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Sample records for chicken egg white

  1. A region on chicken chromosome 2 affects both egg white thinning and egg weight

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    Mäki-Tanila Asko

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the results from genetic dissection of a QTL region on chicken chromosome 2, shown to affect egg weight and quality in an earlier genome scan of an F2 intercross between two divergent egg layer lines. As the 90% confidence intervals for the detected QTL covered tens of centiMorgans, new analyses were needed. The datasets were reanalysed with denser marker intervals to characterise the QTL region. Analysis of a candidate gene from the original QTL region, vimentin, did not support its role in controlling egg white thinning. Even after reanalysis with additional seven markers in the QTL area, the 90% confidence intervals remained large or even increased, suggesting the presence of multiple linked QTL for the traits. A grid search fitting two QTL on chromosome 2 for each trait suggested that there are two distinct QTL areas affecting egg white thinning in both production periods and egg weight in the late production period. The results indicate possible pleiotropic effects of some of the QTL on egg quality and egg weight. However, it was not possible to make a distinction between close linkage versus pleiotropic effects.

  2. In-depth analysis of the chicken egg white proteome using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos

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    Mann Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hen's egg white has been the subject of intensive chemical, biochemical and food technological research for many decades, because of its importance in human nutrition, its importance as a source of easily accessible model proteins, and its potential use in biotechnological processes. Recently the arsenal of tools used to study the protein components of egg white has been complemented by mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies. Application of these fast and sensitive methods has already enabled the identification of a large number of new egg white proteins. Recent technological advances may be expected to further expand the egg white protein inventory. Results Using a dual pressure linear ion trap Orbitrap instrument, the LTQ Orbitrap Velos, in conjunction with data analysis in the MaxQuant software package, we identified 158 proteins in chicken egg white with two or more sequence unique peptides. This group of proteins identified with very high confidence included 79 proteins identified in egg white for the first time. In addition, 44 proteins were identified tentatively. Conclusions Our results, apart from identifying many new egg white components, indicate that current mass spectrometry technology is sufficiently advanced to permit direct identification of minor components of proteomes dominated by a few major proteins without resorting to indirect techniques, such as chromatographic depletion or peptide library binding, which change the composition of the proteome.

  3. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

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    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  4. Prevalence and Pathology of egg bound syndrome in commercial white leghorn chicken

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    Palani Srinivasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of egg bound syndrome in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India was studied over a period of two years from June 2009 to May 2011. Out of 24,158 carcasses examined, the egg bound syndrome was noticed in 663 cases with a overall mortality of 0.5 %. The study revealed that heat stress (28.66%, asphyxia (23.23%, hypocalcemia (17.35%, salpingitis (7.54%, large size egg (6.18%, dehydration (5.73%, vent trauma (5.28%, obesity (3.62%, abnormal ovulation (1.81% and oviduct neoplasm (0.60% were the various causes of egg bound syndrome in commercial layer chicken. Microbial analysis of the samples revealed the presence of Escherichia coli from cases associated with salpingitis. The syndrome was recorded with highest occurrence in 21-30 wk and 61-70 wk age laying chicken and with a higher incidence in summer season (44.95%.

  5. Purification and properties of chicken egg-white cobalamin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K; Zak, Z

    1990-10-01

    A cobalamin-binding protein has been purified from chicken egg-white by using a combination of conventional and high performance ion-exchange chromatography. Following initial purification by DEAE-cellulose, ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephacryl S-200 CM-cellulose and affinity chromatography, appropriate fractions were further purified using the Pharmacia fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. Using this method of purification, egg-white CBP has been purified more rapidly and with greater recovery than with conventional column chromatography. The homogeneity of this protein was verified by SDS-PAGE. The Mr was 37,000 by SDS-PAGE and 39,000 by gel filtration, which indicated that it was a glycoprotein. The stokes radius was 4.1 nm and pI was 4.3. The protein bound 57COB12 with a molar ratio of 1/1 and kd of 0.40 microM. The egg-white CBP was composed of 294 amino acid residues. Thiol groups and metal ions were not connected with the Cbl-binding activities. PMID:2078588

  6. Preparation and characterization of keratin and chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yao; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of keratin-chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite films were studied using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to demonstrate and quantify the secondary transformation of composite films. The results showed that the secondary structure of treated films was transformed from disordered structure to ordered conformation including α-helix conformation and β-pleated-sheet conformation due to the increase of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The absorption features of treated films were exhibited by the UV-vis spectra. The bule-shift and decreased intensity indicated the change of microenvironment due to the concentration of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The transmission electron microscopy images of composite films supported the aggregation resulting from microenvironment. The effect of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster was characterized by the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) images which showed the gradually intensive luminescence with increasing Au cluster and the transformation from the whiskers to nanoparticle.

  7. Preparation and Preliminary Characterization of Crystallizing Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp(sup 101) using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp(sup 101) lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His(sup 15), located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp(sup 101)-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His(sup 15) have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  8. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

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    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared a number of fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow, cascade blue, and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-l-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of asp101 using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. asp101 lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are at least partially "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to hisl5, located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. The fluorescently labeled protein is readily purified from the starting material by cation exchange chromatography. All the derivatives fluoresce in both the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determining the bound probe quantum yields, lifetimes, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes in comparison to the free probe. No appreciable changes are found in the lifetimes of any of the probes except for cascade blue, where Tau(sub free) = 3.52 ns vrs Tau(sub bound) = 2.8 ns. Spectral shifts are found in most cases. Particularly strong quenching upon binding is found in the case of the cascade blue derivative, likely due to probe interactions with the active site cleft. While none of the asp101 bound probes are well quenched by commonly employed solutes, such as potassium and sodium iodide, acrylamide, primuline, the chloride salts of manganese, cesium, and cobalt, trifluoroacetamide, trichloroethanol, and thallium iodide, in those cases where

  10. Significant reduction in allergenicity of ovalbumin from chicken egg white following treatment with ascidian viscera N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Seong; Park, Heajin; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jai Yeon; Lee, Young Kwang; Park, Ho-Young; Choi, Hee-Don; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2016-06-17

    Ovalbumin (OA) is the most abundant ingredient of chicken egg-white allergenic proteins. In the present study we investigated the possibility of reducing OA allergenicity by treatment with a natural protein exhibiting N-acetylglucosaminidase (NA) activity. Ascidian is cultivated as a food resource in northeast Asia. The ascidian viscera NA (AVNA) with almost no other exoglycosidases or proteolytic enzymes was isolated by applying size-exclusion chromatography to a protein precipitate of ascidian viscera. Intact OA was mixed with AVNA containing 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 Units of NA. Anion-exchange chromatography was then used to isolate OA from AVNA-treated OA. The electrophoretic patterns and N-glycans of each isolated OA from AVNA-treated OA (iOA) were analyzed, and the terminal N-acetylglucosamines of iOA were selectively cleaved with no other degradation occurring. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using rabbit anti-OA sera was performed to investigate the allergenicity of iOA, which was found to be significantly reduced depending on the increased NA activity compared to that of intact OA. These results indicate that OA allergenicity was reduced using a simple and mild treatment process with AVNA, and suggest that ascidian NA is an efficient natural protein for reducing the allergenicity of OA without requiring the use of harsh physical treatments or chemical conjugation. PMID:27178210

  11. Fast Screening of Chicken Egg Lysozyme in White Wine Products by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-quan; JIANG Jie; LI Ming; ZHAO Zhan-feng; FU Jun

    2012-01-01

    Fast detection of trace lysozyme,one of the most important food allergens in white wine samples,was achieved by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment in this study.The multiply-charged ions of m/z 1587 were chosen for the quantitative detection of lysozyme in white wine,showing linear dynamic signal responses in a range of 5-75 μg/mL with a linearity coefficient of 0.999 and an acceptable relative standard deviation(RSD)of 8.0%-15.0% for directly measuring lysozyme in the complex food samples.The limit of detection for lysozyme in white wine sample was calculated to be 5 μg/mL,which was lower than the amounts that can provoke allergic reactions(oral test with 3 mg or labial test with 1 mg/mL).A single sample analysis was completed within 1 min.The data demonstrate that extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a useful tool for fast screening lysozyme in the complex matrix,showing promising application in the rapid detection of food allergen.

  12. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; LI, GUOYUN; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...

  13. The Chicken and Egg Project

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    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  14. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...

  15. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy

  16. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs. PMID:25218438

  17. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  18. A calorimetric study of egg white proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, M; Hofer, C; Raemy, A.

    1997-01-01

    Egg white is of great interest for many culinary and industrial applications. Egg white is used for coating, gluing, thickening and so on in pasta, desserts, etc. There is thus a great interest from the industrial point of view to better know this raw material, used in very large amounts in the dessert production for example, and to obtain egg white fractions with different functional properties. Various egg white fractions prepared by selected procedures were analyzed by differential scan...

  19. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

  20. Protein and cholesterol content of Araucana chicken eggs.

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    Somes, R G; Francis, P V; Tlustohowicz, J J

    1977-09-01

    Comparative data collected over two years are presented which refute the popular press claims that blue-shelled eggs of Araucana chickens have higher protein levels and lower cholesterol levels than market eggs. These comparisons were made between the eggs from the strains of Araucanas and those of White Leghorns and Sex-links. None of the differences found between test groups in % protein/g. albumen and % protein/g. yolk were shown to be consistently related to any one test group type. However, all Araucana test groups were significantly (P less than .01) lower in their total egg protein content than either control group by from 2.8--6.5%. This lower total protein content was the result of a consistent increase in the yolk/albumen ratio of the Araucana eggs over the market eggs. The Araucana eggs were consistently higher in their cholesterol levels on a mg./g. yolk basis than either of the market eggs. These increased concentrattions ranged from 2.0--6.9%. PMID:564510

  1. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  2. The solubility of hen egg-white lysozyme

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    Howard, Sandra B.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Baird, James K.; Meehan, Edward J.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium solubility of chicken egg-white lysozyme in the presence of crystalline solid state was determined as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and temperature. The solubility curves obtained represent a region of the lysozyme phase diagram. This diagram makes it possible to determine the supersaturation of a given set of conditions or to achieve identical supersaturations by different combinations of parameters. The temperature dependence of the solubility permits the evaluation of Delta-H of crystallization. The data indicate a negative heat of crystallization for the tetragonal crystal form but a positive heat of crystallization for the high-temperature orthorhombic form.

  3. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals in chicken egg in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan; YEUNG Leo Wai Yin; YAMASHITA Nobuyoshi; TANIYASU Sachi; SO Man Ka; Margaret B. MURPHY; LAM Paul Kwan Sing

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples has drawn much attention. Recent human exposure studies found relatively high perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations in blood samples from several cities in China when compared with other countries. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to measure PFC concentrations and compositions in chicken egg samples from local markets in China; and (2) to conduct a preliminary human health risk assessment of egg consumption. Eight pooled egg samples from eight locations were analyzed for 11 PFCs. The results showed that close to 100% of the PFOS in the egg was distributed in egg yolk and PFOS was not detected in egg white (<0.08 ng/g wet weight, w/w). Of the perfluoroalkylsulfonates, only PFOS was detected in all egg samples, while of the perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was detected in all samples, followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (75% occurrence) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50% occurrence). PFOS concentrations in egg ranged from 45.0 to 86.9 ng/g w/w. The results suggested that current concentrations of PFOS in domestic chicken eggs are unlikely to cause immediate harm to Chinese populations.

  4. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteridis (SE) infection in 5 commercial white egg and 3 commercial brown egg strains of laying hens: comparison of SE colonization with immune responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different chicken breeds have been shown to exhibit varying susceptibility to infection with paratyphoid salmonellae. The current study was undertaken to compare the course of infection with SE in crops and intestines of 5 commercial white egg strains (W1-W5) and 3 commercial brown egg strains (B1-...

  5. Comparing in vitro lymphocyte reactivity to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteridis (SE) antigens 5 commercial white egg and 3 commercial brown egg strains of laying hens following SE infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different chicken breeds have been shown to exhibit varying susceptibility to infection with paratyphoid salmonellae. The current study was undertaken to compare the course of infection with SE in crops and intestines of 5 commercial white egg strains (W1-W5) and 3 commercial brown egg strains (B1-...

  6. Is aboriginal food less allergenic? Comparing IgE-reactivity of eggs from modern and ancient chicken breeds in a cohort of allergic children.

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    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. METHODOLOGY: Egg allergic children (n = 25 were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1-5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3-5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family.

  7. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  8. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p5 cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. Dvalue varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the Dvalue of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation

  9. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S. Cabo; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M. L.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages ( n=150) were found to not be significantly different ( pHACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. Dvalue varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the Dvalue of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  10. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions for Egg White Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Yujie; Tian, Bo; Sun, Bo; Guo, Mingruo

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins in egg white by Alcalase was systematically studied through dual quadratic rotary, orthogonal and regressive design. The optimum conditions of hydrolysis were determined. The results showed that the optimum temperature was 68.5℃, pH 8.21 at the substrate concentration of 5.5%. The regression equation, Y=42.6994+0.3344X1+7.53X2-0.0086X1X2-0.001X21-0.4726X22 (Y-nitrogen recovery rate, NR; X1-enzyme concentration /substrate concentration, E/S; X2-hydrolytic t...

  11. Nuclear Technology Applications and Regulatory Infrastructure: Chicken-Egg Situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal and governmental infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security is a prerequisite for the use of nuclear and radiation technologies. The IAEA Statute as well the Safety Fundamentals and the Basic Safety Standards among others clearly enunciate this position. Developments or the pace of implementation of this important area in the case of Zimbabwe leaves one having to ponder as to whether the issues of nuclear technology applications and regulatory infrastructure requirements have fallen in the same category as the 'chicken-egg' quandary. What preceded the other: the chicken or the egg? This paper seeks to galvanize stakeholders to re-examine the ways, processes and efforts we have been making in dealing with issues related to establishing, maintaining, measuring and continuously improving regulatory effectiveness. (author)

  12. The relationship between thyroxine secretion rate and egg production in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in 24 female White Leghorn Chickens by using 131I as tracer. The chickens were initially and intraperitoneally injected with 10μCi of 131I and then counted by means of a Gamma Well Type Scintillation Counter every 48 hours. A dose of 0,3 μg of thyroxine per 100 gr body weight was given as the first administration. After every two administrations of similar dose, the dose of the thyroxine was increased by 0,1 μg/100g body weight until the thyroxine secretion rate was reached. The injections were given in the neck region subcutaneously. The thyroxine secretion rate was found to be within the range from 0,5μg to 0,8μg per 100 g body weight. It also showed that the higher the thyroxine secretion rate, the higher the egg production became. This phenomenon occured both with the 7 and 9 months old chickens. However there was neither ralationship between the thyroxine secretion rate and the weight of eggs produced nor with the body weight of the chickens themselves. (author)

  13. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S.C. E-mail: sandracv@itn.mces.pt; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  14. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The liquid egg whites are subjected to the action of a culture of glucose-fermenting bacteria either... by following one of the optional procedures set forth in paragraph (b) of this section. If the food... microorganisms. Dried egg whites may be powdered. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1)...

  15. UV inactivation of E. coli in liquid egg white

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultraviolet light (UV) system was developed to pasteurize liquid egg white. The system consisted of low-pressure mercury bulbs surrounded by UV transparent tubing. Egg white was inoculated with Escherichia coli K12 and pumped through the UV system at a flow rate of 330 ml/min. The effects of trea...

  16. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  17. Depletion of florfenicol and florfenicol amine residues in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filazi, A; Sireli, U T; Yurdakok, B; Aydin, F G; Kucukosmanoglu, A G

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method for the analysis of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in chicken eggs and to determine FF and FFA residue depletion in eggs of laying hens. 2. The analytes were extracted from yolk, albumen and whole egg by phosphate buffer and ethyl acetate. Following purification, samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. 3. Fifty laying hens were divided into 5 groups, and each hen received doses of 20 mg/kg FF: Group 1 (received a single oral dose by gavage); Group 2 (a single intramuscular dose); Group 3 (a single subcutaneous dose); Group 4 (multiple oral doses for 3 d) and Group 5 (multiple oral doses for 5 d). 4. Limits of detection and of quantitation values were 1.94 and 6.45 g/10(9) g (ppb) for FF, respectively, and 0.48 and 1.58 ppb for FFA, respectively. Relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day variation below 11% also confirmed the usefulness of the method for analysing FF and FFA in eggs. 5. From the first day of both oral and parenteral administration, FF and FFA were detected at 0.1% and 0.08% of dosage, respectively, and 57% of the drugs were eliminated from the egg yolk. Elimination time of FF was 8 d in Groups 1, 2 and 3; 9 d in Group 4 and 10 d in Group 5. PMID:24945307

  18. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  19. Transfer of orally administrated iodine-131 into chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenak, Turan E-mail: unak@sci.ege.edu.tr; Yildirim, Yeliz; Avcibasi, U.; Cetinkaya, Berkan; Uenak, G

    2003-03-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 as both as free iodide (Na{sup 131}I) and covalently bound to aniline (aniline-{sup 131}I) was added to the drinking water of two Leghorn laying hens as a single dose and also as a cumulative dose over 1 week. The radioactivity of the principal parts of the eggs, i.e. shell, white, and yolk, was measured, and the radioactivity levels per gram material, and percent of the total radioactivity were calculated. The radioactivity measurements were continued for 1 month following the administration of {sup 131}I. In the case of the single dose administration, the results obtained showed that about 15% of the total radioactivity administered as Na{sup 131}I was transported into the egg structure; compared to only about 1% for aniline-{sup 131}I. After cumulative administration, about 15% of the total administered radioactivity was transported into the egg structure with both forms of {sup 131}I. This was probably because of metabolic cleavage of iodine bonds in the labeled aniline molecules during the longer period of exposure. These results also showed considerable accumulation of {sup 131}I in the egg yolks. In the case of the single dose administration, {sup 131}I can be detected in eggs up to about 20 days after administration, and up to about 30 days, in the case of the cumulative administration over 1 week.

  20. Synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters using egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dickson; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2014-03-01

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have gained interest during the recent years because of their low toxicity and finer size for the bioimaging and biolabeling applications in comparison to the semiconductor quantum dot analogues. Diverse materials such as sulfur compounds, peptides, dendrimers, proteins, etc., are exploited for the preparation of AuNCs. Henceforth, highly fluorescent, water-soluble, and few atom-containing gold nanoclusters are created using a rapid, straightforward, and green method. In this regard for the first time chicken egg white (CEW), one of the most unique materials, is utilized in an aqueous solution under basic conditions at physiological temperature for the preparation of AuNCs. Tyrosine and tryptophan amino acid residues are responsible for the conversion of Au ions to Au(0) under alkaline condtions. CEW contains four major proteins of which the main constituent protein, ovalbumin also leads to the formation of the AuNCs with a higher fluorescence emission compared to the CEW. The ratios between the different reaction partners are very crucial, along with temperature and time for the preparation of AuNCs with high photoluminescence emission. The limited vibrational motion of the proteins under alkaline condition and the bulkiness of the proteins help in the formation of AuNCs. PMID:24321847

  1. Study on the sterilization of egg white powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article studied the killing microorganism result, the influence of main essential nutrient and sense organ of egg white powder by Co-60 γ-ray irradiation. The microorganism index of the egg white powder samples can meet the government food sanitation standard by 4 kGy irradiation, and the killing microorganism rare can reach 100%. The irradiation dose from 4 to 10 kGy has little influence to the egg white powder protein, crude fiber and amino acids contras ting to comparison, and the sensory quality such as color and luster, scent has little change below 6 kGy irradiation. Synthesizing the results of physical chemistry and sense organ, the optimal irradiation dose of egg white powder killing microorganism is 4 to 6 kGy. (authors)

  2. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance. PMID:26485361

  3. The application of superweak bioluminescence on freshness degree of chicken egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence of chicken egg in storage is studied by a detection system of superweak bioluminescence. The results show that egg has the strongest vigour on the third day after it is laid, subsequently the luminescence presents decay with oscillation. These eggs, which have been stored for 3 days, are most suitable for hatching. Different eggs have different luminescence intensities depending on the vigour of the egg. The stronger the vigour of the egg is, the more intensive the luminescence is. Superweak bioluminescence as a comprehensive index of biology and biochemistry response can be used for inspecting the freshness degree of the egg, and the test is nondestructive and sensitive

  4. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Emily J; MacFarlane, Geoff R

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300mglead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1mglead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs. PMID:27135588

  5. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  6. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens. PMID:23515571

  7. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against TNFR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, M; Amirijavid, S; Entezari, M; Shafaroodi, H; Saghafi, Z Jokar

    2015-01-01

    TNF is from a big family of cytokines with different activities in different parts of the body. Among the various activities of TNFR1, induction of apoptosis by a receptor appears to be an attractive and promising one. This can be achieved through the death domain of the receptor in cells that are stimulated by ligand, to induce apoptosis. Activation of the receptor occurs through its occupation by ligands or its antagonists such as antibodies. Several kinds of antibodies, including antibodies of mammals and birds are used in the research and therapy field. Avian antibodies are highly regarded which is due to the many positive characteristics they have. Firstly, total protein of TNFR1 was cloned. Blood sampling was performed, white blood cell separation, extraction of RNA and at cDNA synthesis. After making sure from synthesis of cDNA, it was used as template for PCR reaction. The cloned fragment in the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, transferred to prokaryotic host, BL21(DE3) and the protein (TNFR1) expressed. After protein purification by affinity column were injected to immunize the chickens. Interestingly, antibodies purified from egg yolk of immunized chickens, in ELISA assay showed sufficient specificity. Such antibodies could able to ensure quick and immediate protection against several biotargets (Fig. 4, Ref. 37). PMID:25924641

  8. Proteomic analysis of egg white heparin-binding proteins: towards the identification of natural antibacterial molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Nicolas; Labas, Valérie; Harichaux, Grégoire; Chessé, Magali; Poirier, Jean-Claude; Nys, Yves; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The chicken egg resists most environmental microbes suggesting that it potentially contains efficient antimicrobial molecules. Considering that some heparin-binding proteins in mammals are antibacterial, we investigated the presence and the antimicrobial activity of heparin-binding proteins from chicken egg white. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins recovered after heparin-affinity chromatography, revealed 20 proteins, including known antimicrobial proteins (avidin, lysozyme, TENP, ovalbumin-related protein X and avian bêta-defensin 11). The antibacterial activity of three new egg candidates (vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1, beta-microseminoprotein-like (LOC101750704) and pleiotrophin) was demonstrated against Listeria monocytogenes and/or Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. We showed that all these molecules share the property to inhibit bacterial growth through their heparin-binding domains. However, vitelline membrane outer layer 1 has additional specific structural features that can contribute to its antimicrobial potential. Moreover, we identified potential supplementary effectors of innate immunity including mucin 5B, E-selectin ligand 1, whey acidic protein 3, peptidyl prolyl isomerase B and retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2. These data support the concept of using heparin affinity combined to mass spectrometry to obtain an overview of the various effectors of innate immunity composing biological milieus, and to identify novel antimicrobial candidates of interest in the race for alternatives to antibiotics. PMID:27294500

  9. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie M Mitchell; James R Johnson; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat an...

  10. Detection of Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirus (TTMDV/SAV) in the sera of domestic village chickens and its vertical transmission from hen to eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzari, M; Salmanizadeh, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Although the infection of different animals and non-human primates with other members of Anelloviridae have already been reported there is no report about infection of animals with Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirs (TTMDV/SAV). The aim of this study was to detect the virus in domestic village chickens. Blood samples were collected from 79 domestic village chickens in Isfahan. Blood samples of five adult laying hens and one cockerel were collected in three consecutive weeks (days 1, 8 and 14) as experimental chickens. Ten eggs were randomly collected from the eggs laid during days 12 to 17 and thin and thick egg whites and yolk samples were collected aseptically. After DNA extraction Nested-PCR was performed using SMAs/SMAr primers. In PCR, 431 bp and 441 bp products were detected. The detected bands were extracted and sequenced. Totally 26 out of 79 (32.9%) of the blood samples were positive for the virus. The frequency of the infection of the different parts of the eggs tested was 76%. For the first time TTMDV/SAV was detected in domestic village chickens which also vertically transmitted to eggs. PMID:27175162

  11. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Eggs from other than chicken; duck, turkey, guinea, and goose eggs. (5) Other eggs—satisfactory for use... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the...

  12. Using Lipase to Improve the Functional Properties of Yolk-Contaminated Egg Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Macherey, Laura Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by accidental yolk contamination, even at extremely small levels. Experiments were conducted to determine if lipase can regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Treatments included control, 0.2% yolk-contamination, and 0.2% yolk-contamination that was treated with lipase and colipase and h...

  13. Prevalence and pathology of oviduct impaction in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivasan; G. A. Balasubramaniam; T. R. Gopala Krishna Murthy; Balachandran, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The avian oviduct is a tubular organ responsible for fertilization, secretion of the components surrounding the yolk and transport of egg in the reproductive tract. Disorders of oviduct may have a great bearing on production potential and incur a heavy loss. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathological changes of impacted oviduct in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India for a period of four years from 2006 to 2009. Materials and Methods...

  14. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a causal relationship could not be demonstrated. We conclude that nematode egg excretion through chicken feces in both natural and experimental infections shows repeatable diurnal fluctuations, which may indicate adaptive strategies by nematodes and eventually favor parasite spread. Since analytic sensitivity of fecal egg counts suffers from low egg concentrations in feces, samples taken during the daytime have a higher diagnostic value. PMID:25700938

  15. Conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟玉杰; 田波; 郭明若

    2003-01-01

    The study on condition for enzymic hydrolysis of in egg white proteins using a dual quadratic rotary,orthogonal and regressive design shows that the optimum temperature was 68.5 ℃, and the optimum pH is 8.21at the substrate concentration of 5.5%. Mathematic model has been established to reveal the relationship be-tween enzyme concentration and hydrolytic time with respect to the same NR.

  16. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of the membranes of chicken egg

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, C K; Chen, T. W.; Chan, H L; Ng, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Questions regarding the structure of the inner and outer shell membranes of the chicken egg were addressed in this study by correlating observations from light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The egg membrane had a limiting membrane, which measured .9 to .15 pn in thickness and appeared to be a continuous and an impervious layer, but the shell membrane did not. Under the SEM, each membrane was seen to be made up of severa1 fibre ...

  17. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3 [Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rahayu HS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs were control and 63 eggs was omega-3 suplemented were collected from 64 Merawang chicken for eleven weeks. Feeding were arranged isonitrogenous (15.8% and isocaloric (2650 kkal/kg, and fed ad libitum. Omega-3 feeding was produced from fermentation of soybean waste (ampas tahu and mold (Rhizopus oligosporus, then mixed with sea fish oil waste (1:1, w/w. The result showed that no significant effect of the treatment on physical characteristic parameter. Omega-3 eggs significantly (P<0.05 increased the ratio of width and length of eggs. The score of yolk was increased in omega-3 eggs which indicated increase of omega-3 fatty acids and Æ’Ã’ caroten contents. The total lipid and cholesterol contents were lower (P<0.05 in omega-3 eggs, however, omega-3 fatty acids component (linolenat, EPA and DHA increased 10 and 6 times than control. Organoleptic test of colour, flavor, texture and taste of white portion, yolk portion and whole eggs were generally accepted by the panelis, both in the control and omega-3 eggs.

  18. Characterization of poultry egg-white avidins and their potential as a tool in pretargeting cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Vesa P; Laitinen, Olli H; Grapputo, Alessandro; Kettunen, Anu; Savolainen, Janne; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Marttila, Ari T; Nordlund, Henri R; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Paganelli, Giovanni; Kulomaa, Markku S

    2003-01-01

    Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins used in a wide variety of applications in the life sciences due to their strong affinity for biotin. A new and promising use for them is in medical pretargeting cancer treatments. However, their pharmacokinetics and immunological properties are not always optimal, thereby limiting their use in these applications. To search for potentially beneficial new candidates, we screened egg white from four different poultry species for avidin. Avidin proteins, isolated from the duck, goose, ostrich and turkey, showed a similar tetrameric structure, similar glycosylation and stability against both temperature and proteolytic activity of proteinase K as chicken avidin. Biotin-binding properties of these avidins, measured using IAsys optical biosensor, were similar to those found in avidin from the chicken. Three of these novel avidins, however, showed different immunological cross-reactivities when compared with chicken avidin. The patient sera responses to duck, goose and ostrich avidins were also lower than those observed for chicken and turkey avidins. Our findings suggest that the use of these proteins offers advantages over chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin in pretargeting applications. PMID:12558501

  19. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs. PMID:20063057

  20. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  2. Quality comparison of three types of imitated free-range chicken eggs%三种仿土鸡蛋的品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周大薇; 毛建

    2012-01-01

    The experiment compared the quality of imitated free-range chicken eggs produced by three different chicken breeds, namely dwarf egg-laying hens with mix-color wings, imported egg- laying hens with pink eggshell and egg-laying hens with cyan claws and white wings, which were all bred indoor on the ground, also measured and analyzed several characteristics of~ the eggs. The result showed that the eggs of dwarf laying hens with mix-color wings enjoyed high quality.%本试验对矮小型麻羽蛋鸡、引进粉壳蛋鸡、青脚白羽鸡三个品种在地面平养方式下生产的仿土鸡蛋进行了品质比较,测定并分析了鸡蛋的几项物理性状。结果表明,矮小型蛋鸡所产的鸡蛋有较好的蛋品质。

  3. Effect of egg weight on hatchability and hatchling weight in Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, embryonic deaths and hatchling weight of three rural breeds (Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens. Materials and Methods: Three different egg weight groups classified into small: ( 45g were used in the experiment. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. Simultaneously quadratic type equation was used to determine the egg weight for optimum hatchability and hatchling weight. Results: Percentage hatchability of medium-sized eggs was higher (P < 0.05 than those in large sized eggs. Similarly, large–sized eggs had higher (P < 0.05 percentage hatchability than small sized eggs in all breeds. Hatchability percentage changed by ratio 0.4077 with one unit change in mean egg weight of Fayoumi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.5488 with one unit change in egg weight of Desi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.3767 with one unit change in egg weight of crossbred chickens. Mean hatchling weight in Fayoumi eggs changed by ratio of 0.6760; Desi eggs by ratio of 0.5955 and crossbred chicken eggs by ratio of 1.3613 with one unit change in mean egg weight. The overall mean hatchling weight as percentage of mean egg weight in case of Fayoumi was 67.10, in Desi 62.42 and 68.36 in case of cross birds. There was no evidence that hatchabilitypercentage increased with increase in egg weight in all the three strains of birds. Small-sized eggs had higher (P<0.05 embryonic deaths than those of medium and large-sized eggs in three breeds. Hatchling weight from large eggs were (P < 0.05 higher than those of small eggs in three breeds. Mean hatchling weight of Fayoumi changed by ratio 0.676 with one unit change in mean egg weight. In case of Desi chickens, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 0.5955 with one unit change in egg weight. In case of crossbred chicken, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 1.3613 with one unit change in

  4. Use of irradiation for decontamination of chicken and spray-dried whole egg powder from Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 60Co gamma irradiation was investigated on the concentration of Salmonella (S.) typhimurium in artificially contaminated chicken carcasses and on the number of S. tennessee and S. agona in artificially contaminated spary-dried whole egg powder and liquid whole egg. Irradiation of carcasses and of liquid whole egg was carried out at deep frozen conditions between -10 0C and -18 0C and whole egg powder at 15-20 0C. The irradiation doses used where between 0.05 and 8.0 kGy. The D10-value of S. typhimurium in broiler chicks ranged between 0.57 and 0.74 and of S. agona and S. tennessee, resp., amounted to 0.95 and 1.07 in spray dried whole egg powder and 0.47 and 0.53, resp., in whole egg content. Irradiation caused drastic reduction of physiological microflora in chicken carcasses. By radiation treatment using a dose of 4.0 kGy, germ count reductions by 3-5 decimal powers were achieved. Resistance of microbes increased in following succession: Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp., other Enterobacteriaceae spp., Micrococcus spp., Flavobacteriaceae spp., yeasts. Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp., fungi. Results of microbiological and sensorial examinations allow following conclusions: (1) irradiation is highly effective against Salmonella. (2) Irradiation dose of 4.0 kGy is able to kill about 1 million Salmonellae per chicken. This guarantees safe elimination of naturally occurring Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses. (3) Irradiation of chicken carcasses up to 4.0 kGy causes no deterioration of quality, however storage longer than 4 months deteriorates sensorial qualities more than of unirradiated carcasses. (4) Whole egg powder tolerates a maximal irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy without deterioration of sensorial food quality. (5) Irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy eliminates about 100 to 1000 Salmonellae per kg whole egg powder, if the egg powder is stored 3 to 5 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  5. Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sola-Ojo, F. E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52 weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks obtained for FE. Significant difference (p0.05 differences in other egg quality traits measured.

  6. Fourier transform infrared studies in solid egg white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is the most recent addition to the arsenal of bioanalytical techniques capable of providing information about the secondary structure of proteins in a variety of environments. FTIR spectra have been obtained in solid egg white lysozyme. The spectra display the usual amide I, II and III bands. Secondary structural information obtained from the spectra after applying resolution enhancement techniques to the amide I band has been found consistent with the x-ray crystallographic data of the protein and also to the spectroscopic data of the protein in aqueous solution. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation egg storage conditions (temperature, duration, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) affects viability, body mass, and physiological variables and functions in day 15 chicken embryos. Embryo viability was impaired in eggs stored for 2 and 3 weeks, with the effects greater at 22°C compared to 15°C. However, embryo size was reduced in eggs stored at 15°C compared with 22°C. Phenotypic change resulting from embryonic programming was evident in the fact that preincubation storage at 15°C diminished hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell concentration ([RBC]), and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Storage duration at 15°C more severely affected the time course (2, 6, and 24 h) responses of Hct, [RBC], and [Hb] to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by submersion compared with storage duration at 22°C. The time-specific regulation of acid-base balance was changed progressively with storage duration at both 22 and 15°C preincubation storages. Consequently, preincubation egg storage at 22°C resulted in poor viability compared with eggs stored at 15°C, but size and physiological functions of embryos in eggs stored for 1-2 weeks were worse in eggs stored in the cooler than stored under room conditions. Avian eggs thus prove to be useful for examining developmental consequences to physiology of altered preincubation thermal environment in very early stages of development (embryonic programming). PMID:26908714

  8. Egg white versus Salmonella Enteritidis! A harsh medium meets a resilient pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Florence; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C; Jan, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the prevalent egg-product-related food-borne pathogen. The egg-contamination capacity of S. Enteritidis includes its exceptional survival capability within the harsh conditions provided by egg white. Egg white proteins, such as lysozyme and ovotransferrin, are well known to play important roles in defence against bacterial invaders. Indeed, several additional minor proteins and peptides have recently been found to play known or potential roles in protection against bacterial contamination. However, although such antibacterial proteins are well studied, little is known about their efficacy under the environmental conditions prevalent in egg white. Thus, the influence of factors such as temperature, alkalinity, nutrient restriction, viscosity and cooperative interactions on the activities of antibacterial proteins in egg white remains unclear. This review critically assesses the available evidence on the antimicrobial components of egg white. In addition, mechanisms employed by S. Enteritidis to resist egg white exposure are also considered along with various genetic studies that have shed light upon egg white resistance systems. We also consider how multiple, antibacterial proteins operate in association with specific environmental factors within egg white to generate a lethal protective cocktail that preserves sterility. PMID:26678134

  9. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs

  10. Isolation studies on the prevalance of salmonellae in chicken organs, eggs and feed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. Methods: A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. Results: The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide. (author)

  11. BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE OF TRITIUM IN CHICKENS AND EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies of tritium transport in the environment suggest that although water is the main route for human intake, other routes should not be ignored. The importance of eggs as a step in the pathway for human intake of tritium was assessed by intravenously administering a s...

  12. Cooling rates of living and killed chicken and quail eggs in air and in helium-oxygen gas mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, H; Turner, J S; Paganelli, C V

    1988-01-01

    1. In a helium atmosphere, heat is dissipated from a surface 3.5 times faster than it is in air. Eggs in a helium-oxygen atmosphere cool only 1.4 times faster than they cool in air. This signifies that internal resistance to heat flow is a significant factor in the cooling rates of eggs. 2. Heat flow occurs inside an egg in two ways: by conduction through the tissues and in flowing blood. Killing an embryo stops the latter, but not the former. Eggs cool more slowly after they have been killed, signifying that blood flow can be an important component in an egg's internal flows of heat. 3. Blood flow should be a relatively more important component of heat flow in large eggs than in small eggs. The difference in conductance between living and killed eggs is larger in 60 g chicken eggs than it is in 10 g quail eggs. PMID:2900113

  13. A rapid and convenient dot-immunobinding assay for chicken egg-yolk antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG PING RUAN; LI MA; XIN SHENG YAO; QIAN WEN; HONG YUN ZOU; WEI LUO; XIAO NING WANG

    2006-01-01

    The dot-immunobinding assay was applied to investigate the characteristics of chicken egg yolk antibodies. This method of assay was proved to be a rapid and simple method to demonstrate and characterize the egg-yolk antibody IgY in comparison with the traditional ELISA assay. By using the BandScan software, the gray scale value of dots and the background could be determined. According to the intensity of dots (gray scale value) compared to the standard sample of 10 μg, how much IgY remained can be determined in a shorter time.

  14. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhao, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies. PMID:26713728

  15. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wu

    Full Text Available Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, S. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)], E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn; Liu, W.X.; Li, X.Q.; Zhou, D.X.; Li, X.; Yang, Y.F.; Yue, D.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Coveney, R.M. [Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 {+-} 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 {+-} 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 ± 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 ± 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure

  18. Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    F. E. Sola-Ojo; Ayorinde, K. L.; Jatto, O. M.; Toye, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE) and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE)} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52) weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE) of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks) compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks) obtained for FE. Significant difference (p

  19. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    *Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition)  *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder.  *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation.  *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge  *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia……

  20. The Effect of Disinfection of Hatching Eggs on Hatchability of Oravka Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this the work was evaluated effect of disinfection of Oravka hatching eggs by formalin gas (20 g KMnO4+ 30 g formaldehyde of 40 % concentration to 1 m3 of a space and ozone (0.450 ppm in time 12 hours on fertility,hatchability, spontaneity of chickens hatching and embryonal mortality during incubation. The hatching was realisedin Bios Midi incubator at a standard technology process of the hatching. We recorded a positive effect of disinfectionof ozone on hatchability from fertilised eggs (91.79% compared with disinfection of formalin (91.10% A totallyembryonal mortality of chickens had not record any difference between two methods of disinfection but we recordedpositive effect of ozone on embryonic mortality of chicks to 7 day of incubation and from 15 to 21 day of incubation.We searched more spontaneous chicks hatching from hatching eggs disinfected by ozone in 510 hours of incubation.It is possible to recommend disinfection of hatching eggs by ozone, as an alternative way of disinfection of hatchingeggs usable in hatching practice, on the base of obtained experimental results. This way of disinfection hatching eggsis more ecological not only from the point of environment, but also of the healthy of employees of the hatchery.

  1. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Enhanced Production of Ovotransferrin from Egg White for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad M. A. Alshammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovotransferrin is the second most abundant protein (~12-13% of the total egg protein in egg white after ovalbumin. Ovotransferrin is a potent natural antimicrobial agent as it possesses antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and is also the major metal binding protein found in egg, which makes it an industrially important protein. Ovotransferrin was extracted from egg white using its metal (iron binding properties. In the present study, eggs from two different sources were used (fresh local eggs from domestic household source and poultry eggs from shops to compare the results and Response Surface Methodology was used for the experiment design and data analysis. The following extraction conditions were optimized so as to maximize the yield of ovotransferrin from egg white: ethanol % (v/v and pH and volume (mL of 25 mM FeCl3/50 mL of egg white. A maximum yield of ~85 ± 2.5% was obtained near the optimum extraction conditions. The yield was calculated based on the theoretical value (934 mg of ovotransferrin in 100 mL of 1.5x diluted egg white solution. Our results suggest that efficient downstream processing may reduce the cost of overall production process of this promising enzyme, making it a natural and cost-effective alternative to the existing chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3 [Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Rahayu HS

    2003-01-01

    Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs w...

  3. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commercial layer chicken in Namakkal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palani Srinivasan; Perumal Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods:A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39%of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3%to 20%and 0.5%to 7.0%respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with

  4. Age-related differences of Ascaridia galli egg output and worm burden in chickens following a single dose infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Homann, T; Erhardt, G

    2005-03-10

    Ninety white chickens (Lohmann LSL) were reared under helminth-free conditions and divided into five groups. Four groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at the age of 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Ten birds were kept as uninfected controls. Six and 10 weeks after infection (p.i.), individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The birds were slaughtered after the second sampling and their gastrointestinal tracts were examined for the presence of adult A. galli. The FEC increased from the first to the second sampling significantly in all the infected groups. The highest increase was shown in the group infected at 12 weeks of age, whereas the increase in the other groups was relatively moderate. However, the total worm burden and mean FEC at the second sampling were highest (p0.05) between any of the groups. Thyroxine (T4) was significantly different between the groups infected at 6 and 18 weeks of age (pgalli infections in layers, whereas a bird's hormonal and immune status, related to laying activity, seems to have a significant negative impact on resistance. PMID:15725544

  5. MICROBIOTA AND BIOGENIC AMINES VARIATION OF CHICKEN MEAT; COMPARISON BETWEEN WHITE AND RED MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Baston; Octavian Barna; Aida Vasile

    2010-01-01

    Chicken meat freshness is in permanent attention for all partners involved in food chain. In this paper we want to highlight the variation of microbiota (psychrotrophic and total viable count) and the variation of biogenic amines in chicken red and white meat. We compared the two anatomical parts of chicken because they have different metabolism, and after cutting from the carcasses they can suffer microbial contamination in the process. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of refrigera...

  6. Effect of cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation on the hatching process of chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on fertilized chicken eggs was carried out to determine the effects of 60Co irradiation on the embryos, their fatality, and growth impairment or deformity, in particular. The experimental groups, consisting of 10 eggs each, recieved a 60Co irradiation of 50 to 2,000 rads on any one day between day 0 and day 20 of incubation. The larger the irradiation dose, the greater was the number of dead embryos. The fatality was higher in the groups receiving irradiation in the earlier stage (1st week). The resultant death was a chronic one. The irradiation also caused body weight decrease and growth impairment. A decrease in the brain and liver weights was noted, suggesting insufficiency in these organs. Deformity occurred in 4%, most of which involved impairments of skeletal growth, of the bones of the extremities and the bill, in particular. Administration of the SH amino acid, cysteine tended to alleviate the adverse effects of the 60Co irradiation. These results for fertilized chicken eggs suggest the possibility of abortion and the occurrence of deformities in human fetuses if they should be subjected to 60Co irradiation. (author)

  7. The jejunal cellular responses in chickens infected with a single dose of Ascaridia galli eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr; Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2015-07-01

    This histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate the cellular response in the jejunum to Ascaridia galli during the first 7 weeks of infection. Fourty-two ISA Brown chickens (7 weeks old) were infected orally with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs each while 28 chickens were left as uninfected controls. Six infected and four control chickens were necropsied at each time point 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-infection (dpi). Samples for histopathology were taken from three sites of the jejunoileum. Significantly higher eosinophil counts were seen in infected chickens compared to uninfected at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28 dpi (P galli infection induced changes in the mucosal thickness as reduced villi length at 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 dpi and in the degree of general cellular infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucosal layer. No adult worms were seen during the experiment; therefore, A. galli larvae have elicited a moderate cellular response in the lamina propria, mainly consisting of eosinophils in the early phase and later of mast cells. PMID:25877388

  8. The use of 2-dodecylcylobutanone for the identification of irradiated chicken meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutones which are useful markers for the identification of irradiated chicken meat and liquid whole egg. The compounds appear to be specific for irradiation since they are not generated by cooking, packing in vacuum or CO2 and are sufficiently stable to be detected throughout the shelf-life of these products. As the irradiation dose increases there is a linear increase in the amount of these compounds formed in chicken meat and so the method has potenetial for the estimation of irradiation dose. The procedure developed should be applicable for the identification of a range of foods of varying fat and fatty acid compostion. (author)

  9. Action of egg white lysozyme on Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, F; Teuber, M

    1979-01-01

    A 500-U ml-1 portion of egg white lysozyme was able to kill 99% of 5 X 10(5) resting vegetative cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum within 24 h of incubation at 25 degrees C. Spores were completely resistant to lysozyme. Proliferating vegetative cells were severely inhibited, although lysozyme-resistant cells developed in growing cultures in the presence of lysozyme. Whereas early stages of spore germination (loss of optical refractility and heat resistance) were not inhibited by lysozyme, the overall outgrowth of spore cells into vegetative cells was delayed by 1 day in the presence of 500 U of lysosyme ml-1. This delay was independent of the lysozyme sensitivity or resistance of the mother culture of the used spores. It is suggested that this inhibition by lysozyme of the outgrowth of spore cells into vegetative cells of the lactate-fermenting C. tyrobutyricum is the basis for the observation that lysozyme can substitute for nitrate in preventing the "late gas" defect of Edam- and Gouda-type cheeses. PMID:518083

  10. The Effect of Disinfection of Hatching Eggs on Hatchability of Oravka Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril Hrnčár; Simona Prachárová; Jozef Bujko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this the work was evaluated effect of disinfection of Oravka hatching eggs by formalin gas (20 g KMnO4+ 30 g formaldehyde of 40 % concentration to 1 m3 of a space) and ozone (0.450 ppm in time 12 hours) on fertility,hatchability, spontaneity of chickens hatching and embryonal mortality during incubation. The hatching was realisedin Bios Midi incubator at a standard technology process of the hatching. We recorded a positive effect of disinfectionof ozone on hatchability from fertili...

  11. Improving the outcome of a Marek's disease challenge in multiple lines of egg type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Arango, J; Arthur, J A; Settar, P; Kreager, K S; O'Sullivan, N P

    2013-06-01

    A challenge test following inoculation with a standard amount of a vv+ strain of the Marek's disease (MD) virus in multiple lines and multiple generations of egg type chicken and the corresponding phenotypic trend are described. This program significantly reduced mortality of progeny from selected sires for three to 11 generations in eight of the nine elite lines studied herein. In brown egg lines, a retrospective analysis of DNA indicated an association between the blood type B (major histocompatibility complex) of the sire and the MD mortality in the challenge of its progeny. As a result of the multigeneration stock amplification and crossbreeding processes used in the commercial breeding industry, improvement in survival after challenge at the elite level will translate to improved welfare for millions of birds at the commercial production level. PMID:23901770

  12. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Qiu, N; Liu, Y; Zhao, H; Gao, D; Song, R; Ma, M

    2016-05-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as "deleted in malignant brain tumors 1" protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. PMID:26957635

  13. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  14. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and residues in commercial chicken eggs from smallholder poultry keepers in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, H E; Simon, C; Karimuribo, E D; Mdegela, R H

    2010-08-01

    Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in commercial chicken eggs was determined in Morogoro municipality between January and February 2007. Twenty smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of antimicrobials, reasons of use and their awareness on antimicrobial withdrawal period. Seventy egg samples were collected for qualitative antimicrobial drug residues analysis by use of agar well diffusion and Delvotest SP assays. It was found that farmers use antimicrobial drugs as prophylaxis and treatment of common chicken diseases namely fowl typhoid (85%), infectious bursa disease (Gumboro) (65%) infectious coryza (65%), collibacilosis (55%), coccidiosis (54%), Newcastle disease (50%), helminthosis (20%) and fowl pox (15%). Antimicrobials accounted for 85% of the drugs commonly used. It was also found that 65% of the farmers treat their chicken themselves. The common drugs were oxytetracycline (75%), egg booster (50%), amprolium (35%), sulphamethoxypyridazine (35%), sulphanilamide (25%), chlortetracyclines (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), sulphadiazine-trimethoprim (20%), duoxycycline (20%), sulphadiazine (25%) and flumequine (10%). Eighty per cent of the farmers had knowledge on antimicrobial withdrawal period sold eggs before withdrawal period and almost 85% were unaware of possible effects of antimicrobial residues in humans. All 70 eggs were positive to antimicrobial residues by Delvotest kit, but 21.4% positive with agar well diffusion test. It was concluded that the presence of antimicrobial residues in table eggs could be of public health significance to the egg consumers in Morogoro municipality. PMID:19486498

  15. Aflatoxin B1 in eggs and chicken livers by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhizi, Behzad; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, low-cost and simple technique has been developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in eggs and livers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. In this study, the presence of AFB1 was investigated in 150 eggs and 50 chicken livers from the local market of Tabriz, Iran. AFB1 was extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (80:20) and cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction which is a very economical, fast and sensitive method. AFB1 was quantified by HPLC-UV without need for any complex derivatisation in samples to enhance the detection. The results showed that 72% of the liver and 58% of the egg samples were contaminated with AFB1 ranging from 0.30 to 16.36 µg kg (̶1). limit of detection and limit of quantification for AFB1 were 0.08 and 0.28 µg kg (̶ 1), respectively. The proposed method is suitable for fast analysing of AFB1 in egg and liver samples. PMID:26160230

  16. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy

  17. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation ( Pcake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control ( Pcake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products ( P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  18. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  19. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and α-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26451355

  20. Pathogenicity of M. lipofaciens (strain ML64), isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Lierz, Michael; Stark, Robert; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Brokat, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Some Mycoplasma species are well known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey and a strain of M. lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be patho...

  1. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  2. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts. PMID:25588552

  3. Nutritional effects of egg shell membrane supplements on chicken performance and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Huff, W E; Huff, G R

    2015-06-01

    Eggshell membranes (ESM) contain a variety of proteins and peptides which help in the development of embryo and provide protection to it. Many of the peptides and proteins associated with ESM have antimicrobial, immune-modulatory, and adjuvant properties. We hypothesized that the membrane byproducts from egg, provided as posthatch nutritional supplements to chickens, may improve their performance and immunity. To explore its effect, we fed 3 groups of broiler chicks with feed containing 0, 0.2, and 0.4% ESM from d 1 posthatch through 14 d and regular feed thereafter. The birds were individually weighed at the onset of the study and at weekly intervals until the termination at third wk when they were bled and euthanized. The relative weights of liver, spleen, bursa, and heart, hematology profiles, and clinical chemistry variables including serum IgM, IgG, and corticosterone concentrations were measured. The chickens in the ESM treated groups showed a statistically significant increase in BW with no impact on relative organ weights. Compared with controls, the WBC and lymphocyte percentage increased in chickens fed 0.4% ESM whereas the monocyte percentage decreased at both levels of ESM. Except for the serum protein which increased in ESM fed birds no other metabolic clinical chemistry variables showed any significant change. Both IgM and IgG(Y) levels were elevated and corticosterone levels reduced in chickens fed ESM supplemented diets. Our results suggest that ESM supplements during the early phases of growth may improve immunity and stress variables, and enhance their growth performance without any detrimental effect on other physiological parameters. PMID:25840966

  4. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.

  5. Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

    2008-08-01

    Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel M.H.V. Isolation of viral IgY antibodies from yolks of immunized hens. Immunological Communications 1980; 9:475-493.) and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography, which gave pure (180-200kDa) specific antibodies against venom. High titre of more than 1:10,000 antibodies were detected by ELISA at the 135th day of observation. The lethal toxicity and various pharmacological activities like hemorrhagic activity, phospholipase activity, edema and procoagulant activities of venom were carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods. The effectiveness of antivenom in neutralizing these effects was carried out involving pre-incubation type experiments. The median effective dose (ED50) for Russell's viper venom was 0.96mg/2LD50/18g mice and for Saw-scaled viper venom it was 1.28mg/2LD50/18g mice. One millilitre of specific antivenom was effective in neutralizing 0.110mg of Russell's viper and 0.137mg of Saw-scaled viper venoms respectively (PD50). Antivenom was effective in neutralization assays in a dose dependent manner. The results indicate that antibodies raised in chicken could effectively neutralize the pharmacological effects induced by venoms and chickens therefore present an alternative and cheaper source of specific antibody generation. PMID:18550009

  6. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  7. Effects of Microheterogeneity in Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    In earlier sodium dodecylsulfate polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies it has been found that commonly utilized commercial hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) preparations contained 0.2-0.4 mol% covalently bound dimers. Here it is shown, using high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), that HEWL contains, in addition, two differently charged monomers in comparable amounts. To explore the origin of these microheterogeneous contaminants, purified HEWL (PHEWL) has been oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (0.0026-0.88 M) at various pH levels between 4.5 and 12.0. Optical densitometry of oxidized PHEWL (OHEWL) bands in SDS PAGE gels shows that hydrogen peroxide at 0.88 M in acetate buffer pH 4.5 increased the amount of dimers about sixfold over that in commercial HEWL. OHEWL had, in addition to one of the two monomer forms found in HEWL and PHEWL, three other differently charged monomer forms, each of them representing about 25% of the preparation. SDS-PAGE analysis of OHEWL yielded two closely spaced dimer bands with M(sub r) = 28 000 and 27 500. In addition, larger HEWL oligomers with M, = 1.7 million and 320 000 were detected by gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering detection. Non-dissociating PAGE in large pore size gels at pH 4.5 confirmed the presence of these large oligomers in HEWL and OHEWL. Increased microheterogeneity resulted in substantial effects on crystal growth and nucleation rate. On addition of 10 microgram(exp -1) mg ml(exp -1) OHEWL to 32 mg ml(exp -1) HEWL crystallizing solutions, both the number and size of forming crystals decreased roughly proportionally to the concentration of the added microheterogeneity. The same effect was observed in HEWL solutions on addition of 0.03-9,3 M Hydrogen peroxide. Repartioning of the dimer during crystallzation aat various temperatures between 277 and 293 K was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The crystals contained <= 25 % weight by volume of the oligomers in

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  9. Body weight and enzymes activities in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with low level gamma rays before incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraljević Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma radiation upon body weight (BW, body weight gain (BWG, feed consumption (FC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. Our aim was also to investigate the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the blood plasma of those chickens. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. BW of chickens was measured by a single weighting of chickens on the 1st and 42nd day of the fattening period. An average BWG was calculated from the obtained results during the whole fattening period (i.e. from the 1st until the 42nd day. FC was measured each day during the fattening time and total feed consumption was calculated. On the basis of FC and BW, FCR was calculated (FC/BWG. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1st and 3rd day, or from the wing vein on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of all enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using reagents according to recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. BW of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was statistically significant higher than in the controls during the fattening period; on day 42 of fattening, BW of the experimental chickens was 90 g (i.e. 4.8 % higher than in the controls (P<0.05. FC during the fattening period did not essentially differ in the experimental and the control group. The AST activity was significantly increased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 and 10 (P<0.05, ALT activity was increased in the same

  10. Polymorphisms associated with egg number at 300 days of age in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H P; Zeng, H; Zhang, D X; Jia, X L; Luo, C L; Fang, M X; Nie, Q H; Zhang, X Q

    2011-01-01

    We looked for variations that could be associated with chicken egg number at 300 days of age (EN300) in seven genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), GnRH receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y (NPY), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1), prolactin (PRL), and the QTL region between 87 and 105 cM of the Z chromosome. Ten mutations in the seven genes were chosen to do marker-trait association analyses in a population comprising 1310 chickens, which were obtained from a company located in Guangdong Province of China. The C1704887T of VIPR-1 was found to have a highly significant association with EN300. The T5841629C of DRD2 and the C1715301T of VIPR-1 were significantly associated with EN300. A highly significant association was also found between the C1704887T-C1715301T haplotypes of VIPR-1 and EN300. H1H3 had the highest EN300. Four PCR-RFLP variations in the candidate QTL region were selected to investigate their genetic effects on EN300. The haplotypes of T32742468C-G32742603A in this region showed a highly significant association with EN300. Bioinformatics analyses showed that both T32742468C and G32742603A were located in intron 1 of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2) gene. We conclude that five SNPs, including C1704887T and C1715301T of VIPR-1, T5841629C of DRD2, and T32742468C and G32742603A of SH3GL2, would be useful as markers for breeding to increase chicken EN300. PMID:22002122

  11. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils. PMID:26197434

  12. Synthesis of ultrafine alumina powders using egg white as complexing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of alumina powders through chemical methods has been attracting much attention of researchers in the past few years, due to the ability to produce powders in nanometric scale with high degree of purity. In this work, there were synthesized alumina powders through a chemical route, using egg white as a complexing medium and aluminium nitrate as the source of Al3+ cations. Egg white contains ovalbumin, a protein which acts effectively on the isolation of aluminium cations during the mixing process, enabling the formation of ultrafine alumina powders in a relatively economic and environmentally friendly way. The powders obtained by calcinations of the precursor resin were characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the egg white, present at the reaction medium, allowed obtaining transition alumina powders, with high degree of purity. (author)

  13. Effect of Desalination on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck (Anas plotyrhyncus Egg Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhamadi Mmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Desalted Duck Egg Whites (DDEW was prepared by electrodialysis desalination using Salted Duck Egg Whites (SDEW. DDEW and SDEW (used as control were subjected to freeze drying process. Freeze Dried Desalted and Salted Duck Egg Whites (FDDEW and FSDEW, respectively were assessed for functional properties (turbidity, foaming, emulsifying and gelation and some physicochemical characteristics. Among the physicochemical parameters, the proximate composition, amino acid composition, pH, particle sizes, microstructure and color attributes were studied. The electrodialysis desalination process had significant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of FDDEW and FSDEW except for amino acids composition. Thus, the pH decreased from 8.07 to 7.40 while the NaCl content decreased from 3.76 to 0.18%. The same trend was observed for protein and ash contents. The functional properties were variable among the two samples. For instance, the gel characteristics decreased sharply after electrodialysis desalination treatment.

  14. Estimation of selected residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney, liver, and egg of layer chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies were conducted for the estimation of quinolone residues in our local poultry products. The poultry products included muscle, kidney, liver and egg (yolk and white). The quinolones included in this study were, oxolonic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. An assessment of the variation of each analyte (quinolones antibiotic residues) in these products was made. A comparison was made among the analyte (quinolones) concentrations in different tissues/organs and their internationally permissible safer maximum residue limits (MRLS'). Infra Red spectra were used to detect the presence and identification of different quinolones. HPLC with ODS Column and U.V. detector was used for the quantification. (author)

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types. PMID:27108035

  16. Sanitation Of Fresh Chicken Eggs By Ionizing Radiation And Its Effect On Their Physicochemical And Functional Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact fresh white and brown L.S.L shell eggs inoculated with 109 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella typhimurium, the effect of three doses 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units, yolk colour and yolk index), proximate composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), amino acids content, ,physicochemical properties (foaming ability, foaming stability and water holding capacity), the rheological change (viscosity), ph, protein solubility, carotenoids and lipid oxidation of the eggs were determined. The results revealed that at 2 kGy, the number of SE and S. typhimurium were reduced to non-detectable levels. The internal quality as freshness of eggs as measured by albumen height and the number of Haugh units as well as yolk colour and yolk index were all significantly reduced with increasing the irradiation doses. Non-significant changes were found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). Amino acids when irradiated at dose 2 kGy caused non-significant changes in their levels, but it caused significant decrease in total essential and non-essential amino acids with increasing irradiation dose at 4 and 6 kGy.After irradiation, the foaming ability and foaming capacity were increased while water holding capacity and viscosity were decreased with increasing radiation doses. The ph of the egg white and yolk was increased with increasing the radiation dose. The protein solubility was decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. Carotenoids of egg yolk were decreased with increasing doses of irradiation while lipid oxidation was increased with increasing radiation dose. Based on the obtained results, it

  17. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest...

  18. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken 乌鸡白凤丸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@*Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition) *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder. *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation. *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia

  19. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

  20. Complete genome sequence of an avian leukosis virus isolate associated with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in egg-type and meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new virus isolate was separated from a commercial egg-type flock of chickens in China and was determined as subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). ALV-J is known to cause myeloid leukosis. But this new isolate of viruses causes both hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in chickens. Hemangioma is an a...

  1. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  2. Structure and dynamics of egg white ovalbumin adsorbed at the air/water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Hoek, A. van; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The molecular properties of egg white ovalbumin adsorbed at the air/water interface were studied using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (TRFA) techniques. Ovalbumin adsorbed at the air/ water interface adopts a characteristic partially unf

  3. Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of thermally-injured Salmonella from liquid egg white

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to ...

  4. Magnetic ovalbumin and egg white aggregates as affinity adsorbents for lectins separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Zdeňka; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2008), s. 542-545. ISSN 1369-703X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 157; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : egg white * lectins * magnetic protein aggregates Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.889, year: 2008

  5. In Vitro Determination of the Allergenic Potential of Egg White in Processed Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Paschke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hen's egg white has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions, with ovalbumin, conalbumin, ovomucoid, and lysozyme being the major allergens. However, little is known about the effects of processing with heat and high pressure on the allergenicity of egg white proteins as ingredients in meat. For this purpose, the allergenic characteristics of such treated preparations were studied. The IgE-binding capacity was analyzed by EAST inhibition in raw and processed meat preparations using sera from patients with hen's egg specific IgE. Increasing heat treatment as well as the application of high pressure decreased IgE binding, which is a measure of allergenic potential. The combined application of heat (70∘C and high pressure had synergistic effects in reducing the allergenic potential nearly twice as the sum of the single treatments conducted separately.

  6. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  7. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland. PMID:24235220

  8. Egg production response of laying chickens to feather clipping, cool water and aspirin during hot weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Herbert Kwabla

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week trial was conducted between March and May (hot-dry season) to determine effects of water temperature, feather clipping and aspirin on egg production of chickens. The treatments tested were hens given ordinary drinking water (control), cool water (100 g ice block per L) and aspirin (0.3 mg per L of ordinary water) and hens whose feathers were clipped (about two thirds of body feathers clipped). At 32 weeks of age, 120 Lohmann brown layer chickens of similar live weights were randomly divided into 12 groups of ten hens each and assigned to the treatments in triplicate using a completely randomized design. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Data included feed intake, water consumption, hen-day egg production and egg weight. Ambient house temperature, hen's cloacal temperature and water temperature were monitored daily during the experimental period. Mean daily ambient temperature increased from 28.4 to 35.0 °C during the study period with consequent increase in cloacal temperatures (40.31 to 41.18 °C) of hens, ordinary drinking water and cool water. None of the treatments had any significant (P > 0.05) effects on feed intake and water consumption of the birds. Hens given cool water produced more (P hens assigned to other treatments. Mean egg weight of each treatment was similar (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the provision of cool water in a hot-dry climate had a beneficial effect on egg laying performance of chickens. PMID:25187029

  9. Complete association between a retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase gene and the recessive white mutation in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulmouden Ahmad

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chickens, three mutant alleles have been reported at the C locus, including the albino mutation, and the recessive white mutation, which is characterized by white plumage and pigmented eyes. The albino mutation was found to be a 6 bp deletion in the tyrosinase (TYR gene. The present work describes an approach to identify the structural rearrangement in the TYR gene associated with the recessive white mutation. Results Molecular analysis of the chicken TYR gene has revealed a major structural difference (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP in the genomic DNA of the recessive white chicken. A major size difference of 7.7 kb was found in intron 4 of the TYR gene by long-range PCR. Molecular cloning and sequencing results showed the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence of the Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV family. Several aberrant transcripts of the tyrosinase gene were found in 10 week old recessive white chickens but not in the homozygous wild type colored chicken. We established a rapid genotyping diagnostic test based on the discovery of this retroviral insertion. It shows that all homozygous carriers of this insertion had a white plumage in various chicken strains. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish heterozygous carriers from homozygous normal chickens in a segregating line. Conclusion In this study, we conclude that the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence in intron 4 of the tyrosinase gene is diagnostic of the recessive white mutation in chickens. This insertion causes aberrant transcripts lacking exon 5, and we propose that this insertion is the causal mutation for the recessive white allele in the chicken.

  10. Benefit cost analysis of Rhode Island Red chicken rearing in backyard on the basis of egg production performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze of the egg production features of backyard chicken rearing with an evaluation of production cost of an egg and there by benefit-cost analysis. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 60000 chicken covering five different agroclimatic zones in the state West Bengal, India. Initially each farmer was provided day-old Rhode Island Red chicks, commercial ration upto pre-laying stage having CP of 17.23% and 12.32% in chick and grower mash respectively along with common management support system for backyard poultry rearing viz. separate poultry night shelter and brooding facilities, deworming and vaccination and regular health check up system, later farmers were allowed to use the supplemented feed made by the locally available resources having various crude protein content. Results: It was observed that there was no significant variation in respect of total egg production under various supplemented crude protein containing feed, whereas significantly higher egg production feature is observed in Coastal and Old Alluvial zones. Conclusion: The study concluded that more profit was occurred to those farmers who provided the supplemented feed with less crude protein content along with scavenging. This scope is more in new alluvial zone. It was also observed that profit started from 11 month onwards in each agro-climatic zone as well as in each category of supplemented feed.

  11. Prevalence and pathology of oviduct impaction in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srinivasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The avian oviduct is a tubular organ responsible for fertilization, secretion of the components surrounding the yolk and transport of egg in the reproductive tract. Disorders of oviduct may have a great bearing on production potential and incur a heavy loss. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathological changes of impacted oviduct in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India for a period of four years from 2006 to 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 5145 carcasses of white leghorn layers, above 20 weeks age from 255 flocks were examined for various oviduct abnormalities. Heart blood, liver and oviduct swabs collected upon necropsy from 45 layer chicken from six flocks with oviduct impaction were screened for bacterial agents. Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, caecal tonsil, kidney and oviduct samples from impacted oviduct cases were screened for viral agents. Serum samples collected from affected flocks were screened for Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV and egg drop syndrome – 76 (EDS-76 virus by haemagglutination inhibition (HI and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms by ELISA. Flock details and pathological changes were recorded in affected flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of oviduct impaction on commercial layer chicken. Results: The results of the present investigation indicated that the oviduct impaction was responsible for 0.87 % cent of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 wk of age. Egg production drop, morbidity and mortality recorded in the affected flocks were varied from 3 to 8, 0.4 to 1.2 and 0.2 to 0.5 % respectively. The oviduct impaction was commonly noticed above 40 wk old layers and predominantly during colder months. Serum samples collected from three flocks with oviduct impaction were found positive for Mg and Ms infection in ELISA test. Escherichia coli was isolated as

  12. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  13. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Drobish, M.; Hamilton, J.; Harder, T.; Lee, L.A.; Moen, C.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling saprolegniasis on eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and paddlefish Polyodon spathula was evaluated at four private, state, and federal production hatcheries participating in an Investigational New Animal Drug efficacy study (experiment 1; walleyes) and in a laboratory-based miniature egg jar incubation system (experiment 2; walleyes, white suckers, and paddlefish). Naturally occurring fungal infestations (saprolegniasis) were observed on eggs in both experiments. Confirmatory diagnosis of infested eggs from one hatchery in experiment 1 identified the pathogen as Saprolegnia parasitica. During experiment 1, eggs were treated daily for 15 min with either 0, 500, or 750 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide, and one trial compared a 500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment with a formalin treatment at 1,667 mg/L. Saprolegniasis infestation was observed in control egg jars, whereas treatment with either formalin or hydrogen peroxide virtually eliminated the infestation. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 mg/L either increased egg hatch or were as effective as physical removal of infested eggs in controlling mortality. Although treatment with formalin at 1,667 mg/L significantly increased the percent eye-up of walleye eggs compared with that of those treated with hydrogen peroxide at 500 mg/L, the difference was only 1.9-2.6%. In experiment 2, noneyed eggs were treated for 15 min every other day with 0, 283, 565, or 1,130 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide until the viable eggs hatched. Saprolegniasis infestation engulfed most control eggs, whereas infestation of treated eggs was either reduced or not visible. Hydrogen peroxide significantly increased egg hatch for all three species tested in experiment 2. Although hydrogen peroxide treatments as low as 283 mg/L significantly increased walleye and white sucker hatch, treatments between 500 and 1,000 mg/L are more likely to be effective in production egg

  14. Fast separation of hen egg white protein with a phosphorylcholine type zwitterionic ion chromatography stationary phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Qu; Xiu Juan Yu; Xi Wu; Fei Shi; Li Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this work,a kind of preparation method of zwitterionic ion chromatography (ZIC) stationary phase modified with phosphorylcholine (PC) was obtained by hydrolyzing after bonding phosphorylcholine dichloride to diol-silica to better explore the characteristics of the PC groups as ZIC stationary phase ligand in simultaneous separation of acidic proteins and basic proteins.The results showed that two kinds of acidic proteins and three kinds of basic proteins can be separated completely,meanwhile,hen egg white was separated and purified and three kinds of egg white components ovalbumin,G2 ovoglobulin and ovotransfemin proteins were separated completely by one single step on PC-ZIC column,the purity of all proteins reached above 95%.PC-ZIC stationary phase was successfully improved with better separation capacity and selectivity than previously reported in this paper.

  15. The effect of irradiation on the functional properties of spray-dried egg white protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foaming properties of spray-dried egg white powder were examined as a function of dosage with ionizing radiation. Foam stability was studied by a micro-conductimetric method. A marked increase in foam stability was observed in all the irradiated samples examined (2–16 kGy) when compared to a non-irradiated control. The drainage rate and minimum thickness of air-suspended thin liquid films stabilised with egg white protein was measured interferometrically. The rate of film thinning decreased with increasing dose suggesting a dose related change in the bulk viscosity. There were minor changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the irradiated protein determined by circular dichroism, which may account for the observed changes in functionality

  16. Protein Crystallization by Anodic Porous Alumina (APA) Template: The Example of Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL)

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Pechkova; Nicola Luigi Bragazzi; Claudio Nicolini

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we report anodic porous alumina (APA) template induced crystallization. The APA nanotemplate was prepared on the glass substrate for the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystal growth. The changes in the lysozyme crystals morphology, namely in the a/c axis ratio, were observed in the crystal grown by APA nanotemplate, but not in the crystal obtained with classical hanging drop vapor diffusion method, under the same experimental conditions. The comparison of the diffractio...

  17. Antioxidant Effect and Functional Properties of Hydrolysates Derived from Egg-White Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Dae-Yeon; Jo, Kyungae; Cho, So Young; Kim, Jin Man; Lim, Kwangsei; Suh, Hyung Joo; Oh, Sejong

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized commercially available proteolytic enzymes to prepare egg-white protein hydrolysates (EPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis. The antioxidant effect and functionalities of the resultant products were then investigated. Treatment with Neutrase yielded the most α-amino groups (6.52 mg/mL). Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Protamex, and Ficin showed similar degrees of α-amino group liberation (3.19-3.62 mg/mL). Neutrase treatment also resulted in the highest degree of hydrolysis (2...

  18. The jejunal cellular responses in chickens infected with a single dose of Ascaridia galli eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2015-01-01

    This histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate the cellular response in the jejunum to Ascaridia galli during the first 7 weeks of infection. Fourty-two ISA Brown chickens (7 weeks old) were infected orally with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs each while 28 chickens were left as.......001), 28 (P < 0.01) and 42 dpi (P < 0.05). A. galli infection induced changes in the mucosal thickness as reduced villi length at 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 dpi and in the degree of general cellular infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucosal layer. No adult worms were seen during the experiment; therefore...

  19. Effects of sonication and high-pressure carbon dioxide processing on enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of sonication and high-pressure carbon dioxide processing on proteolytic hydrolysis of egg white proteins and antioxidant activity of the obtained hydrolysates. It appeared that the ultrasound pretreatment resulted in an increase in the degree of hydrolysis of the enzymatic reaction while the high-pressure carbon dioxide processing showed an inhibition effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white proteins to some extent. The antioxidant activity of the obtained hydrolysates was improved by ultrasound pretreatment of egg white proteins at the pH 8.3. Thus, the combination of ultrasound pretreatment at the pH 8.3 and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase at 50°C and pH 8.0 could offer a new approach to the improvement of the functional properties of egg white proteins and their biological activity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. E!6750

  20. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  1. 慢病毒载体导入种蛋内鸡胚技术研究%Transgenic Chickens Made by Injection of Lentiviral into Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕海峰; 易康乐; TREFIL P; 胡雄贵; 邓缘; 朱立军

    2012-01-01

    种蛋内鸡胚含有潜在的胚胎干细胞(BCs)或原生殖细胞(PGCs),是目前主要的转基因鸡研究方法.采用绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)基因的pLenti6/v5-DEST-GFP慢病毒表达载体,白来航鸡与伊萨鸡种蛋,结合种蛋赤道面开窗专利技术,对含这两种细胞胚的转基因技术进行了比较研究:转染白来航鸡囊胚,孵化13天时,GFP基因的PCR检出率为64.7%,孵化率极低;转染孵化72h伊萨鸡胚血液循环中PGCs,实验蛋孵化率为35.0%,在出壳后死亡的3只小鸡肝脏中,GFP基因的PCR检出率为100%,存活的4只鸡中有3只在12月龄的血液样品中,经PCR扩增出了GFP基因;转染孵化72~79h白来航鸡胚PGCs,7批次实验的平均孵化率为21.1%,能在赤道面窗口注射胚的种蛋比率,以73 ~ 77h胚龄的最高,为75.0% ~ 92.9%,注射病毒组出壳雏鸡血液DNA中,GFP基因PCR检出率为44.4%.两种方法比较,PGCs方法在实验蛋孵化率、胚定位在赤道面窗口率等方面有较强优势.因此为种蛋内胚细胞的转基因鸡技术研究提供了系统、可操作性强的方法.%There were two kinds of pluripotent stem cells in the fertile chicken eggs, one was blastodermal cells (BCs) and the other was primordial germ cells (PGCs) and both of them were the main methods of transgenic chicken. The White Leghorn (WL) and Isa Brown (IB) fertile eggs at the stage of BCs and PGCs, were windowed equatorially, and the Lentivrial vector pLenti6/v5-DEST-EGFP was microinjected into the eggs. For BCs fertile eggs from WL, the positive embryos was 64. 7% (11/17) when the 13-day embryos were checked by PCR. For the PGCs (eggs incubated for72h) stage fertile eggs from IB, the hatchability was 35% , three chickens died little time after hatching, which were all positive when checked using the liver DNA by PCR at the age of 1 month and 6 month. There were three chickens among four alive ones (75%) was positive when checked the blood DNA by PCR, however they

  2. Inactivation of Salmonellae in liquid egg white by antimicrobial bottle coating with allvl isothiocyanate, nisin and ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to develop an antimicrobial bottle coating effective at inhibiting the growth of Salmonella in liquid egg albumen (egg white) and reduce the risk of human Salmonellosis. Four-ounce glass jars were coated with a mixture of polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and antimicrobial ...

  3. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P hens had a greater (P hens reduced (P laying hens. PMID:24235237

  4. Determination of Heavy Metals in Meat, Intestine, Liver, Eggs, and Chicken Using Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, se and Zn in meat, intestine, and liver of cow and goat, as well as in broiler, local breed chicken and eggs have been determined using Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Mercury was determined after being separated radiochemically. The results showed that concentration of the essential elements studied i.e. Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, and Ni were higher in liver and intestine than in the meat, but still in the normal range, while toxic elements As, Cd, and Pb were undetectable in all samples. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Egg White Solution via Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Samira; Shameli, Kamyar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2013-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are synthesized by a simple and cost-effective process with and without freshly water-soluble egg white proteins (albumin) via sol-gel method. The main advantage of using egg white proteins as a gelling agent is that it can provide long-term stability for nanoparticles by preventing particles agglomeration. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR results indicate that the synthesized nanoparticles have only the anatase structure without the presence of any...

  6. Effects of sonication and high-pressure carbon dioxide processing on enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Stefanović Andrea B.; Žuža Milena G.; Milovanović Stoja L.; Jakovetić Sonja M.; Manojlović Verica B.; Bugarski Branko M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of sonication and high-pressure carbon dioxide processing on proteolytic hydrolysis of egg white proteins and antioxidant activity of the obtained hydrolysates. It appeared that the ultrasound pretreatment resulted in an increase in the degree of hydrolysis of the enzymatic reaction while the high-pressure carbon dioxide processing showed an inhibition effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white proteins to some extent. The ant...

  7. Evaluation of different egg quality traits and interpretation of their mode of inheritance in White Leghorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepta Kumar Rath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The experiment was carried out to evaluate different external and internal egg quality traits and to figure out their mode of inheritance from a set of hierarchically classified data. Materials and Methods: The data collected from 548 progenies (1 egg from each progeny of 282 dams mated to 47 sires (1 sire mated to 6 dams of a White Leghorn flock were used in the present study. Phenotypic means and their standard errors were calculated for all the quality traits. Heritabilities were estimated for these traits separately from "sire," "dam" and "sire+dam" (full-sib components of variance using Statistical Package for Social Sciences-17 program. Results: External quality traits such as; egg weight, length, width, shape index, surface area, shell weight, shell thickness, shell ratio, and internal quality traits such as; length, width, height, and weight of albumen and yolk, albumen index, albumen ratio, Haugh unit (H.U., yolk diameter, yolk index, yolk ratio, and yolk albumen ratio were measured in 548 eggs of the experimental White Leghorn flock. The eggs were found to have optimum weight (57.78±0.20 g, shape index (73.53±0.18 and shell characteristics (6 g, 0.32 mm as per its genetic potential. Higher values for albumen height (8.41±0.04 mm and H.U. (92.00±0.19 are attributable to the freshness of eggs and proper age of hens. Heritability estimates from "sire" component of variance were higher than "dam" and "sire+dam" components for the traits like egg weight, length, width, shape index, surface area, albumen width, albumen index, H.U., yolk width, yolk height, yolk weight, and yolk index whereas for rest of the traits the values estimated from "dam" component were higher. Estimates from "sire+dam" component were intermediate to the estimates derived from "sire" and "dam" components. Conclusion: The heritability estimates from different egg quality traits were moderate to high. Since most of the traits have high heritability values

  8. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  9. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424 mg/ml. Spearman-Karber value of potency of anti tetanus IgY are 35 IU/ml. ?This research concluded that Chickens was capable of produced of anti tetanus in eggs yolk with value of potency are 35 IU/ml.

  10. A study of inoculation route and dosage levels on embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing tea mistlestoe (Scurrula oortiana extract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana has cytotoxic activity which is potential to be used in preventing viral induced-chicken tumor. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of different inoculation routes, dosage levels, and strains of embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing the tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana antiviral activity. Proper inoculation route was examined by inoculation of the extract at dose level of 0,2 mg/egg into embryonated layer eggs via allantoic cavity, chorio-allantoic membrane, and yolk sac. Effect of dose level of tea mistlestoe extract on embryo development was examined in groups of embryonated broiler eggs inoculated with the extract at 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 mg/egg. Inoculation of tea mistlestoe extract into allantoic cavity was the safest procedure as indicated by the absence of embryos mortality, and faster embryo growth compared to those of chorio-allantoic membrane and yolk sac-inoculated eggs. The extract induced different growth effects when inoculated into embryonated layer or broiler eggs. Administration of the extract at dose levels between 0,02–200 mg/egg reduced significantly the weight of broiler embryoes, but not the relative weights of liver, heart and spleen. Administration of similar dosage in layer embryoes did not cause any significant difference in the embryoes weight. This study suggests that the study of antiviral activity of tea mistlestoe extract in embryonated chicken eggs should be carried out on embryonated eggs of layer breeds and the extract should be inoculated via allantoic cavity.

  11. Chicken-egg Extracts Have the Key Roles in Maintaining and Enhancing the Cell Activity%鸡卵细胞提取液有维持和增强细胞活性的关键作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮光萍; 王金祥; 庞荣清; 姚翔; 阮光洪; 朱光旭; 朱向情; 蔡学敏; 何洁

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the identification of an extract with the ability to maintain and enhance the survival and differentiation of cells which will be useful in cellular biology research.Four types of egg extracts were prepared.The spleen cells from male mice were permeabilized with the extracts and cultured respectively,and then transfused into female mice.The GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood of female mice and Y chromosome in bone marrow cells were detected to compare the different abilities of spleen cells to survive and differentiate in vivo.Surviving GFP-positive spleen cells were detected in the female mice of chicken-egg-white and whole-egg extracts group.At 120 days after transplantation,the percentage of cells containing a Y chromosome in the bone marrow positively correlated with the percentage of GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood.After permeabilization by chicken-egg-white or whole-egg extracts,spleen cells demonstrate significantly enhanced survivability.The results show the vital role of chicken-egg-white extracts in maintaining and enhancing the survival of spleen cells.Therefore,the chicken-egg-white extracts may be of use in future stem cells study.%该文鉴定了一种提取物具有维持和增强细胞存活与分化的能力,这将在细胞生物学研究中得到应用.制备四种卵细胞提取物,雄鼠的脾细胞被提取物渗透并培养,然后输注给雌鼠.在移植后雌鼠外周血中GFP阳性细胞和骨髓细胞中的Y染色体被检测,对比脾细胞在体内存活与分化的不同能力.移植蛋白和全蛋提取液处理的脾细胞的雌鼠外周血检测到GFP阳性细胞,在移植后120 d,雌鼠骨髓中检测到的Y染色体阳性率与外周血中的GFP阳性细胞率呈正比.用蛋白和全蛋提取液渗透脾细胞后,脾细胞在雌鼠体内存活能力强于其他提取液.结果表明,鸡蛋白提取液有维持并增强脾细胞存活的作用.因此蛋白提取物可在将来用于干细胞功能的维持.

  12. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis antimicrobial peptide resistance genes aid in defense against chicken innate immunity, fecal shedding, and egg deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Jessica A; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian β-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens. PMID:25267840

  13. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  14. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...

  15. Gamma-radiation induced damage of proteins in the thick fraction of egg white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA VUCKOVIC

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The thick fraction of egg white saturated with either N2O or Ar was irradiated in the dose range 1.5–45 kGy at 60Co gamma source. The gel structure decomposition and other processes accompanied with changes in protein molecular mass were followed by Sephadex G-200 exclusion chromatography, denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viscosity and turbidity measurements. The complex behaviour of viscosity was observed in the N2O saturated sample (where the hydrated electron was converted into the OH radical; the initial abrupt decrease that radually slows down reaching the minimum at 12 kGy (hmin = 2.7 mPa s followed by the slow rise was measured. The Ar saturated sample ([eaq-] ~ [OH] showed both the significantly faster initial decrease and lower viscosity minimum (hmin = 2.2 mPa s. The combined Sephadex G-200 exclusion chromatography and denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data revealed that the three-dimensional egg white (hydrated gel structure was (efficiently decomposed even in the N2O saturated sample. The protein scission was detected in the entire dose range studied, while the protein agglomeration is not noticed at low doses (around 1.5 kGy; however, it dominates at higher doses. In the highest dose region studied, the loss of structure in SDS-PAGE chromatograms indicates that the agglomerates are formed from protein fragments rather than from intact proteins. The continuous linear increase in turbidity was measured. The results obtained indicate that ionizing radiation causes the breakdown of the protein network of the thick fraction of egg white via the reduction of S–S bridges by the hydrated electron and the protein fragmentation due to the direct action of ionizing radiation. The protein agglomeration is initiated by the reaction of the OH radical; its inefficiency at low doses is attributed to the glucose antioxidant properties and radical immobility.

  16. Molecular characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in naturally infected egg layer chickens in a multi-age flock in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Rodrigo de Macedo; Preis, Ingred Sales; Braga, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Drummond, Marcela Gonçalves; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; Ecco, Roselene

    2015-01-01

    The virus responsible for an outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in a multi-age flock of egg layer chickens under quarantine in Brazil was characterized. Layer chickens from this area with circulating gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV 1) were evaluated using histopathology and molecular characterization techniques based on sequences of infected-cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4) and thymidine kinase (TK) genes. The infected chickens that were analyzed were PCR-positive for GaHV-1 in the trachea and negative in most trigeminal ganglia. The lack of ILT lesions in the conjunctiva and respiratory tissues, combined with detection of viral DNA in the trachea, was found to be associated with latent infection. The sequences from five farms obtained in the present study were identical, and there were no deletions within the 272- to 283-bp region of the ICP4 gene, as observed in the sequences of vaccine strains (CEO and TCO). The lack of a deletion in the ICP4 fragment analyzed in this study indicates that the chickens were infected with a field virus. The absence of the T252M mutation in a fragment of the TK gene, in addition to the low mortality rate observed, suggests that the outbreak in the state of Minas Gerais was not caused by a highly virulent strain but rather by a field virus of lower virulence. In addition, using phylogenetic reconstructions, it was found that this field strain was grouped together in a separate branch, apart from the previously characterized Brazilian strains. The introduction of vectored vaccines apparently has been effective in reducing clinical disease and lesions, and preventing new outbreaks of disease. PMID:25385176

  17. Protein dynamics in Brillouin light scattering: Termal denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, A. V.; Lushnikov, S. G.; Kojima, S.

    2009-09-01

    Thermal denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme has been investigated by Brillouin light scattering in the temperature range from 297 to 350 K. Anomalies in the temperature dependences of velocity and damping of hypersound and also in the behavior of the intensity of Brillouin components for the lysozyme solution at thermal denaturation have been revealed. These anomalies are attributable to phase transformations of the protein in the high-temperature region. It has been shown that Brillouin light scattering is a suitable tool for studying the structural evolution of proteins.

  18. Observation of dehydration process of egg-white gel by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The egg white sol becomes opaque gel by heat treatment, and the gel turns transparent on dehydration. In the present study, the structural change during the dehydration process was examined by small angle neutron scattering experiment; the data was fitted based on the Guinier and Ornstein-Zernike (O-Z) theories. The Guinier plot clarified the structure with the dimension of about 2.8 nm, which was almost independent of the water content. The correlation length derived from the O-Z plot became larger from 9.5 nm to 17.3 nm as the water content decreases. (author)

  19. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Hervé, Jessica C; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Yang, Yinfei; Jones, Paul D; Wan, Yi; Collins, Brian; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Egg injection studies were performed to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of birds to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In this model, species are classified as belonging to one of three categories of sensitivity based on amino acid substitutions in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Embryo lethality and relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) were compared with TCDD for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; least sensitive), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; moderately sensitive), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus; most sensitive). Doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 pmol/g egg (0.015-12 ng/g egg) were injected into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. LD(50) (95% confidence intervals) values, based on rate of hatching for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, were 30 (25-36), 4.9 (2.3-9.2), and 15 (11-24) pmol/g egg for the quail, 3.5 (2.3-6.3), 0.61 (0.28-1.2), and 1.2 (0.62-2.2) pmol/g egg for pheasant, and 0.66 (0.47-0.90), 0.75 (0.64-0.87), and 0.33 (0.23-0.45) pmol/g egg for chicken, respectively. LD(50)-based relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF were 6.1 and 2.0 for quail, 5.7 and 2.9 for pheasant, and 0.88 and 2.0 for chicken, respectively. TCDD was not the most potent compound among the species tested, with PeCDF and TCDF being more potent than TCDD in the quail and pheasant. TCDF was the most potent in chicken. Species sensitivity was as expected for TCDD and TCDF, whereas for PeCDF, the chicken and pheasant were similar in sensitivity and both were more sensitive than the quail. Results from companion in vitro studies are generally similar to those reported here with a few exceptions. PMID:20861070

  20. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  1. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden-Adams, M. M.; Stuckey, Joyce E.; Gaworecki, K.M.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P.G.; Scott, T.R.; Ferrario, J.B.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J.S.; McGuinn, W.D.; DeWitt, J.C.; Keil, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0 mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5 mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1 mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of

  2. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  3. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: nobuhisa@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 to P4{sub 3}. Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL.

  4. Egg white/poly (vinyl alcohol)/MMT nanocomposite hydrogels for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Javanmardi, Azinsadat; Sirousazar, Mohammad; Shaabani, Yasaman; Kheiri, Farshad

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels on the basis of egg white and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing 0, 5, and 10 wt.% of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay were prepared by a facile cyclic freezing-thawing technique and their properties investigated for wound dressing application. The morphological, structural, thermal, physical, and in vitro cytotoxic properties of the prepared nanocomposite hydrogel wound dressings (NHWDs) were experimentally studied. The NHWDs had an exfoliated morphology with a porous structure having pores sizes in the nanometric scale. It was shown that MMT acted as cross-linker in the network of NHWDs and improved their thermal stabilities. The prepared wound dressings were transparent and their equilibrium water contents and water vapor transmission rates, as two important factors of wound dressings, were very close to the properties of human skin which means that the prepared wound dressings could interact appropriately with the damaged tissues of wounds and protect them like an artificial skin during the wound healing process. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay also confirmed the non-cytotoxic nature of the prepared NHWDs. It was finally concluded that the prepared egg white/PVA/MMT nanocomposite hydrogels are promising materials to be used as novel wound dressings in wound and burn care. PMID:27193240

  5. Inter-protein bonding and other molecular interactions in hen egg white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRATOLJUB H. MILOSAVLJEVIC

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE data, combined with the comparison of viscosity data corresponding to the thin fraction of hen egg white and 2 mM purefied ovalbumin solution, showed that the thin fraction is a protein solution. Dissolution of the thick fraction of hen egg white in SDS and urea solutions followed by SDS-PAGE, in the presence or absence of b-mercaptoethanol, revealed that it is a protein gel. It was also found that the gel structure consists of the three-dimensional ovomucine-ovomucoid network (matrix held together by S-S bridges which captures the rest of the proteins (ovalbumin, conalbumin, etc. The captured proteins can also be interconnected by S-S bridges thus forming agglomerates or conglomerates, but they are predominantly held by weak electrostatic interactions, as demonstrated by the washing out and dissolving experiments. The matrix structure does not prevent denaturation of the captured proteins as indecated by the 50% decrease in turbidity following gel swelling by the addition of 1 part of an 8 M urea solution to 9 parts of the gel.

  6. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  7. Severe corrosion of copper in a highly alkaline egg white solution due to a biuret corrosion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Egg whites can accelerate the corrosion of copper. • The corrosion rate of copper is closely related to the pH values. • The mechanism of the strong corrosion is due to a biuret corrosion reaction. - Abstract: Through investigating the interaction between copper metal and egg whites as well as the effects of pH, oxygen and the species of alkalis on copper corrosion rate, an unusual severe corrosion of copper metal in a highly alkaline egg white solution was found. The mechanism was investigated through detailed characterizations using a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The severe corrosion was mainly due to the formation of a hydroxyl–peptide–copper multicomponent stable soluble complex, which the biuret reaction also produces

  8. The effect of 60Co-γ ray on fertilized eggs and growing change in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fertilized eggs were stimulated by 60Co-γ ray of different doses. The experimental results show that the rate of hatching of different fertilized eggs reaches the maximum when the dose of 60Co-γ ray is 300rad. And, the higher the dose of 60Co-γ ray is used, the lower the rate of breeding and hatching are obtained. It is concluded that it is beneficial to growing of cock and the fertilized eggs are stimulated by the 60Co-γ ray of low doses. However, the growing of hen is inhibited and eggs are early produced with the low dose treatment of 60Co-γ ray

  9. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  10. Variation in trace element contents among chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisianakis, P; Giannenas, I; Gavriil, A; Kontopidis, G; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Despite substantial interest in the trace element content of eggs by poultry breeders, nutritionists, and environmental scientists, available data about trace elements levels in eggs are scarce. Trace element contents in yolk and albumen of chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs were analyzed to establish a baseline dataset and assess differences among trace element content in avian species. We measured the selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and thallium (Tl) contents in both yolk and albumen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. One hundred twenty eggs deriving from 24 birds of each species, reared in the same poultry farm in northern Greece, were used; bird feed was common and based on cereals and legumes and contained no added vitamins or microminerals. Trace element contents in yolks were far higher than those in albumen, except for V and Ni. In yolks, the highest content for Se, Mo, and Tl were in pigeon eggs, for Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cr in turkey eggs, and for Co and Ni in goose eggs. In albumen, Se was highest in duck eggs, while Zn, Mn, and Co in pigeon ones. It is concluded that there is a substantial, up to threefold, variation for trace element contents in eggs among different domestic avian species offered the same feed. PMID:18936883

  11. Genetic effects of polymorphisms in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken age at first egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Min

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age at first egg (AFE, an important indicator for sexual maturation in female chickens, is controlled by polygenes. Based on our knowledge of reproductive physiology, 6 genes including gonadotrophin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I, neuropeptide Y (NPY, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1, and prolactin (PRL, were selected as candidates for influencing AFE. Additionally, the region between ADL0201 and MCW0241 of chromosome Z was chosen as the candidate QTL region according to some QTL databases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of mutations in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken AFE. Results Marker-trait association analysis of 8 mutations in those 6 genes in a Chinese native population found a highly significant association (P G840327C of the GnRH-I gene with AFE, and it remained significant even with Bonferroni correction. Based on the results of the 2-tailed χ2 test, mutations T32742394C, T32742468C, G32742603A, and C33379782T in the candidate QTL region of chromosome Z were selected for marker-trait association analysis. The haplotypes of T32742394C and T32742468C were significantly associated (P T32742394C and T32742468C were located in the intron region of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2 gene, which appeared to be associated in the endocytosis and development of the oocyte. Conclusion This study found that G840327C of the GnRH-I gene and the haplotypes of T32742394C-T32742468C of the SH3GL2 gene were associated with the chicken AFE.

  12. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  13. Comparison of aviary, barn and conventional cage raising of chickens on laying performance and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, M; Chae, B J; Lohakare, J; Keohavong, B; Lee, M H; Lee, S J; Kim, D M; Lee, J Y; Ohh, S J

    2014-08-01

    This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC), barn (BR) and aviary (AV). The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird's free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800) pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week). There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP) and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1) average HDEP (%) of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g) were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2) were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g); feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5) and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g) data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g) and BR (127 g) tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g) during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs) in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV. PMID:25083115

  14. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

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    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Leukosis Virus Isolate Associated with Hemangioma and Myeloid Leukosis in Egg-Type and Meat-Type Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jun; Li, Hongxin; Zhang, Huanmin; Xie, Qingmei; CHANG, SHUANG; Shang, Huiqin; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo

    2012-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that developed myeloid leukosis (ML). In recent years, field cases of hemangioma (HE) or HE and ML, rather than ML alone, have been reported in commercial layer flocks exposed to ALV-J with a high incidence in China. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of an ALV-J isolate that caused both HE and ML in egg-type and meat-type chickens in China. These findings will provide additional insights into the mol...

  16. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  17. Purification and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from egg white protein and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Jin, Yan; Lin, Songyi; Jones, Gregory S; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from egg white protein hydrolysates (EWPH) and identify novel antioxidant peptides by LC tandem mass spectrometric and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). The amino acid composition of peptides was also analyzed by amino acid analyzer on the basis of ninhydrin reaction. Three novel peptides with molecular weights of 628.64 Da, 630.71 Da, and 684.1 Da were identified as Asp-His-Thr-Lys-Glu (DHTKE), Phe-Phe-Glu-Phe-His (FFGFN) and Met-Pro-Asp-Ala-His-Leu (MPDAHL), respectively. DHTKE exhibited the best oxygen radical absorbance capacity (P<0.05). The concentration of FFGFN and MPDAHL to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals was 80 mM and 60mM, respectively. Thus, the three peptides may have potential applications as a functional food, which could also be used as nutraceutical compounds. PMID:25577078

  18. Production, crystallization and X-ray characterization of chemically glycosylated hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of glycosylation post-purification has been demonstrated by introducing glucose into the model protein lysozyme via a novel reaction that is compatible with biological samples. The crystallization of glycoproteins is one of the challenges to be confronted by the crystallographic community in the frame of what is known as glycobiology. The state of the art for the crystallization of glycoproteins is not promising and removal of the carbohydrate chains is generally suggested since they are flexible and a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, the feasibility of introducing glucose into the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme via a post-purification glycosylation reaction that may turn any protein into a model glycoprotein whose carbohydrate fraction can be manipulated is demonstrated

  19. Effect of temperature on the interaction of cisplatin with the model protein hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Giarita; Pica, Andrea; Russo Krauss, Irene; Pane, Francesca; Amoresano, Angela; Merlino, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The products of the reaction between cisplatin (CDDP) and the model protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) at 20, 37 and 55 °C in pure water were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. X-ray structures were also solved for the adducts formed at 20 and 55 °C. Data demonstrate that high temperature facilitates the formation of CDDP-HEWL adducts, where Pt atoms bind ND1 atom of His15 or NE2 atom of His15 and NH1 atom of Arg14. Our study suggests that high human body temperature (fever) could increase the rate of drug binding to proteins thus enhancing possible toxic side effects related to CDDP administration. PMID:27040953

  20. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  1. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo

    Full Text Available The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs. The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit.

  2. Gas-permeable ethylene bags for the small scale cultivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and other viruses in embryonated chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCurdy Kimberly S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryonated chicken eggs (ECE are sometimes used for the primary isolation or passage of influenza viruses, other viruses, and certain bacteria. For small-scale experiments with pathogens that must be studied in biosafety level three (BSL3 facilities, inoculated ECE are sometimes manipulated and maintained in small egg incubators within a biosafety cabinet (BSC. To simplify the clean up and decontamination of an egg incubator in case of egg breakage, we explored whether ethylene breather bags could be used to encase ECE inoculated with pathogens. This concept was tested by determining embryo survival and examining virus yields in bagged ECE. Results Virus yields acceptable for many applications were attained when influenza-, alpha-, flavi-, canine distemper-, and mousepox viruses were propagated in ECE sealed within ethylene breather bags. Conclusions For many small-scale applications, ethylene breather bags can be used to encase ECE inoculated with various viruses.

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana) extract on chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    S Murtini; R Murwanti; F Satrija; E Hadnharyani

    2006-01-01

    Tea mistletoe is one of medicinal herb which believed has an anticancer activity, it’s due to the capability of immunostimulator. The following research was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana) extract on chicken embryos. Twenty White Leghorn Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) 10 days old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups of 5 eggs. The first group served as control and they were inoculated with aquabidestilate sterile. The s...

  4. Effects of natural exposure to copper and zinc on egg size and larval copper tolerance in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkittrick, K.R.; Dixon, D.G. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    Sucker eggs were collected from a metal-contaminated site where previous collections had documented a maternal yolk factor associated with an increased larval copper tolerance during yolk nutrition. In this study, white sucker eggs were divided into groups which were water hardened and/or incubated at the contaminated site or a reference (control) site. Incubation at the contaminated site was associated with a decreased egg size and an increased deformity rate, but had no effect on fertilization rate or larval size. Incubation in contaminated streams increased the larval whole-body metal content, and decreased the tolerance and resistance of larvae exposed to copper in laboratory bioassays. An increase in water temperature accelerated the developmental rate of the larvae, but had no detectable effect on copper tolerance. Although metals did enter the eggs during water hardening, there was no difference in egg metallothionein content, and the lack of obvious hepatic activity until several days after hatching may prevent the formation of protective proteins. The authors hypothesize that the transfer of metals to white sucker eggs in association with yolk precursors, and the subsequent mobilization of these metals during yolk utilization, can account for the observed differences in larval tolerance and growth.

  5. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and anaphylactoid reaction in rats and mice after intravenous dextran and white egg administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplancic, Bozidar; Stambolija, Vasilije; Holjevac, Jadranka; Zemba, Mladen; Balenovic, Igor; Drmic, Domagoj; Suran, Jelena; Radic, Bozo; Filipovic, Marinko; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Brcic, Luka; Kolenc, Danijela; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-03-15

    Anesthetized mice or rats received intravenously 6%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 90% dextran and/or white egg (1ml/rat or 0.15ml/mouse) into their tails. Medication (/kg b.w., 5ml/kg) was given intraperitoneally (BPC 157 10µg, 1µg, 10ng, and 10pg/kg, chloropyramine 20mg/kg, and cimetidine 10mg/kg intraperitoneally, alone or in combination while controls received an equivolume of saline), immediately after challenge or, alternatively, at 5min after or 24 or 48h before challenge. The effect was assessed at 5, 10, 20 and 30min after dextran and/or white egg challenge. We commonly noted prominent edema involving the face, upper and lower lip, snout, paws and scrotum (presented with extreme cyanosis), poor respiration and the number of fatalities after dextran and/or white egg application. Contrary, BPC 157 regimens (10µg, 1µg, 10ng, and 10pg/kg) effectively, may both prevent anaphylactoid reactions that may arise from dextran and/or white egg application and furthermore, rescue already advanced reactions when given after the challenge. Chloropyramine and cimetidine given alone were only moderately effective. When given together with BPC 157, the observed effect correlates with the strong effect of BPC 157 given alone. PMID:24486708

  6. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Red-Light Emitting Au Nanoclusters with the Use of Egg White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinghan; Yan, Lei; Sang, Aohua; Yuan, Hongyan; Zheng, Baozhan; Xiao, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method to synthesize gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with red fluorescence. The experiment was performed using HAuCl[subscript 4], egg white, Na[subscript 2]CO[subscript 3] (known as soda ash or washing soda), and a microwave oven. In our experiment, fluorescent AuNCs were prepared within a…

  7. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  8. Egg laying of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae on Arabidopsis thaliana affects subsequent performance of the larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Geiselhardt

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant--herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants. Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2 , a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content.

  9. Changes in parathyroid hormone receptor binding affinity during egg laying: implications for calcium homeostasis in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, T; Kawashima, M; Takahashi, T; Iwata, A; Oka, N; Tanaka, K

    1996-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor bindings were examined in the membrane fraction of the calvaria and the kidney of the hen by the use of [125I]PTH-related protein (PTHrP) binding assays. The binding specificity, reversibility, and saturation of the receptor were demonstrated. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) were obtained by Scatchard analyses. In both calvaria and kidney, Kd and Bmax values decreased at 3 h before oviposition in egg-laying hens, but not in nonlaying hens. Administration of 17 beta-estradiol or progesterone in vivo caused a decrease in the Kd and Bmax values. Ionized calcium concentrations in the blood plasma showed a decrease at 13 h before oviposition. The results suggest that the PTH receptor binding in the calvaria and the kidney is affected by ovarian steroid hormones and may play a role in maintaining the calcium homeostasis in the egg-laying hen. PMID:8970893

  10. The Dominant white, Dun and Smoky Color Variants in Chicken Are Associated With Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in the PMEL17 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Kerje, Susanne; Sharma, Preety; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Kim, Hyun; Bagchi, Sonchita; Fredriksson, Robert; Schütz, Karin; Jensen, Per; von Heijne, Gunnar; Okimoto, Ron; Andersson, Leif

    2004-01-01

    Dominant white, Dun, and Smoky are alleles at the Dominant white locus, which is one of the major loci affecting plumage color in the domestic chicken. Both Dominant white and Dun inhibit the expression of black eumelanin. Smoky arose in a White Leghorn homozygous for Dominant white and partially restores pigmentation. PMEL17 encodes a melanocyte-specific protein and was identified as a positional candidate gene due to its role in the development of eumelanosomes. Linkage analysis of PMEL17 a...

  11. Whole genome sequencing of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a newly developed blue-egg laying chicken breed, reveals its origin and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Byung-Ki; Yi, Jun-Koo; Ha, Jae-Jung; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Dong Yep

    2016-01-01

    Chicken, Gallus gallus, is a valuable species both as a food source and as a model organism for scientific research. Here, we sequenced the genome of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a rare chicken breed with unique phenotypic characteristics including flight ability, large body size, and laying blue-shelled eggs, to identify its genomic features. We generated genomes of Gyeongbuk Araucana, Leghorn, and Korean Native Chicken at a total of 33.5, 35.82, and 33.23 coverage depth, respectively. Along with the genomes of 12 Chinese breeds, we identified genomic variants of 16.3 million SNVs and 2.3 million InDels in mapped regions. Additionally, through assembly of unmapped reads and selective sweep, we identified candidate genes that fall into heart, vasculature and muscle development and body growth categories, which provided insight into Gyeongbuk Araucana's phenotypic traits. Finally, genetic variation based on the transposable element insertion pattern was investigated to elucidate the features of transposable elements related to blue egg shell formation. This study presents results of the first genomic study on the Gyeongbuk Araucana breed; it has potential to serve as an invaluable resource for future research on the genomic characteristics of this chicken breed as well as others. PMID:27215397

  12. 通江花鸡蛋品质及营养成分分析%The analysis of the quality and nutrient components of Tongjiang striped chicken'eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫天龙; 古霞; 邓维泽; 吴俊章; 黄胜斌; 林俊帆; 万鑫; 李明元

    2015-01-01

    为鉴别通江花鸡蛋品质,分析了其营养成分.测定其蛋重、蛋形指数、蛋壳厚度、哈氏单位、蛋黄比、蛋清比、蛋黄色泽、蛋黄质构、全蛋蛋白质、糖类、脂肪、胆固醇、VA以及K、Na、Ca、M g、Zn、P、Se微量元素的含量.结果表明:通江花鸡蛋体型小、质量轻、蛋壳较薄,但哈氏单位和蛋黄比优于饲料鸡蛋;通江花鸡蛋蛋黄色泽比饲料鸡蛋黄颜色深,总色差是饲料鸡蛋的1.17倍;通江花鸡蛋蛋黄质构指标除胶黏性以外,其余质构指标均优于饲料鸡蛋;通江花鸡蛋VA含量与饲料鸡蛋相比无明显差异,但脂肪、糖类含量较高,通江花鸡蛋胆固醇含量显著低于饲料鸡蛋;通江花鸡蛋富含K、P、Se微量元素,分别是饲料鸡蛋的1.44倍、3.82倍和1.26倍.%The nutrient components of the Tongjiang striped chicken' eggs were analyzed in order to identify their quality.The weights,indexes of the shapes,thickness of the shell,Haugh unite,the egg york to the total ratio,the egg white to the total ratio,the color of the yorks,their textures,protein composition,carbohydrates,fat,cholesterol,vitamin A,potassium,sodium,calcium,magnesium,zinc,phosphorus and selenium trace elements were tested.The results showed that Haugh unite and the egg york to the total ratio of Tongjiang striped chicken' s eggs were better than that of the feed ones.Tongjiang eggs' size are smaller,weight are lighter and shell,but color is darker,the total color difference is 1.17 times than that of the feed eggs.Their yolk texture indicators are also better than the feed ones except plastic viscosity.The contents of the fat and carbohydrate are higher than the feed ones' Meanwhile,cholesterol content were significantly lower than the feed ones' while no significant difference in content of vitamin A.The contents of their potassium,phosphorus and selenium are 1.44,3.82,1.26 times more than the feed ones' respectively.In short,the Tongjiang striped

  13. Diversity in Population Size and Production Parameters of Selected Varieties of Plymouth Rock Chicken Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to compare population size, eggs and meat production of the locally adapted chicken breed – Plymouth Rock of different varieties (white, barred and buff in Slovakia reared in extensive system. From the view of population size in conditions of Slovak Republic, most numerous of Plymouth Rock variety is white (average effective population size 118.96, while the lowest numerous we recorded for buff variety (21.62. The highest eggs and meat production we noted in case of White Plymouth. For this reason, this variety of Plymouth Rock was used in hybridisation for development of modern hybrid combination for production of broiler chickens.

  14. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. PMID:26592708

  15. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in skim milk and liquid egg white by antimicrobial bottle coating with polylactic acid and nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tony

    2010-03-01

    This study was to develop an antimicrobial bottle coating method to reduce the risk of outbreaks of human listeriosis caused by contaminated liquid foods. Liquid egg white and skim milk were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and stored in glass jars that were coated with a mixture of polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and nisin. The efficacy of PLA per nisin coating in inactivating L. monocytogenes was investigated at 10 and 4 degrees C. The pathogen grew well in skim milk without PLA/nisin coating treatments, reaching 8 log CFU/mL after 10 d and then remained constant up to 42 d at 10 degrees C. The growth of Listeria at 4 degrees C was slower than that at 10 degrees C, taking 21 d to obtain 8 log CFU/mL. At both storage temperatures, the PLA coating with 250 mg nisin completely inactivated the cells of L. monocytogenes after 3 d and throughout the 42-d storage period. In liquid egg white, Listeria cells in control and PLA coating without nisin samples declined 1 log CFU/mL during the first 6 d at 10 degrees C and during 28 d at 4 degrees C, and then increased to 8 or 5.5 log CFU/mL. The treatment of PLA coating with 250 mg nisin rapidly reduced the cell numbers of Listeria in liquid egg white to undetectable levels after 1 d, then remained undetectable throughout the 48 d storage period at 10 degrees C and the 70 d storage period at 4 degrees C. These data suggested that the PLA/nisin coating treatments effectively inactivated the cells of L. monocytogenes in liquid egg white and skim milk samples at both 10 and 4 degrees C. This study demonstrated the commercial potential of applying the antimicrobial bottle coating method to milk, liquid eggs, and possibly other fluid products. PMID:20492246

  16. Effects of amino acids on egg number and egg mass of brown (heavy breed) and white (light breed) laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekamp, R P R T; Lemme, A; Wijtten, P J A; Sparla, J K W M

    2010-03-01

    Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice. There are questions about the optimum level of balanced protein (BP) supply in feed for different types of hens. Therefore, a broad range of amino acids intake levels [550 to 800 mg of true fecal digestible (TFD) Lys/hen per d] was tested on heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) and light (Lohmann LSL Classic) laying hens from 24 to 60 wk of age. The other indispensable amino acids were fed in fixed ratios to TFD Lys in all treatments. A total of 282 Lohmann Brown Classic and 282 Lohmann LSL Classic hens (24 wk of age) were divided into 12 experimental groups (individually housed) based on daily egg mass production and BW. Replicates of the heavy strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (51.1 g/hen per d), laying percentage (95.9%), and hen weight (1,860 g). Replicates of the light strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (52.0 g/hen per d), laying percentage (97.3%), and hen weight (1,478 g). Diets were fed restrictively with an aimed feed intake of 110 g/hen per day [308 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] and 100 g/hen per day [280 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] for heavy and light hens, respectively, to achieve the required BP intake levels. For light hens, a BP intake with 600 mg of TFD Lys was sufficient for optimal laying percentage, whereas maximum laying percentage was not achieved with the highest TFD Lys in heavy hens. For egg weight, daily egg mass production as well as feed conversion regression analysis revealed that asymptotes were not achieved with the highest amino acid levels in both layer strains. PMID:20181869

  17. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    OpenAIRE

    Isao Oishi; Kyoko Yoshii; Daichi Miyahara; Hiroshi Kagami; Takahiro Tagami

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, ...

  18. 新型保健鸡蛋黄酸奶的研制%Research on new functional chicken egg yolk yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 彭志宏; 李和平; 李云芳; 魏建春

    2012-01-01

    Taking chicken egg yolk and fresh milk as main raw material,a new functional egg yolk yoghurt was made through lactobacillus fermentation. The experiment introduced chicken egg yolk health care function and explored the technological conditions and the product formula of processing egg yolk yoghurt with health effect. Orthogonal experiment results showed that the optimum technological conditions were: the egg yolk liquid amount to 15%, lactobacillus fermentation inoculum for 4%, yogurt stabilizer amount to 0.3%, adding sugar amount to 9%, at 40℃ for 5h fermentation.The product had orange yellow color, uniformity and smooth texture, and with delicious egg yolk smell and good flavor. And its acidity was 95°T, viable cell counts was 6.2×108cfu/ml.%以鸡蛋黄液、鲜牛乳为主要原料,通过乳酸菌发酵,制得保健型鸡蛋黄酸奶.正交试验结果表明,当蛋黄液加入量为15%,发酵剂接种量为4%,酸奶稳定剂的添加量为0.3%,白砂糖添加量为9%,在40℃条件下,发酵5h可获得橙黄色,均匀细腻,具有蛋黄特有的鲜香气味,色、香、味具佳的蛋黄酸奶,其酸度为95°T,乳酸菌活菌数为6.2× 108cfu/mL.

  19. A simple and reliable methodology to detect egg white in art samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michela Gambino; Francesca Cappitelli; Cristina Cattò; Aristodemo Carpen; Pamela Principi; Lisa Ghezzi; Ilaria Bonaduce; Eugenio Galano; Pietro Pucci; Leila Birolo; Federica Villa; Fabio Forlani

    2013-06-01

    A protocol for a simple and reliable dot-blot immunoassay was developed and optimized to test work of art samples for the presence of specific proteinaceus material (i.e. ovalbumin-based). The analytical protocol has been extensively set up with respect, among the other, to protein extraction conditions, to densitometric analysis and to the colorimetric reaction conditions. Feasibility evaluation demonstrated that a commercial scanner and a free image analysis software can be used for the data acquisition and elaboration, thus facilitating the application of the proposed protocol to commonly equipped laboratories and to laboratories of museums and conservation centres. The introduction of method of standard additions in the analysis of fresh and artificially aged laboratory-prepared samples, containing egg white and various pigments, allowed us to evaluate the matrix effect and the effect of sample aging and to generate threshold density values useful for the detection of ovalbumin in samples from ancient works of art. The efficacy of the developed dot-blot immunoassay was proved testing microsamples from 13th–16th century mural paintings of Saint Francesco Church in Lodi (Italy). Despite the aging, the altered conditions of conservation, the complex matrix, and the micro-size of samples, the presence of ovalbumin was detected in all those mural painting samples where mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis unambiguously detected ovalbumin peptides.

  20. Physicochemical Properties of Microencapsulated ω-3 Salmon Oil with Egg White Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mis Solval, Kevin; Bankston, J David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to produce microencapsulated omega(ω)-3 fatty acids (PUFAs) fortified egg white (EW) powders and to characterize their nutritional and physical properties. Stable emulsions (E-SO-EW) containing 3.43 (g/100 g) salmon oil (SO), 56.21 (g/100 g) EW, and 40.36 (g/100 g) water and a control (E-EW) containing EW and water were prepared. E-SO-EW and E-EW were separately spray dried at 130, 140, and 150 °C inlet air temperatures. This resulted in 3 microencapsulated SO fortified EW powders (SO-EW), and 3 dried EW powders (DEW). The powders were analyzed for microencapsulation efficiency (ME), color, fatty acids methyl esters, protein, fat, moisture, ash, amino acids, minerals, microstructure, and particle size. The EPA and DHA content of SO and the ME of the powders were not affected by the inlet air temperature. The crude protein content of SO-EW powders was approximately 24 (g/100 g) lower than dried EW powders. Leucine was the most abundant essential amino acid found in all the powders. Most of the powders' median particle size ranged from 15 to 30 μm. The study demonstrated that microencapsulated ω-3 salmon oil with high quality EW protein can be produced by spray drying. PMID:26868895

  1. Sequential 1H NMR assignments and secondary structure of hen egg white lysozyme in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assignments of 1H NMR resonances of 121 of the 129 residues of hen egg white lysozyme have been obtained by sequence-specific methods. Spin systems were identified with phase-sensitive two-dimensional (2-D) correlated spectroscopy and single and double relayed coherence transfer spectroscopy. For key types of amino acid residues, particularly alanine, threonine, valine, and glycine, complete spin systems were identified. For other residues a less complete definition of the spin system was found to be adequate for the purpose of sequential assignment. Sequence-specific assignments were achieved by phase-sensitive 2-D nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). Exploitation of the wide range of hydrogen exchange rates found in lysozyme was a useful approach to overcoming the problem of spectral overlap. The sequential assignment was built up from 21 peptide segments ranging in length from 2 to 13 residues. The NOESY spectra were also used to provide information about the secondary structure of the protein in solution. Three helical regions and two regions of β-sheet were identified from the NOESY data; these regions are identical with those found in the X-ray structure of hen lysozyme. Slowly exchanging amides are generally correlated with hydrogen bonding identified in the X-ray structure; a number of exceptions to this general trend were, however, found. The results presented in this paper indicate that highly detailed information can be obtained from 2-D NMR spectra of a protein that is significantly larger than those studies previously

  2. Dietary egg white protein inhibits lymphatic lipid transport in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Kawamura, Sayaka; Baba, Sanae; Shiratake, Sawako; Nagata, Kazuko; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2014-11-01

    Dietary egg white protein (EWP) decreases serum cholesterol levels. We previously showed that EWP decreased cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Rats subjected to permanent lymph duct cannulation were used to investigate the effects of dietary EWP on lipid transport. They were fed diets with 20% EWP and casein, and their lymph was collected to quantify lymphatic lipid levels. Dietary EWP decreased lymphatic cholesterol transport compared with casein. It was previously shown that EWP excluded cholesterol from bile acid micelles. Therefore, pepsin-hydrolyzed EWP and casein were prepared. EWP was not completely digested. Ovalbumin, which is the most abundant protein in EWP, showed resistance to digestion by pepsin. This study investigated the effects of EWP pepsin hydrolysate (EWP-ph) on cholesterol micellar solubility, cholesterol transfer from the micellar to the oil phase, water-holding capacity (WHC), settling volume in water (SV), and relative viscosity and compared them with the effects of casein pepsin hydrolysate (C-ph). EWP-ph significantly decreased the micellar solubility and transfer rate and increased the WHC, SV, and relative viscosity compared with C-ph. Moreover, the pepsin hydrolysate of ovalbumin, a major protein in EWP, played a role in decreasing cholesterol micellar solubility, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption. In conclusion, dietary EWP decreased cholesterol intestinal absorption by exerting combined effects of these physicochemical properties in the gut. PMID:25300535

  3. Volume properties and spectroscopy: A terahertz Raman investigation of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Paola; Perticaroli, Stefania; Comez, Lucia; Giugliarelli, Alessandra; Paolantoni, Marco; Fioretto, Daniele; Morresi, Assunta

    2013-12-01

    The low frequency depolarized Raman spectra of 100 mg/ml aqueous solutions of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) have been collected in the 25-85 °C range. Short and long exposures to high temperatures have been used to modulate the competition between the thermally induced reversible and irreversible denaturation processes. A peculiar temperature evolution of spectra is evidenced under prolonged exposure of the protein solution at temperatures higher than 65 °C. This result is connected to the self-assembling of polypeptide chains and testifies the sensitivity of the technique to the properties of both protein molecule and its surrounding. Solvent free spectra have been obtained after subtraction of elastic and solvent components and assigned to a genuine vibrational contribution of hydrated HEWL. A straight similarity is observed between the solvent-free THz Raman feature and the vibrational density of states as obtained by molecular dynamics simulations; according to this, we verify the relation between this spectroscopic observable and the effective protein volume, and distinguish the properties of this latter respect to those of the hydration shell in the pre-melting region.

  4. Heat-induced interaction between egg white protein and wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2016-04-15

    Some wheat-based food systems, such as cakes and cookies, include mixtures of gluten and egg white protein (EWP) and are processed under heating conditions. Changes in these proteins during processing can affect the quality of the end product. This study investigated protein polymerization during heating of (mixtures of) wheat gluten and EWP. Chemical changes were studied by size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), thiol (SH) measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). During heating, protein polymerization was observed in the mixtures of gluten, glutenin, gliadin and EWP according to SE-HPLC profiles and results of SDS-extractable protein. The results of SDS-PAGE profiles of different proteins were in accordance with SE-HPLC. The number of SH groups in the majority of proteins showed a significant decrease, implying that disulfide (SS) bonds contributed to the extractability loss. In addition, changes of secondary structure tested by FTIR indicated protein aggregation. PMID:26617006

  5. Genetic parameters for egg and related characteristics of white Leghorn hens in a subtropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M. Sabri

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of heritability and phenotypic and genetic correlations between egg number, weight, specific gravity, mass, and estimated shell weight were obtained, along with phenotypic and genetic correlations of specific gravity and weight with body weight, weight change, metabolizable energy intake, residual feed consumption, and weight and age at sexual maturity. Data were from 350 White Leghorn hens by 50 sires and 175 dams. Heritabilities of the egg traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.55, increasing with age of bird from 26 to 54 weeks of age. Their standard errors ranged from 0.07 (all data to 0.17 (26 to 29 weeks. Phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.80 to -0.13, and genetic correlations from 0.91 to -0.27, depending on egg trait. The highest phenotypic and genetic correlations were between egg number and mass. Genetic correlations for specific gravity and estimated shell weight were, with body weight, -0.02 and 0.56; weight change, 0.29 and 0.44; daily metabolizable energy intake, -0.10 and 0.33; residual consumption, -0.16 and 0.11; age at sexual maturity, -0.61 and -0.46, and weight at sexual maturity, 0.02 and 0.63. Results should contribute to the design of efficient selection programs for economically important traits in hens.Estimativas de herdabilidade e correlações fenotípicas e genéticas entre o número de ovos, peso, gravidade específica, massa e peso estimado da casca foram obtidas, assim como correlações fenotípicas e genéticas de gravidade específica e peso com peso corporal, alterações ponderais, ingestão de energia metabolizável, consumo alimentar residual e peso e idade ao atingir a maturidade sexual. Os dados foram obtidos de 350 galinhas da raça Leghorn Branca obtidas de 50 pais e 175 mães. A herdabilidade dos caracteres dos ovos variou de 0,20 a 0,55, aumentando com a idade da ave de 26 a 54 semanas. O desvio padrão variou de 0,07 (todos os dados a 0,17 (26 a 29 semanas. As correlações fenotípicas variaram

  6. Evaluation of the in vivo antioxidative activity of redox nanoparticles by using a developing chicken egg as an alternative animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Chiaki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Ayaka; Noguchi, Chiho; Tanaka, Ryo; Yoshitomi, Toru; Nagasaki, Yukio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2014-05-28

    Antioxidants have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects as pharmacotherapies for cardiovascular diseases. The in vitro systems generally employed to evaluate antioxidants, however, are limited by having no appreciable in vivo redox status of the antioxidants. Therefore, we used our developing chicken egg model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidative activity of a redox nanoparticle possessing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (RNP(O)). The 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) elicited strong oxidative stress and its LD50 value for chick embryos was 3.5±0.9mg/egg. The low molecular weight nitroxide compound, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), which is known to have the highest level of antioxidant activity, showed no significant protective effect against AAPH-induced embryo lethality. On the contrary, RNP(O) had potent protective effects against AAPH-induced embryo lethality. Moreover, RNP(O) could significantly suppress the production of lipid peroxides in chick serum induced by hydrocortisone. Since RNP(O) has a longer retention time in blood than TEMPOL, RNP(O) may protect the embryo against lethal oxidative stress by suppressing lipid peroxidation. The validity of in vivo experiments using developing chicken eggs was supported by our data, where RNP(O) was determined to elicit strong antioxidative activity in vivo, irrespective of the lack of a significant difference in the in vitro activity between low-molecular weight TEMPOL and RNP(O). Our results support the use of the developing chicken egg model to evaluate the potential in vivo antioxidative activity of RNP(O). PMID:24637467

  7. Molecular Diagnosis and Pathology of Chicken Infectious Anemia in Commercial White Leghorn Layer Flocks in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najm-ul-Islam1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2*, Muhammad Zargham Khan2, Salman Latif Butt2, Ahrar Khan2, Ijaz Javed3, Faisal Saeed Awan4and ShahidRafique5

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present field study was conducted for confirmation of chicken infectious anemia (CIA in White Leghorn (WL commercial layer birds. A total of 60 farms were investigated. Birds from each farm ware necropsied for the presence of lesions on different visceral organs. Samples of blood and different tissues were collected for hematology, histopathology, DNA extraction and PCR amplification using specific primers for CIA virus. There was severe anemia indicated by low hematocrit values (10.9 to 17.2% and hemoglobin concentration (5.3 to6.7 g/dl. The petechial hemorrhages were present on subcutaneous tissue, epicardium, endocardium and gizzard mucosa. The liver and bone marrow were pale in appearance. The mortality ranged from 5 to14 % on different farms. Samples of liver and spleen from 15 farms were subjected to PCR analysis for CIAV infection by amplifying the186-bp region on highly conserved VP-2 coding gene using CAV1 and CAV2 primer pair. Presence of CIAV was confirmed in 67 and 33 percent samples of liver and spleen, respectively. A total of 13/15 farms (87% were found positive for CIA. The results of present study confirmed the presence of CAV infection in WL commercial layer birds in current outbreak. It is concluded that extensive molecular epidemiological studies are required at national level to assess the prevalence of disease. Breeder flocks should be vaccinated to control CIA in commercial layer flocks.

  8. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  9. Accelerated shelf-life testing of quality loss for a commercial hydrolysed hen egg white powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-11-15

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages for both protein supplementation and clinical use has significantly increased. However, few studies have explored the moisture-induced effects on food protein hydrolysates, and the resulting changes in the structure and texture of the food matrix as well as the loss in functional properties of bioactive peptides during storage. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of water activity (a(w)) on the storage quality of a commercial spray-dried hydrolysed hen egg white powder (HEW). During storage at 45 °C for two months at different a(w)s (0.05-0.79), the selected physicochemical properties of the HEW samples were analysed. Overall, the effect of a(w) on the colour change of HEW at 45 °C for one month was similar to that of HEW after four months at 23 °C due to the presence of a small amount of glucose in HEW. Several structural changes occurred at a(w)s from 0.43 to 0.79 including agglomeration, stickiness and collapse. Kinetic analysis showed a first-order hyperbolic model fit for the change in the L(∗) value, the total colour difference (ΔE(∗)) and the fluorescence intensity (FI). There was a high correlation between colour change and fluorescence, as expected for the Maillard reaction. The reduction in the remaining free amino groups was about 5% at a(w) 0.50 and 6% at a(w) 0.79 after one month storage. In summary, during storage, the Maillard reaction and/or its resulting products could decrease the nutritional value and the quality of HEW. PMID:22868115

  10. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  11. Egg production dynamics and fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum residing in different caecal environments of chickens induced by fibre-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Gürbüz; Abel, Hansjörg; Savaş, Türker; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-10-15

    In modern husbandry systems, feed rations for laying hens may contain high levels of dietary fibre, which may only be fermented intestinally. Depending on fermentation properties, the type of dietary fibre may influence the intra-caecal environment constituting the predilection site of Heterakis gallinarum. We investigated egg production dynamics and fecundity of H. gallinarum residing in different caecal environments induced through different types of dietary fibre. Growing layers were fed a standard (CON) or an insoluble- (I-) or soluble- (S-) non-starch polysaccharides-(NSP) supplemented diet for the first 11 weeks (wk) of life in a twice-replicated experiment. At 3 wk of age, the birds were infected with 200 embryonated eggs of H. gallinarum. Starting from 3 wk post-infection (p.i.), individual daily total excreta were collected. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was determined (N = 2240), and the number of eggs per day (EPD) were estimated. The birds were necropsied 8 wk p.i. and the worm burdens were quantified. The nematode began to lay eggs as early as 23 d.p.i. and thereafter laid on average 436 eggs/d. I-NSP- and S-SNP-supplemented diets expedited the onset of patency by approximately 5 days, and increased total egg excretion by 110% and 185%, respectively, due to higher worm counts. The latter diet (S-SNP) additionally increased total egg excretion by 94% due to enhanced fecundity. Longitudinally collected data showed that fecundity of the nematode (EPD/female) was relatively stable starting from the second week of the patent phase. Results suggest that NSP-induced enlargement of caeca favoured establishment of the nematode while effects of an intensified microbial fermentation through S-NSP were crucial for an enhancement in the worm fecundity. Based on the long-term data obtained from daily collections of total excreta in experimentally H. gallinarum-infected chickens, it is concluded that a diet enriched with pea bran as source of insoluble

  12. Ulcer disease prophylaxis in koi carp by bath immersion with chicken egg yolk containing anti-Aeromonas salmonicida IgY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Hongjian; He, Haiwen; Sato, Atsushi; Hatta, Hajime; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2015-04-01

    Ulcer disease, caused by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, is a serious concern in ornamental koi carp, because it induces skin ulceration, disfiguring ornamental fish and causing economic loses. The present study aimed to establish a novel prophylaxis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgY, against ulcer disease and to assess its feasibility in the ornamental fish industry. Addition of egg yolk powder containing anti-A. salmonicida IgY to rearing water provided significant protection against an A. salmonicida bath infection, whereas administration of non-specific IgY did not. Consecutive immersion of fish into rearing water containing specific IgY completely prevented ulcer disease resulting from cohabitation infection, indicating that this prophylaxis could prevent infection from such type of contact. Thus, passive immunization induced by immersing fish into aquarium water containing specific IgY is a prospective prophylaxis against diseases caused by pathogens that invade the skin and gills. PMID:25687817

  13. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical bonding at the active site of lysozyme is analyzed on the basis of a multipole model employing transferable multipole parameters from a database. Large B factors at low temperatures reflect frozen-in disorder, but therefore prevent a meaningful free refinement of multipole parameters. Chemical bonding at the active site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) is analyzed on the basis of Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules [QTAIM; Bader (1994 ▶), Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press] applied to electron-density maps derived from a multipole model. The observation is made that the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) of HEWL at a temperature of 100 K are larger than ADPs in crystals of small biological molecules at 298 K. This feature shows that the ADPs in the cold crystals of HEWL reflect frozen-in disorder rather than thermal vibrations of the atoms. Directly generalizing the results of multipole studies on small-molecule crystals, the important consequence for electron-density analysis of protein crystals is that multipole parameters cannot be independently varied in a meaningful way in structure refinements. Instead, a multipole model for HEWL has been developed by refinement of atomic coordinates and ADPs against the X-ray diffraction data of Wang and coworkers [Wang et al. (2007), Acta Cryst. D63, 1254–1268], while multipole parameters were fixed to the values for transferable multipole parameters from the ELMAM2 database [Domagala et al. (2012), Acta Cryst. A68, 337–351] . Static and dynamic electron densities based on this multipole model are presented. Analysis of their topological properties according to the QTAIM shows that the covalent bonds possess similar properties to the covalent bonds of small molecules. Hydrogen bonds of intermediate strength are identified for the Glu35 and Asp52 residues, which are considered to be essential parts of the active site of HEWL. Furthermore, a series of weak C

  14. Egg white-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with excellent biocompatibility and enhanced radiation effects on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu RQ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Renquan Lu1, Dapeng Yang2, Daxiang Cui2, Zhongyang Wang3, Lin Guo11Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 2Department of Bio-Nano-Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 3College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Shan Dong Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach to the aqueous-phase synthesis of silver (Ag nanoparticles was demonstrated using silver nitrate (AgNO3 and freshly extracted egg white. The bio-conjugates were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering. These results indicated that biomolecule-coated Ag nanoparticles are predominantly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 nm. The proteins of egg white, which have different functional groups, played important roles in reducing Ag+ and maintaining product attributes such as stability and dispersity. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that these Ag-protein bio-conjugates showed good biocompatibility with mouse fibroblast cell lines 3T3. Furthermore, X-ray irradiation tests on 231 tumor cells suggested that the biocompatible Ag-protein bio-conjugates enhanced the efficacy of irradiation, and thus may be promising candidates for use during cancer radiation therapy.Keywords: green chemistry, biosynthesis, egg white, Ag nanoparticles, X-ray irradiation

  15. Method optimization and validation for the determination of eight sulfonamides in chicken muscle and eggs by modified QuEChERS and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Havlíková, Lucie; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; Solich, Petr; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2016-05-30

    A simple, effective and reliable method for the determination of eight sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapiridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfachloropiridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadoxine, sulfadimethoxin) in chicken muscle and eggs by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection has been developed and validated. Sulfonamides do not present native fluorescence, however their direct determination was achieved by on-line post-column photochemical derivatization by UV irradiation. Sample treatment was based on QuEChERS with several modifications depending on the matrix. Egg extracts were cleaned-up using PSA for the dispersive solid phase extraction step. On the other hand, a new clean-up sorbent, Supel™ QuE Z-Sep(+), has been successfully applied in chicken muscle extract and has proved to be effective for interference removal from this matrix. Under optimum conditions, recoveries from 65.9 to 88.1%, relative standard deviations lower than 10% (except for sulfachloropiridazine), and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 14 to 85μgkg(-1) were achieved. Thus, the method complies with current European requirements. PMID:26970595

  16. Blood volume increase in salt-induced pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and ascites in broiler and White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsalimi, S M; O'Brien, P J; Julian, R J

    1993-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that excess dietary salt produces an expansion of extracellular fluid volume which may be associated with pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure in chickens with rapid growth rates. One-week-old broiler and White Leghorn chickens were given 0.5% salt in their drinking water for three weeks. Saline water had a minimal effect on White Leghorns. The hypothesis appears to be correct since salt-treatment in broilers resulted in up to 30% expansion in blood volume and there was 50% mortality from pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure and ascites. There was marked (up to 88% in some broilers) right ventricular hypertrophy, an indicator of pulmonary hypertension. There was less left ventricular hypertrophy as shown by an increase in the ratio of the right to total ventricle weight. There was up to 32% decrease in growth rate. There was renal hypertrophy in the salt-treated birds as shown by a higher kidney to body weight ratio. PMID:8490804

  17. Egg proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevalier, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Nau, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Hen egg was categorised by Baldwin in 1986 as a polyfunctional ingredient, as it can simultaneously realise several technological functions in the same formulated foodstuff. Its emulsifying, foaming, gelling, thickening, colouring and aromatic properties make it still today a universal basic ingredient for the domestic kitchen and the food processing industry. Whereas egg yolk is well recognised for its emulsifying properties, egg white (or albumen) is a reference in terms o...

  18. Heterologous Expression of Hen Egg White Lysozyme and Resonance Assignment of Tryptophan Side Chains in its Non-native States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new protocol is described for the isotope (15N and 13C,15N) enrichment of hen egg white lysozyme. Hen egg white lysozyme and an all-Ala-mutant of this protein have been expressed in E. coli. They formed inclusion bodies from which mg quantities of the proteins were purified and prepared for NMR spectroscopic investigations. 1H,13C and 15N main chain resonances of disulfide reduced and S-methylated lysozyme were assigned and its residual structure in water pH 2 was characterized by chemical shift perturbation analysis. A new NMR experiment has been developed to assign tryptophan side chain indole resonances by correlation of side chain and backbone NH resonances with the Cγ resonances of these residues. Assignment of tryptophan side chains enables further residue specific investigations on structural and dynamical properties, which are of significant interest for the understanding of non-natives states of lysozyme stabilized by hydrophobic interactions between clusters of tryptophan residues

  19. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, bu...

  20. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in part with changes in yolk fatty acid content. PMID:27252370

  1. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

  2. Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and brominated flame retardants in free-range chicken eggs from peri-urban areas in Arusha, Tanzania: Levels and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Brynildsrud, O B; de Boer, J; Hamers, T; Kamstra, J H; Lie, E; Mdegela, R H; Moberg, H; Nonga, H E; Sandvik, M; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-05-01

    The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased urbanization. Urban agriculture is common and of economic value for low income families. In Arusha, many households sell eggs from free-ranging backyard chicken. In 2011, 159 eggs from different households in five different locations in Arusha were collected, homogenized, pooled into 28 composite samples and analyzed for a wide selection of POPs. Levels of POPs varied widely within and between the locations. The levels of dieldrin and ΣDDT ranged between 2 and 98,791 and 2 and 324ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively. EU MRLs of 0.02mg/kg dieldrin for eggs were exceeded in 4/28 samples. PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes, toxaphenes and endosulfanes were found at lower frequency and levels. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), e.g polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromphenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were present in 100%, 60% and 46% of the composite samples, respectively. Octa-and deca-BDEs were the dominating PBDEs and BDE 209 levels ranged between toxicity reference values (TRVs) such as the provisional tolerable intake (PTDI) or Reference Doses (RfDs). In one sample dieldrin exceeded the PTDI (100ng/kgbw/day). Correlation was found between bio-TEQs and lipid adjusted levels of ΣPBDEs, suggesting similar sources. Open fires in backyards may be one of the sources for contamination of eggs with BFRs and dioxins. PMID:26897409

  3. Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY, production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalghoumi R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by Salmonella remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, the prevention and monitoring of Salmonella infection during the live phase may greatly reduce the contamination of poultry meat during slaughter and processing. With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY may be a useful and attractive alternative. This review offers summarized information about IgY production and the use of these antibodies for passive immunization, particularly in poultry.

  4. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  5. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  6. AFM observation of the surface morphology and impurity effects on orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzuki, Y.; Kubota, T.; Liu, X. Y.; Ataka, M.; Takano, K. J.

    2002-07-01

    Cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography at pH 6, developed originally to purify human lysozyme, was applied to hen egg-white lysozyme. We could remove at least three kinds of impurities from the commercial product. The impurities were considered to be modified lysozyme molecules, mostly based on N-terminal amino acid analyses. Atomic force microscopic observation was made on the crystals both from the purified and non-purified solutions. The (1 1 0) faces of the orthorhombic crystals grown at 40°C from the purified solution contained linear steps, while most of the linear edges became round and rugged on the crystals from non-purified solutions. A similar change in step morphology is known to occur on insulin crystals when two amino acids were mutated from the wild type. On the (0 1 0) face, elongated, round steps became rugged when crystals grew from non-purified solutions.

  7. Hydrolysates of egg white proteins modulate T- and B-cell responses in mitogen-stimulated murine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-02-01

    This work assessed the effects of hydrolysates of ovalbumin (OVA), lysozyme (LYS), ovomucoid (OM) and whole egg white (EW) on cytokine secretion, antibody production, oxidative stress and proliferation of murine spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated with T- (concanavalin A - ConA) or B-cell mitogens (lipopolysaccharide - LPS). The hydrolysates of OVA, LYS and EW with alcalase reduced ConA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and production of Th2-biased cytokines, such as IL-13 and IL-10, and decreased the secretion of the Th1 cytokine TNF-α. In addition, these hydrolysates considerably inhibited IgG1-class switching induced by LPS and counteracted the release of reactive oxygen species. EW peptides modulated the immune responses of murine cells to mitogen stimuli, revealing potential activities that could be used for different purposes as Th1- or Th2-skewing mediators. PMID:26778535

  8. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  9. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (Pcaviar origin. PMID:23683918

  10. Bone-Remodeling Transcript Levels Are Independent of Perching in End-of-Lay White Leghorn Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice D. Dale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a bone disease that commonly results in a 30% incidence of fracture in hens used to produce eggs for human consumption. One of the causes of osteoporosis is the lack of mechanical strain placed on weight-bearing bones. In conventionally-caged hens, there is inadequate space for chickens to exercise and induce mechanical strain on their bones. One approach is to encourage mechanical stress on bones by the addition of perches to conventional cages. Our study focuses on the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling in end-of-lay hens (71 weeks with access to perches. We examined bone-specific transcripts that are actively involved during development and remodeling. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined seven transcripts (COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1, RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, OPG (osteoprotegerin, PTHLH (PTH-like hormone, PTH1R (PTH/PTHLH type-1 receptor, PTH3R (PTH/PTHLH type-3 receptor, and SOX9 (Sry-related high mobility group box in phalange, tibia and femur. Our results indicate that the only significant effect was a difference among bones for COL2A1 (femur > phalange. Therefore, we conclude that access to a perch did not alter transcript expression. Furthermore, because hens have been used as a model for human bone metabolism and osteoporosis, the results indicate that bone remodeling due to mechanical loading in chickens may be a product of different pathways than those involved in the mammalian model.

  11. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in chicken egg in commercial layer farms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Kodimalar; R A Rajini; S Ezhivalavan; G Sarathchandra

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics as an integral part of poultry and livestock production industry has recently received increasing attention as a contributory factor in the international emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human beings. To gauge the presence of the aforementioned scenario in the Indian context, a preliminary survey was conducted to assess the use of chlortetracycline (CTC) in 12 commercial layer farms and to quantify and confirm its residue in the egg. Samples of feed and eggs were collected at day 0 (prior to CTC addition), 3rd, 5th and 7th day during treatment and on the 9th and 14th day (2nd and 7th day after withdrawal of CTC) from each of the 12 commercial poultry farms studied. Concentration of CTC in feed was significantly ( < 0.01) high on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. On the 9th day and 14th day CTC concentration in feed was significantly ( <0.01) lower compared to the earlier 3 days studied. A highly significant difference ( <0.01) of the antibiotic residue in egg was observed in all the 5 days with high residual levels of CTC in egg. CTC in feed and its residue in egg were detected even on the 9th and 14th day respectively.

  12. Optical properties of tumor tissues grown on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs: tumor model to assay of tumor response to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Kariyama, Yoichiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Ishii, Takuya; Kitajima, Yuya; Inoue, Katsushi; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the optical adequacy of a tumor model prepared with tumor cells grown on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken egg is evaluated as an alternative to the mouse tumor model to assess the optimal irradiation conditions in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The optical properties of CAM and mouse tumor tissues were measured with a double integrating sphere and the inverse Monte Carlo technique in the 350- to 1000-nm wavelength range. The hemoglobin and water absorption bands observed in the CAM tumor tissue (10 eggs and 10 tumors) are equal to that of the mouse tumor tissue (8 animals and 8 tumors). The optical intersubject variability of the CAM tumor tissues meets or exceeds that of the mouse tumor tissues, and the reduced scattering coefficient spectra of CAM tumor tissues can be equated with those of mouse tumor tissues. These results confirm that the CAM tumor model is a viable alternative to the mouse tumor model, especially for deriving optimal irradiation conditions in PDT.

  13. Estrogen-responsive genes encoding egg yolk proteins vitellogenin and apolipoprotein II in chicken are differentially regulated by selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Warren N; Bhatt, Vrushank D; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Bin Ariff, Ammar; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Ratna, Haran N

    2016-02-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins, apolipoprotein II (apo-II) and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo-II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo-II messenger RNA (mRNA) is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA-stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo-II, VG, and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin, and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver was stimulated by estrogen and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo-II and VG from the aforementioned treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays, and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo-II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo-II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the aforementioned genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production. PMID:26452509

  14. Outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in large multi-age egg layer chicken flocks in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingred S. Preis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent (November 2010 outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT in a multi-age laying hen facility in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described. Previous ILT outbreak in laying hens was only notified in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2002. In the outbreak described here, the affected population was approximately eight million hens, with flock sizes ranging from 100,000 to 2,900,000 chickens. The average mortality ranged from 1 to 6%, and morbidity was around 90% (most of the twenty seven farms of the area were positive for ILT virus. Three multi-age laying farms from one company were selected for this report. Clinical signs included prostration, dyspnea, conjunctivitis, occasional swelling of the paranasal sinuses and bloody mucous nasal discharge. Severely affected chickens presented with dyspnea, gasping and became cyanotic before death. At necropsy, these chickens had fibrinous exudate blocking the larynx and the lumen of cranial part of the trachea. In addition, conjunctivitis with intense hyperemia, edema and sinuses with caseous exudate were present. On histopathology, there were marked necrosis and desquamation of respiratory ephitelium and conjunctiva with numerous syncytial cells formation and fibrinous exudate. Moderate to marked non suppurative (especially lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltration in the lamina propria also was observed. Sixteen out of 20 examined chickens, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the syncytial cells. The DNA extracted from larynx and trachea produced positive PCR results for ILT virus (ILTV DNA using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE samples. Amplicons from a small region of ICP4 gene were submitted to sequencing and showed 100% identity with ILTV EU104910.1 (USA strain, 99% with ILTV JN596963.1 (Australian strain and 91% with ILTV JN580316.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 CEO vaccine strain and JN580315.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 TCO vaccine strain.

  15. Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability. PMID:21902857

  16. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  17. Effects of Compound Chinese Herbs on Egg Quality of Guangxi Partridge Chickens%中草药复方制剂对广西麻鸡蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛洪伟; 王霖涵; 韦宗海; 唐燕飞; 黄何元

    2012-01-01

    为研究中草药对广西麻鸡蛋品质的影响,随机选取35周龄广西麻鸡2000只为试验动物,进行7周的饲养试验。试验鸡群随机分为2组,每组2个重复。在饲养过程中,对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂基础饲粮+中草药复方制剂。结果表明,试验组在蛋形指数、蛋壳厚度、蛋壳强度优于对照组,但差异不显著(P〉0.05);蛋比重、蛋黄颜色、蛋黄比率、哈氏单位和血、肉斑率显著优于对照组(P〈0.05)。说明中草药能够在一定程度上提高广西麻鸡的蛋品质量。%The feeding test was conducted to evaluate the effect of compound Chinese herbs on egg quality of Guangxi partridge chicken. Two thouand Guangxi partridge chickens were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each group had 2 repeats. Control group was provided with basic diet, while test group was fed with basic diets added to compound Chinese herbs. The results showed that compound Chinese herbs could improve egg-shape index, shell strength, shell thickness(P 0.05), yolk color, percentage of yolk, haugh unit of eggs and percents of blood and meat spots in eggs, specific gravity of eggs were improved significantly(P 0.05). So compound Chinese herbs can improve egg quality of Guangxi partridge chicken.

  18. 不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡蛋品质的影响%Effects of Different Rearing Systems on Egg Quality of Huainan Spotted-yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏世广; 吴义景; 李俊营; 唐焰; 许月英; 徐珊珊; 张永德; 李绍全

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of different rearing systems on egg quality of Huainan spotted-yellow chicken. [ Method] The egg quality of 90 210-day Huainan spotted-yellow chickens with around 70% laying rate which were raised in cages, free range and pasture was detected. [ Result] The eggs of the chickens raised in free range were heavier (47. 13 g) than that of the chickens raised in pasture (P < 0. 01) and in cages ( P <0.05 ) ; the eggshell of the chickens reared in pasture was thicker than that of the chickens reared in cages and free range respectively by 2.32% ( P < 0.05 ) and 7. 32% ( P < 0.01). The eggshell strength of the chickens raised in cages was the highest, higher than those raised in free range by 26.67% (P < 0. 05 ). The albumen water content of caged spotted-yellow chickens was the lowest, lower than that of free range and pasture raised chickens respectively by 1.92% and 1.45% (P <0.01); the yolk water content of caged chickens was the highest, higher than that of pasture raised chickens (P < 0.05 ) and significantly higher than that of free range raised chickens ( P < 0.01). [ Conclusion] The egg quality of Huainan spotted-yellow chickens varied under different rearing systems.%[目的]研究不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡蛋品质的影响.[方法]对来自笼养、平养带运动场和林地散养的210日龄、产蛋率约70%的90个淮南麻黄鸡鸡蛋进行了蛋品质测定.[结果]蛋重以平养最大(47.13 9),显著高于林地散养(P<0.01)和笼养鸡的蛋重(P<0.05);蛋壳厚度以林地散养最大,分别比笼养和平养分别高2.32% (P <0.05)和7.32% (P <0.01).蛋壳强度以笼养最高,比平养高26.67% (P <0.05).笼养淮南麻黄鸡蛋蛋白含水率最低,比平养和林地散养组的蛋白含水率分别低1.92%和1.45%(P<0.01);笼养淮南麻黄鸡的蛋黄含水率最高,显著高于林地散养组(P<0.05)且极显著高于平养组(P<0.01).[结论]不同饲养方式下淮南麻

  19. Outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in large multi-age egg layer chicken flocks in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A recent (November 2010) outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in a multi-age laying hen facility in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described. Previous ILT outbreak in laying hens was only notified in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2002. In the outbreak described here, the affected population was approximately eight million hens, with flock sizes ranging from 100,000 to 2,900,000 chickens. The average mortality ranged from 1 to 6%, and morbidity was around 90% (most of the twenty seven ...

  20. Synthesis of stocks and phenotypic effects of dwarf and bantam sex-linked major genes in egg-type chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolfo William Silvestre Custódio

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the production of stocks segregating dwarf (dw, bantam (dwB and normal (dw+ alleles, as well as the characters, shank length, adult body weight, age at sexual maturity and egg production. Heterozygous K dw+/k dwB sires were mated to normal (dw+ dams to produce stock D6.a, and mated to dwB females to produce stock D6.b. Stock D4.a came from mating F1 heterozygous dwB dw sires to dwarf Leghorns. In a third series of matings, 7/8 Sebright and 1/8 dw-Leghorn dwB dw sires were crossed to three groups of dams of different genotypes. The progeny of the normal (dw+, dwarf (dw, and bantam (dwB dams were designated as stocks D4.b, D4.c and D4.d, respectively. The dw+ dams were White Leghorn strain cross females. The difference between the rate of laying of normal (69.7% and their bantam sisters (68.6% was not statistically significant when the average 32-week body weight of the dw+ sisters was 1,897 g. However, when the 32-week body weight of the normal daughters from the same sires and smaller dams was around 1,646 g, the difference between the rate of laying of the normal (78.1% and their bantam sisters (75.9% was significant (P Neste trabalho descreve-se a obtenção de seis plantéis experimentais, segregantes para os alelos ligados ao sexo, dwarf (dw, bantam (dwB e normal (dw+, em galinhas para ovos. Comparações entre desempenhos entre plantéis hemizigóticos para genes maiores no locus dwarf também foram efetuadas com relação a comprimento de canela medida na 16ª semana de idade, peso do corpo adulto, produção de ovos e maturidade sexual. Machos heterozigotos (K dw+/ k dwB foram acasalados com fêmeas normais (dw+ e com fêmeas bantam (dwB. As progênies fêmeas, nos referidos acasalamentos, foram denominadas de D6.a e D6.b, respectivamente. Galos 7/8 Sebright e 1/8 dw-Leghorn heterozigotos (dwB dw foram acasalados com três grupos de galinhas de diferentes genótipos (dw+, dw e dwB. As progênies das m

  1. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  2. The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Jefferson-Moore, K Y; Einstein, M E; Cheng, H W; Rubin, D A

    2013-02-01

    Enrichment of pullet cages with perches has not been studied. Our objective was to determine if access to metal perches during all or part of the life cycle of caged White Leghorns affected egg traits, foot health, and feather condition. Treatment 1 represented control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had perches only during the egg laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Comparisons between chickens that always had perches with controls that never had perches showed similar performance relative to egg production, cracked eggs, egg weight, shell weight, % shell, and shell thickness. More dirty eggs occurred in laying cages with perches. Feed usage increased resulting in poorer feed efficiency in hens with perch exposure during the pullet phase with no effect during egg laying. Perches did not affect hyperkeratosis of toes and feet. The back claw at 71 wk of age broke less if hens had prior experience with perches during the pullet phase. In contrast, during egg laying, the back claw at 71 wk of age broke more due to the presence of perches in laying cages. Perches in laying cages resulted in shorter trimmed claws and improved back feather scores, but caused poorer breast and tail feather scores. In conclusion, enriching conventional cages with perches during the entire life cycle resulted in similar hen performance compared with controls. Fewer broken back claws but poorer feed efficiency occurred because of prior experience with perches as pullets. Perch presence during egg laying improved back feather scores with more trimmed nails but caused more dirty eggs, broken back claws, and poorer breast and tail feather scores. Although perches allow chickens to express their natural perching instinct, it was not without causing welfare problems. PMID

  3. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  4. Evaluation of protease resistance and toxicity of amyloid-like food fibrils from whey, soy, kidney bean, and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassé, Moritz; Ulluwishewa, Dulantha; Healy, Jackie; Thompson, Dion; Miller, Antonia; Roy, Nicole; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2016-02-01

    The structural properties of amyloid fibrils combined with their highly functional surface chemistry make them an attractive new food ingredient, for example as highly effective gelling agents. However, the toxic role of amyloid fibrils in disease may cause some concern about their food safety because it has not been established unequivocally if consumption of food fibrils poses a health risk to consumers. Here we present a study of amyloid-like fibrils from whey, kidney bean, soy bean, and egg white to partially address this concern. Fibrils showed varied resistance to proteolytic digestion in vitro by either Proteinase K, pepsin or pancreatin. The toxicity of mature fibrils was measured in vitro and compared to native protein, early-stage-fibrillar protein, and sonicated fibrils in two immortalised human cancer cell lines, Caco-2 and Hec-1a. There was no reduction in the viability of either Caco-2 or Hec-1a cells after treatment with a fibril concentration of up to 0.25 mg/mL. PMID:26304377

  5. Multiplexed Analysis of Cage and Cage Free Chicken Egg Fatty Acids Using Stable Isotope Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Torde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binary stable isotope labeling couple with LC-ESI-MS has been used as a powerful non-targeted approach for the relative quantification of lipids, amino acids, and many other important metabolite classes. A multiplexed approach using three or more isotopic labeling reagents greatly reduces analytical run-time while maintaining excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. Three isotopic cholamine labeling reagents have been developed to take advantage of the pre-ionized character of cholamine, for ESI, and the ease by which stable isotopes can be incorporated into the cholamine structure. These three cholamine labeling reagents have been used to relatively quantify three fatty acid samples simultaneously. The quantification resulted in the observation of 12 fatty acids that had an average absolute error of 0.9% and an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. Caged versus cage-free isotope labeling experiments showed that cage-free eggs have an increased level of omega-3 fatty acids as compared to caged eggs. This multiplexed fatty acid analysis provides an inexpensive and expedited tool for broad-based lipid profiling that will further aid discoveries in the mechanisms of fatty acid action in cells.

  6. Effect of immersion and inoculation in ovo of Lactobacillus spp. in embryonated chicken eggs in the prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis after hatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, R A; Milbradt, E L; Coppola, M P; Rodrigues, J C Z; Andreatti Filho, R L; Padovani, C R; Okamoto, A S

    2013-06-01

    The protection level against Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated in chickens after in ovo treatment with different species of Lactobacillus spp. inoculated into the air cell or by immersion in broth culture. Two hundred forty embryonated eggs were distributed into 8 groups, corresponding to treatments with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus salivarius, and control. On d 18 of incubation, 4 groups were inoculated with 0.1 mL of inoculum in the air cell and 4 groups were immersed for 3 min in culture of each treatment. Two days after hatching, 0.5 mL of Salmonella Enteritidis culture was inoculated by the intraesophageal route. On d 5 of life, the chicks were euthanized and the ceca were processed to obtain Salmonella Enteritidis counts. There was no decrease in Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of chick ceca, regardless of treatment or route of administration. Lactobacillus spp. samples used in the treatment showed no probiotic potential in chicks when inoculated in ovo, in relation to Salmonella Enteritidis inhibition in poultry ceca. PMID:23687152

  7. Prevalence and Aetiology of Poultry Coccidiosis and Associated Risk Factors in White Leghorn Grower Chickens at Kombolcha Poultry Farm, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi Amare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from October 2009 and March 2010 with the objective of determining the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis and identifying the species of Eimeria at Kombolcha poultry farm. A total of 638 dead White leghorn chickens of age 1 to 60 days were examined on post mortem, mucosal scraping examination, examination of gross and histopathological changes, and identification of Eimeria species. Prevalence rate of 22.3% (142/638 was assessed. A statistically significant difference p< 0.05 (χ2 = 261.995, p = 0.000 was noted among the studied age groups with maximum prevalence at 41-50 days of age. Five Eimeriaspecies were identified, namely: E. tenella(37.86 %, E. brunette (29.22 %, E. necatrix(12.35 %, E. acervulina(15.22 %, and E. maxima (5.35 %which were identified for the first time in the farm. In conclusion, coccidiosis remained still a major problem in the farm by changing its mode of occurrence from time to time as to the variations of the management system. Further strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis

  8. Assessment of the Inhibitory Effect of Rifampicin on Amyloid Formation of Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Thioflavin T Fluorescence Assay versus FTIR Difference Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Ma; Hong Zhang; Jianhua Guo; Xiaodan Zeng; Xiaoqian Hu; Wenying Hao

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of rifampicin on the amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme was assessed with both Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy. We reveal that ThT fluorescence assay gives a false positive result due to rifampicin interference, while FTIR difference spectroscopy provides a reliable assessment. With FTIR, we show that rifampicin only has marginally inhibitory effect. We then propose that FTIR difference spectros...

  9. A solution for the preparation of hexagonal M-type SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} ferrite using egg-white: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Yang; Wu, Ruonan; Zhou, Han; Fang, Xiaochen [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Su, Shubing [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Xia, Ailin, E-mail: alxia@126.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Jin, Chuangui; Liu, Xianguo [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2015-11-01

    A new sol–gel route using egg-white as the binder of metal ions, is developed to prepare hexagonal M-type SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} ferrite in this study, and the effects of different atomic ratio of Sr and Fe (Sr/Fe), sintering temperature (T{sub s}) and usage of egg-white (M{sub ew}) on the phase formation, morphology and magnetic properties of specimens are studied. It is found that the single-phase SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} ferrite only can be obtained under a Sr/Fe of 1:8 and a T{sub s} between 1000 °C and 1300 °C. The magnetic properties of specimens are also obviously affected by the different Sr/Fe and T{sub s}, primarily due to the emergency of impurities. The M{sub ew} has an obvious impact on the crystallinity of specimens, which consequently affects their magnetic properties. In our study, the optimum conditions to prepare the single-phase SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} ferrite are Sr/Fe=1:8, M{sub ew}= 3 g and T{sub s} =1200 °C. - Highlights: • Single-phase SrM ferrite was obtained via a novel sol–gel method using egg-white. • Single-phase SrM ferrite was obtained under Sr/Fe=1:8 and T{sub s} between 1000 and 1300 °C. • The usage of egg-white affects the crystallinity and magnetic properties markedly.

  10. Egg White Protein-Bonded Columns and Their Applications%蛋清蛋白质键合柱及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Egg white protein-bonded columns were developed for HPLC. These columns can be used under aqueous mobile phase and separate various kinds of drug enantiomers. Hyphenated techniques using protein-bonded columns with LC/MS and/or column switching have been recognized as integral methods in pharmaceutical research to analyze drug enantiomers. Therefore, these methods are very useful for research fields of pharmacokinetics and pharmacology.

  11. Influence of Different Processings on Egg White's Antigenicity%不同加工处理方式对蛋清致敏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂君; 杨哪; 金征宇; 徐学明

    2011-01-01

    为开发低致敏性蛋清制品,用不同的蛋白水解酶和非蛋白氧化酶及常规加热法处理蛋清.结合酶联免疫技术评价测定,发现在适宜条件下用菠萝蛋白酶处理,蛋清致敏性降低约79.63%,葡萄糖氧化酶(GOD)处理能使蛋清致敏性降低25.92%,高温加热处理(121℃,10 min)可使样品致敏性降低约20.4%.%In order to have low antigentic egg white product, different enzymes like proteolytic enzymes and non-proteolytic oxidase as well as normal heating applications were utilized to treat egg white. Results of enzyme-liked-immunosorbent assay indicated that egg white treated with bromelain reduced 79. 63% of its antigenicity, glucose oxidase and pasteurization (121 ℃, 10 min) caused its antigenicity reduced 25. 92% and 20. 4% respectively.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary x-ray structure analysis of the egg-white lysozyme from a Taiwanese Soft-Shelled Turtle (Tri onyx Sinensis Wiegmann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysozyme has been purified from the egg-white of a Taiwanese soft-shelled turtle. This soft-shelled turtle's egg-white lysozyme migrated on 12.5% SDS-PAGE at about 14.8 kDa. The lysozyme has been crystallized using the sitting drop vapor diffusion technique and 30% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000 in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate, p H 6.5 containing 0.2 M ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. One of the crystals diffracted X rays beyond 2 angstrom unit resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic, space group P212121, with unit cell dimensions of a = 37.8 angstrom unit, b = 55.6 angstrom unit, and c 72.2 angstrom unit and one molecule of the enzyme per asymmetric unit. The data were collected to 1.9 angstrom resolution with an R merge of 4.6%, suitable for high resolution structure analysis. The single-crystal X-ray structure of lysozyme has been initially phased with the Molecular Replacement technique using pheasant egg-white lysozyme (PDB ID 1GHL) as a search template. Model rebuilding and refinement are in progress

  13. Egg white hydrolysate promotes neuroprotection for neuropathic disorders induced by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Fernandez, Francisca; Moreno, Silvia; Uranga Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vera, Gema; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the egg white hydrolysate (EWH) acts on the neuropathic disorders associated with long-term Mercury (Hg) exposure in rats. 8- week-old male Wistar rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Control - saline solution (i.m.); b) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day, i.m.); c) Hydrolysate - EWH (1g/kg/day, gavage); d) Mercury and Hydrolysate. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey Hairs test; heat hyperalgesia by the plantar test; catalepsy by a modification of the "ring test" and spontaneous locomotor activity by a photocell activity chambers. Analyses were performed at 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment. Brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α determination and skin immunohistochemistry were performed at 60 days. Hg induced a reduction in mechanical sensitivity threshold at 30 and 60 days and in thermal sensitivity threshold at 60 days. At the end of treatment catalepsy was developed, but there was not significant alteration in spontaneous locomotor activity. Hg also increased brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α levels and the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. EWH prevented the development of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and catalepsy induced by Hg and the increase in MDA concentration in brain and plasma and in the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. In conclusion, EWH promotes neuroprotection against the toxic effects caused by Hg, demonstrating a beneficial therapeutic potential. PMID:27350078

  14. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality. PMID:19646042

  15. Pathogenic capacity of proteases from Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their suppression by chicken egg white ovomacroglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, A; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, T.; Okamura, R.; H. Maeda

    1987-01-01

    The pathogenicities of three proteases from Serratia marcescens, two proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one thermolysin from Bacillus stearothermophilus were examined. All proteases tested caused acute liquefactive necrosis of the cornea and descemetocele formation in guinea pig eyes after intrastromal injection, with the exception of the 60-kilodalton protease from S. marcescens, which produced only an opaque lesion. When injected into guinea pig skin, the protease also enhanced vasc...

  16. Nearly full-length genome sequence of a novel astrovirus isolated from chickens with 'white chicks' condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Domanska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Avian astroviruses (aAstVs) are divided into three species, Avastrovirus 1, Avastrovirus 2, and Avastrovirus 3, but there are a few strains are waiting to be assigned to an official taxonomic group. This study presents the molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus (CAstV), PL/G059/2014, which is involved in the induction of "white chicks" condition. The 7382-nucleotide-long genome sequence was determined by next-generation sequencing using an Illumina MiSeq System. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it has the characteristics that are typical of avian astroviruses. However, overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 43.6 % to 73.7 % between PL/G059/2014 and other available genome sequences of aAstV strains. The amino acid sequences of the proteins encoded by ORF1a and ORF1b of the studied strain were very similar (86.5-93.8 % identity) to those of CAstVs 4175 and GA2011, but they were only 32.7-35.2 % identical in the case of ORF2, which is used officially for astrovirus species demarcation. These features could suggest that the PL/G059/2014 strain should be assigned to a new species in the genus Avastrovirus. Moreover, the different phylogenetic topology of PL/G059/2014 and its nucleotide sequence similarity in different genomic regions could suggest that a recombination event occurred during its evolution and that it has ancestors in common with duck astroviruses. PMID:27339687

  17. Parallel Selection Revealed by Population Sequencing in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qanbari, Saber; Seidel, Michael; Strom, Tim-Mathias; Mayer, Klaus F X; Preisinger, Ruedi; Simianer, Henner

    2015-12-01

    Human-driven selection during domestication and subsequent breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern chicken. The elucidation of these signatures of selection is of interest from the perspective of evolutionary biology, and for identifying genes relevant to domestication and improvement that ultimately may help to further genetically improve this economically important animal. We used whole genome sequence data from 50 hens of commercial white (WL) and brown (BL) egg-laying chicken along with pool sequences of three meat-type chicken to perform a systematic screening of past selection in modern chicken. Evidence of positive selection was investigated in two steps. First, we explored evidence of parallel fixation in regions with overlapping elevated allele frequencies in replicated populations of layers and broilers, suggestive of selection during domestication or preimprovement ages. We confirmed parallel fixation in BCDO2 and TSHR genes and found four candidates including AGTR2, a gene heavily involved in "Ascites" in commercial birds. Next, we explored differentiated loci between layers and broilers suggestive of selection during improvement in chicken. This analysis revealed evidence of parallel differentiation in genes relevant to appearance and production traits exemplified with the candidate gene OPG, implicated in Osteoporosis, a disorder related to overconsumption of calcium in egg-laying hens. Our results illustrate the potential for population genetic techniques to identify genomic regions relevant to the phenotypes of importance to breeders. PMID:26568375

  18. Response of two breeds of chickens to Ascaridia galli infections from two geographic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A

    2007-04-10

    Comparative resistance to different isolates of Ascaridia galli was investigated in a local chicken breed from Jordan (LC) and in the Lohmann LSL white chicken (LW) strain. In two trials, birds of LC and LW were inoculated orally at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. In the first trial a German source of A. galli was used, whereas in the second trial, a Jordan source of A. galli was used. At week 7 of infection, infected LC birds harbored significantly (Pgalli eggs than infected LW birds. A. galli isolated from Jordan were less infectious than A. galli from Germany. Results suggest that the variation in genetic background between LC and LW is involved in the resistance to A. galli infection. A. galli isolates from different geographic areas differ in their ability to infect different chicken genotypes. PMID:17157986

  19. Role of Konjac Flour on Emulsifying Property of Milk and Egg White Proteins and Sensory Acceptance of Gluten-free Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Adisak Akesowan

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of three independent variables: Konjac concentration (0.1-0.4%), pH level (pH 5-9) and NaCl concentration (0.2-0.6 M) on Emulsifying Activity (EA) of Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) and Egg White Powder (EWP). Response surface methodology was used to determine the effects and also find out the optimal condition. Both Konjac concentration and pH level had greatly significant effects on EA of MPC and EWP, while NaCl concentration had negligible. An...

  20. The solubility of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme from pH 4.0 to 5.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc L.

    1991-01-01

    Hen egg white lysozyme solubilities in the presence of the tetragonal crystal form have been determined. Conditions investigated cover the pH range 4.0 to 5.4, varying from 2.0 to 7.0 percent NaCl concentrations and from 4 to 25 C. In all instances, the solubilities were found to increase with temperature and decrease with increasing salt concentration. The effects of pH were more complex, showing a decreasing solubility with increasing pH at low salt concentration and an increasing solubility with increasing pH at high salt concentration.

  1. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  2. 太行鸡与矮脚麻鸡蛋品质比较研究%Comparative Study between Taihang Chicken and Short-leg-linen Chicken's Egg Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学静; 魏忠华; 杨树玲; 李祥龙; 李杰峰

    2012-01-01

      Random taking 100 eggs of the 214 day-old introducing breed (Short-leg-linen chichen) and local breed (Taihang chichen) to determine the egg's weight, egg-shaped index, specific gravity, yolk colour, Haugh u-nit , yolk ratio, eggshell thickness, shell strength, flesh and blood spot ratio. The results show that the two breeds' egg quality without significant difference (P>0.05) about the weight , specific gravity, yolk colour, shell thick-ness;But the Haugh unit and the egg yolk rate are very significant difference (P0.05);哈氏单位、蛋黄比率差异极显著(P<0.01);蛋形指数、蛋壳强度差异显著(P<0.05).

  3. Detection of exonic variants within the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene in Black Silky, White Leghorn and Golden duckwing Araucana chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jungsou; Lee, Yoonseok; Hyeong, KiEun; Ha, Jaejung; Yi, JunKoo; Kim, Byungki; Oh, Dongyep

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene can be considered a candidate functional gene for the pigmentation of plumage color. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the genotype frequencies of g.69 T>C, g.376 G>A and g.427 A>G SNPs within the MC1R gene in Black silky (O), Golden duckwing Araucana (GA) and White Leghorn (W). The CC and AA genotype frequencies of g.69 T>C and g.427 A>G SNPs in White Leghorn (W) were both 1.000, and the TT genotype frequency of the g.69 T>C SNP in Golden duckwing Araucana (GA) was also 1.000. The GG and AA genotype frequencies of g.376 G>A and g.427 A>G SNPs in Black silky (O) were both 0.100. When a haplotype is observed using a combination of markers, a Golden duckwing Araucana (GA) can especially be distinguished when it is a TAG, TGG and TAA type in the SNP combination of the MC1R gene. In case of the CAA types, only White Leghorn (W) could specifically be distinguished. Therefore, three SNPs in MC1R may provide identification in chicken breeds. PMID:24830563

  4. Research advance of the nutritional ingredients change of embryonated chicken eggs during its incubating%鸡胚蛋在孵化期间营养成分变化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范亮; 张彧; 姜铁民; 陈历俊

    2012-01-01

    Embryonated chicken eggs are the fertilized eggs which have not been hatched. Hen egg hatches into chick after 21 days incubating. The embryonated egg contains nearly all kinds of element to forming a life. During the hatching period, there are significant changes of the nutritional ingredients in embryonated eggs due to the various kinds of the enzymes involved in the reaction. In recent years, many studies were carried on the nutritional ingredients changes of embryonated eggs during its hatching, both at home and abroad. The article reviews the changes of the embryonated eggs during its incubating, including protein content and their transfer, the fat and amino acids content, some kinds of vitamins content, the metallic ions content and some kinds of functional component, such as immunoglobulin and tau-rine and so on.%鸡胚蛋是受精鸡蛋孵化至一定天数后,还未破壳,可食用的鸡蛋.鸡胚蛋在温暖条件下21天即可孵化出小鸡,这意味着鸡胚蛋中含有构成生命体的所有成分.而在孵化过程中,通过多种酶的作用,鸡胚蛋内的营养成分发生了很大变化.近年来国内外对不同孵化期间的鸡胚蛋的营养成分变化情况也有一定的研究,本文对鸡胚蛋在孵化期间的营养成分变化情况进行了综述,包括蛋白质的含量以及转移情况,脂肪以及氨基酸等含量的变化,维生素含量的变化,金属离子含量以及其他一些功能性成分的变化情况等,如免疫球蛋白,牛磺酸含量等.

  5. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  6. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  7. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment. PMID:26895726

  8. Effect of in ovo feeding egg white protein, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, and carbohydrates on glycogen status and neonatal growth of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, O T; Uni, Z; Ferket, P R

    2006-07-01

    In ovo feeding (IOF), injecting dietary components into the amnion about 1 d prior to internal pipping, may enhance growth by altering glycogen status. This hypothesis was evaluated with 5 IOF solutions containing protein, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrate. Four IOF treatments were arranged as a factorial of 2 levels of egg white protein (EWP; 0 and 18%) and 2 levels of HMB (0 and 0.1%). An IOF solution of carbohydrates (S; 20% dextrin and 3% maltose) was evaluated for contrast purposes. At 23 d of incubation, 1.5 mL of IOF solution was injected into the amnion of 100 eggs per treatment. At hatch, feed and water were provided ad libitum. At hatch and 3 and 7 d of age, BW were determined, and 10 poults per treatment were sampled to determine liver (LG) and pectoralis muscle (PC) glycogen content. Poults on IOF treatments A (18% EWP), B (18% EWP + HMB), and D (HMB) weighed 6.0, 2.7, and 3.3% more than the controls at hatch, respectively (P ovo had enhanced total PC glycogen over controls, whereas poults on treatment A had less total PC glycogen than controls (P < 0.05). The results of this experiment demonstrate that IOF of A or S poults may enhance hatch BW and glycogen status of poults during the neonatal period by inclusion of HMB. PMID:16830858

  9. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  10. Benefits and Limits of Egg Yolk vs. Serum Samples for Avian Influenza Virus Serosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2016-06-01

    Serologic tests are a valuable tool for retrospective surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and monitoring of postvaccination host immune response. Yet collection of serum samples, particularly in adult breeder chickens, is laborious, intrusive to birds, and may pose a serious risk to the biosecurity of a flock. In this study we compared the level of AIV-specific antibody titers in eggs and serum samples obtained from broiler breeder chickens vaccinated at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age with H5N2-inactivated vaccine. Nucleocapsid protein-specific ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) against homologous as well as heterologous antigens were used. The eggs and sera were collected at 22, 30, 45, and 50 wk of age (i.e., 4, 12, 27, and 32 wk after the third and final immunization, respectively). Using ELISA, the number of positive egg yolk samples decreased over time after vaccination, from 97% to 47%, while the seropositivity rate of serum samples was 97%-100% during the whole investigation period. No antibody titers were detected in egg white. By HI, antibody titers in serum samples were higher than in egg yolk samples. Compared to the homologous H5N2 antigen, significantly lower HI titers were obtained by using a heterologous H5N1 virus of clade 2.2.1.2. In addition, no HI titers were detected in egg yolk and/or serum samples tested against the antigen of an Egyptian H5N1 antigenic drift variant of clade 2.2.1.1. This study indicates that egg yolk may be used to monitor the postvaccination immune status of broiler breeder chickens and retrospective serosurveillance-by HI when a matching antigen is available as well as by ELISA-particularly for up to 12 wk postvaccination. PMID:27309294

  11. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  12. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  13. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Performance and Egg Quality of Luxi Game Chickens%饲粮粗蛋白质水平对鲁西斗鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠军; 杨维仁; 杨在宾; 高翔; 张相伦

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮不同粗蛋白质水平对26 ~ 41周龄的鲁西斗鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响.试验选用26周龄(1.952±0.288) kg健康的鲁西斗鸡200只,随机分为4组,每组5个重复,每个重复10只.试验采取单因素试验设计,4个饲粮粗蛋白质水平依次为:14.0%、15.5%、17.0%和18.5%,各组均限饲,且投料量一致.试验期为16周.结果表明:在鲁西斗鸡产蛋期(26 ~ 41周龄),饲粮粗蛋白质水平对平均蛋重没有显著影响(P>0.05).在试验前期(26~29周龄),饲粮粗蛋白质水平对平均周产蛋量、产蛋率和料蛋比均无显著影响(P>0.05);在试验中期(30 ~37周龄),30 ~33周龄17.0%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组平均周产蛋量显著高于其他各组(除30 ~31周龄15.5%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组外)(P<0.05),30 ~ 31周龄和36 ~ 37周龄产蛋率显著高于14.0%组和18.5%组(P<0.05),32 ~ 35周龄产蛋率显著高于15.5%组(P<0.05),但是各组间30 ~ 37周龄料蛋比差异不显著(P>0.05);在试验末期(38 ~ 41周龄),18.5%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组平均周产蛋量显著高于其他各组(P<0.05),产蛋率显著高于14.0%组和15.5%组(P<0.05),料蛋比显著低于15.5%组(P<0.05).此外,33周龄时,随着饲粮粗蛋白质水平提高,蛋黄颜色有下降趋势(P=0.09);41周龄时,17.0%和18.5%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组蛋白高度和哈氏单位显著高于14.0%组和15.5%组(P<0.05).综合以上结果,鲁西斗鸡产蛋期适宜的饲粮粗蛋白质水平:前期(26 ~29周龄)为14.0%;中期(30 ~ 37周龄)为17.0%;后期(38 ~41周龄)为18.5%.%A single factor design was used to a 16-week experiment to study the effects of dietary crude protein level on performance and egg quality of Luxi game chickens aged 26 to 41 weeks. Two hundred 26-week-old Luxi game chickens with an average body weight of (1. 952 ± 0. 288) kg were randomly distributed into four groups with

  14. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  15. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  16. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  17. Conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas respecto al huevo de gallina en familias de comunidades urbana-rural, Costa Rica Knowledge, opinions and practices related to chicken eggs in families of urban-rural communities, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Peña Vázquez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Indagar sobre los conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas de la población respecto al consumo de huevo de gallina, con el objetivo de poder orientar los mensajes que se dirigen a la población en general, para mejorar el uso del mismo en los hogares. Materiales y método: Estudio descriptivo que aplica técnicas cualitativas y se apoya en variables cuantitativas. La población está compuesta por familias que residen en los distritos Central de Alajuela o Piedades de Santa Ana. Se empleó una muestra, seleccionada a conveniencia, 23 familias de Alajuela Centro y 29 de Piedades de Santa Ana. Además se trabajó con el personal de salud que labora en los Equipos Básicos de Atención en Salud. Resultados: Con respecto a conocimientos, las participantes conocen que el huevo es fuente de proteínas y vitaminas. Prefieren los huevos caseros y de cáscara de color oscuro; sin embargo consumen más los huevos industriales. Las razones de consumir huevo son la costumbre, buen sabor, versatilidad, rapidez y facilidad para prepararlo, además de un precio accesible. A nivel nutricional comparan el huevo con el aguacate y con alimentos pertenecientes al grupo de las carnes. Respecto a las prácticas, el huevo se consume en todos los tiempos de comida y principalmente en frituras. Discusión: no existen diferencias marcadas entre los conocimientos, prácticas y opiniones, entre población urbana y rural estudiada. Los conocimientos relacionados con el huevo tanto en las comunidades y el personal de salud son generales y difieren entre sí, dejando entrever una falta de información en ambos gruposObjective: To inquire into the knowledge, views and practices of the population regarding the consumption of chicken eggs, in order to target messages that go to the general population, to improve the use of the same household. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study applies techniques based on qualitative and quantitative variables. The population

  18. Antioxidant Stability and Functional Properties of Egg White Peptides%蛋清肽的抗氧化稳定性与功能特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛慧慧; 马美湖; 杨昆

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant stability and functional properties(emulsifying capacity,water absorbing capacity and oil absorbing capacity) of egg white peptides(EWP) obtained from lyophilized egg white by pepsin hydrolysis were measured with respect to temperature and pH.The results showed that the scavenging capacities of EWP against hydroxyl,superoxide anion and DPPH free radicals were all increased with increasing EWP concentration.Meanwhile,temperature and pH had a great impact on the antioxidant activity of EWP.The storage of EWP at pH 12.0 for 4 h could result in the loss of antioxidant activity.Moreover,EWP also revealed excellent emulsifying properties,water absorbing capacity and oil absorbing capacity.All of these investigations are benefit for its application in the food and cosmetic industries.%选用胃蛋白酶水解冻干蛋清制得蛋清肽,测定蛋清肽的抗氧化稳定性及功能特性。研究温度和pH值对蛋清肽抗氧化稳定性的影响以及蛋清肽的乳化性、吸水能力和吸油能力。结果表明:随着蛋清肽质量浓度的增加其清除羟自由基(.OH)、超氧阴离子自由基(O-2.)及DPPH自由基的能力均随之增加;温度与pH值对蛋清肽的抗氧化活性影响较大,在pH12.0条件下存放4h后其抗氧化活性消失;蛋清肽具有较好的乳化能力、乳化稳定性、吸油和吸水能力,这些均有利于其在食品和化妆品行业中的应用。

  19. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  20. Composition of and cholesterol in Araucana and commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D W; Lilyblade, A; Clifford, C K; Ernst, R; Clifford, A J; Dunn, P

    1978-01-01

    Araucana eggs from six sources and commercial-type white eggs of two major supermarket brands and from the University of California flock were collected and analyzed for cholesterol content of the yolk. The yolks of Araucana eggs were significantly higher in cholesterol than those of commercial white eggs. PMID:563887

  1. Acquisition of resistance after continuous infection with Ascaridia galli in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdushy, T; Schou, T W; Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T S; Thamsborg, S M; Nejsum, P; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Kyvsgaard, N C

    2014-07-01

    SUMMARY Acquired resistance against Ascaridia galli infection was studied in seventy-two 18-week-old white Leghorn chickens allocated to six groups (G1-G6). In order to understand the population dynamics following trickle-infection (100 eggs per chicken twice weekly), chickens of subgroups of G1 were necropsied 3 days after 1, 6 or 12 inoculations (G1A, G1B and G1C respectively), while G2-G4 were inoculated for 6 weeks. G2 was necropsied 4 weeks after the last inoculation. The number of established larvae increased initially (between G1A and G1B) but decreased after repeated inoculations (G1C, G2). G3, G4 and G5 were used to measure the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment and to monitor the acquisition of resistance following a challenge infection. At week 7 G3, G4 and G5 were treated with flubendazole for 7 days in the feed. Two weeks after treatment the chickens in G4 and G5 were challenged with 500 eggs. G6 was left as uninfected control. Necropsy at week 10 after first inoculation revealed a lower establishment rate, an impaired development and a more posterior localization of the larvae in G4 (trickle-infected-treated-challenged) compared with G5 (treated-challenged). IgY level in serum reached noticeable level at 14 dpi in G2 and G4 chickens, and in G4 chickens IgY level further increased after challenge infection. The study provides evidence that acquired resistance against A. galli in chickens leads to a significant yet incomplete protection against re-infection. PMID:25003836

  2. The vitamin D content and consumer acceptability of vitamin D biofortified eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, A.; O'Grady, M.; Duffy, S.;

    2015-01-01

    , beef, pork, lamb, chicken) could have increased vitamin D and/or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) contents by virtue of addition of vitamin D and/or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (HyD®; where permissible) to the livestock feeds.(2) The aim of the present work was to examine the effect of additional vitamin D3 (D3......); or 3000 IU HyD® (T4) per kg diet for 6 weeks. The vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D content of pooled samples of egg yolks (at week 6) from each group were analysed in Demark using a sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem MS method. Following analysis, the total vitamin D activity was calculated as vitamin...... with ISO (1988) international standard regulations. Hedonic (appearance, liking of flavour, liking of texture and overall acceptability) (dislike/like, unacceptable/acceptable) and intensity sensory analysis descriptors (yolk colour (yellow/orange), egg white (white/grey), sulphur flavour (none...

  3. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea; Royo, Felix; Hau, Jann

    one oral dose with BSA+RV. The eggs of the chickens in this group had a significantly higher immunospecific anti BSA IgY-concentration than did any of the eggs from the orally immunized chickens. One of the immunization regimes (immunizations in weeks 1, 7 and 18) clearly included a booster effect of...

  4. Role of Konjac Flour on Emulsifying Property of Milk and Egg White Proteins and Sensory Acceptance of Gluten-free Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Akesowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of three independent variables: Konjac concentration (0.1-0.4%, pH level (pH 5-9 and NaCl concentration (0.2-0.6 M on Emulsifying Activity (EA of Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC and Egg White Powder (EWP. Response surface methodology was used to determine the effects and also find out the optimal condition. Both Konjac concentration and pH level had greatly significant effects on EA of MPC and EWP, while NaCl concentration had negligible. An increase in Konjac concentration showed a positive effect to increase the EA of both MPC and EWP. Moreover, their EA values were found to be more pronounced at pH 6.5-7.5. The interaction of Konjac concentration and pH level had a negative effect on EA. The optimal conditions improving the EA of MPC and EWP were applied to the processing of gluten-free rice cakes. Sensory acceptance of gluten-free cakes added with Konjac flour was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale test. Incorporation of 0.25% Konjac flour was appeared to increase sensory scores of the gluten-free cake and showed no significant difference compared to the cake containing 0.4% Konjac. Panelists preferred the gluten-free cakes containing Konjac and were willing to purchase the products.

  5. Association of Beta2-Positive Clostridium perfringens Type A With Focal Duodenal Necrosis in Egg-Laying Chickens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, M; Barrios, M A; Stabler, L; Zavala, Guillermo; Shivaprasad, H L; Lee, M D; Villegas, A M; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-03-01

    Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is a poorly understood intestinal disease of egg layers, and has been associated with drops in egg production and decreased egg weights. The etiology of this disease is still unknown, but the condition has been associated with Clostridium colinum and Clostridium perfringens. In order to investigate the etiology, duodenal samples were taken from hens with FDN. The hens originated from table egg layer farms in three states. The samples were examined by histopathology, bacteriology, and immunohistochemistry. Macroscopically, all samples contained focal to multifocal, variably sized, reddened or brownish gray areas of mucosal erosion. Histopathology revealed mild to severe heterophilic and lymphoplasmacytic enteritis with loss of enterocytes at the villous tips, luminal fibrinonecrotic exudate, and variable numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria within the lesions in 16/30 samples. Clostridium perfringens was isolated by anaerobic bacteriology from 4/13 samples that had characteristic microscopic lesions of FDN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that all four isolates were Type A C. perfringens, positive for beta2 gene and negative for necrotic enteritis toxin B and enterotoxin genes. PCR for Clostridium colinum applied to DNA extracted from frozen intestinal samples yielded negative results in 14/14 duodenal samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 7C. perfringens, alpha and beta2 toxins stained a few to numerous long rod-shaped bacteria present in the lesions. IHC for alpha and beta2 toxins also stained enterocytes at the villous tips, inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, as well as degenerated and sloughed enterocytes present within the luminal exudate. These findings suggest that C. perfringens may play a role in the development of FDN. Experimental challenge studies with these isolates still need to be performed in order to reproduce the disease and fulfill Koch's postulates. PMID:26953942

  6. Mutations in and Expression of the Tumor Suppressor Gene p53 in Egg-Type Chickens Infected With Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Yulong, G; Liting, Q; Shuai, Y; Delong, L; Yubao, L; Lili, J; Sidang, L; Xiaomei, W

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic effects of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), we examined mutations in and the expression of p53 in the myelocytomas distributed in the liver, spleen, trachea, and bone marrow, as well as in fibrosarcomas in the abdominal cavity and hemangiomas in skin from chickens that were naturally or experimentally infected with ALV-J. Two types of mutations in the p53 gene were detected in myelocytomas of both the experimentally infected and the naturally infected chickens and included point mutations and deletions. Two of the point mutations have not been reported previously. Partial complementary DNA clones with a 122-bp deletion in the p53 gene ORF and a 15-bp deletion in the C-terminus were identified in the myelocytomas. In addition, moderate expression of the mutant p53 protein was detected in the myelocytomas that were distributed in the liver, trachea, spleen, and bone marrow. Mutant p53 protein was not detected in the subcutaneous hemangiomas or in the abdominal fibrosarcomas associated with natural and experimental ALV-J infection, respectively. These results identify mutations associated with abnormal expression of p53 in ALV-J-associated myelocytomas, suggesting a role in tumorigenesis. PMID:25445321

  7. Qualidade da carne de marreco pequim branco (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 comparado a frango de corte Meat quality in white peking mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 compared to broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bitencourt Faria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O total de 20 carcaças resfriadas (10 Marrecos Pequim Branco e 10 de frangos de corte foi submetido às análises de composição centesimal, colesterol, cor (sistema CIE L*a*b*, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC. A carne de marreco apresenta (PTwenty refrigerated carcasses (10 Peking mallard and 10 broiler chicken were submitted to analyses of chemical composition, cholesterol, colour (CIE L*a*b* system, weight loss by cooking (PPC and shear force (FC. Mallard meat had lower (P<0.05 humidity in both leg and breast (71.77 and 74.53%, respectively when compared with chicken meat (74.73 and 76.07%, respectively. When different cuts were compared, the breast had a higher (P<0.05 humidity and protein content than the leg in both species. Mallard leg and breast had lower (P<0.05 lightness (37.59 and 35.75, respectively and higher red content (18.48 and 20.67, respectively, than the lightness (40.98 and 45.18, respectively and red content (10.02 and 5.52, respectively observed in chicken. The FC was higher (P<0.05 in mallard breast (4.90 kgf than in chicken breast (2.63 kgf. Meat from White Peking mallard is darker and with a stronger red pigment than meat from broiler chicken. Even though it is less tender than meat from broiler chicken, mallard meat still has an acceptable tenderness.

  8. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  9. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  10. Quality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma; Milet, Asma; Moula, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P

  11. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  12. Asparagine and glutamine side-chain conformation in solution and crystal: A comparison for hen egg-white lysozyme using residual dipolar ouplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental 15N-1H and 1H-1H residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) for the asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln) side chains of hen egg-white lysozyme are measured and analysed in conjunction with 1N relaxation data, information about χ1 torsion angles in solution and molecular dynamics simulations. The RDCs are compared to values predicted from 16 high-resolution crystal structures. Two distinct groups of Asn and Gln side chains are identified. The first contains residues whose side chains show a fixed, relatively rigid, conformation in solution. For these residues there is good agreement between the experimental and predicted RDCs. This agreement improves when the experimental order parameter, S, is included in the calculation of the RDCs from the crystal structures. The comparison of the experimental RDCs with values calculated from the X-ray structures shows that the similarity between the oxygen and nitrogen electron densities is a limitation to the correct assignment of the Asn and Gln side-chain orientation in X-ray structures. In the majority of X-ray structures a 180 deg. rotation about χ2 or χ3, leading to the swapping of Nδε2 and Oδε1, is necessary for at least one Asn or Gln residue in order to achieve good agreement between experimental and predicted RDCs. The second group contains residues whose side chains do not adopt a single, well-defined, conformation in solution. These residues do not show a correlation between the experimental and predicted RDCs. In many cases the family of crystal structures shows a range of orientations for these side chains, but in others the crystal structures show a well-defined side-chain position. In the latter case, this is found to arise from crystallographic contacts and does not represent the behaviour of the side chain in solution

  13. Use of egg white protein powder based films fortified with sage and lemon balm essential oils in the storage of lor cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible film was produced by adding 3 % sorbitol (w/v to egg white protein powder (EWPP. The first group of lor cheese samples was coated with a film fortified by sage essential oil (SEO and the second group of samples was coated with films enriched by adding lemon balm essential oil (BEO at various concentrations [0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % (v/v]. The films were labeled as EWPPSEO(0.5, EWPPSEO(1, EWPPSEO(2, EWPPBEO(0.5, EWPPBEO(1, EWPPBEO(2 to indicate the type and the concentration of the additive. The third batch of the lor cheese samples was coated exclusively with non-fortified EWPP and the fourth batch was uncoated. All of the cheese samples were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Viable cell counts of these species, yeasts and moulds were determined after the cheese production. All the samples were stored at +4 °C. Their physicochemical and microbiological properties were examined on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th day of the storage. Thereat significant (P0.05. Physicochemical and antibacterial properties were more significant in SEO at all concentrations compared to BEO. However, the antifungal effect of BEO was higher than that of SEO. The antifungal effect of BEO was the same at 1 % (v/v and 2 % (v/v concentrations. E. coli O157:H7 was the most resistant microorganism to the essential oils while L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive. EWPP showed a bacteriostatic effect on the microorganisms and bactericidal effects were determined on the 30th day of the storage against L. monocytogenes and yeast-moulds.

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana extract on chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Murtini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistletoe is one of medicinal herb which believed has an anticancer activity, it’s due to the capability of immunostimulator. The following research was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana extract on chicken embryos. Twenty White Leghorn Specific Pathogen Free (SPF 10 days old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups of 5 eggs. The first group served as control and they were inoculated with aquabidestilate sterile. The second, third and fourth group was inoculated with 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg S. oortiana extract/egg respectively. S. oortiana extract was inoculated via allantoic cavity. All experimental eggs were incubated at 37oC until day 21 and incubation was terminated before the embryos hatched. The embryos and the lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen were weighed. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe extract was measured by counting the percentage of bursa of Fabricius active lymphoid follicle and the area of thymus medulla. The results showed tea mislestoe extract at the dose of 0.1mg, 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg have immunomodulatory effect on chicken embryos indicated by the increase of percentage of active lymphoid follicle of bursa Fabricius i.e. 68.8, 71.8 and 57.8% and increase area of thymus medulla i.e. 24.9 – 39.3% respectively compared to control group i.e. 22.6% of active lymphoid follicle of bursa Fabricius and 17.6% of thymus medulla area. It is concluded that S. oortiana extract at the dose of 0.1mg, 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg have immunomodulatory effect on chicken embryos.

  15. The impact of domestication on the chicken optical apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the pupil diameter at different light intensities (the steady state pupil dynamics, in adult male and female White Leghorns and the closest relatives to their ancestor, the Red Junglefowls. With this information, we calculated the focal length and optical sensitivity (f-number of the eyes. Males have larger eyes than females in both breeds and White Leghorn eyes are larger than those of Red Junglefowls in both sexes. The steady state pupil dynamics is less variable, however, the combination of pupil dynamics and eye size gives a higher optical sensitivity in Red Junglefowl eyes than in White Leghorns at light intensities below approximately 10 cd/m(2. While eye size and focal length match the larger body size in White Leghorns compared to Red Junglefowls, the steady state pupil dynamics do not. The reason for this is likely to be that eye morphology and the neuro-muscular control of the pupil have been affected differently by the strong selection for egg production and the simultaneous release of the selection pressure for high performing vision. This study is the first description of how optical sensitivity has changed in a domesticated species and our results demonstrate important considerations regarding domestication processes and sensory ability.

  16. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

  17. White Sturgeon Egg-Mat Network near Shorty's Island and Myrtle Bend, 2007-2013, Koootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The egg-mat data describe a sub-set of the egg-mat network operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The sub-set inlcudes two sites, 1. near an area...

  18. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Charles E.; Yousif, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Musa, Hassan H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm = 4.622). PMID:25535590

  19. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm=4.622.

  20. Asparagine and glutamine side-chain conformation in solution and crystal: A comparison for hen egg-white lysozyme using residual dipolar ouplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higman, Victoria A.; Boyd, Jonathan; Smith, Lorna J.; Redfield, Christina [University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Molecular Sciences (United Kingdom)], E-mail: christina.redfield@bioch.ox.ac.uk

    2004-11-15

    Experimental {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H and {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) for the asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln) side chains of hen egg-white lysozyme are measured and analysed in conjunction with {sup 1}N relaxation data, information about {chi}{sup 1} torsion angles in solution and molecular dynamics simulations. The RDCs are compared to values predicted from 16 high-resolution crystal structures. Two distinct groups of Asn and Gln side chains are identified. The first contains residues whose side chains show a fixed, relatively rigid, conformation in solution. For these residues there is good agreement between the experimental and predicted RDCs. This agreement improves when the experimental order parameter, S, is included in the calculation of the RDCs from the crystal structures. The comparison of the experimental RDCs with values calculated from the X-ray structures shows that the similarity between the oxygen and nitrogen electron densities is a limitation to the correct assignment of the Asn and Gln side-chain orientation in X-ray structures. In the majority of X-ray structures a 180 deg. rotation about {chi}{sup 2} or {chi}{sup 3}, leading to the swapping of N{sup {delta}}{sup {epsilon}}{sup 2} and O{sup {delta}}{sup {epsilon}}{sup 1}, is necessary for at least one Asn or Gln residue in order to achieve good agreement between experimental and predicted RDCs. The second group contains residues whose side chains do not adopt a single, well-defined, conformation in solution. These residues do not show a correlation between the experimental and predicted RDCs. In many cases the family of crystal structures shows a range of orientations for these side chains, but in others the crystal structures show a well-defined side-chain position. In the latter case, this is found to arise from crystallographic contacts and does not represent the behaviour of the side chain in solution.

  1. The Effects of pH on the Growth and Aspect Ratio of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Crystals Prepared in Different Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, U. J.; Horrell, E. E.; Kou, Y.; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the nucleation and aspect ratio of CEWL crystals grown by vapor diffusion in acetate, butyrate, carbonate, succinate, and phosphate buffers in a range of pH spanning the pK(sub a) of these buffers. The nucleation numbers drop off significantly in the vicinity of pK(sub a) for each of the buffers except the phosphate system, in which we used only the pH range around the second titration point(pK2). There is a concomitant increase in the sizes of the crystals. Some typical nucleation number results are shown. These data support and extend other observations. In addition, we have examined changes in aspect ratio which accompany the suppression of nucleation within each buffer system. The length of the face in the [001] direction was measured, and compared to the width of the (110) face in the [110] type directions. We find that while the aspect ratio of the crystals is affected by pH, it is dominated by a correlation with the size of the crystals. Small crystals are longer in the [0011 direction than crystals that are larger (higher pH within a buffer system). This relationship is found to hold independent of the choice of buffer. These results are consistent with those of Judge et al, who used a batch process which resulted in uniform sizing of crystals at each pH. In these experiments, we specifically avoid agitating the protein/salt buffer mixture when combining the two. This permits the formation of a range of sizes at a given pH. The results for a .05 M acetate 5% NaCl buffer are also shown. We will discuss these results in light of a growth model.

  2. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Egg Allergy Diagnosis Treatment Getting the Flu Vaccine Food Labels: What ...

  3. Consumer Segmentation Based on Food-Related Lifestyles and Perception of Chicken Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll García, Guillermo; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Panea Doblado, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disseminate knowledge regarding the perceptions of Spanish consumers of chicken breast and their related lifestyles and to classify different consumer groups according to their food-related lifestyles. Nearly all Spanish consumers consume chicken breast once or twice per week. The preference for white or yellow chicken appears to be divided evenly, although the preferred is white chicken. Chicken breast is perceived as a product of convenience. Seventy percent of ...

  4. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourichon David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three different general immune criteria; high antibody response to Newcastle disease virus 3 weeks after vaccination (ND3, high cell-mediated immune response, using the wing web response to phytohemglutinin (PHA and high phagocytic activity, measured as carbone clearance (CC. Line ND3-L was selected on ND3, line PHA-L was selected on PHA, and line CC-L on CC, but all lines were measured for all three traits. The fourth line was a contemporary random bred control maintained throughout the selection experiment. Principal component analysis was used to distinguish clusters based on the overall set of immune measures. Results In the KLH immunised group, no differences were present between lines for natural antibodies binding to KLH and LPS, and, lines ND3-L and PHA-L had higher titers to LTA and anti-Gal titers measured before the immunisation protocol. The measure of ND3 was correlated positively with LPS titers measured post KLH immunisation and with the difference between LPS titers measured at day 0 and 7 post immunisation. In the M. butyricum immunised group, Line ND3-L showed significantly higher specific antibody response to M. butyricum, and this result agrees well with the hypothesis that the Th-1 pathway was expected to be selected for in this line. Conclusion This study has shown that the two different antigens KLH and M. butyricum gave rise to different responses in the set of selected lines, and that the response was only enhanced for the antigen associated with the same response mechanism as that for the trait (ND3, PHA or CC for which the line was selected. Interactions between innate and acquired immunity have been observed mainly for the

  5. In ovo vaccination of chicken embryos with experimental Newcastle disease and avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H; Mitchell, B; Brugh, M

    1997-01-01

    Inactivated oil-emulsion (OE) Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccines were injected into 18-day-old white rock (WR) and white leghorn (WL) chicken embryos to evaluate their immunologic efficacy and their effects on hatchability. Embryonating eggs were inoculated at 1.5 inches depth with various vaccine volumes and antigen concentrations. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were first detected in chickens at 2 wk posthatch. Protection against morbidity and mortality was demonstrated in all of 10 chickens vaccinated as embryos and challenged with viscerotropic velogenic ND virus at 53 days of age and also in all of eight in ovo- vaccinated chickens challenged with highly pathogenic AI virus at 34 days of age. All of five unvaccinated control chickens for each respective ND- and AI-vaccinated group died. In pooled groups from successive hatches, the hatchability of WR or WL embryos injected with 100 microliters of vaccine was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from unvaccinated hatchmate controls when needle gauges of 22, 20, and 18 were used. Seroconversion rates of chickens vaccinated as embryos ranged from 27% to 100% with ND vaccination and 85% to 100% for AI vaccination. For ND, geometric mean HI titers of chickens per vaccine group ranged from 11 to 733, and in pooled groups, the range was 49 to 531. Titers for AI vaccine groups ranged from 156 to 1178. This study demonstrated that acceptable hatchability, seroconversion rates, and protective immunity can be attained with in ovo inoculation of ND or AI OE vaccines if the vaccines are prepared with sufficient antigen and administered properly. PMID:9454919

  6. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  7. Research of blastocyte-like structure in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jia; PAN; Qiuzhen; LI; Junying; HAN; Hongbing; SUN; Shu

    2005-01-01

    The chicken embryo is a classic model used to investigate embryonic development, gene expression, and tissue differentiation, and is also an important research tool in studying the animal functional genomics. The whole blastoderms of fresh unincubated eggs from White Leghorn chickens were collected with a paper ring, mechanically broken into small pieces and cultured in medium. Then the small pieces would develop into blastocyte-like structures (BLS), which could be facilitated by an addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the primary culture and their diameter was nearly doubled from 12 to 24 h. The additional yolk had no positive effect on the development in the first 12 h but encouraged the BLSs attaching and inner cells differentiating instead in 24 h. The inner cells of the BLS showing a high alkaline-phosphatase activity similar to those in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and also expressing a large amount of the specific stage embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) on the surface, which was known to be the characteristic of non-differentiated mouse and avian ES cells, could finally differentiate into nerve-like cells, fibroblast cells and so on in the medium. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) facilitated the cells' proliferation and prevented differentiation in the suspended culture of the BLSs. So we drew the conclusion that the BLS obtained from broken blastoderm can be used to amplify avian ES cells so as to initiate a new method of producing transgenic chickens.

  8. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure and promoter regulation by estrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandini Vasudevan; Urvashi Bahadur; Paturu Kondaiah

    2001-03-01

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by estrogen, the chicken RCP gene including 1 kb of the 5′ flanking region has been isolated. Characterization of the gene structure shows that it contains six exons and five introns, including an intron in the 5′ untranslated region. Sequence analysis of the 5′ flanking region does not show the presence of any classical, palindromic estrogen response element (ERE). However, there are six half site ERE consensus elements. Four deletion constructs of the 5′ flanking region with varying number of ERE half sites were made in pGL3 basic vector upstream of the luciferase-coding region. Transient transfection of these RCP promoter deletion constructs into a chicken hepatoma cell line (LMH2A) showed 6-12-fold transcriptional induction by a stable estrogen analogue, moxesterol. This suggests that the RCP gene is induced by estrogen even in the absence of a classical ERE and the half sites of ERE in this promoter may be important for estrogen induction.

  9. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives Viscosidade da clara de ovo proveniente de poedeiras de diferentes espécies com aditivos comerciais e naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.A coloração da gema, transparência e viscosidade da clara (albúmen são parâmetros importantes que os consumidores consideram na avaliação dos ovos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar as trocas que ocorrem na armazenagem por 36 dias em relação à viscosidade da clara de ovos produzidos por poedeiras de duas diferentes linhagens (Carijo Barbada eIsa Brown , as quais receberam dietas contendo urucum (1,5 e 2,0% ou aditivo sintético. Foram realizadas as análises de umidade, altura do albúmen, pH, viscosidade, formação e estabilidade da espuma. A linhagem Carijó Barbada apresentou menor quantidade de albúmen, menor umidade e maior viscosidade que a linhagem Isa Brown, entretanto, com a estocagem, a viscosidade diminuiu significativamente para ambas as linhagens. Inicialmente, a adição de 2,0% de urucum ou aditivo sintético foi suficiente para aumentar a viscosidade em ovos obtidos de ambas as linhagens, mas com a estocagem, somente o controle manteve maior viscosidade. A baixa viscosidade não interferiu na

  10. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing of Three Domesticated Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongyep; Son, Bongjun; Mun, Seyoung; Oh, Man Hwan; Oh, Sejong; Ha, Jaejung; Yi, Junkoo; Lee, Seunguk; Han, Kyudong

    2016-02-01

    Chicken is one of the most popular domesticated species worldwide, as it can serve an important role in agricultural as well as biomedical research fields. Because it inhabits almost every continent and presents diverse morphology and traits, the need of genetic markers for distinguishing each breed for various purposes has increased. The whole genome sequencing of three different breeds (White Leghorn, Korean domestic, and Araucana) that show similar coloring patterns, with the exception of the White Leghorn breed, have confirmed previously reported genomic alterations and identified many novel variants. Additionally, the Whole Genome Re-Sequencing (WGRS) approach identified an approximately 4 kb insert within SLCO1B3 responsible for blue egg shell color. Targeted investigation of pigment-related genes corroborated previously reported non-synonymous mutations, and provided deeper insight into chicken coloring, where not a single but a combination of non-synonymous mutations in the MC1R gene is likely to be responsible for altered feather coloring. PMID:26853871

  11. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values. PMID:20181877

  12. Egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  13. Proliferation of exogenously injected primordial germcells (PGCs) into busulfan-treated chicken embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Fumta; N.Fujihara

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of busulfan treatment on the proliferation of chicken primordialgerm cells (Fgcs) in vivo, focusing on the preferential settlement of PGCs onto the germinal ridges of chicken em-bryos. Methods: Bustdfan (250 rig/egg) was injected into the egg white of freshly oviposited fertilized eggs, whichwere then incubated. Embryonic developnent and viability were examined, and exogenous PGCs collected from embry-onic blood vessels were injected into the germinal crescent region of recipient enthryos. The nttmber of PGCs residedonto germinal ridges of the right and left sides were compared. Results: Bustdfan had a slight harmful effect on theembryo viabihty and the PGCs proliferation. The number of PGCs resided onto the left side of germinal ridges wasslightly higher as compared with the right side. Conclusion: Busulfan suppressed the viability of embryos and the pro-liferation of endogenous PGCs in the recipient embryos. However, the number of exogenous PGCs proliferated washigher in embryos treated with busnlfan than those without busulfan. Data also suggest the possibihty of a preferentialresidence of PCCs toward the left side of the germinal crescent region as compared with the right, which may be due toa more advanced functional development of the left gonad than the right. (Asian JAndro11999 Dec; 1 : 187 - 190)

  14. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A;

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  15. Effect of low dose gamma-radiation upon Newcastle disease virus antibody level in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific antibody response against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs exposed to low dose gamma-radiation was studied. Materials and methods: Two groups of eggs of commercial meat chicken lines were irradiated with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation, respectively. The same number of eggs unexposed to gamma-radiation served as controls. After hatching the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation was not vaccinated while the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation was vaccinated on the 14 day. Specific serum anti-Newcastle disease virus antibodies were quantified by the hemagglutination inhibition assay with 4 HA units of Newcastle disease virus La Sota strain. Result: Specific antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation and vaccinated on the 14th day significantly increased on the 28th day. Specific antibody titre against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation and non-vaccinated was significantly higher on the 1st and 14th day. Conclusion: Acute irradiation of heavy breeding chicken eggs with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation could have a stimulative effect on humoral immunity in chickens.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. In earlier assessments, the Panel concluded that wines fined with egg products and albumin (egg white) may trigger adverse reactions in susceptible individuals under the proposed...... process and no new clinical studies were provided. Taking into account the information provided on the characterisation of the fining agents regarding their content of egg proteins other than ovalbumin, the lack of standardisation of the wine manufacturing process, and that no new clinical data have been...

  17. Development of SNP assays to determine genetic resistance to ALV-A in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus. Six subgroups of ALV, namely, A, B, C, D, E, and J were found in chickens. ALV subgroup A causes tumors primarily in egg-layer type of chickens; ALV is controlled by eradication schemes. ALV-A infection of chicken is mediated by a cellular host ...

  18. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    te Pas Marinus FW; Hulsegge Ina; Schokker Dirkjan; Smits Mari A; Fife Mark; Zoorob Rima; Endale Marie-Laure; Rebel Johanna MJ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways...

  19. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  20. Enhancement of spontaneous bursal lymphoma frequency by serotype 2 Marek's disease vaccine, SB-1, in transgenic and non-transgenic line 0 white leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, D W; Payne, W; Kung, H J; Robinson, D; Ewert, D; Olson, W; Crittenden, L B; Fadly, A M

    1999-04-01

    A significant incidence of bursal lymphomas with long latencies was noted in transgenic breeders carrying a benign defective subgroup A avian leukosis provirus, ALVA6, in their germline and maintained free of exposure to avian retroviruses. Serotype 2 Marek's disease (MD) vaccine virus, strain SB-1, a component of the bivalent MD vaccine used to vaccinate the breeders, was suspected as a contributory factor in the increased bursal lymphoma incidence. Although these bursal lymphomas had several characteristics similar to retroviral-induced bursal lymphomas, we found no evidence of retroviral influence based on many virological, immunological and molecular tests that were performed on plasma and tumour cells. These tumours were therefore classified as spontaneous bursal lymphomas, similar to those reported for some specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken lines. Long-term in vivo experiments in plastic isolators and carefully maintained pens with homozygous and hemizygous ALVA6 and ALVA6-free female chickens (line 0) that were either non-vaccinated, serotype 3 (herpesvirus of turkeys [HVT]; monovalent)-vaccinated, or HVT/SB-1 (bivalent) vaccinated, demonstrated that the incidence of spontaneous bursal lymphomas were significantly higher in those chickens that were vaccinated with the bivalent MD vaccine (P ⩽0.05). In addition, this incidence did not depend on the ALVA6 proviral insert since there was no significant difference in spontaneous bursal lymphoma incidence between bivalent vaccinated hemizygous ALVA6 and ALVA6-free line 0 female chickens. Thus, the increased incidence of spontaneous bursal lymphomas is correlated solely with the presence of SB-1 and is not dependent on the presence of ALVA6. PMID:26911501

  1. HRD & Quality: The Chicken or the Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferketish, B. Jean; Hayden, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management is not a fad. Human resource development must be aligned with the culture of continuous improvement to make it work. Changes may be necessary in hiring, promotion, and performance appraisal. (SK)

  2. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Some Biochemical Indicators in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionising radiation before incubation on concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was the control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for the both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of all three parameters was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The concentration of total protein was significantly decreased in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3, 7 and 30 and increased only on day 5. The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma was increased in the same chickens on days 1 and 30. The concentration of the cholesterol was decreased in the same chickens on day 7, and increased on day 10. Obtained results indicate that low-dose of gamma radiation has effects on some metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (author)

  3. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-07-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  4. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  5. Effects of in ovo exposure of white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two chlorinated dibenzofurans on CYP1A induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinfei; Wiseman, Steve; Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Kennedy, Sean W; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    In birds, activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by some polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) results in induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression. This response has been useful for predicting relative sensitivity of birds to dioxin-like compounds. To further investigate species-sensitivity to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds induction of cytochrome P450 1A4 and 1A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) mRNA and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were quantified in liver of posthatch white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) via air cell injection. The rank-order of sensitivity of TCDD- and TCDF-exposed birds, based on CYP1A, was chicken>pheasant>quail. Based on CYP1A5 mRNA expression and EROD induction, the order of sensitivity of PeCDF-exposed birds was identical to that for TCDD and TCDF. However, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression the rank-order was pheasant>chicken>quail. When comparing the potency of the three compounds in each species, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression, TCDD was the most potent compound in chicken. However, PeCDF was equally potent to TCDD in quail and was more potent than TCDD in pheasant. These results suggest that quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis of CYP1A expression, particularly CYP1A4 mRNA expression, may be a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than analysis of EROD induction, especially in less responsive avian species. Based on these findings future risk assessments should consider the sensitivity of the species inhabiting a site and the congeners of concern that are present. PMID:20821598

  6. 蛋清容积的大小对双针射频热凝范围的影响%Morphological Analysis of Bipolar Radiofrequency Thermoset Produced by Different Containers Filled with Different Volumes of Egg White

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏杰; 林建; 李静; 槐洪波

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To analyze the relationship between the volumes of container filled with egg white and lesion in the bipolar radiofrequency mode. Methods: Three containers filled with egg white were used.Container A with the volume of 83 183. 3 mm3 , container B with the volume of 49 334. 1 mm3 and container C with the volume of 32046. 8mm3. Pairs of 20 G haylis radionics cannuulae with 10 mm active tips were used.secured in a 4 mm equivalent deviate parallel position apart and submerged in egg white. 90℃ , 900 seconds radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed. The progress of thermoset formation was photographed and analyzed. Results :Under the same experimental condition, continuous strip thermoset in container A, B and C was formed when the electrode distance was 12 mm, 20mm and 24 mm correspondingly, and the maximum thermoset areas of the three groups were 181. 1 mm2 . 272. 4 mm2 and 432. 8 mm2 respectively. Conclusions : With the same radionics cannulae , bipolar radiofrequency creates smaller continuous strip lesions in the big container which is filled with egg white than that in the large one.%目的:观察双极射频模式下不同蛋清容积形成热凝物的形态.方法:选用三个大小不同的圆柱形容器A、B和C,其体积分别为83 183.3 mm3、49 334.1 mm3、32 046.8 mm3.使用工作端长度为10 mm,20 G baylis电极针,在双极射频模式下,以不同的间距分别平行固定在盛满蛋清的A容器、B容器和C容器中,均给予90℃、900 s射频热凝.对形成的热凝物表面形态摄像并进行相关指标的测量分析.结果:在条件相同的双极射频模式下,A容器、B容器和C容器分别在电极间距为12 mm、20 mm和24 mm形成最大带状热凝物.其最大热凝面积分别为181.1 mm2、272.4 mm2和432.8 mm2.结论:相同实验条件下,减小容器容积,可增大形成带状热凝物的两电极最大间距和热凝物面积,但电极针外侧热凝物长度基本没有明显变化.

  7. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  8. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A ... egg allergy will usually carry — or have a grown-up carry — an epinephrine injection, just in case. continue ...

  9. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Henriksen

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

  10. Mapping of QTL affecting incidence of blood and meat inclusions in egg layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vennerström Pia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occurrence of blood and meat inclusions is an internal egg quality defect. Mass candling reveals most of the spots, but because brown eggshell hampers selection in brown chicken lines it has not been possible to eliminate the defect by selection. Estimated frequency of blood and meat inclusions in brown layers is about 18% whereas it is 0.5% in white egg layers. Several factors are known to increase the incidence of this fault: genetic background, low level of vitamin A and/or D, stress or infections, for instance. To study the genetic background of the defect, a mapping population of 1599 F2 hens from a cross of White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up. Results Our histopathological analyses show that blood spots consist of mainly erythrocytes and that meat spots are accumulations of necrotic material. Linkage analysis of 27 chromosomes with 162 microsatellite markers revealed one significant quantitative trait locus (QTL affecting blood spot and meat spot frequency. We sequenced a fragment of a candidate gene within the region, ZO-2, coding for a tight junction protein. Nine polymorphisms were detected and two of them were included in fine-mapping and association analysis. Fine-mapping defined the QTL result. To further verify the QTL, association analyses were carried out in two independent commercial breeding lines with the marker MCW241 and surrounding SNPs. Association was found mainly in a 0.8 Mb-wide chromosomal area on GGAZ. Conclusions There was good agreement between the location of the QTL region on chromosome Z and the association results in the commercial breeds analyzed. Variations found in tight junction protein ZO-2 and microRNA gga-mir-1556 may predispose egg layers to blood and meat spot defects. This paper describes the first results of detailed QTL analyses of the blood and meat spots trait(s in chickens.

  11. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Zubaedah1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

  12. Restriction of germline proliferation by soft x-ray irradiation of chicken embryos and its application to chimera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitor cells of gametes. Avian PGCs are located in the central region of the area pellucida at the blastoderm stage. PGCs enter the circulation soon after the formation of blood vessels in incubating eggs and eventually settle in the gonadal primordium. We have now examined exposure of chicken embryos to soft (low-energy) x-rays as a means of depleting endogenous PGCs and thereby improving the efficiency of chimera production. The blastoderm of White Leghorn eggs was exposed to soft x-rays for 0, 20, 40 or 60 s before incubation. The irradiated embryos manifested delayed development at 60 h of incubation. They also showed reduced numbers of circulating PGCs at stages 14 and 15 and of gonadal PGCs at stage 30. The hatchability of irradiated embryos was lower than that of nonirradiated controls. Irradiation for 20 s was found to provide the best outcome taking into consideration both the restriction of PGC proliferation and hatchability. Dispersed blastoderm cells of quail (black plumage) embryos were introduced into the blastoderm of chicken embryos irradiated for 20 s or of nonirradiated embryos. The number of donor-derived PGCs was higher in the irradiated embryos than in the nonirradiated controls at stage 30. These results suggest that soft x-irradiation of chicken embryos is a feasible approach to depletion of endogenous germ cells and consequent improvement in the efficiency of incorporation of donor PGCs

  13. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  14. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shields; Michael Greger

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated wi...

  15. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Rani Gilhare; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Ashish Kumar; Surendra Kumar Naik; Tarini Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  16. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  17. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  18. 矮小型品系(S3系)种蛋孵化减量规律研究%Study on Weight Loss of S3 Line Chicken Eggs during Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎寿丰; 赵振华; 黄华云; 张静

    2011-01-01

    In order to discover weight loss of S3 line eggs during incubation, 21 000 eggs were involved.The results showed that average rate of egg weight loss was 13.56%, and die embryos of weight loss rate is higher than living embryos eggs (P<0.05).The rate of egg weight loss was positively related with egg weight (P<0.01).Egg weight was positively correlated with embryos in egg weight that in different incubation stage (P<0.05).The bigger the egg weight was, the bigger the birth weight.Early selection classification is helpful to improve the chicks hatching.%以矮小型品系(S3系)21000枚种蛋为材料对种蛋孵化期减量情况进行系统测定.结果显示,种蛋的平均减量率为13.56%,死胚蛋的减量率高于活胚蛋(P<0.05);种蛋减量率与蛋质量太小有关,各个阶段的减量和减量率呈极显著正相关(P<0.01);人孵蛋质量与不同阶段胚蛋质量呈强正相关(P<0.01),且与雏鸡的出雏质量呈显著正相关(P<0.05).早期种蛋分级孵化,有利于提高雏鸡整齐度.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Sodium Salicylate Administration to Laying Hens: Evidence for Time Dependent Increase in Drug Elimination from Plasma and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poźniak, Błażej; Grabowski, Tomasz; Motykiewicz-Pers, Karolina; Bobrek, Kamila; Rak, Lech; Bobusia, Katarzyna; Gaweł, Andrzej; Świtała, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus) salicylate (SA) may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT), minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h) and elimination half-life (T1/2el) of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB) increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment. PMID:25893240

  20. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  1. Genomic organisation of the chicken ghrelin gene and its single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Q; Zeng, H; Lei, M; Ishag, N A; Fang, M; Sun, B; Yang, G; Zhang, X

    2004-10-01

    (1) Ghrelin is a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is expressed primarily in the stomach and hypothalamus with the probable function of stimulating GH secretion and food intake both in mammals and poultry. The complete sequences of ghrelin gene have been reported in humans and mice; however, that of chickens remains unclear. (2) Here, we report the complete sequence of chicken ghrelin gene (submitted to Genbank; accession number AY303688), which consists of 5 exons and 4 introns. As in mice, the first exon of chicken ghrelin gene does not encode any amino acid. (3) Scanning point mutations with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) using WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis Systems and confirmed with direct sequencing for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire gene of chicken ghrelin. (4) Results showed that there were 19 SNPs in chicken ghrelin gene, and most of these SNPs were scattered in the 4 introns. In these SNPs, one mutation in exon 5 (A2355G) led to the change of amino acid from glutamine to arginine (Gln 113 Arg): as a result a different ghrelin precursor instead of a mature peptide was produced. In addition, one SNP in 5'UTR (C223G) determined the presence or absence of a potential binding site of transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), which might affect the expression of chicken ghrelin gene. Some of the SNPs detected in the present study could be used in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for growth characters in chickens. (5) Because one SNP is located in a polymorphic site of restriction enzyme PagI of intron 4, it was possible to design a PCR-RFLP procedure and analyse the diversity of 10 chicken populations. Results showed the allelic frequencies of C2100T differ among these breeds, however, no significant difference was observed between imported breeds and Chinese native ones, nor between egg layers and

  2. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao; Yang; Fugo; Takasu; Wei; Liang; Anders; P; M?ller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles still remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs.In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos(Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts(Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs(mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs.In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  3. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao Yang; Fugo Takasu; Wei Liang; Anders P Mller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles stil remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs. In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts (Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs (mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs. In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  4. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  5. Indirect effects of oral tolerance to ovalbumin interfere with the immune responses triggered by Schistosoma mansoni eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the injection of a tolerated protein (indirect effects affects the formation of granulomas around Schistosoma mansoni eggs trapped in the lungs after intravenous (iv injection into normal (noninfected C57BL/6 mice (6 animals per group. To induce oral tolerance to chicken egg ovalbumin a 1/5 dilution of egg white in water was offered ad libitum in a drinking bottle for 3 days. Control mice received water. After 7 days, control and experimental animals were injected iv with 2,000 S. mansoni eggs through a tail vein. In some mice of both groups the iv injection of eggs was immediately followed by intraperitoneal (ip immunization with 10 µg of dinitrophenylated conjugates of ovalbumin (DNP-Ova emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or only CFA; 18 days later, mice were bled and killed by ether inhalation. The lungs were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 µm were stained with Giemsa, Gomori's silver reticulin and Sirius red (pH 10.2. Granuloma diameters were measured in histological sections previously stained with Gomori's reticulin. Anti-DNP and anti-soluble egg antigen (SEA antibodies were analyzed by ELISA. In mice orally tolerant to ovalbumin the concomitant ip injection of DNP-Ova resulted in significantly lower anti-SEA antibodies (ELISA*: 1395 ± 352 in non-tolerant and 462 ± 146 in tolerant mice and affected granuloma formation around eggs, significantly decreasing granuloma size (area: 22,260 ± 2478 to 12,993 ± 3242 µm². Active mechanisms triggered by injection of tolerated antigen (ovalbumin reduce granuloma formation.

  6. Impacts of radiation processing on physicochemical properties of Table Eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact, fresh while and brown shell eggs, inoculated with 109 colony-forming units (cfu) of S enteritidis and S, typhimurium. The effect of gamma-irradiation at doses 2,4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic and population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color), chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), the rheological changes (viscosity), pH and protean solubility of the eggs were determinate d. Results showed that 2 kGy, the number of S, enteritidis and eggs internal quality as freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of hugh units, and yolk color index were all significantly reduced with increasing irradiation doses. On significant change was found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). After irradiation, the foaming ability and foam capacity of egg white were increasing radiation doses> The viscosity of egg white and yolk decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. The pH of the egg white and yolk increasing doses of radiation dose. The protein salability decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. These Results Suggest that gamma irradiation reduce the freshness of shell eggs and improving important functional properties such as to foaming ability and foaming capacity. Gamma irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process sine irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white and yolk, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency. (Author)

  7. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    IMTD Jácome; LA Rossi; R Borille

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the pro...

  8. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements. PMID:9327626

  9. Change in carbohydrates of chicken and quail ovomucoids by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation effects on the carbohydrates in chicken ovomucoid, a protease inhibitor as a typical allergenic glycoprotein of egg white, were investigated to clarify its role for the trypsin inhibitory activity on irradiation. The trypsin inhibitory activity of chicken ovomucoid decreased exponentially as a function of the radiation dose. In O2, the inactivation of chicken ovomucoid was protected remarkably in comparison to that in N2. With protein blotting, protein was degraded in O2 and aggregated in N2. The patterns of carbohydrate blotting were similar to those of protein blotting. These results show that there could be a structural interrelationship between the active site and carbohydrate moiety. Sugar chains in a low molecular weight fraction (MW2 were higher than in N2. From the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) patterns of the degradation of sugar chains, all peaks of the oligosaccharides decreased with an increase of radiation dose and more remarkable in O2 than in N2. It shows that the oligosaccharides of ovomucoids could be released significantly in O2 by the degradation associated with γ-radiation. These results suggest that oxygen could play a protective role in the inactivation of ovomucoids by the removal of reducing species generated by γ-radiation and ionizing radiation could cause overall conformational changes by the degradation and release of oligosaccharides, as well as alter the bioactivity of ovomucoid

  10. Determination of selenomethionine, selenocysteine, and inorganic selenium in eggs by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipiec, Elzbieta; Siara, Grzegorz [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Bierla, Katarzyna; Ouerdane, Laurent; Szpunar, Joanna [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Pau (France)

    2010-05-15

    A method for the simultaneous determination of selenomethionine (SeMet), selenocysteine (SeCys), and selenite [Se(IV)] in chicken eggs was developed. A sample preparation protocol including defatting, protein denaturation, and carbamidomethylation was optimized in order to achieve complete protein digestion and to avoid SeCys losses. Quantification was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) after quantitative isolation of the selenium-containing fraction by size-exclusion liquid chromatography. The detection limits were 0.06, 0.003, and 0.01 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry weight) for SeCys, Se(IV) and SeMet, respectively, and the precision was 5-10%. The end products of carbamidomethylation of the different selenium species were identified for the first time by electrospray QTOF MS after custom-designed 2D HPLC purification. Differences in selenium speciation in egg yolk and white were highlighted, the yolk containing more SeCys and the white more SeMet. An insight into selenium bioaccessibility in eggs was obtained by digestion with simulated gastric and gastrointestinal juices and size-exclusion HPLC-ICP MS. (orig.)

  11. STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  12. Sex steroids level in blood plasma and ovarian follicles of the chimeric chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Lakota, P; Wojtysiak, D; Hrabia, A; Mika, M; Lisowski, M; Czekalski, P; Rzasa, J; Kapkowska, E; Bednarczyk, M

    2006-12-01

    The study was performed to determine the hormonal status of mature germline chimeras obtained by blastodermal cell transfer from chicken embryos of a donor breed [Green-legged Partridgelike breed (GP) x Araucana (AR)] to those of a recipient breed [White Leghorn (WL)] being at the same stage of embryonic development. The egg-laying chimeras and WL hens (control) of the same age were used in the experiment. At first, blood samples were taken from each bird at 0.5, 5, 12.5 and 18.5 h following oviposition. Subsequently, the chimeras and the WL hens were decapitated 1-2 h after ovulation. A stroma and the following follicles were isolated from the ovary: white normal (1-4, 4-6 and 6-8 mm), white atretic and yellow preovulatory follicles (F4-F1). Sex hormones, progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The activity of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) in the granulosa and theca layers of the follicles was analysed histochemically. In chimeric chickens, a higher level of T in blood plasma during the ovulatory cycle was noticed. However, in the stroma, white prehierarchical and medium-size preovulatory ovarian follicles the level of T was significantly lower. With respect to E2, its elevated levels were found both in blood and in the ovarian follicles. There were no significant differences in P4 concentrations in blood plasma while in ovarian follicles a higher level was observed only in white 6-8 mm follicles. 3beta-HSD activity in granulosa and theca layers of the ovarian follicles in chimeras was not different from that in the WL hens. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that germline chimeras exhibit significant alterations in sex hormone levels in the ovary and blood plasma, which in turn may affect their reproductive abilities. PMID:17105570

  13. Studies on the effect of supplementing boar semen cryopreservation media with different avian egg yolk types on in vitro post-thaw sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, R; Maxwell, W M C; Evans, G

    2006-02-01

    Fertility after insemination of cryopreserved boar semen is currently below that of fresh semen. In an attempt to improve the post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm, semen was frozen using an adapted Westendorf method in which the chicken egg yolk was replaced by either duck or quail egg yolk. The different composition of the yolk types, particularly the amount of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, were thought to potentially afford a greater level of protection to sperm against damage during freezing and thawing. Sperm frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk displayed higher motility immediately after thawing, but there was no difference in the motility of sperm frozen with different types of egg yolk 3 or 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C. Sperm frozen in media containing chicken or duck egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes immediately after thawing than sperm frozen in medium containing quail egg yolk, but 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C the sperm that had been frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes than the sperm frozen in media containing duck or quail egg yolk. Analysis of the composition of the different yolk types showed that the basic components of the yolks were similar, but the ratios of fatty acids and phospholipid classes differed. Duck egg yolk had more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than chicken egg yolk, which had more MUFA than quail egg yolk. Duck egg yolk contained more phosphotidylinositol (PI) than chicken or quail egg yolks and quail egg yolk contained more phosphotidylserine than either chicken or duck egg yolks. The differences in post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm when frozen in media containing the different types of egg yolk may be due to the variation in composition. PMID:16420332

  14. El costo final del huevo en Gallinas Ponedoras White Leghorn L 33 y su relación con indicadores nutricionales de la fórmula de la ración -The final cost of the egg in Egg-laying Hens White Leghorn L 33 and your relationship with nutritional indicators of the formula of the portion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Rey, David Mario

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Históricamente, en Cuba, existe la tendencia de realizar las mayores producciones de alimentos mezclados balanceados para la Avicultura y los mayores gastos ocasionados por este concepto tienen lugar en produccionesdestinadas a Gallinas Ponedoras.AbstractHistorically, in Cuba, the tendency exists of carrying out the biggest productions of blended foods balanced for the Poultry keeping and the biggest expenses caused by this concept they take place in productions dedicated to Egg-laying Hens.

  15. El costo final del huevo en Gallinas Ponedoras White Leghorn L 33 y su relación con indicadores nutricionales de la fórmula de la ración -The final cost of the egg in Egg-laying Hens White Leghorn L 33 and your relationship with nutritional indicators of the formula of the portion

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Rey, David Mario

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Históricamente, en Cuba, existe la tendencia de realizar las mayores producciones de alimentos mezclados balanceados para la Avicultura y los mayores gastos ocasionados por este concepto tienen lugar en produccionesdestinadas a Gallinas Ponedoras.AbstractHistorically, in Cuba, the tendency exists of carrying out the biggest productions of blended foods balanced for the Poultry keeping and the biggest expenses caused by this concept they take place in productions dedicated to Egg-layin...

  16. Pipping success and liver mRNA expression in chicken embryos exposed in ovo to C8 and C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and C10 perfluorinated sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Crump, Doug; Mundy, Lukas J; Chu, Shaogang; McLaren, Kristina K; Vongphachan, Viengtha; Letcher, Robert J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2009-10-28

    Several perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that can biomagnify in species at high trophic levels including wild birds. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been detected in wild birds and are known to reduce hatching success of laboratory-exposed chicken embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations. Limited toxicity data are available regarding avian exposure to PFCs of chain lengths greater than C(8), which are of increasing environmental relevance following the recent phase-out of PFOS and PFOA. In this study, linear PFOA, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) were injected into the air cell of white leghorn chicken eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus) prior to incubation to determine effects on embryo pipping success. Furthermore, mRNA expression of key genes involved in pathways implicated in PFC toxicity was monitored in liver tissue. PFOA, PFUdA or PFDS had no effect on embryonic pipping success at concentrations up to 10 microg/g. All PFCs accumulated in the liver to concentrations greater than the initial whole-egg concentration as determined by HPLC/MS/MS. Hepatic accumulation was highest for PFOA (4.5 times) compared to PFUdA and PFDS. Cytochrome P450 1A4 and liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA expression increased after exposure to PFUdA but was only statistically significant at 10 microg/g; several orders of magnitude higher than levels found in wild bird eggs. Based on the present results for white leghorn chickens, current environmental concentrations of PFOA, PFUdA and PFDS are unlikely to affect the hatching success of wild birds. PMID:19595750

  17. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch. PMID:23243240

  18. The role of annealing temperature and bio template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese substituted ferrites (ZnFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) have been prepared in the bio template medium by using a simple evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important position on changing particle size and morphology of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were found out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The role of manganese substitution in the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, α-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural change and magnetic properties of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles is discussed. - Highlights: • The egg white support to achieve sample with shorter reaction time. • The high value of magnetization obtained by the influence of manganese. • Nature of the ferrites was affected with increasing annealing temperature

  19. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.; Wierzchowski, K.L.

    Intramolecular long-range electron transfer (LRET) in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) accompanying Trp --> TyrO radical transformation was investigated in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis as a function of pH (5.2-7.4) and temperature (283-328K). The reaction was induced by highly selective...... exchange in native HEWL below its denaturation temperature. Selective oxidation by ozone of the Trp62 indole side-chain in HEWL to N'-formylkynurenine (NFKyn62-HEWL) caused a large drop in the initial yield of Trp(.) radicals, G(Trp(.))(i). This was accompanied by a relatively small decrease in k(5) but...... selective oxidation by ozone had a pronounced effect on its temperature-dependence. Taken together these observations indicate that of the six tryptophans present in HEWL Trp62 contributes about 50% to the yield of the observed LRET. In the enzyme-inhibitor complex, HEWL(GlcNAc)(3), where Trp62 and Trp63...

  20. The binding of platinum hexahalides (Cl, Br and I) to hen egg-white lysozyme and the chemical transformation of the PtI6 octahedral complex to a PtI3 moiety bound to His15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The platinum hexahalides have an octahedral arrangement of six halogen atoms bound to a Pt centre, thus having an octahedral shape that could prove to be useful in interpreting poor electron-density maps. In a detailed characterization, PtI6 chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI3 complex bound to the Nδ atom of His15 of HEWL was also observed, which was not observed for PtBr6 or PtCl6. This study examines the binding and chemical stability of the platinum hexahalides K2PtCl6, K2PtBr6 and K2PtI6 when soaked into pre-grown hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals as the protein host. Direct comparison of the iodo complex with the chloro and bromo complexes shows that the iodo complex is partly chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI3 complex bound to the Nδ atom of His15, a chemical behaviour that is not exhibited by the chloro or bromo complexes. Each complex does, however, bind to HEWL in its octahedral form either at one site (PtI6) or at two sites (PtBr6 and PtCl6). As heavy-atom derivatives of a protein, the octahedral shape of the hexahalides could be helpful in cases of difficult-to-interpret electron-density maps as they would be recognisable ‘objects’

  1. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Elok Zubaedah1); Joni Kusnadi; Ima Andriastuti2)

    2003-01-01

    Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of rando...

  2. Kepekaan Telur Spesific Pathogen Free dan Clean Egg Terhadap Virus Flu Burung (SENSITIVITY OF SPESIFIC PATHOGEN FREE EGGS AND CLEAN EGG TO THE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES SUBTYPE H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza which is  in Indonesia  known as Flu Burung  is caused by the avian influenza virussubtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1. Vaccination is one of the major strategies for preventing and eradicatingAIV-H5N1 in Indonesia. Several factors can affect the potential vaccine such as viral content and mediaused for the propagation of the virus. One of the media commonly used to propagate  the virus is pathogenspecific free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs. However, as the SPF eggs production is limited and expensive,the use of clean embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative need to examined. This study aimed todetermine the sensitivity of SPF and clean embryonated chicken eggs to the AIV-H5N1. The virus usedwas seed avian influenza virus (A/ Chicken/West Java (Subang/29/2007  which haa previously werepropagated  in SPF eggs and the Clean Eggs. The virus titer was determined as Embryo infective Dose 50%(EID50 using Reed and Muench method. Sensitivity of SPF eggs and Clean Egg to the VAI-H5N1 wascompared using  Chi-square statistical analysis. The titers of Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 were106.83EID50/0.1ml in SPF eggs and 106.17EID50/0.1 ml in the Clean Eggs. Statistical analysis showed that,the sensitivity of SPF Eggs and Egg Clean  for the propagation of the VAI-H5N1 was not significantlydifferent.

  3. Effects of Fat Powder on Reproductive Performance, Egg Quality and Relative Blood Indices of Black-boned Chicken with Black Feather%脂肪粉对黑凤鸡繁殖性能、蛋品品质及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 连慧香; 章平

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the action mechanism of fat powder on growth of poultry,eight hundred 300-day-old black-boned chicken with black feather were randomly divided into four groups,to study the effects of fat powder on reproductive performance,egg quality and relative blood indices of black-boned chicken with black feather.The control group were fed with the based diet,and the trial groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢwere fed with the based diets containing 1%,3% and 5% fat powder,respectively.Hatchable egg rate, hatchability of fertile eggs,rate of healthy chick,the yolk color series,the shell thickness relative serum indices and orther indices were determined,respectively.The results showed that compared with the control group,hatchable egg rate,hatchability of fertile eggs and rate of healthy chick of all the trial groups increased,particularly,hatchable egg rate,hatchability of fertile eggs and rate of healthy chick of the trial groupⅡwere the highest in all groups and significantly increased by 3.45%,2.78%,3.98%;the yolk colour series and the shell thickness of all the trial groups increased,particularly,the yolk colour series and the shell thickness of the trial group Ⅲ were significantly 17.24% and 8.82% higher than those of the control group,and haugh unit of the trial groupⅡwas the highest in all groups and was significantly higher than thoses of orther three groups;the content of total cholesterol (TC)and total triglyceride(TG)in serum of all the trial groups decreased,and the content of total cholesterol(TC)and total triglyceride (TG)in serum of the trial groupⅡwere the lowest in all groups and significantly decreased by 4.86% and 2.43% compared with the control group;the content of phosphorus in serum of all the trial groups were significantly 2.59%,7.33% and 3.88% higher than that of the control group, and the content of calcium in serum of the trial group Ⅲ was the highest in all groups.The results indicated that fat powder could improve the reproductive

  4. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastyanova Antonina A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.

  5. Developmental and posthatch effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    An egg injection study was conducted to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of three avian species to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. It was previously reported that the order of species sensitivity to in ovo exposure to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 picomoles (pmol)/g egg was the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) based on embryo mortality and hepatic enzyme induction. In the present study, the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses, and organ pathology of hatchlings as additional indicators of species sensitivity were assessed; in addition, embryo mortality in the three species was categorized by stage of development. Embryo mortality varied temporally with significant increases generally occurring after organogenesis and just prior to hatching. A significant increase in the percentage of developmental deformities was observed only in Japanese quail exposed to TCDF. Body and relative organ masses of quail, pheasants, and chickens dosed in ovo with TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF were not consistently affected. Chemical-related pathology occurred only in livers of quail at the greatest doses of each compound. These results indicated that the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses and organ pathology could not be used as indicators of species sensitivity or chemical potency. PMID:21509806

  6. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day......-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown to be...... associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  7. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  8. Toxicity of vanadium in female Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubena, L F; Phillips, T D

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary vanadium, fed after the onset of production, on hen day egg production, body weight changes, and mortality in laying breed chickens. Calcium orthovanadate was fed to 29-week-old female laying breed chickens at calculated levels of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 ppm dietary vanadium for five consecutive 28-day laying periods. Hen-day egg production and hen body weights were not influenced by the addition of 12.5 or 25 ppm dietary vanadium. Overall hen body weights and the hen day egg production were decreased in hens fed diets to which 50 ppm vanadium was added with a severe reduction in both parameters at 100 ppm. There were no mortalities during the experiment in the groups fed the 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 ppm vanadium diets. Mortality in the group fed the 100 ppm vanadium diet was 11, 39, and 56% at the end of the 28-day Periods 3, 4, and 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in egg weights, although a trend existed for lower egg weights with increasing levels of dietary vanadium. PMID:6828413

  9. Production Performance of Fayoumi Chicken under Intensive Management

    OpenAIRE

    M K I Khan; M.J. Khatun; M.S.A. Bhuiyan; R. Sharmin

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted at Chittagong Government Veterinary College Pahartali, Chittagong to know the productive performance of Fayoumi chicken under intensive management. The Fayoumi pullets were collected from the Regional Government Poultry Farm, Pahartali, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The age and weight of each chicken were recorded at the laying of first egg and obtained the age and weight at sexual maturity was 163.63±1.17 days and 1253.11±16.42 g, respectively. Daily egg production was rec...

  10. Red light is necessary to activate the reproductive axis in chickens independently of the retina of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, M; Joseph, N; Osborne, V R; Bédécarrats, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Photoperiod is essential in manipulating sexual maturity and reproductive performance in avian species. Light can be perceived by photoreceptors in the retina of the eye, pineal gland, and hypothalamus. However, the relative sensitivity and specificity of each organ to wavelength, and consequently the physiological effects, may differ. The purpose of this experiment was to test the impacts of light wavelengths on reproduction, growth, and stress in laying hens maintained in cages and to determine whether the retina of the eye is necessary. Individual cages in 3 optically isolated sections of a single room were equipped with LED strips providing either pure green, pure red or white light (red, green, and blue) set to 10 lx (hens levels). The involvement of the retina on mediating the effects of light wavelength was assessed by using a naturally blind line (Smoky Joe) of chickens. Red and white lights resulted in higher estradiol concentrations after photostimulation, indicating stronger ovarian activation, which translated into a significantly lower age at first egg when compared with the green light. Similarly, hens maintained under red and white lights had a longer and higher peak production and higher cumulative egg number than hens under green light. No significant difference in BW gain was observed until sexual maturation. However, from 23 wk of age onward, birds exposed to green light showed higher body growth, which may be the result of their lower egg production. Although corticosterone levels were higher at 20 wk of age in hens under red light, concentrations were below levels that can be considered indicative of stress. Because no significant differences were observed between blind and sighted birds maintained under red and white light, the retina of the eye did not participate in the activation of reproduction. In summary, red light was required to stimulate the reproductive axis whereas green light was ineffective, and the effects of stimulatory

  11. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  12. Population dynamics of Ascaridia galli following single infection in young chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The population dynamics of Ascaridia galli was studied in 70 ISA Brown layer pullets, 42 of them were each experimentally infected with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs and 28 chickens were kept as uninfected controls. Six chickens from the infected group and 4 from the control group were...

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiweis Melissa A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone fractures at the end of lay are a significant problem in egg-laying strains of hens. The objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with bone mineralization and strength in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches, and 26 traits related to bone integrity, including bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC, were measured. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify QTL regions. Twenty-three tests representing three chromosomal regions (chromosomes 4, 10 and 27 contained significant QTL that surpassed the 5% genome-wise threshold, and 47 tests representing 15 chromosomes identified suggestive QTL that surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise threshold. Although no significant QTL influencing BMD and BMC were detected after adjusting for variation in body weight and egg production, multiple suggestive QTL were found. These results support previous experiments demonstrating an important genetic regulation of bone strength in chickens, but suggest the regulation may be due to the effects of multiple genes that each account for relatively small amounts of variation in bone strength.

  14. The binding of platinum hexahalides (Cl, Br and I) to hen egg-white lysozyme and the chemical transformation of the PtI{sub 6} octahedral complex to a PtI{sub 3} moiety bound to His15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Starkey, Laurina-Victoria; Lamplough, Lucinda; Kaenket, Surasek; Helliwell, John R., E-mail: john.helliwell@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-29

    The platinum hexahalides have an octahedral arrangement of six halogen atoms bound to a Pt centre, thus having an octahedral shape that could prove to be useful in interpreting poor electron-density maps. In a detailed characterization, PtI{sub 6} chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI{sub 3} complex bound to the N{sup δ} atom of His15 of HEWL was also observed, which was not observed for PtBr{sub 6} or PtCl{sub 6}. This study examines the binding and chemical stability of the platinum hexahalides K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}, K{sub 2}PtBr{sub 6} and K{sub 2}PtI{sub 6} when soaked into pre-grown hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals as the protein host. Direct comparison of the iodo complex with the chloro and bromo complexes shows that the iodo complex is partly chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI{sub 3} complex bound to the N{sup δ} atom of His15, a chemical behaviour that is not exhibited by the chloro or bromo complexes. Each complex does, however, bind to HEWL in its octahedral form either at one site (PtI{sub 6}) or at two sites (PtBr{sub 6} and PtCl{sub 6}). As heavy-atom derivatives of a protein, the octahedral shape of the hexahalides could be helpful in cases of difficult-to-interpret electron-density maps as they would be recognisable ‘objects’.

  15. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, P. K.; B.G. NATH

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  16. Development and optimization of a naphthoic acid-based ionic liquid as a "non-organic solvent microextraction" for the determination of tetracycline antibiotics in milk and chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Hui; Qu, Jingang; Wang, Huili; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-01-15

    In traditional ionic liquids (ILs)-based microextraction, ILs are often used as extraction and dispersive solvents; however, their functional effects are not fully utilized. Herein, we developed a novel ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium naphthoic acid salt ([C4MIM][NPA]) with strong acidity. It was used as a mixed dispersive solvent with conventional [C2MIM][BF4] in "functionalized ionic liquid-based non-organic solvent microextraction (FIL-NOSM)" for determination of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in milk and eggs. Utilization of [C4MIM][NPA] in FIL-NOSM method increased extraction recoveries (ERs) of TCs by more than 20% and eliminated the pH adjustment step because of its strong acidity. Under optimized conditions based on central composite design, the ERs of four TCs were 94.1-102.1%, and the limitsofdetection were 0.08-1.12μgkg(-1) in milk and egg samples. This proposed method provides high extraction efficiency, less pretreatment time and requires non-organic solvents for determination of trace TC concentrations in complex animal-based food matrices. PMID:27542460

  17. Relative ovicidal effect of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai V.; Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Mejer, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic ascarid nematodes can survive and remain infective in the environment for years. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of two species of soil microfungi (Pochonia chlamydosporia and Purpureocillium lilacinum) on the development and survival of eggs (all of faecal origin) of three ascarid species, Ascaridia galli (chicken roundworm), Toxocara canis (canine roundworm) and Ascaris suum (pig roundworm), in vitro. Ascarid eggs were embryonated ...

  18. 鸡早期产蛋性能与ESR1基因内含子1多态性相关分析%Analysis on the association of intron 1 of ESR1 gene with early egg production performance in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祥; 韦雄; 许厚强; 张勇; 孙鹃; 杨忠诚

    2012-01-01

    In order to seek the association between the polymorphism of intronl of ESRl gene and early egg production performance, PCR- SSCP and DNA sequence technology were used to analyze the genotypes at 124 blue-shell chickens, and the association between genotypes and characters was studied. The results showed that five genotypes of T1 T1 , T1 T2, T2T2, T1 T3 and T3 T3 in In1 fragment of ESR1 gene was exsited; the test group were in the high polymorphic state, the distribution of genotypes deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P< 0. 05). Variance analysis showed that early egg production performance indices between different genotypes reached to significant level (P< 0. 05 ) or highly significant level ( P<0. 01) , the individual performance of T1 T3 genotype had the advantage. Our finding suggested that artificial selection for this group could improve the egg production performance.%为探寻鸡ESR1基因内含子1多态性与早期产蛋性能存在的关联性,采用DNA测序和PCR-SSCP技术对124只绿壳蛋鸡的基因型与性状进行相关性研究.结果表明,鸡ESR1基因In1片段中发现5种基因型:T1T1、T1T2、T2 T2、T1T3和T3 T3;试验群体处于高度多态,群体遗传偏离了H ardy-Weinberg平衡(P<0.05).方差分析显示,各基因型个体间的早期产蛋性状指标达到了显著(P<0 05)或极显著(P<0.01)水平,其中T1T3基因型个体性能处于优势,对该群体进行人为选择可提高产蛋性能.

  19. Embryonic exposure to lead: comparison of immune and cellular responses in unchallenged and virally stressed chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Kao, Elizabeth; Dietert, Rodney R. [Institute for Comparative and Environmental Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Naqi, Syed A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been shown to modulate various functions of the immune system and decrease host resistance to infectious disease. However, limited information is available concerning the direct effects of lead on the host immune response to an infectious agent after developmental exposure. The current study utilized chickens to examine the effect of embryonic lead exposure on immune and cellular responses during viral challenge. Sublethal doses of lead were introduced into fertilized Cornell K Strain White Leghorn chicken eggs via the air sac at day 5 or day 12 of embryonic development (designated as E5 and E12, respectively). Four-week-old female chickens were inoculated with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain M41. Antibody titer to IBV, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response against bovine serum albumin (BSA), the absolute number and percentage of leukocyte subpopulations, and interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma})-like cytokine production by splenocytes were evaluated at 5-6 weeks of age. While antibody response to IBV in juvenile chicks was unaffected by the in ovo lead exposure, IFN-{gamma}-like cytokine production by splenocytes was significantly depressed following lead exposure at both developmental stages. In contrast with this pattern, the DTH response against BSA was unaffected following E5 exposure, but was significantly decreased after E12 exposure to lead. These changes were similar to those previously reported in chickens not exposed to IBV. While lead exposure at E5 induced significant changes in the percentage of circulating heterophils at 1 day postinfection (dpi), lead did not cause any change in relative leukocyte counts after E12 exposure. At 7 dpi, E5 lead exposure resulted in decreased absolute number and percentage of circulating lymphocytes, while total leukocyte counts, and the absolute number and percentage of circulating monocytes and heterophils were significantly reduced in E12 lead

  20. Host age only partially affects resistance to primary and secondary infections with Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idi, A; Permin, A; Murrell, K D

    2004-07-14

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of chickens' age on resistance to primary and secondary infections with Ascaridia galli. In Experiment I, three groups, each of 80 female Lohman Brown chickens, aged one day, one month, or four months were compared. Within each group, 54 chickens were infected orally with 500 embryonated eggs and 26 were kept as non-infected controls. Weights were recorded weekly and five chickens in each group were slaughtered every 2 weeks for worm counts. At week 10 post-infection, 17 of the infected chickens and 18 of the controls were challenged with 500 eggs. In a replicate experiment (Experiment II), 35 one-day-old and 53 one-month-old female Lohman Brown chickens were infected orally with 500 A. galli eggs. Weights and fecal egg counts were recorded every week and infected chickens were necropsied every two weeks for determination of the worm burden. Chickens infected at one month of age excreted significantly fewer A. galli eggs when measured at 14 weeks of inoculation. The worms recovered from the one-month-old age group were significantly shorter than those from the chickens infected at one day of age in the first experiment. Worm burden and female fecundity values, however, were not significantly different between age groups in both Experiments I and II. Weight gains of infected chickens were not significantly different from the controls' and only a few chickens exhibited occasional slight diarrhea in both experiments. The results from these experiments demonstrate that the chickens' age only partially influences resistance to A. galli infection. PMID:15219363

  1. Cellular Apoptosis and Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Changes in the Pre-Incubated Chicken Embryo’s Brain by Effect of Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kalantari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF have teratogenic effects during the embryonic development. In current study, histopathological and physiological effects of sinusoidal EMF on the brain were investigated. We sought to determine the apoptosis level and changes in blood brain barrier permeability in brain tissue of pre-incubated white leghorn hen eggs in the field of EMF. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 300 healthy, fresh, and fertilized eggs (55-65 g were divided into experimental (3 groups, N=50, control (N=75 and sham (N=75 groups. Experimental eggs (inside the coil were exposed to 3 different intensities of 1.33, 2.66 and 7.32 mT and sham groups were also located inside the same coil but with no exposure, for 24 hrs before incubation. Control, sham and experimental groups were incubated in an incubator (38±0.5ºC, 60% humidity. Brains of 14 day old chicken embryos of all groups were removed, fixed in formalin (10%, stained with H & E and TUNEL, apoptotic cells were studied under light microscope. Brains of other embryos were prepared for scanning electron microscope. By injections of Evans blue, any possible changes in brain vessels were also investigated. Results: Our results showed electromagnetic fields have toxic effects on cell organelles and cell membranes. EMF would increase the level of cellular apoptosis in the brain. They also would tear up the blood vessels. Thereafter, they would affect the permeability of blood brain barrier of exposed chicken embryos. Conclusion: These findings suggest that electromagnetic fields induce different degrees of brain damages in chicken embryos brain tissue.

  2. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  3. Effects of Immunization Against Inhibin on Egg-Laying Performance in Magang and Landaise Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun-mao; LI Min-yi; SHI Zhen-dan; BAN Jin; QIN Yi-ping

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to improve egg-laying performance in incubating Magang geese of Guangdong origin and Landaise geese of French origin. In experiment 1, 50 adults, egg-laying Magang geese were inoculated intramuscularly (i.m.) on days 0, 22, and 45 with 1 mL of immunogen containing 1 mg of recombinant chicken inhibin fusion protein. Immunization significantly increased blood antibody titers against inhibin fusion protein, but did not affect the egg-laying performance within 10 days after the first inoculation. From day 15, the egg-laying rate in inhibin-immunized group increased and was significantly higher than the values of control geese from day 40 to 55. However, the reverse was true from day 55 to 75 when more immunized geese developed incubation. In the entire 120 days of the experiment, the immunized geese laid 17.3 eggs in contrast to 16.4 eggs laid by the control geese. From day 30 till the end of the experiment, weight of eggs in the control geese was significantly greater than that in inhibin-immunized birds. In experiment 2, 40 Landaise geese were immunized against inhibin, as described in experiment 1. These geese laid 9.0 eggs on average in contrast to 7.3 eggs laid by nonimmunized control geese over 90 days of egg laying. The above results demonstrated that immunization against recombinant chicken inhibin fusion protein improved egg-laying performance in geese, and the increment was higher in nonincubating geese.

  4. Changes in thickness of each layer of developing chicken cornea after administration of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hieronim Bartel; Dariusz Tosik; Monika Kujawa-Hadryś

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the presentation of changes in thickness of each layer of a developing cornea, that came into being under an influence of caffeine which was administered to chicken embryos. Research materials were 26 chicken embryos from breeding eggs that had been incubated. Breeding eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30) in which Ringer liquid was given, and experimental (n=30) in which teratogenic dose of caffeine was administrated - 3.5 mg/egg. In 36th hour of incubati...

  5. Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes. PMID:9711795

  6. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.; Olsen, J.E.; Bisgaard, M.

    2003-01-01

    chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent in the...

  7. Pathology of spontaneous tumour lesions in pullets and adult chickens in commercial farms - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-09-01

    Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours. PMID:22903077

  8. Social order and egg production of hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, van E.H.; Groeneveld, J.; Brat, L.C.; Kleijn, L.J.K.; Schenk, P.M.

    1968-01-01

    1. For two flocks of 48 and 40 hens, consisting of the F1 of Rhode Island Red males and White Leghorn females, peck-order, aggressiveness and egg production were determined. Flock I was built up step by step by continually adding a group of 8 hens to the hens already present in the testing pen. Floc

  9. Increase of numbers of egg clutch and reduction of mortality rate of Thai native chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all Thai farmers in the villages raise Thai Native chickens. Chickens are the main protein source in the rural areas. The surplus of chickens can be the additional income for the farmer family. Raising of chickens is commonly in the backyard where chickens can feed on leftover or residuals from the family consumption. Generally people like to eat native chickens because their meat contains less fat and had a good taste. Native chickens are able to use low quality food efficiently and they are more resistant to tropical diseases. Thailand tries to improve native chickens for growth meanwhile maintain good characteristics; tolerance, feeding ability, fertility. Thirty-six farmers in the North part of Thailand were selected for testing of raising chickens, by supporting 5-12 hens per family. Farmers were divided randomly into 3 categories; separation of chicks at birth, at 14 d and allowing chicks to be with hens naturally. Growth performance was recorded together with losses, mortality, consumption and sale of native chickens for a period of 1 year. Hens and chickens were feeding by themselves in the nature. There were 273 hens at the beginning of the experiment and 210 hens at the end. The average body weight of the hens in the village at the first laying was 1.52 kg. The average number of egg clutch was 3.41. A total of 210 hens produced 8,550 eggs, 5,466 chicks in 1 year of the experiment. The hens whose chicks were separated from birth produced 14.8 - 16.4 more chicks per year, 1.2 - 1.4 more clutches of eggs and 19.0 - 22.0 more eggs than group 2 and group 3, respectively. On average, a hen laid 39.14 eggs and produced 24.84 chicks per year. Farmers in this study had 72.03 chickens for consumption per family and 84.47 chickens for sale, which incurred an income of 3,879.82 Baht per family. The expenses involved feed cost and electricity (for incubation) had a value of 1,797.94 Bath. The cash return on average was 2,081.65 Bath per family. When averaging

  10. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products. PMID:24362433

  11. Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel Hieronim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells.

  12. Some Quality Characteristics of Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Eggs with Different Shell Colors

    OpenAIRE

    KIRIKÇI, Kemal; GÜNLÜ, Aytekin; GARİP, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    In this study, some external and internal quality characteristics of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs with white, blue, brown, or olive green shells were investigated. A total of 120 pheasant eggs including 9 white, 4 blue, 24 brown and 83 olive green eggs (collected in the same laying period and randomly) were used in this study. The values of egg weight, shape index, eggshell weight and shell membrane weight of the brown and the olive green eggs were found different from those of the blu...

  13. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  14. New technologies on eggs manufacturing; Innovazione tecnologica nell`industria di lavorazione delle uova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M.; Serse, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Marcolini, P.; Erbisti, P. [Soc. Coop. Avicola Lessinia, Pigozzo, Verona (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    Objective of this paper is innovate the industrial manufacturing process, up grading the white egg commercial value according the following points: - improve the albumen rheological properties (whippability); - concentrate the white eggs without damaging the protein functional properties; - fractionate eggs white proteins to improve the useful application range in the pharmaceutical industry. The albumen chemical-physical properties and the protein separation technologies, based mainly on membrane techniques, are discussed. This paper represents a first technical overview on eggs manufacturing, carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and the Avicola Lessinia, with the objective to develop a new production process.

  15. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  16. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  17. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs. PMID:27296601

  18. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...

  19. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamila Nimalaratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides. In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  20. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús; Ana Beatriz Zanqui; Patrícia Valderrama; Augusto Tanamati; Swami Arêa Maruyama; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Makoto Matsushita

    2013-01-01

    In this work, three freeze-dried (FD) egg products (whole egg (WE), egg yolk (EY) and egg white (EW)) were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P), Quindim (Q) and Meringue (M). The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formu...

  1. 蛋清的蛋白酶解物清除自由基能力的研究%STUDY ON FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF PROTEINASE HYDROLYSATES FROM EGG WHITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 迟玉杰; 刘丽

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究胃蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、中性蛋白酶及Alcalase碱性蛋白酶对蛋清蛋白的水解效果以及其酶解物对自由基的清除能力.方法 采用茚三酮法分析五种蛋白酶对蛋清蛋白的水解效果;通过Fenton体系和邻苯三酚自氧化体系测定五种蛋白酶水解产物对羟自由基及超氧阴离子的清除能力.结果 五种蛋白酶在其最适反应条件下,水解度大小依次为:alcalase碱性蛋白酶>胰蛋白酶>木瓜蛋白酶>中性蛋白酶>胃蛋白酶;羟自由基清除能力强弱依次为:木瓜蛋白酶>alcalase碱性蛋白酶>胰蛋白酶>中性蛋白酶>胃蛋白酶;超氧阴离子清除能力强弱依次为:木瓜蛋白酶>alcalase碱性蛋白酶>中性蛋白酶>胃蛋白酶>胰蛋白酶.木瓜蛋白酶水解3h的产物对两种自由基清除能力最强,对羟自由基的清除率为65.63%,对超氧阴离子的清除率为38.40%.结论 蛋清的蛋白酶解物具有清除羟自由基及超氧阴离子的能力,且对羟自由基的清除能力大于超氧阴离子.%Objective To determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and free radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates of egg white protein (EWPHs) with pepsin, trypsin, papain, neutrase and Alcalase. Method The degree of hydrolysis of EWPH was measured by ninhydrin colorimetric method. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activity was detected by the methods related to pyrogallol autoxidation and Fenton system. Results Under the optimal conditions the sequence of enzyme hydrolysis capacity was: alcalase>typsin>papain>neutrase>pepsin. The order of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was: papain>alcalase>trypsin>neutrase>pepsin and the order of superoxide radical scavenging activity was: papain>alcalase>neutrase>pepsin>trypsin. The EWPHs with papain for 3h displayed the strongest radical scavenging activity. The values of hydroxyl radical and superoxide free radical scavenging activity were 65.63% and 38

  2. INTERIOR EGG QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a high quality product, it is difficult for an industry to survive. This is no different for the shell egg processor. Many factors can influence shell egg interior quality. These influences occur during egg production and processing. Physiological stress, nutritional stress, heat stress,...

  3. Evaluasi Pengaruh Penggunaan Bahan Pengganti Telur (Egg Replacer) Pada Pembuatan Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Nova Sarifah

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays many people are allergic to egg either the white or the egg yolk, that is why the research way conducted. The research was aimed to evaluate the functional characteristics and sensory quality of cakes made of soy protein isolate, whey protein isolate, corn starch, guar gum, xanthan gum and whole egg powder. The research had been performed using a non factorial completely randomized design with 7 levels and 3 repetition. The egg replacer composition were E1 = whey protein isolate (18,...

  4. Influence of low dose γ-rays on laying egg property of hen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Harbin white breeding eggs were irradiated by γ-rays. The results showed that low dose irradiation stimulated the embryo development of fertilized eggs, increasing the hatching rate by 6.86% and the healthy bird rate by 5.52%. The egg production rate of the irradiated generation hens was increased by 8.03%, the first laying egg date of the second irradiated generation hens was shifted 6 to 7 weeks earlier and the egg production period was prolonged. 72-week egg production was raised by 10.48%

  5. STRAIN EFFECT ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE TRAITS OF LOCAL IMPROVED EGYPTIAN AND CANADIAN CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. TAHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of strain on some productive as well as some reproductive traits of local improved dual purpose three Canadian strains (Shaver A, B and C and two Egyptian chicken strains (Salam and Mandarah. Results revealed that strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for (body weight at sexual maturity, body weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age, also strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for feed consumption (at sexual maturity, 90 days of egg production, 42 weeks and 65 weeks of age and (egg weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age. While strain effect for fertility, hatchability and scientific hatchability, age at sexual maturity, Egg number at first 90 days of egg production and egg number at 42 and 65 weeks of age were recorded for Egyptian chickens. Moreover, negative correlation estimates were observed between age at sexual maturity and egg number at different periods as well as positive correlation between body weight at 8 weeks of age and most of productive traits that of high great benefits to select for economic traits in chickens at earlier age.

  6. Maintenance of chicken embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the methods we have used to show that chicken leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated state in culture. Recombinant chicken LIF (rchLIF) was expressed as a fusion protein linked to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified to greater than 90% purity in two chromatography stages, the first an affinity step using the GST tail, which was cleaved before further purification by gel chromatography. Chicken ES cells were obtained by culturing chicken blastodermal cells isolated from stage X embryos of freshly laid chicken eggs. These cells can be maintained in media containing rchLIF for at least 9 d without any other cytokines or feeder cells. Chicken ES cells were characterized by the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1. In addition, the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 by LIF, which is sufficient to maintain the undifferentiated state of ES cells, was detected by Western blotting analysis. PMID:16845981

  7. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  8. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found. PMID:26752227

  9. Tissue distribution of haemolytic Gallibacterium isolates in laying birds showing clinical signs of egg peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer, Claudia; De Souza-Pilz, Magdalena; Bojesen, Miki; Bisgaard, Magne; Hess, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Gallibacterium anatis biovar haemolytica has been proposed to play a role as a cause of peritonitis and salpingitis in chickens. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of G. anatis biovar haemolytica in chickens with clinical signs of egg peritonitis. A total of 141 birds from 31 layer flocks were submitted for necropsy and the following organs were bacteriologically examined: choana, trachea, lung, heart, liver, spleen, ovary, oviduct, du...

  10. Chromosome analysis of early embryonic mortality in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M H; Collins, R K; Sheldon, B L

    1991-09-01

    1. Twenty-three lines of chickens, obtained from grandparent stocks of 4 Australian breeding companies, were analysed to determine the incidence of early embryonic mortality attributable to chromosome abnormalities. The lines included 10 layer strains, consisting of 6 White Leghorn, 2 New Hampshire and 2 Australorp lines, and 13 broiler lines. 2. A total of 10,730 eggs was examined after 3 d incubation; of these 9746 (90.8%) were fertile. Abortive embryonic development was observed in 1379 (14.1%) of the fertile eggs. This consisted of 952 (69.0%) dead and dying embryos, including 646 malformed and 427 (31.0%) membranes without embryos. 3. Early embryonic mortality was found to vary from 9.8 to 26.8% (average 16.4%) in broiler lines and from 8.0 to 27.9% (average 11.9%) in layer lines. 4. Among 898 abortive embryos analysed, 112 had abnormal chromosomes consisting of 27 haploids, 38 haploid-euploids, 24 triploids, 16 diploid-polyploids, 4 aneuploids, 2 tetraploids and 1 translocation. 5. In broilers and layers respectively, chromosome abnormalities were responsible for 4.4 to 28.1% (average 11.8%) and 7.4 to 25.0% (average 13.4%) of the early embryonic mortality. 6. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in all fertile eggs varied from 0.7 to 3.7% for the broiler lines and 0.7 to 3.4% for the layer lines. PMID:1933445

  11. Comparison of parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels in two chicken lines during sustained infection with Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Jungersen, Gregers; Fink, Dorte R; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2013-01-16

    Increasingly large numbers of poultry are held in production systems with access to outdoor areas. In these systems intestinal helminths are found with flock prevalences of up to 100%. Helminth infections influence chicken health negatively, which is why the following investigation has been performed. In the present experiment, 20 chickens of two inbred chicken lines containing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, B14 and R5, were inoculated with 500 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs. The A. galli-specific IgG titres of serum samples and the excretion of A. galli eggs in chicken faeces were measured for a period of 81 weeks. The level of excreted A. galli eggs measured as eggs per gram chicken faeces (EPG) varied greatly between chickens in each line. Significant differences were found between the two lines and with the R5 chickens reaching the highest levels. Likewise, the A. galli-specific IgG titres in serum differed significantly between the two lines, and an inverse relationship between infection level (EPG) and antibody titres was found. Although this inverse relationship suggests that humoral immunity may be involved in protection against A. galli infection, the high antibody titres did not prevent continued infection. PMID:22981407

  12. Internal quality of eggs subjected to different types of coating and stored for 35 days at 25 ° C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele Pissinati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the internal quality of eggs subjected to three different types of coatings: no coating (control; 3% gelatin and mineral oil. We used 180 white eggs, with an average weight of 62 g, from laying hens strain Shaver White. Those eggs were stored at a temperature of 25 ° C in a BOD during 35 days and were analyzed every seven days. We evaluated yolk, albumen, shell and weight loss percentage, Haugh units, specific gravity, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH and egg shell color. The results showed that storage time affects the quality of the eggs and the treatment coating the egg with mineral oil were provided the better internal quality of eggs, while the gelatin coating showed intermediate quality and without coating treatment, a poorer quality internal eggs, thus showing necessary to use some kind of coating to increase the shelf life of eggs.

  13. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white button mushrooms, rinsed and quartered 1 Cup leeks, split into quarters, then sliced into small squares ... Cup celery, rinsed and diced 1 Cup pearl onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken ...

  14. A nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K.R.; Klimstra, J.D.; Eagles-Smith C.A.; Ackerman, J.T.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. Protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) or on field studies where whole eggs were collected and analyzed and the effects of the mercury were measured based on the reproductive success of the remaining eggs. However, both of these methods have limitations. As an alternative, we developed a technique that involves extracting a small sample of albumen from a live egg, sealing the egg, returning the egg to its nest to be naturally incubated by the parents, and then relating the hatching success of this microsampled egg to its mercury concentration. After first developing this technique in the laboratory using chicken and mallard eggs, we selected the laughing gull (Larus atricilla) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) as test subjects in the field. We found that 92% of the microsampled laughing gull eggs met our reproductive endpoint of survival to the beginning of hatching compared to 100% for the paired control eggs within the same nests. Microsampled black-necked stilt eggs exhibited 100% hatching success compared to 93% for the paired control eggs. Our results indicate that microsampling is an effective tool for nonlethally sampling mercury concentrations in eggs and, as such, can be used for monitoring sensitive species, as well as for improving studies that examine the effects of mercury on avian reproduction.

  15. Keragaman Gen Heat Shock Protein 70 pada Ayam Kampung, Ayam Arab, dan Ayam Ras (POLYMORPHISMS OF THE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 GENE IN KAMPONG, ARABIC, AND COMMERCIAL CHICKENS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Hasil Tamzil; Ronny Rachman Noor; Wasmen Manalu; Cece Sumantri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the polymorphisms of HSP-70 gene of kampong, Arabic, andcommercial chickens. The study used whole blood samples taken from the branchial vein at the age of 12weeks from a group of chickens that were kept since DOC. Kampong chickens DOC were obtained byhatching the eggs that were collected from lowlands, medium and high altitude areas in Lombok island,while the Arabic chickens DOC were obtained from farmer. DOC of commercial chickens were purchased atthe...

  16. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  17. The transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin into eggs and chicks following exposure to hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Yamashita, Junko; Tomita, Takako [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan); Matsushita, Sachihiro; Ikeya, Moriji; Iwasawa, Toshiyuki [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins have been shown to exert reproductive and teratogenic effects in several strains of mice, rats, and chickens. We reported that in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at less than 7.5 ng/egg on day 0 did not influence hatchability, whereas more than 10 ng/egg completely inhibited hatching. We also reported that maternal exposure to TCDD in Barred Plymouth Rock hens induced a reversible inhibition of egg laying. The hatchability of the eggs from TCDD exposed hens was significantly decreased and eggshell thickness was thicker than that from control hens 1. These results suggested that the TCDD in maternally exposed hens was transferred into eggs and induced embryo toxicity. Transfer of TCDD in eggs has been reported previously in foraging chickens 2,3 and ring-necked pheasants 4,5. The TCDD concentration in chicken eggs related to environmental exposure, especially contact with soil. The measurement of dioxins in eggs is important for assessing environmental contamination by dioxins and for humans because chicken eggs are one of the most popular food for humans. Measurement of TCDD concentration is generally performed by GC/MS method which is expensive and requires special equipment. Recently, a simple method for TCDD assay using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 6 and CALUX bioassay 7 has been reported. The objectives of this study were, first, to determine the TCDD concentration in eggs by ELISA. Second, the transfer of maternally exposed TCDD into the egg, embryo and chicks was examined.

  18. Effect of low-dose gamma-radiation upon hatchability and weight of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M. [Zagreb Univ., Veterinary faculty (Croatia); Miljanic, S. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Although any dose of ionizing radiation has generally been recognized to be detrimental to living being, low dose ionizing radiation seems to invoke primary stimulative effects. Stimulatory effects of low dose ionizing radiation include many aspects such as growth, fecundity and longevity stimulation, accelerated development, enhance biological responses for immune systems, enzymatic repair, physiological functions, and the removal of cellular damage, including prevention and removal of cancers and other diseases. Low dose ionizing radiation might also cause changes in the concentration of some biochemical parameters in blood plasma of chickens such as changes in the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation before incubation and on the seventh day of incubation on hatchability of eggs and body weight of chickens. This study includes three independent experiments. In the first experiment, six-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Avian-line 34, were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. In the second experiments also involving six-hundred-line 34 eggs were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation on the seventh day of incubation. In the third experiment three-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Ross 308 were irradiated by dose 0.30 Gy gamma irradiation before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. Hatchability was calculated in terms of all eggs divided with fertile eggs which hatched. The individual weights of the chickens were determined on the first and on the forty second day. Growth data were analyzed statistically by t-test. Irradiation of chicken eggs and embryos at rates o f 0.15 Gy increases

  19. Molecular and parasitological tools for the study of Ascaridia galli population dynamics in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Nejsum, Peter; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Experiments were first conducted to compare and evaluate different methods of Ascaridia galli larval recovery from the chicken intestine. The number of larvae recovered from the intestinal wall of chickens infected with 1000 embryonated A. galli eggs and killed 15 days post infection (p.i.) by three methods (EDTA, pepsin digestion and scraping) were compared. The EDTA and pepsin digestion were found to be the most efficient methods with no significant difference (P > 0.05)...

  20. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs. PMID:26319520

  1. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  2. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes. PMID:27126575

  3. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  4. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality

    OpenAIRE

    Loyau, Thomas; Berri, Cecile; Bedrani, Larbi; Metayer-Coustard, Sonia; Praud, Christophe; Duclos, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; RIDEAU, Nicole; Everaert, N.; Yahav, S.; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8 degrees C, 5...

  5. Egg substitutes: chemical and biologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, M T; Ostrander, J

    1976-03-01

    The total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid content of dried whole egg (DWE), a refrigerated liquid egg substitute, a powdered egg substitute, and a commercial egg yolk replacer (EYR) were compared. All substitutes contained less total lipid, cholesterol, and phospholipid than DWE. The powdered substitute contained only half the total lipid content reported by the producers and only a fifth of the cholesterol of DWE, while the percentage distribution of fatty acids was similar to that of DWE. The liquid substitute and EYR had fatty acid distributions similar to soybean oil. Rat growth and lipid response were compared for diets containing either DWE or a mixture of EYR and egg white. Both diets were fed with and without vitamin and mineral supplements. Rat growth response was greatest on the DWE diets, either with or without the supplements, was intermediate on the supplemented EYR diets, and was least on the unsupplemented EYR diets. The consumption of DWE-containing diets, when compared with the EYR-containing diets, caused greater liver weight, greater liver total lipid and total cholesterol content, and slightly higher serum cholesterol. PMID:942984

  6. Eggs and Foodborne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table eggs and eggshells may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, although the only significant threat to human health related to eggs in recent history has been from the bacterium Salmonella. Salmonella is currently the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S. with 16 ...

  7. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  8. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  9. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  10. Sexual difference in gonadal development of embryonic chickens after treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent and lipophilic environmental endocrine disrupters that can be biomagnified in human and animals including birds and thus to affect reproductive functions.Poultry meat and eggs contain a great deal of fat and possibly concentrate higher PCBs and other environmental contaminants such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT).In order to identify the adverse effects of PCBs and possible sexual difference on chicken gonadal development, Aroclor 1254 was injected into fertilized Hyline chicken eggs before incubation. Four groups of eggs received yolk injection of either peanut oil as control, 1, 10 or 100 μg/egg of Aroclor 1254 as treatment group, respectively. After hatching the gonads were removed for histological examination. Testicular structure was apparently changed and exhibited dramatic decrease in area of the transverse sections (1 μg/egg, P< 0.01; 10 and 100 μg/egg, P<0.001), diameter (10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.05) and relative area of the testicular tubules (10 μg/egg, P<0.05; 100 μg/egg, P<0.01). Most testicular tubules of the highest dose group degenerated and even disappeared. The differentiation of germ cells was retarded in all groups treated with Aroclor 1254. Some germ cells were irregular in shape, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatism nucleus (pyknosis) in 1 and 10 μg/egg groups and almost all germ cells in 100 μg/egg group. In contrast,the area of the left ovarian transverse sections increased dramatically (10 and 100 lμg/egg, P <0.001), the ovarian cortex manifested a significant increment in thickness (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) and a higher number of oocytes was observed (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) in the female chickens treated with Aroclor 1254 compared with the control group. A few oocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nucleus were also observed in ovarian cortex after PCBs exposure. These results showed that PCBs interfered

  11. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingbin; Li, Diyan; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Xiao, Qihai; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm), green (GL; 560 nm), blue (BL; 480 nm) and control cool white (400-760 nm) light with an LED (light-emitting diode). There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138) each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen). Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5), the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3) and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1), ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle), F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue and green

  12. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER and Progesterone Receptor (PR in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbin Liu

    Full Text Available Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs and progesterone receptors (PRs in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm, green (GL; 560 nm, blue (BL; 480 nm and control cool white (400-760 nm light with an LED (light-emitting diode. There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138 each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen. Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5, the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3 and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1, ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle, F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue

  13. Acquisition of resistance after continuous infection with Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, T; Schou, T W; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;

    2014-01-01

    500 eggs. G6 was left as uninfected control. Necropsy at week 10 after first inoculation revealed a lower establishment rate, an impaired development and a more posterior localization of the larvae in G4 (trickle-infected-treated-challenged) compared with G5 (treated-challenged). IgY level in serum...... reached noticeable level at 14 dpi in G2 and G4 chickens, and in G4 chickens IgY level further increased after challenge infection. The study provides evidence that acquired resistance against A. galli in chickens leads to a significant yet incomplete protection against re-infection....

  14. The effect of concurrent infections with Pasteurella multocida and Ascaridia galli on free range chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, C.; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M.; Muhairwa, A. P.; Petersen, K.M.; Poulsen, J.S.; Jensen, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida and Ascaridia galli are observed with high prevalences in free range chickens in Denmark, but the impact is unknown. A study was carried out to examine the interaction between A. galli and P. multocida in chickens and the impact on production. Five groups, each with 20 18-week-old Lohmann Brown chickens were infected. Group I was orally infected with 1000 +/- 50 embryonated A. galli eggs. Group 2 received 10(4) cfu p. multocida intratracheally. Group 3 was infected with ...

  15. Genetic Diversity of Gallibacterium anatis Isolates from Different Chicken Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bojesen, Anders Miki; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, Henrik; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Bisgaard, Magne

    2003-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to characterize the genotypic diversity of a total of 114 Gallibacterium anatis isolates originating from a reference collection representing 15 biovars from four countries and isolates obtained from tracheal and cloacal swab samples of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were char...

  16. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  17. Differences in Fatty Acid Profiles, ADEK Vitamins and Sterols of the Yolk between Native Chickens and Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Kalaycı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the yolk lipid composition of geese and chickens which are free to select their diets from the environments. The proportion of oleic acid (18:1n-9 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3 was far greater in both of species of yolk lipids. In particular, the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the total lipid of the yolk was greater for the chicken compared to the geese. By contrast, the proportion of arachidonic acid in total yolk lipid was approximately two times greater for the goose than the chicken. Thus the chicken was more efficient at incorporating long-chain (C22 fatty acid of the n-3 series into yolk lipid whereas the geese incorporated C20 fatty acid of the n-6 series. The ADEK vitamins of the goose egg in mg/g yolk were very similar to that of the chicken egg. The cholesterol content of the geese egg in mg/g yolk was far greater to that of the chicken egg.

  18. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  19. BPR AND ERP: THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG

    OpenAIRE

    René Pellissier; Albert Kleynhans

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Well-known management guru, Tom Davenport, views as a key success factor to a holistic approach to ERP-related change, the need f or a simultaneous and integrated approach to strategy, organisation, process and systems change . In this paper, the key issue under discussion is the timing ofbusiness process reengineering (BPR), and the implementation of an integrated package solution (ERP) solution, i.e. should these happen simultaneously or should the one be before t...

  20. BPR AND ERP: THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Well-known management guru, Tom Davenport, views as a key success factor to a holistic approach to ERP-related change, the need f or a simultaneous and integrated approach to strategy, organisation, process and systems change . In this paper, the key issue under discussion is the timing ofbusiness process reengineering (BPR, and the implementation of an integrated package solution (ERP solution, i.e. should these happen simultaneously or should the one be before the other. Consequently, these three alternatives are considered together with respective associated benefits and risks. None provides a clear-cut indication ofa "best " approach towards BPR and/or ERP. Given the similar approaches to ERP and BPR, a hybrid approach is suggested with projects containing separate but integrated reengineering and system implementation components.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bekende bestuurskundige, Tom Davenport, beskou the behoefte aan 'n gelyktydige en geintegreerde banadering tot strategie, organisasie, proses- en stelselsverandering, as kernsuksesfaktor tot 'n stelselsbenadering tot ondernemingshulpbronbeplanning (ERP- verwante verandering. In hierdie artikel, is die fokus op die tydsberekening vir besigheidsherontwerp (BPR, asook wanneer 'n maatskappy oorweging moet skenk aan die implementering van 'n geintegreerde (ERP oplossing, d.w.s. behoort implementering gesamentlik plaas te vind, ofandersins, walter behoort eerste plaas te vind? Gevolglik word drie alternatiewe ondersoek., asook die geassosieerde risikos en voordele van elk. Geeneen bied 'n duidelike aanduiding van 'n "beste " benadering tot BPR ofERP nie. Gegewe die soortgelyke benaderings tot ERP en BPR, word 'n hibriede benadering voorgestel met projekte wat afsonderlike, maar geintegreerede herontwerp en komponente vir stelsels-implementering bevat.

  1. Altered Brain Reward Circuits in Eating Disorders: Chicken or Egg?

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Guido K.W.

    2013-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. Our knowledge about the neurobiology of eating disorders is very limited, and the question remains whether alterations in brain structure or function in eating disorders are state related, remnants of the illness or premorbid traits. The brain reward system is a relatively well-characterized brain circuitry that plays a central role in the drive to eat and individuals with...

  2. Panic attacks and supraventricular tachycardias: the chicken or the egg?

    OpenAIRE

    Frommeyer, G.; Eckardt, L; Breithardt, G.

    2012-01-01

    Panic attacks occur in about 2 % of the population. Symptoms include a racing or pounding heart beat, chest pain, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, difficulty in breathing, tingling or numbness in the hands, flushes or chills, dreamlike sensations or perceptual distortions. The symptoms of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) may be similar. A PSVT is often difficult to document on the ECG since it has often ceased before the patient comes to medical attention. Besides, a tachyca...

  3. Science and Cyberinfrastructure: The Chicken and Egg Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbert, Anna

    2014-12-01

    In September, I participated in a general scientific discussion regarding the U.S. National Science Foundation Directorate for Geosciences (NSF GEO) Priorities and Frontiers 2015-2020 document. One of the key issues raised in conjunction with this document was the issue of science versus infrastructure. Although there was overwhelming agreement on the need for infrastructure to do our science, there was much concern about the corresponding balance of investment.

  4. Pleiotropic vasoprotective effects of statins: The chicken or the egg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kirmizis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Kirmizis, Dimitrios ChatzidimitriouAristotle University, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors are the most commonly used lipid-lowering drugs. Their main lipid-lowering effect is achieved by an increase in the expression of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptors associated with inhibition of cholesterol synthesis through inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase – the first and rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. However, beyond cholesterol synthesis inhibition, inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase affects as well the synthesis of other molecules with significant roles in different, yet often intercalating, metabolic pathways. On this basis, and supported by an increasing series of advocating epidemiological and experimental data, an extended dialogue has been established over the last few years regarding the nonlipid or “pleiotropic” actions of statins.Keywords: statins, immunomodulatory, pleiotropic effects

  5. Experience--Is It the Chicken or the Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Glen C.; Briers, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    It's hard for young workers to get a foot in the door without experience, yet they can't get experience if they aren't given a chance. Career and technical education (CTE) equips students with the technical and leadership skills that can give them a foot in the door on the their journey to career success. The authors stress the role CTE plays in…

  6. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species. PMID:26637433

  7. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait–gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  8. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  9. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tobiańska, Berenika; Tarasewicz, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic gastrointestinal infections in free-range chickens from the West Pomerania province. Experimental material for the study was taken from 10 farms. Breeds raised in farms participating in the study included miniature chickens called Polish Lilliputians and Green- legged Partridge. A total of 104 samples of faeces were examined. The Willis-Schlaff flotation method was used to assess the prevalence of infection, and McMaster's method to evaluate the intensity. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites was found in 9 of the 10 farms. Oocysts of the genus Eimeria and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Trichostrongylus tenuis were isolated from the chicken faeces. Coccidiosis was found to be dominant parasitosis. The prevalence of infections on these farms with protozoa of Eimeria spp. was on average 32.7%, while for nematode species they amounted to 9.6% for Ascaridia galli, 5.7% for Heterakis gallinarum and 12.5% for Trichostrongylus tenuis. The results indicate the need to take preventive measures, designed to eliminate/reduce the risk of parasitoses in poultry from free-range systems. Focus should be placed on the hygiene of the farming conditions. PMID:25706430

  11. In ovo Administration of Ghrelin and Subsequent Intestinal Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghiasi Ghaleh-kandi,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigation on effect of in ovo administration of ghrelin on subsequent Leucine Aminopeptidase (LAP activity in broiler chickens. In this experiment 250 fertilized eggs were collected from commercial breeder flock. The eggs were divided into five experimental groups; control T1 (without injection, group T2 (in ovo injected with solution, group T3 (in ovo injected with 50 μg/egg ghrelin, group T4 (in ovo injected with 100 μg/egg ghrelin and group T5 (in ovo injected with 150 μg/egg ghrelin. All of groups were incubated. In ovo injection was done at day 7 of incub ation. in ovo administration of 150 μg/egg ghrelin in embryonic period, could stimulate LAP activity at 21-day- old chicks in 10, 30 and 50% of intestine with 3520.4, 266.9, 4595.6 IU/g protein, also in ovo injected 50 and 150 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 50 and 70% of intestine with 3071.4, 4779.3 and 5013.4 IU/g. In 42-day-old chicks, in ovo injected 50 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 10, 30, 40, 70, and 90% percent of intestine. These findings demonstrated stimulatory effects of ghrelin in low doses (50 μg in chicken intestine LAP activity.

  12. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor. PMID:21406370

  13. The Effect of Calcium Source in Laying Hen Diet on Egg and Tibia Bone Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twenty, 37-week-old Lohmann strain layers were used in the current study to evaluate the effect of using ground, sterilized chicken eggshell (ES) as calcium (Ca) source in their diets on the productive performance, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca and inorganic P concentrations and bone mineralization. Feed and water ad libitum were provided and hens were kept under 16:8 hrs light:dark cycle. Birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (GP), 1, was a control group fed a layer diet containing finely ground limestone as the Ca source. 2 was fed a layer diet that contained a combination of 50% limestone and 50% ground eggshell (50% ES) as the Ca source, whereas group 3 received a layer diet containing 100% ground eggshell (100% ES) as the Ca source in the diet. After 2 wk of acclimation, the birds were fed the experimental diets for 6 wk, initial and final body weights (BW) and feed intake was recorded. Eggs production was expressed as a percentage of hen-day egg production, egg weight and the internal egg quality were measured. Serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level were determined. Finally, tibia weight, length and its contents of Ca, P concentrations were measured. Results of this study indicated that, there was no significant effect of dietary treatment on BW and feed consumption. Replacing limestone in the current study diet with ground, sterilized eggshell had no any significant effect on egg production, egg weight, eggshell quality and tibia characteristics among between groups. Finally, there were no significant effect for treatment on blood hematocrit, total serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level. It is concluded that hatchery waste, as chicken egg shells, can be used as the Ca source in layer diets without an adverse effect on BW, feed consumption, egg weight, egg production, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca concentration and bone characteristics

  14. THE EFFECT OF BROILER BREEDER AGES ON THE QUALITIVE AND QUANTITIVE PROPERTIES OF THE EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabodin Gharahveysi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler breeder age is one of the most important factors that affects on egg properties. However by increasing the age of broiler breeder flock, the quality of eggs and consequently the quality of their chick products would be changed. In order to study the effect of broiler breeder flock age on the various aspects of chick products, 300 fertilizable eggs were selected randomly, from 3 broiler breeder farms. Selected eggs were collected from broilers that were 30 (young, 36 (peak, 43(after peak, 53 (old, 60 (very old and 82 (molted weeks old. Collected eggs were stored during 3 to 4 days in the ambient temperature. Qualitive and quantitive aspects of eggs including egg weight, albumen height yolk, height thickness of egg shell, yolk color, Albumen and yolk PH and Hugh unit were studied. Trait Analysis was done by ANOVA procedure of SAS statistical software. To compare the means, Duncan test was used. The effects of age and breeder farms on the egg weight, yolk color, yolk and albumen PH, yolk and albumen height, shell egg thickness and Hugh unit were significant (p<0.05. The lowest difference was seen between the age of 53, 60 and 82 week old (p<0.05. Albumen PH and alkaline is increased by increase of age, but yolk PH is the variance. Influence of age on the traits including yolk and albumen height and Hugh unit was decreased and the color of yolk was faded by increasing age. According to obtained results from these research performances of ages of 53, 60 and 82 weeks are close together. We could conclude that older broiler breeder flocks are produce the better qualitive and quantitive properties of egg products. Since most poultry enough information about the quality of breeder chickens and the best age to have chickens, using the results of this study can be answered many questions.

  15. Egg protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Beelen, M.J.C.; Wolbers, L.A.M.; Gilst, van W.H.; Buikema, J.H.; Nelissen, J.W.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides egg-protein hydrolysates with DPP-IV inhibitory activity which are particularly suited for the treatment of diabetes. Particularly advantageous is to use hydrolysate of lysozyme for the treatment of diabetes.

  16. Egg and time limitation mediate an egg protection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, J B; Hunter, M S

    2014-05-01

    The number of mature eggs remaining in the ovaries and the time left for oviposition determine the reproductive decisions of the hyperdiverse guild of insects that require discrete and potentially limiting resources for oviposition (such as seeds, fruits or other insects). A female may run out of eggs before all available oviposition sites are used (egg limitation), or die before using all of her eggs (time limitation). Females are predicted to change clutch size depending on whether eggs or time is the limiting resource. We extend this framework and ask whether the same constraints influence a strategy in which females modify eggs into protective shields. In response to egg parasitism cues, female seed beetles (Mimosestes amicus) lay eggs in vertical groups of 2-4, modifying the top 1-3 eggs into shields in order to protect the bottom egg from attack by parasitoids. We made contrasting predictions of how egg and time limitation would influence egg size and the incidence and level of egg protection. By varying access to seed pods, we manipulated the number of remaining eggs a female had at the time she received a parasitism cue. Although egg size was not affected, our results confirm that egg-limited females protected fewer eggs and time-limited females protected more eggs. Female body size explained the number of eggs in a stack rather than host deprivation or the timing of parasitoid exposure. Our results clearly show that host availability relative to female age influences the incidence of egg protection in M. amicus. Furthermore, our study represents a novel use of life history theory to explain patterns in an unusual but compelling defensive behaviour. PMID:24735410

  17. Factors Affecting Egg Processing Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  18. The fish egg microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pathogens increasingly threaten biodiversity and food security. This thesis describes the study of the microbiome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eggs and analyses of the effects of infections by the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia ...

  19. Drosophila egg chamber elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Julie

    2012-01-01

    As tissues and organs are formed, they acquire a specific shape that plays an integral role in their ability to function properly. A relatively simple system that has been used to examine how tissues and organs are shaped is the formation of an elongated Drosophila egg. While it has been known for some time that Drosophila egg elongation requires interactions between a polarized intracellular basal actin network and a polarized extracellular network of basal lamina proteins, how these interac...

  20. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  1. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection. PMID:26197282

  2. Ovodefensins, an Oviduct-Specific Antimicrobial Gene Family, Have Evolved in Birds and Reptiles to Protect the Egg by Both Sequence and Intra-Six-Cysteine Sequence Motif Spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whenham, Natasha; Lu, Tian Chee; Maidin, Maisarah B M; Wilson, Peter W; Bain, Maureen M; Stevenson, M Lynn; Stevens, Mark P; Bedford, Michael R; Dunn, Ian C

    2015-06-01

    Ovodefensins are a novel beta defensin-related family of antimicrobial peptides containing conserved glycine and six cysteine residues. Originally thought to be restricted to the albumen-producing region of the avian oviduct, expression was found in chicken, turkey, duck, and zebra finch in large quantities in many parts of the oviduct, but this varied between species and between gene forms in the same species. Using new search strategies, the ovodefensin family now has 35 members, including reptiles, but no representatives outside birds and reptiles have been found. Analysis of their evolution shows that ovodefensins divide into six groups based on the intra-cysteine amino acid spacing, representing a unique mechanism alongside traditional evolution of sequence. The groups have been used to base a nomenclature for the family. Antimicrobial activity for three ovodefensins from chicken and duck was confirmed against Escherichia coli and a pathogenic E. coli strain as well as a Gram-positive organism, Staphylococcus aureus, for the first time. However, activity varied greatly between peptides, with Gallus gallus OvoDA1 being the most potent, suggesting a link with the different structures. Expression of Gallus gallus OvoDA1 (gallin) in the oviduct was increased by estrogen and progesterone and in the reproductive state. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that ovodefensins evolved to protect the egg, but they are not necessarily restricted to the egg white. Therefore, divergent motif structure and sequence present an interesting area of research for antimicrobial peptide design and understanding protection of the cleidoic egg. PMID:25972010

  3. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives. PMID:12033425

  4. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  5. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  6. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  7. Microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Pek Geck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from three layer farms (designated as Farm A, Farm B and Farm C. A total of 67 culled chicken layer samples consisting of egg wash water, chicken carcass rinse, drinking water, cloaca swab, feed and faeces were examined for enterobacteriaceae, total and faecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli using the procedures in the bacteriological analytical manual. Results: The total plate count for bacteria ranged from 2.7 x 103 cfuml-1 to 1.8 x 107 cfug-1 (Farm A, 1100.0 Most probable number (MPNml-1/ MPNg-1 for Farm A, B and C. Similarly, E. coli count for all the three farms ranged from 1100.0 MPNml-1/MPNg-1. E. coli counts were very low for most of the samples examined except chicken carcass and faeces. Conclusion: In general, Farm A had higher bacterial count, followed by Farm C and Farm B. This work gives an indication that pathogenic foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Shigella and Yersinia spp. may be present in culled chicken layers and consequently pose the risk of causing food poisoning or outbreaks.

  8. Inheritance of fertility in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olori Victor E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertility of a chicken's egg is a trait which depends on both the hen that lays the egg and on her mate. It is also known that fertility of an individual changes over the laying period. Methods Longitudinal models including both random genetic and permanent environmental effects of both the female and her male mate were used to model the proportion of fertile eggs in a pedigree broiler population over the ages 29-54 weeks. Results Both the male and the female contribute to variation in fertility. Estimates of heritability of weekly records were typically 7% for female and 10% for male contributions to fertility. Repeatability estimates ranged from 24 to 33%, respectively. The estimated genetic variance remained almost constant for both sexes over the laying period and the genetic correlations between different ages were close to 1.0. The permanent environment components increased substantially towards the end of the analyzed period, and correlations between permanent environment effects at different ages declined with increasing age difference The heritability of mean fertility over the whole laying period was estimated at 13% for females and 17% for males. A small positive correlation between genetic effects for male and female fertility was found. Conclusion Opportunities to improve fertility in broiler stocks by selection on both sexes exist and should have an impact throughout the laying period.

  9. Uso do fixador esquelético externo Tipo II para osteossíntese de tibiotarso em galinhas da raça Plymouth Rock Branca: modelo experimental para uso em aves selvagens Use of Type II external skeletal fixator for tibiotarsus osteosynthesis in White Plymouth Rock chickens: an experimental model for using in wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano B. De Conti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência do fixador esquelético externo Tipo II para o tratamento de fratura de tibiotarso em oito galinhas adultas da raça Plymouth Rock Branca. As aves foram pré-medicadas com sulfato de morfina e anestesiadas com halotano. Em seguida, foi realizada osteotomia na diáfise do tibiotarso esquerdo, por meio de serra oscilatória. Quatro pinos de Kirschner foram inseridos através das corticais ósseas, dois proximalmente e dois distalmente ao foco da fratura. Após a redução desta, as extremidades dos dois pinos proximais e distais foram torcidas em direção distal ou proximal, respectivamente, sendo os pinos conectados externamente por meio de duas barras de acrílico autopolimerizável, nas faces lateral e medial externa do membro. O retorno da plena capacidade de utilização do membro foi observado em 20,00±7,09 dias, e a cicatrização óssea, avaliada por exame radiográfico, ocorreu em 35,12±8,72 dias. Os resultados do experimento demonstraram que redução aberta e aplicação de fixador esquelético externo Tipo II é método efetivo para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em galinhas da raça Plymouth Rock Branca.The efficiency of the Type II external skeletal fixator for the treatment of tibiotarsus fracture in eight adult White Plymouth Rock chickens was evaluated. The individuals were pre-medicated with morphine sulfate and anesthetized with halothane, and submitted to a diaphysary osteotomy in the left tibiotarsus, performed with an oscillatory saw. Four Kirschner wires were inserted through the bone cortices, being two proximally and two distally to the fracture. After the fracture reduction the ends of both proximal and distal wires were twisted in distal or proximal direction, respectively, being the wires connected by two bars of autopolymerizing acrylic resin, in the external lateral and medial faces of the limb. The return to full capability to use the member was observed in 20.00±7.09 days, and

  10. A chicken consultation with ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M

    2005-04-15

    In Madison I once worked with two postdoctoral fellows who had spent their youth in New York City and who, when asked what birds they knew both responded "why, pigeons and LBJ's!" (little brown jobbies). Despite their undoubted brilliance, they clearly had an educational deficiency not fixed by buying eggs and poultry at a grocery store. Though of enormous economic and nutritional importance to humans, turkeys and chickens constitute only a minute fraction of the disappearing avian life in our ecology. One could easily teach an entire middle or high school biology course around the reproduction, embryology, evolution, genetics, anatomy, special adaptations, virology, bacteriology, taxonomy, behavior, and extinctions of birds, as paradigmatic of all of life. Where would developmental or evolutionary biology be without the Galapagos finches, chick embryo, or neurobiology without the Zebra Finch? The modifications of the original red jungle fowl of India and South East Asia into hundreds of races through artificial selection and breeding practices provide as beautiful an example of developmental plasticity, well-known to Darwin, as the domestic dog, cat, laboratory mice, and guinea pigs. In what follows I have begun to repay my indebtedness to my mentor Emil Witschi who introduced me to developmental biology, physiology, and genetics and its historical study on the basis of birds (and amphibians); and to Mark Leppert, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Utah for collaborative support, and bird-watching fieldtrips. PMID:15666310

  11. Influence of Flaxseed Oil on Fecal Microbiota, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolks in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Heo, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Do-Woon; Park, Tae-Eun; Han, Geon Goo; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Ho-Bin; Jung, Eojin; Kim, Hee Sung; Na, Yerim; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many attempts to produce ω-3 fatty acid-rich eggs using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that is a popular fatty acid in the poultry feed industry, only limited knowledge about the effects of ALA-enriched diets on chicken fecal microbiota is currently available. Herein we examined the changes in the fecal microbiota composition, egg quality traits and fatty acid composition of the egg yolks of laying hens fed ALA-rich flaxseed oil for 8 weeks. The animals fed the experimental diets that contained 0 % (group C), 0.5 % (group T1), and 1.0 % (group T2) of flaxseed oil, respectively, and eggs and feces were obtained for the analyses. ω-3 fatty acids, including ALA, were increased in T1 and T2 compared with C. Furthermore, the freshness of eggs was improved with no side effects on the eggs. The diet also changed the fecal microbiota; Firmicutes was increased in T1 and T2 (48.6 to 83 and 79.6 %) and Bacteroidetes was decreased (40.2 to 8.8 and 4.2 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, among the 56 examined genera, was the most influenced bacterial group in terms of the fecal microbial community shifts. These results indicate that ALA-rich diets influenced both the egg and fecal microbiota in beneficial manners in laying hens although the association between the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk and the fecal microbiota was not clear. This study is a first step to understand the effect of flaxseed oil as well as intestinal microbiota of laying hens. PMID:26613617

  12. Pituitary progesterone receptor expression and plasma gonadotrophin concentrations in the reproductively dysfunctional mutant restricted ovulator chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Maddineni, Sreenivasa; Hendricks, Gilbert L; Elkin, Robert G; Proudman, John A; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2007-04-01

    Female mutant restricted ovulator (RO) chickens of the White Leghorn strain carry a naturally occurring single nucleotide mutation in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene. Due to this mutation, RO hens fail to express a functional VLDLR protein on the oocyte membrane, which results in an impaired uptake of circulating yolk precursor macromolecules. Mutant RO hens subsequently develop hyperlipidemia and generally fail to lay eggs due to follicular atresia. Since RO hens also reportedly have three-fold higher basal plasma estrogen concentrations, combined with four-fold lower levels of circulating progesterone as compared to wild-type (WT) hens, we hypothesized that RO hens would have an increased abundance of pituitary progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and PR isoforms A and B as well as alterations in circulating gonadotrophin levels. Quantitative PCR assays revealed significantly greater (Pestradiol, but lower circulating progesterone levels. Collectively, elevated circulating estrogen and/or decreased progesterone levels may have contributed to the upregulation of PR mRNA and PR isoforms A and B in the RO hen pituitary gland. Lastly, in order to gain a more complete understanding of why RO hens are reproductively dysfunctional, a model is proposed that links humoral and ovarian factors to observed and putative changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. PMID:16677794

  13. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  14. The Contribution of Scavenging Indigenous Chicken to the Socio-Economic Welfare of the Rural Households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most than 90% of farmers in Western Kenya keep chicken which are mainly indigenous breeds. The most common production system is extensive free-range production. chickens are ranked second to cattle in the livestock industry of which but since they readily fetch cash they play a role as a source of security to most households. Apart from this chicken have a special place in the social and cultural practices of the people of this region and it is difficult to attach monetary value to these practices. Local breeds are believed to be resistance to diseases, cheap to maintain, increase rapidly after calamities and are a resource of available to even the poorest families. The main production constraints are disease, lack of feed, predation and bad weather. The purpose of this trial was to increase consumption and enhance family income through sales of eggs and chicken meat. To achieve these local communities were trained on improved management technologies. Evaluation of the trial showed the technologies could greatly enhance production, translating into higher consumption and sales of chickens and chicken products, thus substantially benefiting the farmers. Trial results showed that the cost of input in chicken production is far below the value of output as most chickens scavenge for feed. Simple financial analyses have shown that with minimal inputs, a farmer could get between Ksh. 3600 and Ksh. 4100 per single hen in one year

  15. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty three frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were collected and pretreated. Selenium (Se) contents in the diet samples were analyzed using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 100 g of beef contains 12.4-50.9 μg of Se; pork, 11.2-22.6 μg; chicken, 10.2-13.7 μg and eggs, 28.6-43.0 μg. Beef innards and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of Se. This study reveals that Se intake of Korean adults are 28.7 μg/day in men and 27.6 μg/day in women from meat and eggs, which are over 1/2 of the Korean recommended Se intake. (author)

  16. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  17. Contaminant exposure of white pelicans nesting at Anaho Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reproductive success of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchus) was monitored at a nesting colony on Anaho Island, Pyramid Lake, Nevada in 1996. Eggs...

  18. The table eggs and their quality in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose this study was to investigate quality of the table eggs, their damage and soiling in various age of the laying hens (47-62 weeks during the second phase of the laying cycle. The object of the research was table eggs, egg white, egg shell, damage and soiling of the egg shell. The eggs were of the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the non-cage system with deep litter and free range at small-scale breeding. In the breeding system with free range at small-scale conditions were secured requirements for laying hens in accordance with welfare principles. The eggs were collected each day at 4:00 pm. Weights of egg and egg shell samples of were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N. A white weight was calculated. Damage and soiling of eggs were investigated under the desk lamp lighting up to 100 W bulb. Statistical evaluation of the results was carried out in the program system SAS. From the existing conclusions of the various scientific and professional published works, it is known that both quality and safety are interrelated. In many works are the risk factors referred together as the quality standards. We found an important fact in assessing the trend of values of the egg shell weight, depending on the age of laying hens. Based on this fact, it can be assumed that the values of egg shell weight were not directly related to egg weight and egg white weight. It follows that the egg shell weight must be assessed comprehensively, and account must be taken of other factors. For the characteristics of the deformed egg shape has been one pc, representing 3.33% of the samples taken for analysis of eggs at 53 weeks of age of the total sampled eggs. In the following 56 weeks of age hens laying eggs there was not a deformed shape. The next subsequent sampling 59 weeks of age laying hens were recorded two pcs of eggs with deformed shape, i.e. 6.67%. At the last sampling of eggs at age 62 weeks, the number of eggs with deformed shape increased to

  19. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani; Dewi Ratih Agung Priyono; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I), vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial...

  20. Nonvolatile Bio-Memristor Fabricated with Egg Albumen Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chung, Wen-Lin; Wu, San-Lein; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of chicken egg albumen-based bio-memristors. By introducing egg albumen as an insulator to fabricate memristor devices comprising a metal/insulator/metal sandwich structure, significant bipolar resistive switching behavior can be observed. The 1/f noise characteristics of the albumen devices were measured, and results suggested that their memory behavior results from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments. Oxygen diffusion and electrochemical redox reaction of metal ions under a sufficiently large electric field are the principal physical mechanisms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments; these mechanisms were observed by analysis of the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and resistance-temperature (R-T) measurement results. The switching property of the devices remarkably improved by heat-denaturation of proteins; reliable switching endurance of over 500 cycles accompanied by an on/off current ratio (Ion/off) of higher than 103 were also observed. Both resistance states could be maintained for a suitably long time (>104 s). Taking the results together, the present study reveals for the first time that chicken egg albumen is a promising material for nonvolatile memory applications.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of biomorphic CeO2 obtained by using egg shell membrane as template

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Prekajski; Biljana Babić; Dušan Bučevac; Jelena Pantić; Jelena Gulicovski; Miroslav Miljković; Branko Matović

    2014-01-01

    A new technology based on bio-templating approach was proposed in this paper. Egg-shell membrane (ESM) has been employed as a natural biotemplate. Fibrous oxide ceramics was prepared by wet impregnation of biological template with water solution of cerium nitrate. The template was derived from membranes of fresh chicken eggs. Repeated impregnation, pyrolysis and final calcination in the range of 600 to 1200 °C in air resulted in template burnout and consolidation of the oxide layers. At lo...

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  3. Effect of probucol on reproductive performance, egg yolk cholesterol content, and lipid metabolism in the laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, E C; Elliot, J F; Smith, T L

    1982-06-01

    Egg production type chickens were given the drug Probucol in their diets to determine its effect on egg production characteristics, liver lipid metabolism, egg yolk lipid synthesis, and egg yolk cholesterol concentration. In none of the three trials conducted did Probucol feeding affect egg production or body weight. The drug reduced total liver lipogenesis as measured by incorporation of 14C-acetate by surviving liver slices. Relative incorporation of 14C-acetate into cholesterol by liver was increased by the drug. However, in ovo incorporation of 14C-acetate in total yolk lipids remains unchanged and relative incorporation into yolk cholesterol is reduced. As a result, egg yolk cholesterol content is reduced by 5% with the .10% dietary level of drug administration. PMID:7111129

  4. A method to evaluate relative ovicidal effects of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Mejer, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum Strain 251 (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), on the development and survival of eggs of faecal origin of three ascarid species, Ascaridia galli (chicken roundworm), Toxocara canis (canine roundworm) and Ascaris suum (pig roundworm). Ascarid eggs were embryonated on water agar with or without a...... fungus, and the resulting viability of the eggs was evaluated on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 post exposure (pe) by observing eggs in situ. On days 7–42 pe, P. chlamydosporia had reduced the viability of A. galli and T. canis eggs by 64–86% and 26–67%. Corresponding reductions for P. lilacinum Strain...... for a simple, repeatable and non-invasive evaluation of the ovicidal effects of microfungi. This study demonstrates that P. chlamydosporia Biotype 10 may be utilised as a biocontrol agent to reduce A. galli and T. canis egg contamination of the environment....

  5. A simple and efficient method for extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from chicken eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikimaru, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2009-04-01

    Recently, we reported a method for discriminating a Japanese brand of chicken, the Hinai-jidori. As an application of this method for discriminating Hinai-jidori eggs, we here report an efficient method for extracting maternal DNA from eggshells. Eggshell powder was completely decalcified with EDTA solution, and then DNA was isolated by conventional phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. The efficiency of DNA recovery from eggshells was 50-fold higher than that of a previously reported method. The recovered DNA could be used for PCR, and 10 markers for identifying the Hinai-jidori chicken were detected. The genotypes of the Hinai-jidori exactly matched those of the Hinai-dori breed. Using this method, Hinai-jidori and Hinai-dori eggs could be distinguished from the eggs of Rhode Island Reds. This is the first report of a technique that can be used to discriminate the eggs of Hinai-jidori from those of other chickens, and it can also be utilized to validate the labeling of Hinai-jidori eggs in the market. PMID:20163594

  6. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  7. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Rani Gilhare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Result: Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. Conclusion: FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  8. Brewer's Grain from Cameroon Brewery in Breeder Chicken Rations : Effect on Productive and Reproductive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeni, MJ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of brewer's dried grain (BDG on the productive and reproductive traits in breeder chickens, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of ISA commercial breed were subjected to dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % levels of BDG. Feed and water were provided ad libitum over the 5-months experimental period. Reproductive and productive traits such as egg production, egg weight, albumen height, shell weight, semen quantity fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were measured. Results indicated that when BDG was fed at the 30 % level in the ration, the hen-day egg production (50.6 % was significantly (P of inclusion. There was a significant (P 0.05 was noticed between treatments for ratio of shell weight to egg weight, albumen height, semen quantity and fertility. The results suggest that although the 30 % level of BDG can be tolerated, the 20 %, level of BDG inclusion is more appropriate for breeder birds.

  9. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  10. The panel of egg allergens, Gal d 1-Gal d 5: Their improved purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Have, T. T.; Foss, N.; Briza, P.; Oberhuber, C.; Radauer, C.; Alessandri, S.; Knulst, A.C.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Egg proteins represent one of the most important sources evoking food allergic reactions. In order to improve allergy diagnosis, purified and well-characterized proteins are needed. Although the egg white allergens Gal d 1, 2, 3 and 4 (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme) are...... commercially available, these preparations contain impurities, which affect exact in vitro diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to set up further purification protocols and to extend the characterization of the physicochemical and immunological properties of the final batches. The egg white allergens...

  11. Prevalence of Ascaridia galli in white leghorn layers and Fayoumi-Rhode Island red crossbred flock at government poultry farm Dina, Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Allah Bachaya; Muhammad, Asif Raza; Muhammad, Ashraf Anjum; Imran, Ahmad Khan; Abdul, Aziz; Zahid, Manzoor; Shaukat, Hussain Munawar

    2015-03-01

    Poultry farming not only provides high nutritious food but also creates employment opportunity for rural masses. Documented evidences elaborates that helminth parasitism is most deciduous problem of chickens especially in developing world. Ascaridia (A.) galli, a nematode of small intestine, has been considered as the most common and important parasite of chicken. The present study was carried out to investigate prevalence and severity of A. galli in White Leghorn layers (housing type: battery cage and deep litter, 50 each) and Fayoumi-Rhode Island Red crossbred (male and female: 50 each) flock rearing at Government Poultry Farm, Dina, Punjab, Pakistan. Two hundred faecal samples were examined by using standard parasitological and McMaster egg counting technique. The overall prevalence was 24.5% at farm, 13% in White leghorn layer (battery cage=2%, deep litter=24%) and 36% in Fayoumi-Rhode Island Red (male=34%, female=38%). It was also observed that White leghorn layer rearing in deep litter had more severe infection (EPG=1920) of A. galli compare with battery cages birds (EPG=500). Parasite prevalence was significantly related with sex (P<0.05) in Fayoumi-Rhode Island Red and male birds had less number of average parasites (0.34±0.47) as compared to females (0.38±0.490). Additionally, female birds were under serious threat of infection (EPG=2270) compared with its counterpart (EPG=1250). Given the high infection rates, particular attention should be paid to management and provision of feed supplement to White leghorn layer housing in deep litter and female bird of Fayoumi-Rhode Island Red crossbred. PMID:25801250

  12. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and...... private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  13. 可微波鸡米花预混粉层配料的研究%Optimization of the surface mixture powders for microwavable popcorn chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金铎; 孔保华

    2011-01-01

    采用单纯形格子法实验设计优化鸡米花层预混粉的配方,以获得鸡米花微波后表层松脆的口感,通过对鸡米花的脆性、感官指标以及色差的分析,确定预混粉最优的配方为:小麦淀粉21%,变性淀粉25%,蛋清粉2.5%,大豆蛋白4.5%,其他成分占47%。结果表明,采用优化后的预混粉层配方生产出的鸡米花,可以使微波后产品脆性得到显著的提高,而且产品的感官质量较好。%Simplex lattice design was used to optimize the formulation of the popcorn chicken in this study in order to maintain the high crispness of popcorn chicken after microwave heating. By analyzing sensory evaluation,b* value and texture profile analysis (TPA),the optimal formula of surface mixture powders was obtained including wheat starch 21% ,modified starch 25% ,egg white powder 2.5% ,soy protein 4.5% ,and other powders 47%. The results indicated that the surface mixture powders evidently improved the crispness and sensory quality of popcorn chicken.

  14. Efficient production of transgenic chickens using self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyong XU; Yan SUN; Hongmei DING; Meng WANG; Yafei CAI; Jie CHEN; Honglin LIU

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the simple and effective production of transgenic chickens, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was expressed by using third-generation self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors. In our experiments, lentiviruses were injected into 204 fertilized eggs, from which 30 ( 15% ) chickens were hatched. The exogenous gene was detected in the genomes of 16 out of 30 (53%) chickens. The green fluorescence signal was observed directly in various body parts, and was particularly significant in the testes. The transgenes were also found in the offspring of these chickens. The results indicate that HIV-based lentivirul vectors can be used to generate transgenic birds economically and effectively [Current Zoology 55 (5): 383 - 387,2009].

  15. Irradiation of Poultry and Egg Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry and egg products may be treated advantageously with various kinds of irradiation process, in different circumstances. Where contamination with Salmonella is a problem, 'radicidation' may be carried out with doses of the order of 0.5 Mrad. This is particularly valuable for frozen products, such as whole egg and some kinds of poultry, especially duck. Dried-egg products may be treated also in this way. This application is described in detail by other authors (Ley, Mossel [2,3]). The treatment of poultry carcasses so that they can be stored indefinitely, or 'radappertization', can be achieved by doses of 4,5 Mrad. However, other processes must be associated with the irradiation, to prevent undesirable off-flavours. These can include pre-heating to inactivate enzymes, irradiation in the frozen state, in vacuum or nitrogen packs, or with activated charcoal included in the pack, and particular methods of cooking are sometimes recommended. These methods are of interest for army use, and have been extensively studied for the research programme of the United States Army. The 'radurization' process for poultry, i.e. increase in storage life by inactivation of most of the spoilage microorganisms, is of interest for commercial use. Doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 Mrad may be used without adverse effects on flavour, and will extend the periodjbefore microbial spoilage by 1.5- to 3-fold. Storage at chill temperatures (5°C or below) is necessary, and changes in flavour during storage may limit the extension of this period, so that 20 days at 1°C is about i the most obtainable without quality deterioration. The mechanism of these changes is not understood, but they are not due to microbial spoilage or to the irradiation. The eventual microbial spoilage of irradiated chickens at chill temperatures is due to non-pathogenic bacteria, which are normally present in the spoilage flora, though sometimes the proportions of different kinds of these bacteria may be altered, giving

  16. Course of hatch and developmental changes in thyroid hormone concentration in blood of chicken embryo following in ovo riboflavin supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    TRZECIAK, Karolina Barbara; LIS, Marcin Wojciech; SECHMAN, Andrzej; Plytycz, Barbara; RUDOLF, Agata; WOJNAR, Tomasz; NIEDZIOLKA, Jerzy Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The influence of riboflavin on the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis during chicken embryogenesis is poorly understood. Therefore, examination of the effects of in ovo riboflavin supplementation on the possible linkage between the thyroid gland function and chick embryonic development seems to be interesting. Eggs on the sixth day of incubation were injected with 0 (control), 60, or 600 µg of riboflavin/egg. Blood samples were collected on the 12th, 15th, 18th, and 20th days ...

  17. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  18. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  19. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  20. Essential elements in different types of eggs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs are excellent sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to human nutrition. Neither the color of the shell nor that of the yolk affects the egg nutritive value, even though this value can vary according to the eggs from different poultries, and as well as according to the feed given to them. The egg consumption of the Brazilian southeastern population is 9.9 g/day, which represents 0.61% of the daily food consumption per capita. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se, Sc and Zn in three types of eggs (hen, free-range and quail eggs). The edible parts of the eggs (egg white and egg yolks) were analyzed Hard-boiled and Raw. The Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the element concentrations. The samples were irradiated for approximately eight hours in flux of 4.5-5.5 1012 n cm-2 s-1, at nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. There was variation in the elements concentrations among the types of eggs and between Hard-boiled and Raw eggs. (author)