati, Ajay; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra J; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H G; Koolmees, Peter A; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperature regime in controlled climate rooms, with a day temperature of 39°C (±1°C) and a night temperature of 25°C (±1°C), respectively. A control group was kept at an ambient temperature of 25°C (±1°C) during the entire experimental period. At the end of the exposure period, the birds were sacrificed and specimens were taken of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum for histology. Blood was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Histo-morphological and morphometric analyses of the intestines indicated that the duodenum and jejunum showed more damage than the ileum. The major alterations in the control intestines were limited to the villus tips, while heat stress led to villus denudation and crypt damage. When compared with morphologically normal villi, heat-stress-associated alterations were also observed in villus height (decreased), villus breadth at base (increased) and epithelial cell area (decreased). Birds exposed to heat stress presented with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity and a decreased antioxidant capacity. It can be concluded that the chosen model allows a reproducible quantification of heat stress effects, which is suitable for the evaluation of dietary intervention strategies to combat heat stress conditions.

  10. An evaluation of in vitro intestinal absorption of iron, calcium and potassium in chickens receiving gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembratowicz, I; Ognik, K; Stępniowska, A

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of oral administration of colloidal gold nanoparticles on accumulation of gold in the small intestine and intestinal absorption of iron, calcium and potassium under in vitro conditions. The gold nanoparticles are non-ionic, nanocrystalline, chemically pure particles 5 nm in size, produced in a physical process. In total, 126 one day-old Ross 308 chicks were assigned to 7 experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive gold nanoparticles. Groups: Au-5(7), Au-10(7) and Au-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg l(-1) for group Au-5(7), 10 mg l(-1) for group Au-10(7) and 15 mg l(-1) for group Au-15(7) in 8-14, 22-28 and 36-42 d of life. The birds in groups Au-5(3), Au-10(3) and Au-15(3) received gold nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only in 8-10, 22-24 and 36-38 d of life. The study revealed that nanogold supplied via ingestion leads to dose- and time-dependent accumulation of gold in the intestinal walls. Nanogold present in the jejunum has a negative impact on the absorption of calcium, iron and potassium under in vitro conditions.

  11. The cereal type in feed influences gut wall morphology and intestinal immune cell infiltration in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teirlynck, Emma; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Eeckhaut, Venessa

    2009-01-01

    In broiler chickens a diet where the major cereal types are wheat, rye and/or barley has a lower digestibility compared with a diet in which maize is the major cereal type In the present study, the effects of two different dietary cereal types, maize v. wheat/rye on host factors (inflammation...... and gut integrity) and gut microbiota composition were studied In addition, the effects of low-dose Zn-bacitracin supplementation were examined Broilers given a wheat/rye-based diet showed more villus fusion, a thinner tunica muscularis, more T-lymphocyte infiltration, higher amount of immune cell...... aggregates in the muscosa, more and larger goblet cells and ore apoptosis of epithelial cells in the mucosa than those given a maize-based diet Adding Zn-bacitracin generally reversed these alterations The microbiota composition was analysed by the use of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism...

  12. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  13. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, and meat quality in relation to alpha-lipoic acid associated with vitamin C and E in broiler chickens under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid with vitamin C and E on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and meat quality in broiler chickens under tropical conditions. A total of 288 one-day-old male ROSS 308 chicks (40±0.1 g were used in a completely randomized design and allotted to one of six dietary treatments to form sixe replicates per treatment (eight birds per cage. The six dietary treatments were: a corn-soybean meal-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial compounds added with 8 ppm alpha-lipoic acid (ALA; 150 ppm vitamin C and 75 ppm vitamin E (E-75; E-75 plus ALA (E-75-ALA; 150 ppm vitamin C and 50 ppm vitamin E (E-50 plus ALA (E-50-ALA; and 150 ppm vitamin C and 25 ppm vitamin E (E-25 plus ALA (E-25-ALA. All dietary treatments were continuously provided in liquid form, dissolved in water. Birds were housed in a battery cage (n = 36, and were offered dietary treatments on an ad libitum basis. The ambient temperature was maintained at 32±1 ºC for the first three weeks and reduced gradually to 28 ºC by the end of the experiment (day 35 to induce moderate tropical condition. One bird per pen (n = 6, and another bird per pen (n = 6 were euthanized via cervical dislocation to obtain terminal ileum to measure villus height and crypt depth at day 21, and to harvest breast meat and drumsticks to evaluate meat quality traits at day 35, respectively. Dietary treatment E-75-ALA improved body weight and average daily gain compared with birds fed other dietary treatments from day 1 to day 35. Birds fed dietary treatment E-75-ALA and E-50-ALA had higher villus height than those fed the other dietary treatments at day 21. Dietary treatments E-75-ALA and E-50-ALA reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in drumsticks compared with other dietary treatments, but only treatment E-75-ALA decreased TBARS in breast meat at day 35. Liquid form of antioxidant compounds such as E-75-ALA can improve growth

  14. Quality assessment of report gene green fluorescence protein in chicken embryo in vivo electroporation%鸡胚活体原位电转基因技术报告基因绿色荧光蛋白质量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慈清; 毛会丽; 郭志坤; 林俊堂

    2012-01-01

    Objective The method of in vivo electroporation has been set up successfully and we further analyzed the effect of report gene green fluorescence protein(GFP) on the morphology of developing chicken embryos after in vivo electrop oration , and also analyzed the expression of ct-smooth muscle actin y (α-SMA) and neurofilament during chicken embryonic development. Methods pCAGGS-GFP was transformed into chicken embryos with in ovo culture at 3days and ex ovo culture at 3-5days. In 24hours after in vivo electroporation, GFP-positive embryos were selected under stereo fluorescence microscope, and the GFP-negative embryos served as controls. Five embryos were analayzed for each group, r luorescence immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the expression of α-SMA and neuroiilament in chicken spinal cord and tectum. Results At different stages of chicken embryos and different time after in vivo electroporation, the expression of a-smooth muscle actin and neurofilament did not show difference in experimental group and wild type, as well as in GFP-positive area and GFP-negative area. The morphology of embryos was not changed after electroporation with pCAGGS-GFP either. Conclusion GFP as a report gene to in vivo electroporation for chicken embryos does not affect the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and neurofilament, as well as no effect on the morphology of chicken embryos, so GFP can well serve as a report gene for chicken embryo in vivo electroporation.%目的 在成功建立鸡胚活体原位电转基因技术的基础上,探讨报告基因绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)的表达及其在鸡胚发育过程对胚胎形态结构影响,分析α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)和神经丝蛋白(NF)的表达情况.方法 活体原位电转基因技术将pCAGGS-GFP质粒转入带壳培养第3天和第3天去壳培养至第5天的鸡胚,在电转基因24h后荧光体视显微镜观察,选择对照组和阳性表达胚胎,每组各5个胚胎,冷冻切片后进行荧光免疫

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with onion (Allium cepa L. on performance, carcass traits and intestinal microflora composition in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goodarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of onion (Allium cepa L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 192 one-day old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308 were weighed and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control, antibiotic (15 mg virginiamycin/kg, and control+10 or 30 g fresh onions bulb/kg diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at Day 1, 21, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Results: Dietary supplementation of 30 g/kg onion increased final body weight of broilers at 42 d of age compared to that of the other treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed 30 g onion/kg in the diet had the highest feed intake than other treatments at different growth periods (P<0.05. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and internal organ weights were not affected by the dietary treatments at Day 42. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with onion at the level of 30 g/ kg significantly was higher than other groups at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The lowest Escherichia coli loads were detected in broilers fed diets containing 15 mg virginiamycin/kg. The Escherichia coli loads significantly decreased in broilers fed diets containing 10 or 30 g onion/kg (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that supplementing broiler diet with 30 g onion/kg could induce favorable influences on performance and ileum microflora composition.

  16. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Egloff, Caroline; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  17. Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xinjian; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Zhang, Hongyu; Péron, Alexandre; Zhang, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control), and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30) or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60). Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42). Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21) and finisher (d 42) phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; pvirginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM) and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05) compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control group (p<0.01). In addition, the population of Lactobacillus was increased in DFM 30 and DFM 60 groups as compared with control and AGP groups (p<0.01). It can be concluded that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM could be an

  18. Immunomodulating Lactobacilli in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Koenen (Marjorie)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of a chicken starts with the beak, followed by the esophagus and crop, proventriculus (glandular stomach), gizzard (muscular stomach), duodenum, ileum, a pair of blind elongated caeca, colon and ending in the cloaca. The GI-tract

  19. Identification of Eimeria species and evaluation of intestinal lesion scores in vaccinated chickens and chickens treated with anticoccidial drugs in the free-range chicken systems/ Identificação de espécies de Emeria sp e avaliação do escore de lesões intestinais entre frangos vacinados e tratados com anticoccidiano, produzidos no sistema colonial/caipira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Hissashi Yamamura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the Eimeria species, in free-range chickens as well as to propose a prophylactic treatment through vaccination and the use of anticoccidial drugs, and to evaluate the intestinal damages caused by strains of vaccinal and field oocysts. In this system the occurrence of Eimeria species in chickens which were treated and vaccinated were respectively of 46% and 49% for Eimeria maxima, 35% and 28% for Eimeria tenella, 26% for Eimeria acervulina for vaccinated chickens and for those which were treated 8% for Eimeria necatrix and E. praecox. The averages of intestinal damages measured by lesion score were 0.28 and 0.80 respectively in the upper intestine for vaccinated and treated chickens, 0.07 and 0.03 for the middle intestine, and 0.05 and 0.10 for the ceca. The vaccinated chickens showed peaks of oocyst elimination in the 21th day with an average of 70,828 oocysts per gram of excretes and the chickens treated with anticoccidial drugs had an average of 7,020 in the 37th day. Although the vaccinated chickens presented an average of oocysts elimination higher than the treated chickens, the lesion score of these chickens was lower.Este trabalho tem por objetivo identificar as espécies de Eimeria que acometem os frangos criados no Sistema Colonial/Caipira que utilizam como medidas profiláticas a vacinação e medicação anticoccidiana. E avaliar as lesões intestinais causadas pelas cepas vacinais e de campo. A ocorrência das espécies de Eimeria em frangos tratados e vacinados foram respectivamente de 46% e 49% para a Eimeria maxima, 35% e 28% para a Eimeria tenella, 26% de Eimeria acervulina para frangos vacinados e para os tratados 8% de Eimeria necatrix e 8% de Eimeria praecox. As médias do escore de lesões intestinais foram de 0,28 e 0,80 na porção superior do intestino; 0,07 e 0,03 na porção média; e 0,05 e 0,10 para o ceco, em frangos vacinados e tratados, respectivamente. As aves vacinadas

  20. Formestane、17β-estradiol诱导鸡、鹌鹑胚胎性反转后bcl-2、p53基因的表达差异性研究%On the Expression Differences between bcl-2 and p53 Genes after Sex Reverse in Chicken,Quail and Hybrid Embryos Induced by Formestane and 17β-estradiol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹盈; 梁耀伟; 赵宗胜; 冯欣璐; 班谦

    2012-01-01

    In this study, using exogenous hormones Formestane and 17β-eslradiol,sex reversal experiments were conducted a-mong chicken, quail and their hybrids embryos,and live embryos of 6 time points (72,96,120,144,168 and 192 h) were then sampled correspondingly. By quantitative PCR.we analyzed expressional differences of bcl-2 and p53 genes of different embryos at different stages after hormone treatment. The results revealed that bcl-2 and p53 gene expression showed no significant difference between normal chicken and quail embryos within heterosexual groups,but compared with chicken and quail embryos,there was significantly difference in hybrid embryos(P<0. 05) ;At 72 h,p53/bcl-2 of male and female embryos of chicken and quail both appeared low gene expression,and meantime, the p53 mRNA expressional quantity fell to relative low point, which indicated that the most embryos' death might happen at this period:gene expressions of bcl-2 and p53 of the chicken and quail embryos injected with Formestane and 17-estradiol were quite different from normal chicken and quail embryos (P<0. 05). But hybrid embryos were all dead at 72 h after they were injected exogenous hormones.%利用外源激素Formestane和17β-estradiol对鸡、鹌鹑及其属间杂交种胚胎进行了性反转实验,并分别采集了72、96、120、144、168、192 h等6个时间点活胚,运用荧光定量PCR法分析了外源激素处理后的不同种胚胎不同时期的bcl-2和p53基因的表达量差异和变化.结果表明:正常鸡和鹌鹑胚种内异性间相比bcl-2和p53基因表达量差异不显著,杂交种胚分别与鸡胚、鹌鹑胚相比,2个基因表达量均差异显著(P<0.05);72 h雌、雄鸡和鹌鹑的胚胎p53/bcl-2表达均出现低谷,此时p53表达同样降至低谷,推测胚胎大批死亡可能是在这个时间段;注射Formestane和17β-estradiol的鸡、鹌鹑胚bcl-2和p53基因表达量分别与未经处理的雌雄鸡胚、雌雄鹌鹑胚比较,差异显著(P<0.0S

  1. Effects of Different Levels of Raw and Processed Oak Acorn (Quercus castaneifolia on Performance, Small Intestine Morphology, Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients, Carcass Characteristics and Some Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaie M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of oak acorn (Quercus castaneifolia on performance, small intestine morphology, ileal digestibility of nutrient, carcass and some blood parameters in broiler chicks. A total of fifty hundred four one-d old male chickens (Ross308 strain with seven treatments and four replicates in each treatment were used. Experimental diets were: control (corn-soybean meal diet, raw oak acorn at the levels of 10 and 20 percent, soaked oak acorn diet containing 10 and 20 percent oak acorn soaked in water for 24h., diets contain 10 and 20 percent of soaked oak acorn soaked in water for 48h with twice water substitution. Experiment lasted from 1 to 42 day of ages. Results showed that body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, ileal dry matter and protein digestibility, and small intestine morphology was significantly (P

  2. Humulus lupus Beta-acids Administered Through Water Reduce Clostridium perfringens Challenge Strains in the Chicken Intestinal Tract Midgut and Ceca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity activity of extracts of the hop plant Humulus lupus was studied in chickens fed diets without antibiotic growth promotants. Beta-acid resins of the hop plant were administered by water to 13 day old chickens subsequently challenged per so with necrotic enteritis-associate...

  3. 微量全血PCR技术鉴定雏鸡及鸡胚性别%Sex Identification with Direct Whole Blood PCR Amplification in Chicklings and Chicken Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治利; 秦清明; 施振旦; 陈海南; 黄群山

    2012-01-01

    为了便于常规PCR技术在鸡性别鉴定上的推广和应用,本研究以成年家鸡全血为模板,应用常规PCR反应缓冲液和Tap DNA聚合酶直接进行PCR扩增,对50μL PCR反应体系中的血样(0.05~4.0 μL)和Tap DNA聚合酶的使用量(0.05~1.5 uL),以及循环次数(30~40)进行了优化,在此基础上对血样的抗凝剂和保存温度进行了探讨,并对62只1日龄雏鸡、80枚12日龄和80枚16日龄鸡胚的血样直接PCR进行了性别鉴定.结果表明,采集血样时可以使用ACD、肝素或EDTA作为抗凝剂,血样可以在4、-20或-80℃至少保存3个月;使用0.1μL全血就能完成雏鸡和鸡胚性别鉴定,全血PCR鉴定性别与性腺性别的符合度为100%.与常规PCR相比,全血PCR节约了检测成本,提高了检测效率,减少了交叉污染可能.%For facilitation of conventional PCR technology to identify chicken sex, this study took the whole blood of adult chicks as a sample by the conventional PCR reaction mix and Tap DNA polymerase for direct PCR amplification, optimization was conducted in adult chicken whole blood (from 0. 05 to 4. 0 μL) , Tap DNA polymerase (from 0. 05 to 1. 5 μL) and cycle number (from 30 to 40) in 50 μL direct PCR amplification system. Anti-coagulant selection and storage temperature of blood sample were evaluated, sex was identified with direct whole blood PCR amplification and compared with gonadal sex in 62 of 1-day-old chicklings, 80 of 12-day-old and 80 of 16-day-old chicken embryos, respectively. The results showed that sex identification with direct PCR amplification with 0. 1 μL whole blood sample was fully consistent with the gonadal sex, therefore it was accuracy in chicklings and chicken embryos. ACD, heparin or DETA could be adopted as anticoagulant and blood samples could be stored at 4, -20 or -80 ℃ for 3 months at least. Compared with conventional PCR, the direct whole blood PCR could be economic, efficient and low possible of cross-contamination.

  4. Interaction of TGF-β4 and IL-17 with IgA secretion in the intestine of chickens fed with E. faecium AL41 and challenged with S. Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffová, Viera; Bobíková, Katarína; Husáková, Eva; Levkut, Martin; Herich, Róbert; Revajová, Viera; Levkutová, Mária; Levkut, Mikuláš

    2015-06-01

    The relative mRNA expression of IgA, TGF-β4, IL-17, and concentration of secretory IgA (sIgA) in small intestine of chickens pretreated with Enterococcus faecium AL41 and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 were studied. Salmonella-free day-old chicks (40) Cobb 500 breed, were divided into four groups of 10 chicks each (n = 10): control (C), treated with E. faecium AL41 strain (EFAL41), challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 (SE), and combined (EFAL41+SE). Expression of IgA and sIgA concentration was upregulated in EFAL41 group in jejunum and ileum on 4 days post-Salmonella infection (dpi). Chicks in combined group demonstrated upregulation of cytokines and IgA expression, and increased sIgA concentration in the intestine flush on 7 dpi. The experiment demonstrated beneficial effect of E. faecium AL41 on IgA production and secretion in intestine. Findings also indicated that IgA played important role in decrease of S. Enteritidis in the intestine, and cytokines TGF-β4 and IL-17 contributed to the increased IgA secretion.

  5. The relationship between gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos and chick breed, development, sex, and egg amino acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, P L; Li, X G; Wang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Shu, G; Luo, Q B

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter mRNA and the AA content of fertilized eggs. Intestinal samples were collected on embryonic d 9, 12, 14, 17, and 19 and the day of hatch. The results showed that, before incubation, the AA content of WRRC eggs was lower (P CAT-1 [solute carrier (SLC) family 7 member 1], CAT-4 (SLC family 7 member 4), rBAT (SLC family 3 member 1), y(+)LAT-1 (SLC family 7 member 7), y(+)LAT-2 (SLC family 7 member 6), LAT-4 (SLC family 43 member 2), and SNAT-2 (SLC family 38 member 2), as detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, was greater (P CAT-1, CAT-4, y(+)LAT-2, and LAT-4 in WYFC and on CAT-4 and B(0)AT-1 (SLC family 6 member 19) mRNA expression in WRRC. In WYFC, only CAT-1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated (r = -0.68 to -0.84, P < 0.05) with all AA content. However, few correlations were detected between AA content and the mRNA expression of multiple transporters in WRRC. These findings provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression of AA transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos. Few correlations were detected between the AA content of the eggs and mRNA expression of specific AA transporters in the small intestine.

  6. Proteome Response of Chicken Embryo Fibroblast Cells to Recombinant H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses with Different Neuraminidase Stalk Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Ming, Fan; Huang, Huimin; Guo, Kelei; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    The variation on neuraminidase (NA) stalk region of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in virulence change in animals. In our previous studies, the special NA stalk-motif of H5N1 viruses has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the high virulence and pathogenicity in chickens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of viruses with different NA stalk remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response of chicken cells to recombinant H5N1 virus with stalk-short NA (rNA-wt) and the stalkless NA mutant virus (rSD20). 208 proteins with differential abundance profiles were identified differentially expressed (DE), and these proteins were mainly related to stress response, transcription regulation, transport, metabolic process, cellular component and cytoskeleton. Through Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA), the significant biological functions of DE proteins represented included Post-Translational Modification, Protein Folding, DNA Replication, Recombination and Repair. It was interesting to find that most DE proteins were involved in the TGF-β mediated functional network. Moreover, the specific DE proteins may play important roles in the innate immune responses and H5N1 virus replication. Our data provide important information regarding the comparable host response to H5N1 influenza virus infection with different NA stalk lengths. PMID:28079188

  7. Effects of hypoxia on serum hepatic chemistries of Tibet chicken and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Key words: Hypoxia adaptation, liver metabolism, serum chemistry, Tibet chicken, chicken embryo. .... metabolism. Br. J. Cancer 62(2):217-225. Kallwitz ... enzymes and histology in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  8. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  9. Effects of Dietary Saccharicterpenin on Mucosal Structure of Small Intestine in Gushi Chickens%糖萜素对固始鸡小肠黏膜结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏; 赵珊珊; 张学武; 张婷婷; 肖传斌

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary saccharicterpenin level on mucosal structure of small intestine in Gushi chickens. A total of 300 Gushi chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments; control (basal diet) group, 300 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group, 500 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group, 700 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group and chlortetracycline (200 mg/kg) group. Each group had three replicates and each replicate had twenty chickens. Six chickens at 21, 35 and 49 days of age were picked in each group and bled to death. Using the conventional paraffin sections and HE staining, the mucosal structure of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were observed, and then the villus height, crypt depth and intestinal wall thickness were measured. The results showed as follows: 1) there were no significant differences among all groups in the length of duodenum, jejunum and ileum and the thickness of intestinal wall in Gushi chickens aged different days (P >0. 05). 2) At different ages, the duodenum villi height of Gushi chickens in the 500 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group and 700 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group was higher, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P >0.05), but at 21 days of age, it was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P 0. 05). At different ages, the duodenum V/C value of Gushi chickens in the 500 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group and chlortetracycline (200 mg/kg) group was higher, and there was no significant difference between the two groups(P >0. 05), but at 21 to 35 days of age, it was significantly higher than that in the control group (P > 0.05). 3) At different ages, the jejunum villi height of Gushi chickens in the 500 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group was the highest, and at 21 to 35 days of age, it was significantly higher than that in the control group (P 0.05). At different ages, the jejunum V/C value of Gushi chickens in the 500 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group, 700 mg/kg saccharicterpenin group

  10. Evaluation of a thermostable Newcastle disease virus strain TS09-C as an in-ovo vaccine for chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Wang, Hongling; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhang, Rongrong; Zhang, Wanpo; Shao, Huabin

    2017-01-01

    In-ovo vaccination is an attractive immunization approach for poultry industry. However, most of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strains used after hatch are unsafe, as in-ovo vaccines, due to their high pathogenicity for chicken embryos. In this study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a thermostable NDV strain TS09-C, derived from V4 strain, as in-ovo vaccine. Chickens in-ovo vaccinated with the parental V4 strain displayed greatly reduced hatchability and severe histopathological lesions in both trachea and intestine tissues, while the hatchability was not affected by in-ovo vaccination withTS09-C strain. The safe dose that infected all chicken embryos without obviously histopathological lesions was 103.0 EID50 per bird. In-ovo vaccination of chickens with TS09-C virus conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. Results suggest that the thermostable NDV strain TS09-C is a safe and immunogenic in-ovo vaccine candidate that can be delivered quickly and uniformly, and induce earlier immune response. PMID:28234989

  11. Resveratrol modulates intestinal morphology and HSP70/90, NF-κB and EGF expression in the jejunal mucosa of black-boned chickens on exposure to circular heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Fu, Chenxing; Yan, Mingli; Xie, Hongbing; Li, Si; Yu, Qifang; He, Shaoping; He, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with resveratrol could alleviate intestinal injuries and to explore how resveratrol regulates heat shock protein (HSP)70, HSP90, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the jejunal mucosa of black-boned chickens under circular heat stress. A total of 300 black-boned chicks of 42-d-old were randomly assigned to five treatment groups. The positive control chickens were kept in a normal-temperature (NT, 24 ± 2 °C) chamber and fed with a basal diet. The other four groups were kept in a circular high-temperature (HT, 37 ± 2 °C) chamber for 8 h and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg per kg of resveratrol for 15 days. The results showed that the heat-stress responses damaged the villus structures of the jejunum and ileum, resulting in shortened intestinal villi, deepened crypts, and a reduced villus height to crypt depth (V/C) ratio and decreased the numbers of goblet cells and lymphocytes. Heat stress also caused increased mRNA and protein expression of HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB, and reduced EGF in the jejunal mucosa. Dietary supplementation with 400 mg per kg of resveratrol improved the villus morphology, increased the numbers of goblet cells and lymphocytes, attenuated the mRNA overexpression of HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB on the 6th, 10th and 15th day of heat stress (P heat stress, and increased EGF expression from the lamina propria toward the epithelial cells of the villi. These results suggest that dietary resveratrol offers a potential nutritional strategy to improve the intestinal morphology and alleviate jejunum mucosa injuries by modulating the mRNA and protein expression of HSPs, and the epithelial growth factor and transcription factor in black-boned chickens subjected to circular heat stress.

  12. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  13. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %).

  14. Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Hiduddify from Chickens and Poultry Meat in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Ameh, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    and local chickens in Maiduguri main markets, chickens from farms, and free-range local chickens. A total of 865 samples were collected from feces, kidney, lungs, cecum, intestine, liver, heart, gizzard, and cloacal swabs from 525 different chickens. Salmonella was isolated from 130 of the samples...

  15. Cytotoxicity of Betel leaf (Piper betel L. against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast and its effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Ma’at

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf (Piper betel L. has been used in modern and traditional medicine as antiseptic, antibacterial, and also prevention of plaque accumulation, but it still can stimulate cancer in lime-piper betel quid. Betel leaf also has anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: The purpose of this study was examine the cytotoxicity of Betel leaf extract (BLE against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast and its effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with LPS. Methods: MTT assay was used to investigate the survival rate of the culture with the survival rate result of the given culture extract 4%, 2% and 1% about 82%, 83.4% and 85%. There was no significant difference between treatment with various concentrations of the extract and the control (p>0.05. To evaluate the effect of Betel leaf extracts on the production of cytokines, proinflammatory was conducted by incubating the extracts of betel leaf with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from healthy volunteers isolated by density centrifugation method using Ficoll-Hypaque. Once coupled with various concentrations of betel leaf extract and lipopolysaccharide, and then incubated for 24 hours, the culture supernatant was used to determine the level of IFN-γ and TNF-α by ELISA method. Results: It is known that the survival rates of BLE 4%, 2% and 1% were 82%, 83.4% and 85%. There was no significant of difference between several concentrations of BLE and those in the control group (p>0.05. The production of IFN-γ and TNF-α stimulated with LPS was no significant difference between BLE 4%, 2% and 1% and that in the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that BLE is not toxic against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast, and the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by PBMC was not affected by BLE.Latar belakang: Daun

  16. Gastric and intestinal proteases resistance of chicken acidic chitinase nominates chitin-containing organisms for alternative whole edible diets for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Eri; Kashimura, Akinori; Wakita, Satoshi; Ohno, Misa; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Kino, Yoshihiro; Matoska, Vaclav; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2017-07-27

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), functions as a major structural component in crustaceans, insects and fungi and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in the nature. Although these chitin-containing organisms have been suggested as novel animal feed resources, chitin has long been considered as indigestible fibers in the animal body. Recently, we reported that acidic chitinase (Chia) is a protease-resistant major glycosidase in mouse gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and that it digests chitin in the mouse stomach. However, the physiological role of Chia in other animals including poultry remains unknown. Here, we report that Chia can function as a digestive enzyme that breaks down chitin-containing organisms in chicken GIT. Chia mRNA is predominantly expressed in the glandular stomach tissue in normal chicken. We also show that chicken Chia has a robust chitinolytic activity at pH 2.0 and is highly resistant to proteolysis by pepsin and trypsin/chymotrypsin under conditions mimicking GIT. Chia degraded shells of mealworm larvae in the presence of digestive proteases and produced (GlcNAc)2. Thus, functional similarity of chicken Chia with the mouse enzyme suggests that chitin-containing organisms can be used for alternative poultry diets not only as whole edible resources but also as enhancers of their nutritional value.

  17. Systemic Virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic and high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Burt, D.W.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Broks, V.C.M.; Zoelen, van D.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP) and high pathogenic ( HP), based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host r

  18. Tgfβ2 and 3 are coexpressed with their extracellular regulator Ltbp1 in the early limb bud and modulate mesodermal outgrowth and BMP signaling in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Porrero Juan A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor β proteins (Tgfβs are secreted cytokines with well-defined functions in the differentiation of the musculoskeletal system of the developing limb. Here we have studied in chicken embryos, whether these cytokines are implicated in the development of the embryonic limb bud at stages preceding tissue differentiation. Results Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 indicates that signaling by this pathway is active in the undifferentiated mesoderm and AER. Gene expression analysis shows that transcripts of tgfβ2 and tgfβ3 but not tgfβ1 are abundant in the growing undifferentiated limb mesoderm. Transcripts of tgfβ2 are also found in the AER, which is the signaling center responsible for limb outgrowth. Furthermore, we show that Latent Tgfβ Binding protein 1 (LTBP1, which is a key extracellular modulator of Tgfβ ligand bioavailability, is coexpressed with Tgfβs in the early limb bud. Administration of exogenous Tgfβs to limb buds growing in explant cultures provides evidence of these cytokines playing a role in the regulation of mesodermal limb proliferation. In addition, analysis of gene regulation in these experiments revealed that Tgfβ signaling has no effect on the expression of master genes of musculoskeletal tissue differentiation but negatively regulates the expression of the BMP-antagonist Gremlin. Conclusion We propose the occurrence of an interplay between Tgfβ and BMP signaling functionally associated with the regulation of early limb outgrowth by modulating limb mesenchymal cell proliferation.

  19. 龙葵碱对人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型血管生成的影响%Effects of Solanine on the human colon cancer in chicken embryo transplantation model angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桃; 谢铭; 贺新媛; 杨雪峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish chicken embryo transplantation model of human colon cancer and to research the effect of so‐lanine on angiogenesis .Methods Cases with chicken embryos were divided into the low‐,mid‐and high dose solanine group and con‐trol group ,with 10 cases in each groups ,and then the cultured human colon cancer cell line HT‐29 cell lines were inoculated to the chicken embryo villus allantois membrane (CAM ) .We observed the characteristics of the transplanted tumor in CAM angiogenesis by the stereo microscope .Image analysis software of Image‐pro plus 6 .0 and immunohistochemical method were used to observe the effect of different dose of solanine on angiogenesis .Results HT‐29 cell lines were inoculated to CAM 3-5 days ,a large number of blood vessels concentrated in tumors ,growing into or acrossing the surface of tumors .While tumors also rapidly growed .We took photo on the 5th day after receiving medicine and did imaging analysis .Then we calculated the area of angiogenesis in experimental group ,which was significantly lower than that of the control group ,quantitatively in a dose‐dependent manner .There were signifi‐cant differences among the groups(P<0 .01) .Microvascular density of 3 different dose of solanine was significantly lower than that of the control group by immunohistochemical method ;the expression of Ki‐67 antigen index decreased gradually ,which was highest in the control group ,and there were significant differences among the groups (P<0 .01) .Conclusion Solanine could inhibit angio‐genesis induced by human colon cancer HT‐29 cell lines obviously ,thus inhibiting the growth of tumor and providing an important basis for the treatment of anti‐tumor angiogenesis .%目的:建立人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型,研究龙葵碱对其血管生成的影响。方法将鸡胚分为对照组和低剂量组、中剂量组、高剂量组(均n=10),将培养的人结肠癌细胞系HT‐29

  20. 鸡胚胎性病原茵多重PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of multiplex PCR detection for pathogens of chicken embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕玲; 朱瑞良; 王慧; 王新建; 魏凯; 孙振红; 盛鹏程

    2011-01-01

    To establish a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detecation of Bordetella avium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in infected embryos, four pairs of specific primers were designed and synthesized based on the genes of ompA in B. ayium,invA in Salmonella, phoA in E. coli and toxR in P. aeruginosa for detection of these pathogenic bacteria by multiplex PCR. Test results indicated that the PCR products were 597 bp for B. ayium, 724 bp for Salmonella, 372 bp for E. coli,and 278 bp for P. aeruginosa, and the limit detections were approximate l04 cfu/mL for B. avium, E. coli and P. aeruginosa and 103 cfu/mL for Salmonella, respectively, without any amplification from other related bacteria. The detection results from clinical embrvos samples showed that the multiplex PCR were consistent with that of bacteria culture isolation. The multiplex PCR assay could be used for rapid detection of pathogenic bactera.%为建立同时检测禽波氏杆菌(Bordetella avium)、沙门氏茵(Salmonella)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)和绿脓杆菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)4种导致鸡胚死亡病原菌的多重PCR方法,本研究根据B.aviun的ompA基因、Salmonella的invA基因、E.coli的phoA基因和P.aeruginosa的toxR基因序列,各设计一对特异性引物进行多重PCR反应,并对反应体系和条件进行优化.结果显示,4对引物分别扩增出597bp、724bp、372bp和278bp的目的条带;并且特异性强不与其他非目的茵发生反应.经优化B.aviun、P.aeruginosa和E.coli多重PCR检测灵敏度达到104cfu/mL,而Salmonella为103cfu/mL.本研究建立的多重PCR方法为相关病原茵的快速检测提供方法.

  1. Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Winter, Christine; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke; Herrler, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Many viruses infect and replicate in their host via the intestinal tract, e.g. many picornaviruses, several coronaviruses and avian influenza viruses of waterfowl. To analyze infection of enterocytes is a challenging task as culture systems for differentiated intestinal epithelial cells are not readily available and often have a life span that is too short for infection studies. Precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) from chicken embryos were prepared and shown that the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the intestine are viable for up to 4 days. Using lectin staining, it was demonstrated that α2,3-linked sialic acids, the preferred receptor determinants of avian influenza viruses, are present on the apical side of the epithelial cells. Furthermore, the epithelial cells (at the tips) of the villi were shown to be susceptible to infection by an avian influenza virus of the H9N2 subtype. This culture system will be useful to analyze virus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and it should be applicable also to the intestine of other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of nitric oxide modulating activities on development of enteric nervous system mediated gut motility in chick embryo model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein-Ali Arab; Samad Muhammadnejad; Seyed-Muhammad Faghihi; Hossein Hassanpour; Ahad Muhammadnejad

    2014-12-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs), and many molecules and biochemical processes may be involved in its development. This study examined the effects of modulating embryonic nitric oxide (NO) activity on the intestinal motility induced by ENS. One-hundred-and-twenty fertilized chicken eggs were assigned to three main groups and incubated at 37°C and 60% humidity. The eggs were treated with -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), L-arginine (L-Arg) or vehicle from days 3 (1st group), 7 (2nd group) and 10 (3rd group) of incubation and continued up to day 18. On day 19, the embryos were sacrificed, the jejunal and colorectal segments were taken and the intestinal motility was assessed using isolated organ system. The intestinal motility was recorded normally and following cholinergic, adrenergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) stimulations. The ENS structure was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Rhythmic intestinal contractions were seen in all treatment groups, but inhibition of NO in the L-NAME-treated embryos caused significant decrease ( < 0.01) in the frequency and amplitude of the contraction. The responsiveness to adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC stimulations was also significantly decreased ( <0.05). The GFAP expression was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced in the L-NAME-treated embryos. This study showed that the inhibition of NO caused a deficient development of the ENS, leading to a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of the intestinal contractions and reduced the responsiveness to adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC signalling.

  3. 坡地放养成年三黄鸡肠道正常菌群的研究%Study on Normal Flora in the Intestinal Canal of Adult Sanhuang Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长秀; 韦明肯

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To study the pH value of different parts of intestine, the law of normal flora’s distribution and how the balance of intestinal micro-flora affects poultry’s growth. Methods:Count the number of objected bacteria from the diluted samples of intestinal contents daubed on the selective culture plates; determine the intestinal pH value by using precise pH test paper;cultivate anaerobic bacteria with candle cylinder carbon dioxide culture method. Results: Bifidobacterium (1010.1cfu/g~1011.51cfu/g) and lactobacillus (109.1cfu/g~109.7cfu/g) are the dominant bacteria in the intestine; the distribution of aerobic bacteria in intestine presents a irregular change law (107.2cfu/g~109.5cfu/g) during the moving process of intestinal contents, while the distribution of anaerobic bacteria and aerobic bacteria in the digestive tract presents a regular change of “fewer in both ends and more in the middle”. Conclusion: There is a certain relationship between the intestinal pH value and the distribution of microorganism; aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and facultative bacteria interact and grow together in a certain environment, reflecting different distribution laws; further researches are needed on the macro and micro environment, and their relation with chicken organism.%  【目的】研究肠道不同部位的pH值和正常菌群分布数量的规律以及肠道微生态平衡与禽类健康生长的关系.【方法】将肠道内容物样品稀释涂布于选择性培养平板进行目的菌计数;采用精密PH试纸测定肠道pH值和烛缸二氧化碳培养法培养厌氧菌.【结果】肠道中厌氧菌双歧杆菌(1010.1cfu/g~1011.51cfu/g)和乳酸杆菌(109.1cfu/g~109.7cfu/g)为优势菌群,需氧菌(107.2cfu/g~109.5cfu/g)在肠道内容物移动过程中有不同规律的变化,但厌氧菌和需氧菌在消化道中总体呈两头少中间多的分布规律.【结论】肠道pH值与微生物分布数量存在一定的关

  4. Morfometria da mucosa duodenal em frangos de corte submetidos à temperatura ambiente cíclica elevada Intestinal morphometry of the duodenal mucosa in broiler chickens underwent to high cyclic environment temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.P. Marchini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da temperatura ambiente cíclica elevada sobre a morfometria da mucosa duodenal e o peso corporal em frangos de corte foram avaliados. Setenta pintos de corte, machos, foram alojados em gaiolas e distribuídos em dois grupos. Um grupo foi submetido diariamente, durante uma hora, à temperatura ambiente cíclica elevada do primeiro até o 42º dia de idade (ambiente ST; e outro foi mantido em conforto térmico (ambiente TN. Cinco frangos de cada grupo foram sacrificados, semanalmente, por deslocamento cervical para mensuração da altura de vilosidades (VI, profundidade das criptas (CR e relação vilo/cripta (VI/CR duodenal. Dez aves de cada grupo foram pesadas semanalmente em balança digital. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 7x2 (sete idades: um, sete, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias, e dois ambientes: ST e TN. Os ambientes foram comparados pelo teste de Fisher (PThe effects of high cyclic environment temperature on body weight and morphometry of the duodenal mucosa in broiler chicken were evaluated. Seventy one-day-old male broiler chicks were sheltered in cages and distributed in two groups. One group was daily exposed to high cyclic environment temperature for an hour, from hatching to 42 days of age (group ST, the other one was kept under thermoneutral conditions (group TN. Five chickens of each group were weekly slaughtered by cervical delocation to mesure the villosities height (VI, crypts depth (CR, and villo/crypt ratio (VI/ CR in the duodenum. Ten chickens of each group were weighted weekly on a digital balance. A completely randomized experimental design in a 7x2 factorial arrangement (hatching, seven, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of age and two environments: ST and TN. The environments were compared by Fisher test (P<0.05 and the effects of days of life by polynomial regression. The ST group had reduction in VI at 14 and 21 days of age (P<0.01, CR at 28 days of age (P<0.05, and in VI/CR at 21

  5. Comparative efficacy of flubendazole and a commercially available herbal wormer against natural infections of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and intestinal Capillaria spp. in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, S; Fisher, M; Gladstone, O; Rogerson, S; Martin, P; Martin, S; Lester, H; Sygall, R; Underwood, N

    2012-04-30

    The efficacy of a commercially available flubendazole-based product and a commercially available herbal product were compared against three species of helminth parasites of chickens: Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Capillaria spp. A total of 48 naturally infected chickens were used in the study with 16 birds in each of three treatment groups (untreated control; flubendazole; and a herbal product). One bird from each treatment group was necropsied on Day 0 prior to first treatment to confirm the parasite species present in the birds. Treatments were administered as labelled and the 45 remaining birds were necropsied on Day 12 and worm counts performed. Average worm counts in the two treated groups were compared to the untreated controls to calculate efficacy. Flubendazole (Group A) achieved an overall efficacy of 99.4% for the three parasite species. The herbal product (Group B) achieved efficacies ranging from less than zero to 11.6% for the three parasites, with worm counts not significantly different to the untreated controls. At present, commercially available herbal products claiming anthelmintic properties do not require licencing as veterinary medicinal products (Directive 2004/28/EC: see Article 17 and 33-38) and thus are not required to meet specific efficacy thresholds. Products which do not appear to deliver acceptable anthelmintic efficacy, are obviously a concern from many aspects but specifically from an animal welfare perspective.

  6. Análise morfométrica da parede intestinal e dinâmica de mucinas secretadas no íleo de frangos infectados por Toxoplasma gondii Morphometric analysis of the intestinal wall and the dynamic of mucins secreted in the chicken ileum infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Sayuri Shiraishi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar os efeitos da toxoplasmose sobre a morfometria da parede intestinal e a dinâmica de mucinas secretadas no íleo de frangos. Foram utilizados 16 frangos de corte machos (Gallus gallus da linhagem Cobb, com 26 dias de idade. As aves foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos (G1, G2 e G3. O G1 não recebeu nenhum inóculo caracterizando o grupo controle, o G2 foi inoculado com cistos teciduais da cepa ME49 de Toxoplasma gondii, e o G3 foi inoculado com oocistos da cepa M7741 de T. gondii. Após 60 dias da inoculação, os animais foram mortos, e coletou-se o íleo, o qual foi submetido à rotina de processamento histológico. Cortes transversais de 4mm foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2,5 e Alcian Blue (AB pH 1,0. Nos animais do G2, observou-se aumento da parede intestinal, sobretudo a túnica muscular, muscular da mucosa e túnica mucosa, além de aumento na secreção de mucinas neutras. Já nos animais do G3, houve uma atrofia da parede intestinal, sobretudo para a túnica mucosa, e aumento na secreção de mucinas neutras.The effects of toxoplasmosis on the intestinal wall morphometry and the dynamic of mucins secreted in the chicken ileum were analyzed. Sixteen 26-day-old, male, Cobb broiler chicks (Gallus gallus were used and randomly divided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. G1 received no inoculum characterizing the control group, G2 was inoculated with tissue cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii, and G3 was inoculated with oocytes of M7741 strain of T. gondii. After 60 days of inoculation, the animals were killed and had their ileum collected and submitted to histological processing. Tranversal cuts (4mm were stained with Hematoxilin-Eosine (HE, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2.5 and Alcian Blue (AB pH 1.0. Intestinal wall increase was noticed for the animals from G2 - mostly the muscle tunic, the muscularis mucosae, and the mucous tunic

  7. Different Lactobacillus Forms Affect Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Mucosa Morphology of Broiler Chickens%不同剂型乳酸菌对雏鸡生长性能和小肠黏膜形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子涵; 许丽

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在比较不同剂型乳酸菌对雏鸡生长性能和小肠黏膜组织形态的影响.试验选用1日龄健康肉雏鸡240只,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复12只鸡.Ⅰ组为固体制剂组,饲喂基础饲粮+0.2%草乳杆菌固体制剂;Ⅱ组为液体制剂组,饲喂基础饲粮+0.2%草乳杆菌液体制剂;Ⅲ组为抗生素组,饲喂基础饲粮+0.01%黄霉素;Ⅳ组为对照组,饲喂基础饲粮,试验期为14 d.结果表明:乳酸菌液体制剂组1~14日龄雏鸡的平均日增重显著高于抗生素组和乳酸菌固体制剂组(P<0.05),在料重比方面各组并无显著差异(P>0.05),但液体制剂的效果要优于固体制剂;乳酸菌制剂有增加小肠绒毛高度和减小隐窝深度的趋势,但仅乳酸菌液体制剂组达到显著水平(P<0.05);各乳酸菌制剂对小肠肠壁厚度影响不显著(P>0.05);乳酸菌液体制剂组雏鸡小肠绒毛高度与隐窝深度的比值显著大于对照组和抗生素组(P<0.05),但是乳酸菌固体制剂组雏鸡小肠绒毛高度与隐窝深度的比值与抗生素组和对照组相比均无显著差异(P>0.05).结果提示,不同剂型乳酸菌可以提高雏鸡的平均日增重,并且对小肠肠道黏膜的组织形态有一定的改善,可以增加小肠绒毛高度,减少隐窝深度,但液体制剂效果优于固体制剂.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different Lactobacillus forms on growth performance and small intestinal mucosa morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 5 replicates per group and 12 chickens per replicate. Group I was Lactobacillus solid preparation group (basal diet +0.2% L. Graminis solid preparation) ; group II was Lactobacillus liquid preparation group (basal diet + L. Graminis liquid preparation); group IE was antibiotic group (basal diet +0. 01% flavomycin); group IV was control group (basal diet). The experimental

  8. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  9. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  10. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  11. Germline transmission of exogenous genes in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselman, R A; Hsu, R Y; Boggs, T; Hu, S; Bruszewski, J; Ou, S; Kozar, L; Martin, F; Green, C; Jacobsen, F

    1989-01-27

    Difficulties associated with in vitro manipulation and culture of the early chicken embryo have restricted generation of transgenic chickens to approaches that use replication-competent retroviruses. The need to produce transgenic chickens in the absence of replicating virus prompted development of a new method of gene transfer into the chicken. Microinjection of the replication-defective reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) vector ME111 beneath unincubated chicken embryo blastoderms results in infection of germline stem cells. This vector contains genetic information exogenous to the chicken genome, including both the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene and the Tn5 neomycin phosphotransferase gene. About 8 percent of male birds hatched from injected embryos contained vector DNA in their semen. All four positive males tested passed vector sequences onto their progeny. Analysis of G1 offspring showed that gonads of G0 male birds were mosaic with respect to insertion of vector provirus. Thus, primordial germ cells present in the unincubated chicken embryo blastoderm are susceptible to infection by defective REV vectors.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of Aspergillus originated prebiotic (Fermacto on performance and small intestinal morphology of broiler chickens fed diluted diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermacto, that it is commercially a fermentation product of Aspergillus orizae, is proven to increase digestion efficiency of the gut. In this experiment, 450 one day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks (mixed-sex were used in a completely randomized design with 3×2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of Fermacto (0, 0.15 and 0.3% for 42 days and two levels of diet dilution using rice hulls (0 and 40% at 10-21 days of age. The treatments consisted of 3 replicates with 25 chicks per each. Administration of Fermacto did not influence feed intake or feed conversion ratio, but the daily weight gain improved. Diluted diets significantly increased body weights and decreased feed intake; however, this manipulation didn’t affect feed conversion ratios. There was no interaction between prebiotic supplementation and experimental diets dilution for performance traits. Diet dilution significantly decreased abdominal fat pad, villi height and increased epithelial thickness and goblet cell numbers. Dietary supplementation using Fermacto significantly decreased the abdominal fat pad and goblet cell numbers but increased the small intestinal villus heights. There were some conflicting observations for different segments of the small intestine. The 0.3% Fermacto inclusion in experimental diets caused more beneficial effects. Contrary to previous reports on more efficiency of Fermacto on low protein diets, this trend is not seen for the whole diluted diets.

  13. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  14. First reported fatal Morganella morganii infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changguang; Tang, Na; Wu, Yanping; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Wanmeng; Qin, Xiuhui; Zhao, Jixun; Zhang, Guozhong

    2012-05-01

    Morganella morganii, a Gram-negative rod commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, is here confirmed to cause a fatal infection in chickens by isolation and identification of the bacteria, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and experimental infection. This is the first case of M. morganii infection in chickens.

  15. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  16. Comparison of Difference and Ontogenetic Expression of EAATs mRNA in the Small Intestine of Broiler Chick Embryo%温氏土鸡和白洛克鸡胚小肠EAATs mRNA表达差异及发育性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎相广; 严会超; 曾佩玲; 张德祥; 王修启

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究温氏土鸡(WYFC)和隐性白洛克(WRRC)鸡胚小肠酸性氨基酸转运载体EAAT2(SLC1A2)和EAAT3(SLC1A1)mRNA的表达差异和发育性变化.[方法]选取蛋重相近的两品种纯系种蛋各96枚,每个品种随机分为6组,每组16枚,在相同的条件下进行孵化.分别就每个品种在9(E9)、12(E12)、14(E14)、17(E17)和19胚龄(E19)及出壳当天(DOH)选取16枚鸡胚,称重后采集小肠样品,采用rea1-time RT-PCR方法检测小肠EAATs mRNA的相对表达丰度.[结果](1)9、12、14、17和19胚龄隐性白洛克胚蛋重量及出壳当天雏鸡体重极显著高于温氏土鸡(P<0.01);(2)从发育性变化来看,EAAT2 mRNA在两个品种表达基本一致,即E9-14表达量下调,E17有所上调,随后下调,E12、E17、E19和DOH两品种差异极显著(P<0.01),E14差异显著(P<0.05); EAAT3 mRNA在两个品种都表现为随胚龄增加而表达上调,E19两品种差异极显著(P<0.01),E12差异显著(P< 0.05):(3)EAAT2和EAAT3 mRNA表达丰度,温氏土鸡鸡胚小肠高于隐性白洛克,不同发育阶段对其都有影响,均存在“品种x胚龄”的互作效应.[结论]EAATs mRNA表达丰度在品种和胚龄间存在差异,不同基因表达的发育模式亦不相同.%[Objective] The objective of this study was to compare the difference and ontogenetic expression of glutamate transporters (EAAT2 and EAAT3) mRNA in small intestine of broiler chick embryo. Two breeds were selected, one was Wens Yellow-Feathered Chicken (WYFC, a Chinese local breed which grows slowly and marketed age for female is over 100 days) and the other was White Recessive Rocks Chicken (WRRC). [Method] Ninety-six fertilized eggs of each breed which had a similar weight were assigned into 6 groups for hatching. Sixteen small intestinal samples from each group were collected on embryonic days 9 (E9), 12 (E12), 14 (E14), 17 (E17), 19 (E19) and day of hatch (DOH) after the eggs were weighed. The expressions of EAATs mRNA were

  17. Probiotics stimulate production of natural antibodies in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Hamid R; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L; Hayes, M Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-09-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation.

  18. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  19. The specific expression pattern of globin mRNAs in Tibetan chicken during late embryonic stage under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Zhang, L F; Li, N

    2013-04-01

    Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus) is a specific chicken breed with strong ability to resist hypoxia, especially during embryonic stage. Though this breed has lived in Tibet plateau for thousands of years, the adaptive mechanism in response to hypoxia is still unknown. In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, we analyzed the mRNA expression pattern of globins in the present study. The fertilized eggs from Tibetan chicken and dwarf recessive white chicken breeds were incubated under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13% O2) conditions, equivalent to the altitude of 3600m. We observed that Tibetan chicken embryos had higher hatchability (48%) in hypoxia than their lowland controls (7.8%). Northern blot showed that globin mRNA expression in Tibetan chicken embryos differed greatly from lowland controls under hypoxia. The expressions of four dominant globin mRNAs, named α(A), α(D), β(A) and β(H), were significantly induced under hypoxia. Tibetan chicken embryos had lower globin mRNA level in red cells than that of lowland controls at day 19 (Pchicken embryos than that of lowland chicken embryos. Overall, our results provide new evidence that flexible regulation of globins at the level of transcription and translation may play a role in allowing the Tibetan chicken embryo to resist hypoxia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Separation and identification of colonized Lactobacillus from chickens intestine and analyzation antibiotics susceptibility%鸡肠道定殖乳酸杆菌分离鉴定及药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一经; 韩乐濛; 唐丽杰; 马孙婷; 布哈里; 姜艳平; 崔文

    2016-01-01

    为筛选分析鸡肠道内定殖乳酸杆菌及其对抗生素药物敏感性,选取健康鸡肠道内容物,利用MRS-CaCO3培养基平板,42℃厌氧培养,选择革兰氏阳性、不运动、无芽孢、杆状细菌检测过氧化氢酶、氧化酶和硝酸盐还原活性,糖发酵反应管作生化反应表型鉴定,利用PCR扩增16S rRNA并测定序列。结果表明,获得8株乳酸杆菌,其中包括3株Lactobacillus crispatus、2株Lactobacillus johnsonii、2株Lactobacillus salivarius和1株Lactobacillus saerimneri。8株乳酸杆菌在37和42℃均生长良好;抑菌试验表明,对革兰氏阳性及阴性细菌均有一定抑菌活性。体外粘附试验表明,8株乳酸杆菌均具有一定粘附特性,可在肠道内定殖。抗生素敏感性试验表明,8株乳酸杆菌对多种抗生素敏感。%In order to select colonized Lactobacil us from chickens intestine and analyzation antibiotics susceptibility, Lactobacil us were isolated from the intestine of healthy chickens. After using MRS-CaCO3 plates, anaerobic culturing in 42 ℃, bacterias those are Gram-positive, stil , no spores and rod-like were tested by oxidase, catalase reaction, and biochemical reactions. Eight strains with different phenotype were carried 16S rRNA sequence analysis by using PCR, and the results showed that three of the eight strains were Lactobacil us crispatus, two strains were Lactobacil us johnsoni , two strains were Lactobacil us salivarius and one strain were Lactobacil us saerimneri. Eight strains were able to grow wel in both 37 and 42 ℃. And al the strains exhibited sensitivity to various antibiotics, inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. And the in vitro adherence test showed that al the isolates had the ability to adhere the guts. Antibiotics susceptibility test showed that eight strains were sensitive to many antibitics.

  1. Ileal MUC2 gene expression and microbial population, but not growth performance and immune response, are influenced by in ovo injection of probiotics in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi-Mosleh, A; Sadeghi, A A; Mousavi, S N; Chamani, M; Zarei, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of intra-amniotic injection of different probiotic strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici) on the intestinal MUC2 gene expression, microbial population, growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. 2. In a completely randomised design, different probiotic strains were injected into the amniotic fluid of the 480 live embryos (d 18 of incubation), with 4 treatments and 5 replicates. Ileal MUC2 gene expression, microbial profile, growth performance and immune response were determined. 3. Injection of probiotic strains, especially B. subtilis, had significant effect on expression of the MUC2 on d 21 of incubation and d 3 post-hatch, but not on d 19 of incubation. 4. Injection of the probiotic strains decreased significantly the Escherichia coli population and increased the lactic acid bacteria population during the first week post-hatch. 5. Inoculation of probiotics had no significant effect on antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, antibody titres against sheep red blood cell and cell-mediated immune response of chickens compared to control. 6. In ovo injection of the probiotic strains had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. 7. It was concluded that injection of probiotic bacteria especially B. subtilis into the amniotic fluid has a beneficial effect on ileal MUC2 gene expression and bacteria population during the first week post-hatch, but has no effect on growth performance and immune response in broiler chickens.

  2. Microstructure and distribution of toluidine blue staining positive cells of small intestine from Ningdu yellow chicken%宁都黄鸡小肠显微结构和甲苯胺蓝染色阳性细胞分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 肖红; 张家禾; 彭沙沙; 周作红

    2013-01-01

    To assess the performance of immune in small intestine of Ningdu yellow chicken,this experiment applied the paraffin section,HE staining and microscopic observation method to know the microscopic structure of the small intestine of Ningdu yellow chicken,and at the same time use the method of improved toluidine blue staining to identify toluidine blue staining positive cells in the small intestine.The results show that the small intestine microscopic structure of Ningdu yellow chicken was similar to general poultry,the submucosal glands of duodenal were lack and there was short of mucosa lamina propria lymphatius.But it was different from general poultry that goblet cells were increasing along duodenal to ileum.Toluidine blue staining showed that the intestinal glands and ileum goblet cells were staining positive.There were mast cells in four layer structures of small intestine,and they were mainly distributed in the mucosal epithelium,submucosa,the muscularis and in the connective tissue of serosa.Mast cells were larger and ovoid mostly,others were irregular,even with apophysis.The nucleus staining were deep blue,cytoplasmic contains purple granules.The results suggested that small intestinal and goblet cells from toluidine blue staining were positive,and it can help to absorb the secretion of the active material.Rich mast cells in small intestine suggested that Ningdu yellow chicken have perfect intestinal immune barriers.%通过石蜡切片和HE染色方法观察了宁都黄鸡小肠的显微结构,同时通过改良甲苯胺蓝染色的方法鉴定小肠中的甲苯胺蓝染色阳性细胞.结果显示,宁都黄鸡小肠与一般禽类小肠显微结构类似,黏膜下层缺乏十二指肠腺,黏膜固有层缺乏淋巴小结.小肠从前到后,杯状细胞逐渐增多.3段小肠的肠腺和回肠杯状细胞呈甲苯胺蓝染色阳性.小肠壁四层结构中都有肥大细胞的分布,主要分布于黏膜上皮细胞下、黏膜下层、肌层和外膜结缔

  3. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and short chain fatty acid profiles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q; Zeng, X F; Zhu, J L; Wang, S; Liu, X T; Hou, C L; Thacker, P A; Qiao, S Y

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on broiler performance, cecal bacteria, and ileal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The study also determined whether it was necessary to feed Lactobacillus throughout the entire growth period or if the beneficial effects could be obtained by supplementation during the starter or finisher period only. Experiment 1 was conducted with 72 broilers assigned to 2 treatments (N=6). One treatment was the basal diet (Con), and the other was the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kg L. plantarum B1 (Wh). In experiment 2, 144 one-day-old broilers were assigned to 4 treatments (N=6) including a basal diet (Con), the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kgL. plantarum B1 during d one to 21 only (St), the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 during d 22 to 42 only (Fn), and, finally, the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 from d one to 42 (Wh). Experiment 1 showed that L. plantarum B1 enhanced broiler average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In experiment 2, during the starter period, broilers in the Wh and St treatments had higher ADG (Pplantarum B1 also increased (Pplantarum B1 had no effect on intestinal morphology. In conclusion,L. plantarum B1 plays a positive role in broilers. Supplementation during the finisher period or the entire growth period is superior to supplementation during the starter period only.

  4. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some generally recognized patterns. Symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia typically ... confusion in older adults Symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia can ...

  5. Identification of chicken eNOS gene and differential expression in highland versus lowland chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J F; Ling, Y; Gou, W Y; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is synthesized from l-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium. The objective of the present study was to preliminarily illuminate the expression of the eNOS gene in hypoxic adaptation of chicken embryonic development. The eNOS expression profiles between the Tibet and Shouguang chickens incubated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR. In this study, the chicken eNOS gene was found by both in silico cloning and RACE approaches. From the eNOS gene, we obtained a 3,310-bp mRNA sequence and a 10,666-bp DNA sequence and discovered that it was located on chicken chromosome 2 and had 7 unique transcripts. eNOS mRNA was detected in abundant amounts in some chick embryo organs (i.e., heart, liver, chorio-allantoic membrane, and lung), and expressed stably with the lowest levels in the brain. We observed that when exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) different embryo organ tissues had various sensitivities to hypoxia as determined by their eNOS expression profiles. Compared with the Shouguang chicken, the eNOS expression in the Tibet chicken was higher in the lung and liver, lower in the heart, and similar in the brain. In chorio-allantoic membranes, eNOS expression was higher in the Shouguang chicken than the Tibet chicken under hypoxic conditions, but not markedly different under normoxic conditions. The differences of eNOS expression between the 2 breeds may be relative to the hypoxic adaptation ability in Tibet chickens during embryonic development. This work will provide reference for future studies on the role of eNOS in hypoxic adaptation and response.

  6. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  7. Efeitos do espaço de alojamento e da idade sobre desenvolvimento, integridade e proteção da mucosa intestinal de frangos de corte Effects of enclosure size and age on development, integrity and protection of the intestinal mucosa in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thimotheo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado se o espaço de alojamento influencia o desenvolvimento da mucosa do intestino delgado de frangos, sendo usado um esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (14, 28, 42, 55 dias de idade e alojamento pequeno: 0,11m²/ave e grande: 0,525m²/ave. Foram analisadas: altura, perímetro e número dos vilos, profundidade das criptas, número de células caliciformes e número de vilos sem e com perda de epitélio e exposição do conjuntivo. Em ambos os espaços de alojamento, o número de vilos diminuiu e a profundidade das criptas aumentou com a idade nas três regiões intestinais. A altura e o perímetro dos vilos aumentaram de 14 para 28 dias no jejuno e íleo, e o número de células caliciformes foi maior no duodeno e íleo a partir dos 42 dias. A perda de epitélio pelos vilos do íleo aumentou com a idade. Nas aves do alojamento grande, ocorreu aumento na altura e no perímetro dos vilos duodenais com a idade, possibilitado pelo aumento na profundidade das criptas, que resultou em vilos maiores nessas aves do que nas do alojamento pequeno aos 55 dias de idade. O número de células caliciformes diminuiu nas aves do alojamento pequeno aos 42 dias de idade. Os dados mostram que o tamanho do alojamento interferiu no modelo de desenvolvimento temporal da mucosa intestinal e que frangos apresentaram maior tamanho de vilo duodenal quando alojados em espaço maior.This study evaluated if enclosure size and age influence the intestinal mucosa development of broiler chickens, using an experimental design in an 4x2 factorial arrangement (14, 18, 42 and 55 days of age and two enclosure spaces: small= 0.11m² /bird and large= 0.525m²/bird. Villous height, perimeter and number, and crypt depth, goblet cells number, and number of villous without and with epithelium loss and conjunctive tissue exposition were analyzed in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Regardless of enclosure size, the villous number diminished and the crypt depth increased with the age in the three

  8. Photoperiodic lighting (16 hours of light:8 hours of dark) programs during incubation: 1. Effects on growth and circadian physiological traits of embryos and early stress response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Yalçin, S; Babacanoglu, E; Kozanoglu, H; Karadas, F; Uysal, S

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 16L:8D photoperiod during incubation, either during the whole incubation period (Inc(0-21d)) or the last week of incubation (Inc(14-21d)), on embryo growth, incubation performance, and light:dark rhythm of plasma melatonin and corticosterone in relation to early stress responses of newly hatched chicks to the posthatching environment. A dark incubation condition (Inc(Dark)) served as control. Three batches of eggs (n = 1,080, 1,320, 720) from Ross 308 broiler breeders were used in the experiment. Embryos from Inc(0-21d) presented a daily rhythm of melatonin at internal pipping and hatching, but Inc(Dark) embryos did not. The Inc(14-21d) group had rhythmic plasma melatonin at hatching only. A L:D rhythm of corticosterone was apparent at hatching. A significant incubation × sampling time interaction suggested that a lower increment in blood corticosterone level in Inc(0-21d) at 8 h posthatching (light period), as compared with hatching (dark period) values, might be associated with probable changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Inc(0-21d) through incubation lighting. This finding may also suggest improved adaptation to the posthatching environment. Incubation lighting did not consistently affect brain malondialdehyde concentration; the only difference between groups was higher concentrations at hatching in Inc(14-21d), whereas incubation groups at the internal pipping stage had similar values. Mean relative asymmetry (RA) did not differ with incubation lighting. The malondialdehyde and RA results indicate that neither lighting nor darkness during the overall incubation exacerbated embryo oxidative and developmental stress. An increased breast muscle weight was observed at hatching only in Inc(14-21d). The Inc(0-21d) group had increased embryo weights relative to egg weight and decreased residual yolk but had no effect on chick weight, relative heart and liver (% of embryo weight), hatchability

  9. Perkembangan Embrio dan Penentuan Jenis Kelamin DOC (Day-Old Chicken Ayam Jawa Super

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarani Kusumawati

    2017-02-01

    Super Javanese chicken embryonic development. This study attempts to provide information about embryonic development and sexing on Super Javanese chicken. This study used Super Javanese chicken fertile eggs from Java Farm, Maguwoharjo, Depok, Sleman. These eggs were incubated at temperature of 37o-38oC. Samples were observed with Neutral Red and Hematoxilin Eosine (HE staining. The measurement of the Super Javanese chicken embryo were about length of the third finger, beak, and the length of the embryo's body. This observation obtained embryonic development of the super Javanese chicken spesifically. This concluded that Super Javanese chicken as a first generation from cross breeding has slower growth in embryonic development

  10. Pemberian Grit pada Ayam Buras Memperpanjang Saluran Pencernaan, Menambah Bobot Ampela, dan Bobot Tulang Karkas (PROVISION OF GRIT TO NATIVE CHICKEN IMROVED THE DEVELOMPMENT OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT AND INCREASE CARCAS BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cytske Sabuna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, native chicken is raised in an extensive management system. The chickens were free toscavenge in the backyard, and eat a wide variety of feeds including, rice, corn, insects, or even grit. Grit is anabrasive material that can help to grind feedstuffs and use as a source of mineral for chicken. In anintensive farming system, native chickens are given full feeding program throughout the production period,without grit. The objective of this research was to study the development of gastrointestinal tract andcarcass bone of native chickens supplemented to grit. Eighty chickens were used in the study usingrandomized block design. The four treatments were: R0 = basal feeds without grit ; R1 = R0 + grit 0,25% ofbody weight ; R2 = R0 + grit 0,50% of body weight ; R3 = R0 + grit 0,75% of body weight. The results showedthat administration of grit up to the level of 0.75% body weight significantly increased grit consumption,digestive tract length, gizzard weight and carcass bone weight of native chicken.

  11. 嗜酸乳杆菌细胞壁提取物对致病性大肠杆菌粘附鸡肠纹状缘膜的影响%Effect of cell wall extracts from Lactobacillus acidophilus on pathogenic E.coli O78 binding to chicken intestinal brush border membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟硕; 王艳菁; 齐海涛; 王利; 黄震; 陈济铛; 张桂红

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cell wall extracts from Lactobacillus acidophilus on inhibition of chicken pathogenic E. Coli 078 binding to chicken intestinal brush border membrane. We used chicken intestinal brush border membrane treated as a model for the experiment. The activities of surfaces layer proteins, and whole peptidoglycan (WPG) from L. Acidophilus were tested for inhibition of fimbriae-mediated adhesion of E. Coli to chicken intestinal brush border membrane by solid phase binding and binding inhibition assay. The result showed that both S-layer proteins and WPG of L. Acidophilus were able to inhibit the binding of fimbriae with brush border membrane in a dose-dependent manner, which indicated that the mechanism of antagonistic action might be based mainly on space occupancy and competitive binding. Of which the effect of S-layer proteins was stronger than that of WPG.%为研究嗜酸乳杆菌细胞壁提取物对致病性大肠杆菌(E.coli)粘附鸡肠纹状缘膜的影响,本实验以雏鸡小肠纹状缘膜为模型,以嗜酸乳杆菌和鸡致病性E.coli O78为研究对象,提取嗜酸乳杆菌表层蛋白、肽聚糖及E.coli O78菌毛,雏鸡小肠纹状缘膜,采用固相粘附试验和生物素标记法从分子间相互作用的关系评价了嗜酸乳杆菌细胞壁提取物对菌毛粘附的抑制作用,结果表明:表层蛋白和肽聚糖对菌毛粘附具有明显的抑制作用,呈浓度依赖性抑制菌毛与纹状缘膜的结合,具有竞争性拮抗作用,这主要是由空间占位造成的.肽聚糖的抑制作用相对较小.

  12. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  13. Vertebrate embryos as tools for anti-angiogenic drug screening and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedie, Shaunna L; Diamond, Alexandra J; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Figg, William D; Vargesson, Neil

    2016-11-22

    The development of new angiogenic inhibitors highlights a need for robust screening assays that adequately capture the complexity of vessel formation, and allow for the quantitative evaluation of the teratogenicity of new anti-angiogenic agents. This review discusses the use of screening assays in vertebrate embryos, specifically focusing upon chicken and zebrafish embryos, for the detection of anti-angiogenic agents.

  14. Influência da suplementação de glutamina sobre o desempenho e o desenvolvimento de vilos e criptas do intestino delgado de frangos Influence of glutamine supplementation on performance and intestinal villous and crypt development in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maiorka

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da suplementação de glutamina na dieta sobre o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e sobre a estrutura da mucosa intestinal de frangos. Foram utilizados 320 pintos de corte machos distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com dois tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo T1 suplementado com 1% de L-glutamina na dieta e T2 controle. Os índices de desempenho foram analisados aos 7, 21 e 49 dias de idade das aves. Aos 7 e 14 dias de idade oito aves foram sacrificadas para colheita de fragmentos de cada porção do intestino delgado para avaliação da morfometria intestinal em microscopia de luz em sistema analisador de imagens "Video Plan". As variáveis estudadas foram altura dos vilos, profundidade de cripta e relação vilo: cripta. A adição de 1% de glutamina à dieta de frangos não influenciou (P>0,05 o seu desempenho zootécnico. Entretanto, 1% de glutamina na ração foi capaz de alterar (PThis investigation was carried out in order to study the influence of glutamine supplementation in the ration on performance and on the intestinal structure development of broiler chickens. Three hundred and twenty day-old broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized experiment with two treatments and four repetitions, being T1 supplemented with 1% L-glutamine and T2 - control (not supplemented. The performance was evaluated (feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion at 7, 21 and 49 days of age. At the same ages birds were sacrificed and samples from different parts of the intestine were collected (duodenum, jejunum and ileum to be submitted to morphometric studies under light microscopy using an image analysis system (Video Plan. The variables studied were villous height, crypt depth and villous:crypt ratio. It was demonstrated that 1% glutamine supplementation in the ration did not influence the broiler chicken performance (P>0.05 during the different phases of growth

  15. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  16. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  17. Intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  18. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  19. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  20. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  1. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 Induces Avian β-Defensin Gene Expression in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs play a critical role in innate immunity. Specific modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis by dietary compounds has been regarded as a novel approach to boost immunity and disease resistance in animal production. 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D3 is well known as a powerful HDP inducer in humans, but limited information about the effect of 1,25D3 on HDPs in poultry is available. Here, we sought to examine whether 1,25D3 could stimulate avian β-defensin (AvBD expression in chickens. We used chicken embryo intestinal epithelial cells (CEIEPCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to study the effect of 1,25D3 on the expression of AvBDs. We observed that 1,25D3 is able to up-regulate the expression of several AvBDs in CEIEPCs and PBMCs, whereas it increased the amounts of AvBD4 mRNA in CEIEPCs only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. On the other hand, LPS treatment not only inhibited the expression of CYP24A1 but also altered the expression pattern of VDR in CEIEPCs. Furthermore, AvBDs were not directly regulated by 1,25D3, as cycloheximide completely blocked 1,25D3-induced expression of AvBDs. Our observations suggest that 1,25D3 is capable of inducing AvBD gene expression and is a potential antibiotic alternative through augmentation of host innate immunity as well as disease control in chickens.

  2. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  3. 持续偏热处理对肉仔鸡免疫器官指数、小肠形态结构和黏膜免疫指标的影响%Effects of Continuous Partial Heat Treatment on Immune Organ Indexes, Small Intestinal Morphology and Mucosal Immunity Indexes of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少帅; 甄龙; 冯京海; 胡春红; 彭骞骞; 常玉; 周莹; 张敏红

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different continuous partial heat ( 26 and 31 ℃) treatments on immune organ indexes, small intestinal morphology and mucosal immunity indexes of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty-four 22-day-old Arbor Acres ( AA) broiler chickens were assigned to three environment chambers ( treatments) , each chamber contained six cages ( replicates) with eight birds per cage ( with four males and four females) . The pre-test period lasted for 7 days and broiler chickens were kept at 21 ℃ and 60% relative humidity. When broiler chickens were 29-day-old, the temperatures of each environ-mental chamber were gradually regulated to 21, 26 and 31 ℃, respectively, while maintaining the relative hu-midity at 60% and both kept constant until the end of the experiment. The trial period lasted for 14 days. The results showed as follows: compared with 21 ℃ treatment, 1) temperature treatments had no significant effect on the thymus index of broiler chickens ( P>0.05) . On day 7, 31 ℃ treatment significantly reduced the spleen index ( P0.05);第7天,31 ℃处理显著降低脾脏指数( P<0.05);第7、14天,31 ℃处理显著降低法氏囊指数(P<0.05). 2)26和31℃处理显著降低第14天空肠和回肠绒毛高度(P<0.05);31 ℃处理显著升高第14天空肠隐窝深度( P<0.05);26 和31 ℃处理显著升高第14 天回肠隐窝深度(P<0.05). 3)31 ℃处理显著降低第1 天十二指肠分泌型免疫球蛋白 A(SIgA)含量,26 和31 ℃处理显著降低第7天十二指肠SIgA含量;31 ℃处理显著降低第1天空肠SIgA含量. 因此,与21 ℃处理相比,持续偏热( 26和31 ℃)处理不同程度影响肉仔鸡免疫器官的发育,损伤小肠形态结构,降低小肠黏膜免疫功能.

  4. Effect of angiogenesis on Solanine and VEGF antibody in chicken embryo transplantation model of human colon cancer cells%龙葵碱联合VEGF抗体对人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型血管生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 邓冬雪; 张桃; 宁伟伟; 郑兴斌; 谢铭

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型,探讨龙葵碱、VEGF抗体及两者联合对人结肠癌细胞诱导肿瘤血管生成及肿瘤增殖的影响。方法将人结肠癌H T‐29细胞鸡胚移植模型分为实验组和对照组,实验组加入龙葵碱、V EG F抗体和龙葵碱+VEGF抗体混合液,对照组加入磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)液。通过立体显微镜照相、IPP 6.0图像分析软件分析图片;免疫组织化学方法检测CD34抗原和ki‐67抗原,观察龙葵碱、VEGF抗体和龙葵碱联合VEGF抗体对肿瘤血管生成及肿瘤增殖的影响。结果肿瘤血管面积、CD34抗原和ki‐67抗原表达:龙葵碱+VEGF抗体组明显优于单药VEGF抗体组和龙葵碱组,VEGF抗体组优于龙葵碱组,3组均明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论龙葵碱、VEGF抗体及两者联合时均能抑制人结肠癌 HT‐29细胞系诱导的肿瘤血管生成及肿瘤增殖,为抗肿瘤血管生成提供了一种新途径。%Objective To establish model of the chicken embryo transplantation of human colon cancer cells ,and investigate the effect of Solanine、VEGF antibody and Solanine combined with VEGF antibody on human colon cancer cells induce tumor angio‐genesis and tumor proliferation .Methods The model of the chicken embryo transplantation of human colon cancer HT‐29 cells were divided into three experimental group and control group .We added to the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane with Sola‐nine、VEGF antibody and Solanine+ VEGF antibody mixture ,PBS was added to the control group .Then we analysed picture through the stereomicroscope and IPP 6 .0 image analysis software ,using immunohistochemistry envision method to detect of CD34 antigen and ki‐67 antigen ,and observing effect of Solanine group ,VEGF antibody group ,Solanine+ VEGF antibody group and the effect on the tumor angiogenesis and tumor proliferation .Results The tumor angiogenesis ,CD34 antigen and ki‐67 antigen

  5. Isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from vaccinated commercial layer chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachandran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an infectious, highly contagious and destructive viral disease of poultry and controlled by vaccination. In spite of vaccination, incidence of ND was reported in commercial layers with gastrointestinal lesions. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV involved in gastrointestinal tract abnormalities of vaccinated commercial layer chicken of Namakkal region for a period of three years from 2008 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, proventriculus, intestine and caecal tonsils samples collected from dead birds on postmortem examination from 100 layer flocks above 20 weeks of age with gastrointestinal lesions were subjected to isolation of NDV in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs. Mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index of the isolates were characterized. Flock details were collected from NDV positive flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of NDV on vaccinated commercial layer chicken. Results: Among the 100 flocks examined Newcastle disease virus was detected in 14 flocks as a single infection and 10 flocks as combined infections with worm infestation, necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI values ranged from 50.4 to 96.0 hrs and from 0.650 to 1.675 respectively. Affected birds showed anorexia, diarrohea and drop in egg production. Macropathologically, matting of vent feathers, petechial haemorrhage on the tip of proventricular papilla, caecal tonsils and degeneration of ovarian follicles were noticed. The incidence of ND was most commonly noticed in 20-50 wk of age and between the months of September to November. Morbidity rate varied from 5% to 10% in the NDV alone affected flocks and 5 to 15% in NDV with other concurrent infections. Egg production drop from the expected level ranged between 3 to 7 % in ND and

  6. Chicken immune response after in ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 activating flagellin of campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Vaezirad, Mahdi M.; Verstappen, Koen M.; Wösten, Marc M.S.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, van Jos P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the

  7. Chicken Immune Response after In Ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 Activating Flagellin of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A; Vaezirad, Mahdi M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311482384; Verstappen, Koen M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357079485; Wösten, Marc M S M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164307249; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; van Putten, Jos P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069916527

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the

  8. Bacteriocins control chicken colonization while probiotic bacteria are ineffective at reducing Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers chickens are widely considered an important source for human exposure to Campylobacter jejuni. We sought to intervene in C. jejuni colonization by using a probiotic approach. Isolates from chicken intestine were screened for C. jejuni inhibition. These isolates were live-fed to treat chi...

  9. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetpillai P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar

  10. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines.

  11. Effects of Rice Genetically Modified With Cry1Ac/sck on Intestinal Microflor of Broiler Chicken%转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料对肠道群的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海峰; 刘阳; 邢福国; 王会娟

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether the transgenic brown rice used in broiler's diet had any deleterious effects on intestinal micoflor of broiler chicken, a 42- day feeding trial was employed. Three hunder sixty one- day old broilers were divided into three groups. One group was fed a diet containing transgenic brown rice and the other group was fed a diet containing corresponding nontransgenic brown rice. Three groups were fed a diet containing corn. Entericmicroorganisms at the 21 and 42 day of age were determined. No histopathological damages were detected. From this study, it was concluded that there were no adverse effects of the transgenic brown rice on the broiler chicken's entericmicroorganisms. The transgenic brown rice used in broiler's diet was safe on entericmicroorganisms of brolier chicken.%为评价转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料对肠道微生态的影响.将360只1日龄肉仔鸡随机分成3组,第一组饲喂含转基因糙米日粮;第二组饲喂含非转基因糙米日粮;第三组饲喂非转基因玉米日粮,试验期42天.在21、42天时测定肉仔鸡肠道菌群情况.结果表明:在实验期内,转基因糙米对肉仔鸡肠道菌群未产生明显影响.转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料对肉仔鸡肠道微生态是安全的.

  12. Neuroglobin mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Globin protein family plays an important role in storing and transporting oxygen.As a newly reported globin,the revealed function of neuroglobin includes binding and storing oxygen as well as facilitating the utilization of oxygen in neuronal cells.In the Dresent study,mutations in exons of chicken Ngb gene were identified with the method of sequencing and created restriction site PCR in Tibet chicken and other four lowland chicken breeds.The mutations of Lys-2224(E4)-Asn and Ser-2279(E4)-Gly were identified in exon 4 of the gene.The Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation existed only in Tibet chicken and the mutation frequencies increased with increasing altitude.Analysis of the haplotype and diplotype of the two mutations in Tibet chicken populations of different altitudes showed that the frequencies of TG haplotype and TTGG diplotype also increased with increasing altitude,while the reverse tendency was found on GGAA diplotype.Under the hypoxic simulation incubation,the main haplotype was TG in living embryos and GA in dead embryos.The results showed that the Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation may be a specific mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken.

  13. The mRNA expression of amino acid and sugar transporters, aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestines of Eimeria infected broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by infection of gut epithelial cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. This disease causes losses to the poultry industry since infected birds fail to gain weight as rapidly as non-infected birds and efficiency of feed conversion is compromised. For t...

  14. CRISPR mediated somatic cell genome engineering in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véron, Nadège; Qu, Zhengdong; Kipen, Phoebe A S; Hirst, Claire E; Marcelle, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Gene-targeted knockout technologies are invaluable tools for understanding the functions of genes in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9 system of RNA-guided genome editing is revolutionizing genetics research in a wide spectrum of organisms. Here, we combined CRISPR with in vivo electroporation in the chicken embryo to efficiently target the transcription factor PAX7 in tissues of the developing embryo. This approach generated mosaic genetic mutations within a wild-type cellular background. This series of proof-of-principle experiments indicate that in vivo CRISPR-mediated cell genome engineering is an effective method to achieve gene loss-of-function in the tissues of the chicken embryo and it completes the growing genetic toolbox to study the molecular mechanisms regulating development in this important animal model.

  15. Development of an endogenous virus-free line of chickens susceptible to all subgroups of avian leukosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special specific pathogen free chicken lines are normally used for detection of contamination with avian leukosis viruses (ALV). The suitability and efficiency of such tests mostly depend on the susceptibility of CEF to varied subgroups of ALV. The ideal...

  16. Antibodies to two major chicken heat shock proteins cross-react with similar proteins in widely divergent species.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, P M; Schlesinger, M J

    1982-01-01

    Three of the proteins induced by heat shock of chicken embryo fibroblasts have been purified, and rabbit antibodies have been raised against them. These antibodies have been used in radioimmune precipitation reactions and in a solid-phase immune assay to detect antigenic material in non-heat-shocked chicken tissues and in extracts of widely different species ranging from yeast to mammalian tissue culture cells and human erythrocyte ghosts. Antibodies to two of the major chicken heat shock pro...

  17. Desenvolvimento folicular de embriões de frangos de corte de diferentes genótipos expostos ao estresse térmico crônico Folicular development of chicken broiler embryos of different genotypes, exposed to chronic thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Dahlke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as alterações tegumentares (morfogênese da pena, em embriões de frangos de corte de linhagens de diferentes padrões de crescimento, obtidos de ovos incubados sob diferentes temperaturas. Os ovos foram obtidos de matrizes das linhagens Cobb 500 e ISA JA57, distribuídos proporcionalmente em três incubadoras. Do primeiro (D1 ao sexto dia (D6 de incubação, utilizou-se uma temperatura padrão (37,8°C. A partir do sétimo dia (D7 e até o momento do nascimento aos 21 dias (D21, uma das incubadoras teve a temperatura reduzida para 36,8°C (fria e uma outra alterada para 38,8°C (quente. A terceira incubadora foi mantida a 37,8°C (controle. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (temperatura de incubação e linhagem. A temperatura de incubação e a linhagem não alteraram a densidade dos folículos da pena (número médio de folículos por área de 337,5µm² nas regiões femural e dorsopélvica dos embriões até os 11 dias (D11. Entretanto, observou-se aumento na densidade folicular na região dorsal dos embriões aos 16 dias (D16 devido ao aumento da temperatura, permanecendo até o momento do nascimento. É possível oncluirque embriões incubados em temperatura acima da recomendada (38,8°C apresentam uma maior densidade de folículos na região dorsopélvica. Apesar disso, a morfogênese dos folículos permaneceu inalterada.The objective of this research was to evaluate the tegument modification (feather morphogenesis in embryos of broiler chicken, of different growth standard breeder lines, obtained from eggs incubated under different temperatures. Eggs of Cobb 500 and ISA JA57 breeders lines, were proportionally distributed in three incubators. From the first (D1 to the sixth day (D6 of incubation, temperature was maintained standard at 37.8°C. From the seventh day (D7 until the moment of the birth on the twenty one days (D21, temperature was reduced to 36

  18. Multidisciplinary Inquiry-Based Investigation Learning Using an Ex Ovo Chicken Culture Platform: Role of Vitamin A on Embryonic Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Gould, Russell A.; Curran, Susan; Archer, Shivaun D.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development offers a unique perspective on the function of many biological processes because of embryos' heightened sensitivity to environmental factors. This hands-on lesson investigates the effects of elevated vitamin A on the morphogenesis of chicken embryos. The active form of vitamin A (retinoic acid) is applied to shell-less (ex…

  19. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  20. Culture systems: embryo density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Embryo density is defined as the embryo-to-volume ratio achieved during in vitro culture; in other words, it is the number of embryos in a defined volume of culture medium. The same density can be achieved by manipulating either the number of embryos in a given volume of medium, or manipulating the volume of the medium for a given number of embryos: for example, a microdrop with five embryos in a 50 μl volume under oil has the same embryo-to-volume ratio (1:10 μl) as a microdrop with one embryo in a 10 μl volume under oil (1:10 μl). Increased embryo density can improve mammalian embryo development in vitro; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect may be different with respect to which method is used to increase embryo density.Standard, flat sterile plastic petri dishes are the most common, traditional platform for embryo culture. Microdrops under a mineral oil overlay can be prepared to control embryo density, but it is critical that dish preparation is consistent, where appropriate techniques are applied to prevent microdrop dehydration during preparation, and results of any data collection are reliable, and repeatable. There are newer dishes available from several manufacturers that are specifically designed for embryo culture; most are readily available for use with human embryos. The concept behind these newer dishes relies on fabrication of conical and smaller volume wells into the dish design, so that embryos rest at the lowest point in the wells, and where putative embryotrophic factors may concentrate.Embryo density is not usually considered by the embryologist as a technique in and of itself; rather, the decision to culture embryos in groups or individually is protocol-driven, and is based more on convenience or the need to collect data on individual embryos. Embryo density can be controlled, and as such, it can be utilized as a simple, yet effective tool to improve in vitro development of human embryos.

  1. Development of a chicken enterocyte culture to study its functional physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to culture chicken intestinal enterocytes, the cells that absorb and form protective barriers against enteric bacteria, to study their functional physiologies. Using intestinal villi, harvested from day old broiler chicks, the enterocytes were isolated by sequential digestion ...

  2. Antibacterial Resistance in the Muscles of Chicken, Pig and Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Raj Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Though antibiotic drugs are known to improve the health and welfare of food animals , there is parallel risk due to the development of resistant microorganisms in the body of target animals. Seven meat samples were procured from wet market in Old Town,Petaling Jaya, Malaysia and assessed for the presence of antibiotic residues. The samples chosen were chicken parts (skin, muscle and liver , pig parts (liver, muscle and intestine and beef muscle. The results indicated that chicken skin had high level of antibioticresidues which positively resisted the presence of gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidisand B. cereus as known by the zone of inhibition.The beef muscle also held residue which resisted S. aureusChosenbacteriaalong with the extracts of chicken skin, pig intestine and beef muscle were observed to be resistant totetracycline hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate and their combinations when tested at a concentration of 1 percent

  3. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  4. INFLUENCE OF SEX AND EGG WEIGHT ON VILLUS AND CRYPT SIZE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN BROILER EMBRYOS AND CHICKS INFLUÊNCIA DO SEXO E PESO DOS OVOS SOBRE A ALTURA DOS VILOS E PROFUNDIDADE DAS CRIPTAS DO INTESTINO DELGADO DE EMBRIÕES E PINTOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclidez Braga Malheiros

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The influence of sex and egg weight on small intestine villi height and crypt depth was analyzed at 18 d of incubation, at hatching, and 7 days post-hatch. Amounts of duodenum. jejunum and ileum were removed and fixed in Bouin solution for 24 hours. After rinse in 5% ethanol, the amounts were dehydrated in a graded alcohol series up to absolute ethanol (70%, 80%, 90% and 100%, diafanized in absolute xylene and embedded in paraplast. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dta were submitted to analysis of variance. And significant treatment means were separated by Tukey´s test (p<0.05. In all three analyzed ages, birds from heavy eggs presented the heaviest body weights. At 7 days of age, female chicks were heavier than males. In the jejunum, villi were higher in male embryos as compared to female embryos, whereas in the ileum, villi were higher in females as compared to males. In the three intestinal segments, crypts were deeper in males than in females. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum villi height and jejunum crypt depth were higher in embryos derived from heavy eggs. At hatching, duodenal crypts were deeper in male than in female chicks, while jejunum and ileum crypts were deeper in female chicks. Newly-hatched chicks from heavy eggs presented the highest villi. In the three intestinal segments, crypt was shallower in chicks hatched from light as compared to heavy eggs. At 7 days of age, jejunum villi were higher in male than in female chicks, whereas crypts were deeper in females in all intestinal segments. Chicks hatched from heavy eggs presented the highest jejunum and ileum villi, and the deepest ileum depth. The results of this study show that body weight and the intestinal mucosa are influenced by sex and egg weight, and that females from heavy eggs were the heaviest chicks, and their jejunum and ileum mucosa presented the highest growth.

    KEY WORDS: Broiler embryos, chicks

  5. Screening of Chinese Herbal Medicines Resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Methed] Conven- tional punch method, test tube method and plate dilution method were adopted for in vitro susceptibility test of chicken E, coil strains O5 and O8 using 13 kinds of Chi- nese herbal medicines including Sanguisorba officinalis, Coptis chinensis, Anemar- rhena asphodeloides, Strobilanthes cusia, Agastache rugosa, etc.; chicken embryo inoculation experiment was adopted to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to chicken infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Result] Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba Taraxaci, Anemarrhena asphode- Ioides, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain O5; Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba taraxaci and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain 08; other Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively poor or no antibacterial effect. Results of chicken embryo inoculation experiment showed that nine kinds of Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively strong anti-lLTV effect, including Forsythia suspensa, Radix Isatidis, Fofium isatidis, Flos Ionicerae, Radix codonopsis, Radix astragali, Atractylodes, Radix gly- cyrrhizae, and Pericarpium granati. [Conclusion] The study laid the foundation for fur- ther development of Chinese herbal compound preparations to treat chicken cofibacil- Iosis, infectious laryngotracheitis and other bacterial, viral diseases.

  6. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体卵泡刺激素细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 袁学军; 刘靖闻; 陈慧; 吴瑜瑜

    2012-01-01

    应用免疫组织化学方法,对发育的第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体卵泡刺激素(FSH)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的中期(第10.5天),可观察到少量明显的FSH细胞分布于腺垂体后叶,随着胚胎的发育,FSH细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),发育的第16.5天FSH细胞数量增加到了整个孵化期的最大值,分布于垂体后叶的腹侧,前叶仅有少量零散的FSH细胞;在发育的第18.5天至出生期FSH细胞数量显著减少。早期FSH细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,单个或团状分布,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚胎腺垂体FSH细胞发生于胚胎发育的中期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期;FSH细胞分布于垂体后叶腹侧。%The present study is to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) cells and their change during developing embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary FSH cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive FSH cells were first detected in caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 10.5,and then dramatically increased(P0.05).FSH cells increased to a peak on day 16.5,and distributed caudal lobe,only scattered FSH cells distributed cephalic lobe of pituitary gland.On day 18.5 FSH cells decreased.In the early stage,the volume of FSH cells was smaller,there was less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining;in the mid-incubation and later,the volume become bigger,the cells became intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of FSH cells is in the middle stage and that the proliferation and differentiation of FSH cells occur during middle and late stage.

  7. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  8. Efeito da vitamina D3 e 25-hidroxi-colecalciferol sobre o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e a morfologia intestinal de frangos de corte¹ Effect of vitamin D3 and 25-hidroxicholecalciferol on performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Ávito Gonçalves de Brito

    2010-12-01

    of vitamin D from two sources (vitamin D3 and 25-OHD3 on diets for broiler chickens raised in cages. It was used 1,500 line Cobb-700 male chicks at one day of age, housed in metal cages (100, with appliances and management fitted for bird raising. In each growing phase (starter, from 1 to 21 days; growing, from 22 to 38 days, and finishing, from 39 to 45 days, it was evaluated four levels (programs of vitamin D supplementation (20/16/10; 37.5/30/18.8; 87.5/70/43.8 and 137.5/110/68.8 mg/kg ration from two sources. The two additional treatments consisted of combination of the two sources (D3 + 25-OHD3 at different proportions (50+37.7/40+30/25+18.8 and 50+70/40+56/25+35 mg/kg ration for starter, growing and finishing phases, respectively. It was used a complete random experimental design, in a 2 × 4 + 2 (sources × levels + aditionals and 10 replicates per treatment. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 ftu/kg, following the recommendations of the national tables of nutritional requirements of non-ruminant animals. The performance and carcass characteristics as well as the intestinal morphology of the birds were evaluated. Vitamin-D supplementation at the starter phase improved weight gain and feed conversion of the birds. Greater weight gain and feed intake at 45 days of age were observed for the group of birds of the additional treatment associations. Carcass yield increased with the use of 25-OHD3. When compared to the single supplementation of vitamin D sources, the additional treatments promoted more benefits for most of the evaluated characteristics. The addition of 25-OHD3 in rations containing vitamin D3 improves performance characteristics of broilers.

  9. Comparative studies in Rous sarcoma with virus, tumor cells, and chick embryo cells transformed in vitro by virus. II. Response of normal and immunized chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOUGHERTY, R M; MORGAN, H R

    1962-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblasts infected in vitro with Rous sarcoma virus have properties similar to tumor cells when injected into virus-immune chickens. When such virus-transformed fibroblasts are injected into normal chickens, they apparently participate in the production of tumors independent of their release of virus and are thus apparently malignant in vivo.

  10. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Delessa, T.; Zakin, V.; Gollop, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were id

  11. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  12. Metamizole Sodium Induces Neural Tube Defects in a Chick Embryo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Yahya; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Ozeren, Ersin; Demirci, Adnan; Alagoz, Fatih; Dalgic, Ali; Belen, Deniz

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metamizole sodium on neural tube development in the early stage chick embryo model that complies with the first month of embryonic development in mammals. A total of 40 fertilized chicken eggs were divided into 4 equal groups. The eggs were incubated in the incubator at a temperature of 37.8±2°C with 60±5% humidity. Group A was the control, Group B was administered physiological saline, Group C was administered 30 mg/kg metamizole sodium (based on the therapeutic index range of it used in humans) and Group D was administered 90 mg/kg metamizole sodium. All embryos were removed from the egg at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically examined. Normal development was seen and the neural tube was closed in 17 embryos in Groups A and B. A neural tube defect was seen in 2 embryos in group A and in 1 embryo in group B. A neural tube closure defect was seen in all embryos in group C and 9 embryos in group D. There was 1 dead embryo in Group D. Metamizole sodium was seen to produce a neural tube defect in the chicken embyro model.

  13. Molecular characterization, expression, and functional analysis of chicken TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Ran, J S; Yang, C W; Jiang, X S; Zhou, Y G; Feng, Z Q; Wang, Y; Lan, D; Ren, P; Liu, Y P

    2017-02-08

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a crucial adaptor molecule of the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily, which can trigger downstream signaling cascades involved in innate immunity. The function of TRAF6 has been clarified in mammals but is poorly understood in chicken. In our study, we investigated TRAF6 function in birds, particularly in chicken innate immune responses, by cloning and characterizing chicken TRAF6 (chTRAF6). The full-length coding sequence of chTRAF6 comprised 1638 bp and encoded a 545-amino acid protein, which shares high sequence similarity with TRAF6 of other species and consists of four structurally conserved domains. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that chTRAF6 was widely expressed in all tested tissues and its expression was induced in chicken embryo fibroblast cells treated with poly(I:C) and poly(dA:dT). Increased expression of chTRAF6 was observed both in vitro and in vivo following infection with Newcastle disease virus in chickens. Taken together, these results suggest that chTRAF6 plays a vital role in host defense against viral infection in chicken.

  14. The Effect of Supplemental Carbon Dioxide in Chicken Incubation with Eggs from Heavy Breeder Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Carlea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study followed the results of 0.85% CO2 influence on chick embryonic development. Biological material wascomposed of chicken eggs obtained from COBB500 hybrid broiler breeder parents. After weight determination ofchick embryos in different stages of development, egg components and embryos annexes, pH measurements ofalbumen and yolk sac were made. All of this analysis was made in order to determine the positive influence of 0.85%CO2 level on multistage chick incubation.

  15. Somatic sex identity is cell-autonomous in the chicken

    OpenAIRE

    D. Zhao; McBride, D; Nandi, S; McQueen, HA; McGrew, MJ; Hocking, PM; Lewis, PD; Sang, HM; Clinton, M

    2010-01-01

    In the mammalian model of sex determination, embryos are considered to be sexually indifferent until the transient action of a sex-determining gene initiates gonadal differentiation. Although this model is thought to apply to all vertebrates, this has yet to be established. We have examined three lateral gynandromorph chickens with the aim of investigating the nature of the sex-determining mechanism in birds. These studies demonstrated that gynandromorph birds are genuine male:female chimeras...

  16. Serum levels, ontogeny and heritability of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S.B.; Hedemand, J.E.; Nielsen, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    in opsonization or direct complement-mediated killing. To gain further knowledge about the physiology and function of the protein, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chicken MBL and used this to investigate the level of MBL in different chicken strains during embryogenesis, early and adult life....... The MBL concentrations in 308 chickens, representing 14 different strains, showed a non-Gaussian, unimodal distribution profile with a mean concentration of 5.8 mu g/ml (range 0.4-37.8 mu g/ml). No difference between the strains could be demonstrated and no chickens were found deficient in MEL....... Ontogenetic studies showed that MBL is already detectable in embryos at a gestational age of IO days (11 days before hatching). At hatching, the level is comparable to the level found in adult chickens. This level is fairly stable during the first weeks of life, but a deficiency state develops at 4 weeks...

  17. 家鸽胚胎的生长与其小肠营养素转运载体基因表达%Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-xia CHEN; Xiang-guang LI; Jun-xian YANG; Chun-qi GAO; Bin WANG; Xiu-qi WANG; Hui-chao YAN

    2015-01-01

    目 的:探索家鸽胚胎期器官生长发育及其小肠营养素转运载体基因表达规律,为家鸽胚胎期的营养调控提供理论基础.创新点:第一次较全面地研究了家鸽胚胎期小肠氨基酸转运载体基因表达规律.方 法:利用实时荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(real-time RT-PCR)技术,同时结合了多内标校正方法对小肠营养素转运载体基因表达模式进行分析.结 论:在家鸽胚胎期发育的过程中,不同的器官生长模式不完全一致.营养素转运载体b0,+AT、EAAT3、LAT4、PepT1、NHE2、NHE3和 y+LAT2基因的表达与小肠重量呈正相关关系,CAT1、CAT2和EAAT2基因的表达与小肠重量呈负相关关系.%The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the smal intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Co-lumba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, smal intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Smal intestine samples were colected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain re-action (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by em-bryonic day. The mRNA abundances ofb0,+AT, EAAT3, y+LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1

  18. 乳果糖替代饲用抗生素对黄羽肉鸡免疫器官指数及小肠黏膜免疫的影响%Effects of Lactulose Substitution for Antibiotics Feed Additive on Immune Organ Index and Intestinal Mucosal Immune of Yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔彪; 李虎; 李海英; 翟卫爽; 李晓斌; 杨开伦

    2012-01-01

    为研究基础日粮中添加乳果糖替代饲用抗生素对黄羽肉鸡免疫器官指数及小肠黏膜免疫的影响,将180只1日龄体重相近、健康的黄羽肉鸡随机分为5个处理组,每个处理组3个重复,每个重复12只.阳性对照组在基础日粮中添加0.30 g/kg的那西肽和0.25 g/kg的硫酸粘杆菌素;阴性对照组饲喂基础日粮;试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组在基础日粮中分别添加5,10,15 g/kg的乳果糖.分别在饲喂到45日龄及77日龄时,取试验鸡称重,翅静脉采血,颈部放血屠宰,摘取胸腺、脾脏、法氏囊进行称重,用于计算免疫器官指数,剥离十二指肠、空肠、回肠用于测定小肠黏膜蛋白质中溶菌酶含量、十二指肠黏膜蛋白质中SIgA(分泌型免疫球蛋白A)的含量、肠道内容物中细菌数量及回肠内容物中有机酸浓度.结果表明,与阴性对照组相比,每千克基础日粮中添加5 g乳果糖替代黄羽肉鸡饲用抗生素后提高了肠道内容物中细菌数量及回肠内容物总酸的浓度,提高了肠黏膜蛋白质中溶菌酶的含量、十二指肠黏膜蛋白质中SIgA含量,并且这种作用在45日龄时强于75日龄时,但对免疫器官指数无显著影响.%An experiment was conducted to study the effects of substituting lactulose for forage antibiotics in diet on immune organ index and intestinal mucosal immune of the yellow chicken. One hundred eighty one-day-old yellow chicken were randomly divided into two control groups and three trial groups with 3 replicates per group and 12 chickens per replicate. The positive control group was fed with diet supplemented by 0. 30 % Nosiheptide and 0. 25% sulfate colistin premix. Negative control group was fed with basal diet. Birds in the trial group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were fed with diet supplemented by 5,10,15 g/kg lactulose, respectively. At 45 d and 77 d,birds were killed for thymus,spleen,bursa,duodenum,jejunum,ileum, and blood sample collections and weights. The

  19. Clostridial necrotic enteritis in chicken associated with growth rate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.

  20. Study on the immune function in local mucosa post newcastile disease vaccination of chicken infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with CAV at one-day-old and 8 days later, the infected and uninfected chickens were vaccinated with La Sota vaccine. At 7\\, 14\\, 28 days post vaccination, the number of T cells and IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in Harderian gland and cecal tonsil, the content of IgG, IgM and IgA in tear, trachea fluid, intestinal fluid and bile as well as the hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in tear and bile were detected. The results showed that the number of T cells and IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in Harderian gland and cecal consil, the content of IgG, IgM and IgA in tear, trachea fluid, intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tear and bile post ND vaccination of CAV infected chickens were decreased significantly than those of uninfected vaccinated chickens. These indicated that the immune response function was markedly weakened in local mucosa of digestive and respiratory tract post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  1. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  2. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  3. Toxicity of metal mixtures to chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, W.J.; Roberts, O.W.; Black, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    The toxic effects of mercury/selenium and certain other metal mixtures on the chick embryo are examined to determine whether antagonistic, additive or synergistic interactions occur. White Plymouth Rock chicken eggs were treated by yolk injection with cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, zinc chloride and sodium selenate. Test aliquots were injected prior to incubation using the needle track procedure. Using a sample size of 200, percent survival was determined as hatchability of experimental eggs/controls. Metal mixtures used included mercury/cadmium, mercury/selenium, mercury/zinc, cadmium/selenium, and cadmium/zinc. Except for mercury/selenium, all other metal mixtures gave actual values that were within 5% of those for additive toxic effects. Actual hatchability frequencies for test concentrations of mercury/selenium indicated a moderate degree of synergism. Results indicate that the strong mercury/selenium synergism which affects embryonic development in the carp does not apply for the chick embryo; that most two-way combinations of cadmium, mercury, selenium and zinc exert purely additive effects on chick hatchability; and that these metal mixtures give no discernible antagonistic interactions which affect survival of chick embryos. (MFB)

  4. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  5. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  6. The effect of feeding a commercial essential oil product on Clostridium perfringens numbers in the intestine of broiler chickens measured by real-time PCR targeting the α-toxin-encoding gene (plc)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Højberg, Ole; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg feed of the essential oil blend did not reduce the intestinal numbers of C. perfringens compared to a non-supplemented control group (P>0.05). Further, the essential oil blend failed to improve (P>0.05) both the growth and feed conversion ratio of the broilers. For rapid...... quantification of C. perfringens type A in broilers, a real-time PCR assay, targeting the α-toxin-encoding plc gene, was developed for use in ileal and caecal samples and was shown to be a fast and reliable alternative to conventional plate counting....

  7. Embryonic chicken transplantation is a promising model for studying the invasive behaviour of melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna eJayachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a hallmark event in the metastatic cascade conferring invasive ability to tumor cells. There are ongoing efforts to replicate the physiological events occurring during mobilization of tumor cells in model systems. However, few systems are able to capture these complex in vivo events. The embryonic chicken transplantation model has emerged as a useful system to assess melanoma cells including functions that are relevant to the metastatic process, namely invasion and plasticity. The chicken embryo represents an accessible and economical 3-dimensional in vivo model for investigating melanoma cell invasion as it exploits the ancestral relationship between melanoma and its precursor neural crest cells. We describe a methodology which enables the interrogation of melanoma cell motility within the developing avian embryo. This model involves the injection of melanoma cells into the neural tube of chicken embryos. Melanoma cells are labelled using fluorescent tracker dye, Vybrant DiO, then cultured as hanging drops for 24 hours to aggregate the cells. Groups of approximately 700 cells are placed into the neural tube of chicken embryos prior to the onset of neural crest migration at the hindbrain level (embryonic day 1.5 or trunk level (embryonic day 2.5. Chick embryos are reincubated and analysed after 48 hours for the location of melanoma cells using fluorescent microscopy on whole mounts and cross-sections of the embryos. Using this system, we compared the in vivo invasive behavior of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like melanoma cells. We report that the developing embryonic microenvironment confers motile abilities to both types of melanoma cells. Hence the embryonic chicken transplantation model has potential to become a valuable tool for in vivo melanoma invasion studies. Importantly, it may provide novel insights into and reveal previously unknown mediators of the metastatic steps of invasion and

  8. Ectopic expression of Cvh (Chicken Vasa homologue) mediates the reprogramming of chicken embryonic stem cells to a germ cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavial, Fabrice; Acloque, Hervé; Bachelard, Elodie; Nieto, M Angela; Samarut, Jacques; Pain, Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    When they are derived from blastodermal cells of the pre-primitive streak in vitro, the pluripotency of Chicken Embryonic Stem Cells (cESC) can be controlled by the cPouV and Nanog genes. These cESC can differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, but they only weakly colonize the gonads of host embryos. By contrast, non-cultured blastodermal cells and long-term cultured chicken primordial germ cells maintain full germline competence. This restriction in the germline potential of the cESC may result from either early germline determination in the donor embryos or it may occur as a result of in vitro culture. We are interested in understanding the genetic determinants of germline programming. The RNA binding protein Cvh (Chicken Vasa Homologue) is considered as one such determinant, although its role in germ cell physiology is still unclear. Here we show that the exogenous expression of Cvh, combined with appropriate culture conditions, induces cESC reprogramming towards a germ cell fate. Indeed, these cells express the Dazl, Tudor and Sycp3 germline markers, and they display improved germline colonization and adopt a germ cell fate when injected into recipient embryos. Thus, our results demonstrate that Vasa can drive ES cell differentiation towards the germ cell lineage, both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Characterization of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene in chickens: Cloning, tissue expression, and regulation of its expression in the muscle by fasting and cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Fang, Wenqian; Hu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yajun; Li, Juan

    2015-10-10

    Irisin, a novel myokine encoded by fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 gene (FNDC5), is reported to stimulate brown fat-like development of white fat tissue and thermogenesis in mammals recently. However, information about the structure, tissue expression, and roles of FNDC5/irisin remains unknown in non-mammalian vertebrates including birds. In this study, we first cloned the FNDC5 (cFNDC5) cDNA from chickens. cFNDC5 is predicted to encode a 220-amino acid precursor containing the putative 'irisin peptide' of 112 amino acids, which shows high amino acid sequence identity with irisin of humans (97%), mice (97%), anole lizards (93%) and zebrafish (~80%). Using quantitative real-time PCR, we further examined cFNDC5 mRNA expression in chicken tissues. The results showed that in adult chickens, cFNDC5 is abundantly expressed in the muscle, heart, pituitary, ovary and various brain regions, and moderately expressed in adipose tissue, kidneys, lung, testes and small intestine. Moreover, cFNDC5 is also abundantly expressed in the muscle, brain, hypothalamus and pituitary of developing embryos and post-hatching chicks. Interestingly, we noted that cFNDC5 expression in the muscle of 3-week-old chicks could be induced by fasting and cold exposure, while its expression decreases during differentiation of pre-adipocytes cultured in vitro. Collectively, our data suggest that FNDC5/irisin is more than a 'myokine' and may be related to the development/functions of many tissues (e.g. muscle, brain, fat), as well as metabolic status of chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.;

    2006-01-01

    concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant 1) and water chilling (Plant 11), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10......) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant 1), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air......) and had intestinal mean counts ranging from 6.65 to 8.20 log(10) cfu/g. A correlation between Campylobacter concentrations in intestinal content and on chicken carcasses after the defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken...

  11. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  12. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... source and a camera through which a small clipper can be inserted). The tissue that is removed ... can help. Malabsorption Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Lactose Intolerance Short Bowel ...

  13. Proteomic analysis of the Gallus gallus embryo at stage-29 of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, David; Agudo Garcillán, David; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Martínez-Arribas, Fernando; Delcán, José; Schneider, José; Palomar, María Angustias; Linares, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the primary models for embryological and developmental studies. In order to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the normal and abnormal development of the chicken, we used 2-DE to construct a whole-embryo proteome map. Proteins were separated by IEF on IPG strips, and by 11% SDS-PAGE) gels. Protein identification was performed by means of PMF with MALDI-TOF-MS. In all, 105 protein spots were identified, 35 of them implicated in embryo development, 10 related with some diseases, and 16, finally, being proteins that have never been identified, purified or characterized in the chicken before. This map will be updated continuously and will serve as a reference database for investigators, studying changes at the protein level under different physiological conditions.

  14. Transcription factors GATA/ELT-2 and forkhead/HNF-3/PHA-4 regulate the tropomyosin gene expression in the pharynx and intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokye-Danso, Frederick; Anyanful, Akwasi; Sakube, Yasuji; Kagawa, Hiroaki

    2008-05-30

    Gene regulation during development is an important biological activity that leads to synthesis of biomolecules at specific locations and specific times. The single tropomyosin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, tmy-1/lev-11, produces four isoforms of protein: two from the external promoter and two from the internal promoter. We investigated the internal promoter of tropomyosin to identify sequences that regulate expression of tmy-1 in the pharynx and intestine. By promoter deletion of tmy-1 reporters as well as by database analyses, a 100-bp fragment that contained binding sequences for a GATA factor, for a chicken CdxA homolog, and for a forkhead factor was identified. Both the forkhead and CdxA binding sequences contributed to pharyngeal and intestinal expression. In addition, the GATA site also influenced intestinal expression of tmy-1 reporter. We showed that ELT-2 and PHA-4 proteins interact directly with the GATA and forkhead binding sequences, respectively, in gel mobility shift assays. RNA interference knockdown of elt-2 diminished tmy-1::gfp expression in the intestine. In contrast to RNA interference knockdown of pha-4, expression of tmy-1::gfp in pha-4;smg-1 mutants was slightly weaker than that of the wild type. Ectopic expression of PHA-4 and ELT-2 by heat shock was sufficient to elicit widespread expression of tmy-1::lacZ reporter in embryos. We found no indication of a synergistic relation between ELT-2 and PHA-4. Based on our data, PHA-4 and CdxA function as general transcription factors for pharyngeal and intestinal regulation of tmy-1. We present models by which ELT-2, PHA-4, and CdxA orchestrate expression from the internal promoter of tmy-1.

  15. 丁酸钠对云南武定鸡肠道组织形态的影响研究%Effects of Sodium Butyrate on the Intestinal Morphology of Yunnan Wuding Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂瑛; 刘燕; 施忠芬; 陈红艳; 徐虎

    2012-01-01

    Four hundred one-day-old Yunnan Wuding chickens were chosen to be randomly divided into 5 groups, with 4 replicates in each group and 20 Yunan Wuding chickens in each replicate. The groups were as follows: group A with basal diet and as control group, group B with basal diet and antibiotics(50 mg·kg^-1 zinc bacitratin), group C with basal diet and 250 mg·kg^-1 sodium butyrate, group D with basal diet and 500 mg·kg^-1 sodium butyrate, group E with basal diet and 750 mg·kg^-1 sodium butyrate. The results showed that, when the Yunnan Wuding chickens were raised to 14 days of age, compared with the control group, diet containing 500 mg·kg^-1 sodium butyrate could increased the duodenal villous height, V/C value and jejunal muscle thickness. The duodenal villous height increased by 3.43%(P〈0.05), and V/C value increased by 8.33%(P〈0.05), jejunal muscle thickness increased 6.46%(P〈0.05). Diet containing 750 mg·kg^-1 sodium butyrate could increased duodenal muscle layer thickness and mucosal thickness. Duodenal muscle layer thickness and mucosal thickness, were increased by 5.26%(P〈0.05) and 6.18%(P〈0.05), jejunal villus height increased by 3.33%(P〈0.05). When the Yunnan Wuding chickens were raised to 21 days of age, compared with the control group, diet containing 500 mg·kg^-1 of sodium butyrate could promote the development of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The V/C value of duodenum and thickness of the jejunal muscle were significantly improved by 4.62% and 5.50%, respectively(P〈0.05). Compared with the control group, diet containing 750 mg·kg^-1 sodium butyrate could significantly improved the height of the villus in the duodenum and ileum by 2.20% and 3.76%, respectively(P〈0.05)%选择1日龄云南武定肉仔鸡400只,随机分为5个处理组,每组4个重复,每个重复20只鸡。5个处理组分别为A组(基础日粮,对照组)、B组(基础日粮+杆菌肽锌50mg·kg^-1,抗生素组

  16. Differences between influenza virus receptors on target cells of duck and chicken and receptor specificity of the 1997 H5N1 chicken and human influenza viruses from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, A S; Tuzikov, A B; Bovin, N V; Yamnikova, S S; Lvov, D K; Webster, R G; Matrosovich, M N

    2003-01-01

    To study whether influenza virus receptors in chickens differ from those in other species, we compared the binding of lectins and influenza viruses with known receptor specificity to cell membranes and gangliosides from epithelial tissues of ducks, chickens, and African green monkeys. We found that chicken cells contained Neu5Ac alpha(2-6)Gal-terminated receptors recognized by Sambucus nigra lectin and by human viruses. This finding explains how some recent H9N2 viruses replicate in chickens despite their human virus-like receptor specificity. Duck virus bound to gangliosides with short sugar chains that were abundant in duck intestine. Human and chicken viruses did not bind to these gangliosides and bound more strongly than duck virus to gangliosides with long sugar chains that were found in chicken intestinal and monkey lung tissues. Chicken and duck viruses also differed by their ability to recognize the structure of the third sugar moiety in Sia2-3Gal-terminated receptors. Chicken viruses preferentially bound to Neu5Ac alpha(2-3)Gal beta(1-4)GlcNAc-containing synthetic sialylglycopolymer, whereas duck viruses displayed a higher affinity for Neu5Ac alpha(2-3)Gal beta(1-3)GalNAc-containing polymer. Our data indicate that sialyloligosaccharide receptors in different avian species are not identical and provide a potential explanation for the differences between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins of duck and chicken viruses.

  17. Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, M; Masika, P J

    2009-12-01

    Mwale and Masika 2009 Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Village chickens contribute significantly towards rural livelihood in the African continent through the provision of animal protein, income and socio-cultural uses. However, village chickens are susceptible to parasite infestation. Due to limitations of using western drugs to control these parasites, farmers resort to the use of ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM). However, there is dearth of information on EVM use in chickens. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to document various EVM practices used in controlling gastro-intestinal parasites in village chickens. Stratified random sampling was used to select 62 chicken farmers that were interviewed using a structured questionnaire About 70 and 96.7% of farmers provided housing and water for their chickens respectively whereas the rest did not. The chief role of chickens was meat provision (91.7%). Most households (86%) reported parasite problems in chickens, particularly gastro-intestinal parasites. Eighty-three percent of the interviewed respondents use medicinal plants to control both internal and external parasites in chickens. Use of plants increased with parasite incidences (r=0.347; Pparasites were problematic and were largely controlled by medicinal plants. Further research on pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy of these plants is important for improved chicken productivity and hence rural livelihood.

  18. Teratogenic effects of pyridoxine on the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of embryonic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, A A; Fedorovich, Y

    2015-03-19

    Our understanding of the role of somatosensory feedback in regulating motility during chicken embryogenesis and fetal development in general has been hampered by the lack of an approach to selectively alter specific sensory modalities. In adult mammals, pyridoxine overdose has been shown to cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by a loss of both muscle and cutaneous afferents, but predominated by a loss of proprioception. We have begun to explore the sensitivity of the nervous system in chicken embryos to the application of pyridoxine on embryonic days 7 and 8, after sensory neurons in the lumbosacral region become post-mitotic. Upon examination of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and peripheral nerves, we find that pyridoxine causes a loss of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3-positive neurons, a decrease in the diameter of the muscle innervating nerve tibialis, and a reduction in the number of large diameter axons in this nerve. However, we found no change in the number of Substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons, the number of motor neurons or the diameter or axonal composition of the femoral cutaneous nerve. Therefore, pyridoxine causes a peripheral sensory neuropathy in embryonic chickens largely consistent with its effects in adult mammals. However, the lesion may be more restricted to proprioception in the chicken embryo. Therefore, pyridoxine lesion induced during embryogenesis in the chicken embryo can be used to assess how the loss of sensation, largely proprioception, alters spontaneous embryonic motility and subsequent motor development.

  19. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  20. Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Mark W; Suarez, David L; Hilt, Deborah; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Woolcock, Peter; Cardona, Carol

    2010-03-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza H6N2 viruses were biologically characterized by infecting chickens and ducks in order to compare adaptation of these viruses in these species. We examined the clinical signs, virus shedding, and immune response to infection in 4-wk-old white leghorn chickens and in 2-wk-old Pekin ducks. Five H6N2 viruses isolated between 2000 and 2004 from chickens in California, and one H6N2 virus isolated from chickens in New York in 1998, were given intrachoanally at a dose of 1 x 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose per bird. Oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 4, and 7 days postinoculation (PI) and tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for presence of virus. Serum was collected at 7, 14, and 21 days PI and examined for avian influenza virus antibodies by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing. Virus shedding for all of the viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal swabs from chickens at 2 and 4 days PI, but only three of the five viruses were detected at 7 days PI. Only two viruses were detected in the cloacal swabs from the chickens. Virus shedding for four of the five viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal cavity of the ducks, and fecal shedding was detected for three of the viruses (including the virus not shed by the oral-pharyngeal route) in ducks at 4 and 7 days PI. All other fecal swabs from the ducks were negative. Fewer ducks shed virus compared to chickens. Both the chickens and the ducks developed antibodies, as evidenced by HI and ELISA titers. The data indicate that the H6N2 viruses can infect both chickens and ducks, but based on the number of birds shedding virus and on histopathology, the viruses appear to be more adapted to chickens. Virus shedding, which could go unnoticed in the absence of clinical signs in commercial chickens, can lead to transmission of the virus among poultry. However, the viruses isolated in 2004 did

  1. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika

    2007-01-01

    , with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...... with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host...

  2. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  3. Antigenic protein synthesis of Campylobacter jejuni in contact with chicken cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Bang, Dang D.; Li, Yiping

    to the environment of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently without causing disease in the birds. Upon co-cultivation with mammalian cells, C. jejuni secrete specific Cia proteins, which are required...... the synthesis of antigenic C. jejuni proteins upon cultivation with chicken cells. Two strains of C. jejuni (the human isolate NCTC11168 and the chicken isolate DVI-SC11) were incubated with primary intestinal chicken cells and subsequently used to raise antisera in rabbits. Negative controls were carried out...... in parallel. These antisera were tested by Western blotting against C. jejuni total protein as well as periplasmic-, surface- and extracellular protein fractions. A unique antibody reaction was discovered to a protein from samples, which had been cultivated with chicken cells. The identity of this protein...

  4. Antigenic protein synthesis of Campylobacter jejuni in contact with chicken cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Bang, Dang D.; Li, Yiping

    to the environment of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently without causing disease in the birds. Upon co-cultivation with mammalian cells, C. jejuni secrete specific Cia proteins, which are required...... the synthesis of antigenic C. jejuni proteins upon cultivation with chicken cells. Two strains of C. jejuni (the human isolate NCTC11168 and the chicken isolate DVI-SC11) were incubated with primary intestinal chicken cells and subsequently used to raise antisera in rabbits. Negative controls were carried out...... in parallel. These antisera were tested by Western blotting against C. jejuni total protein as well as periplasmic-, surface- and extracellular protein fractions. A unique antibody reaction was discovered to a protein from samples, which had been cultivated with chicken cells. The identity of this protein...

  5. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  6. Effects of cold stress on HSP70 mRNA expression in intestines of chickens%冷应激对雏鸡肠组织中HSP70mRNA表达的影响