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Sample records for chicken egg production

  1. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

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    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  2. Genetic parameters for egg production traits in purebred and hybrid chicken in a tropical environment.

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    Tongsiri, S; Jeyaruban, M G; Van Der Werf, J H J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for 5 economically important egg production traits using records collected over 9 years in chickens reared under tropical conditions in Thailand. The data were from two purebred lines and two hybrid lines of layer parent stocks. The two purebred lines were Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Plymouth Rock (WPR) and the hybrid lines were formed by crossing a commercial brown egg laying strain to Rhode Island Red (RC) and White Plymouth Rock (WC), respectively. Five egg production traits were analysed, including age at first egg (AFE), body weight at first egg (BWT), egg weight at first egg (EWFE), number of eggs from the first 17 weeks of lay (EN) and average egg weight over the 17th week of lay (EW). Fixed effects of year and hatch within year were significant for all 5 traits and were included in the model. Maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects of the dam were not significant, except for EN and EW in RIR and BWT and EW in WPR. Estimated heritability of AFE, BWT, EWFE, EN and EW were 0.45, 0.50, 0.29, 0.19 and 0.43 in RIR; 0.44, 0.38, 0.33, 0.20 and 0.38 in WPR; 0.37, 0.41, 0.38, 0.18 and 0.36 in RC; and 0.46, 0.53, 0.36, 0.38 and 0.45 in WC lines, respectively. The EN was negatively correlated with other traits, except for BWT in RC and AFE and BWT in WC. It was concluded that selection for increased EN will reduce other egg production traits in purebred and hybrid chicken and therefore EN needs to be combined with other egg production traits in a multi-trait selection index to improve all traits optimally according to a defined breeding objective.

  3. Associations between novel polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene and egg production and quality in chickens.

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    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to characterize polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene, and determine their association with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens. The study was conducted on four strains of White Leghorn chickens, namely IWH, IWI, IWK, and layer control. Overall, there were three alleles (designated A, B, and C) and five genotypes, with genotypic frequencies of 0.09, 0.75, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.07 for AA, AB, AC, BB, and BC, respectively. There were significant differences among genotypes for egg production up to 52 and 64 wk of age, with maximal egg yields for genotypes AA and AC (144.5 ± 5.06 and 143.2 ± 4.67 eggs, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant differences among genotypes for egg quality traits, including egg weight and Haugh unit at 40 wk of age, Haugh unit at 52 wk, and yolk color index and Haugh unit at 64 wk. Birds with AA or AC genotypes had the best egg quality traits. On the contrary, these genotypes had the lowest prolactin expression, whereas this expression was highest in birds with the BB genotype. In conclusion, polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR of prolactin gene were significantly associated with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens.

  4. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

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    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  5. The Chicken and Egg Project

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    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  6. Benefit cost analysis of Rhode Island Red chicken rearing in backyard on the basis of egg production performance

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    P. K. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze of the egg production features of backyard chicken rearing with an evaluation of production cost of an egg and there by benefit-cost analysis. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 60000 chicken covering five different agroclimatic zones in the state West Bengal, India. Initially each farmer was provided day-old Rhode Island Red chicks, commercial ration upto pre-laying stage having CP of 17.23% and 12.32% in chick and grower mash respectively along with common management support system for backyard poultry rearing viz. separate poultry night shelter and brooding facilities, deworming and vaccination and regular health check up system, later farmers were allowed to use the supplemented feed made by the locally available resources having various crude protein content. Results: It was observed that there was no significant variation in respect of total egg production under various supplemented crude protein containing feed, whereas significantly higher egg production feature is observed in Coastal and Old Alluvial zones. Conclusion: The study concluded that more profit was occurred to those farmers who provided the supplemented feed with less crude protein content along with scavenging. This scope is more in new alluvial zone. It was also observed that profit started from 11 month onwards in each agro-climatic zone as well as in each category of supplemented feed.

  7. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

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    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  8. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

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    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  9. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

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    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  10. Study on transfers of uranium, thorium and decay products from grain, water and soil to chicken meat and egg contents.

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    Jeambrun, M; Pourcelot, L; Mercat, C; Boulet, B; Loyen, J; Cagnat, X; Gauthier-Lafaye, F

    2012-08-01

    Activity concentrations of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides were determined in chicken meat and eggs as well as in soil, water and other dietary intakes of poultry at five sites of the French territory. These data allow the calculation of transfer coefficients which enrich the database given by the technical report series no. 472 of the IAEA. In egg contents, the highest activity concentrations (in mBq kg(-1) fresh weight) are for (226)Ra, ranging between 136 and 190 and are much lower for uranium (between 0.51 and 1.30 for (238)U). In chicken meat, (238)U activity concentration is higher than in egg contents and ranges between 1.7 and 9.7. Concerning (232)Th, its activity concentration is lower than uranium and ranges between 0.5 and 4.9. Daily ingested activity concentration by the animals was assessed taking into account the activity concentrations measured in the grains, in the soil and in the drinking water. The activity concentration in grains and the daily intakes allow the calculation of concentration ratios and transfer coefficients for chicken meat and egg contents. In chicken meat the transfer coefficients (d kg(-1)) range between 0.0018 and 0.0073 for (238)U and between 0.0008 and 0.0028 for (232)Th. In egg contents they range from 0.00018 to 0.0018 for (238)U and are much higher for radium isotopes (0.10-0.23 for (226)Ra and 0.07-0.11 for (228)Ra).

  11. Association of neuropeptide Y and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor gene SNPs with breeding value for growth and egg production traits in Mazandaran native chickens.

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    Fatemi, S A; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Niknafs, Sh

    2012-08-16

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) are two candidate genes with a wide variety of physiological functions in growth and especially in reproduction processes. We examined the association of one SNP from each of these genes with growth- and egg production-related traits in Mazandaran native chickens. Two hundred and six individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Marker-trait association analyses were performed using both breeding value and phenotypic information. The data came from 18 successive generations of selection at a Mazandaran native chicken breeding station in Iran. Data were analyzed with a univariate animal model in an ASREML procedure to estimate breeding values of the birds for these traits. Two alleles were found for both genes, A and a alleles for GnRHR, with frequencies of 0.614 and 0.386, B and b alleles for NPY, with frequencies of 0.780 and 0.221, respectively. The additive genetic effects of the GnRHR gene on egg number and egg mass were significant. Also, body weight at sexual maturity was significantly influenced by the NPY gene. We conclude that GnRHR and NPY genes are associated with egg production and growth traits, respectively.

  12. Anoxia and export productivity - Resolving the chicken and egg paradox (Invited)

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    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated sedimentary organic carbon, pyrite and trace metals (Mo, Re, U, V, I); isotopes of Mo, Fe, S and C; organic biomarkers such as Isorenieratane, are all robust indicators of anoxia, however these proxies do not reveal the causes for low oxygen concentrations in seawater and/or the sediments. Two (not mutually exclusive) mechanisms can lower the oxygen levels in the oceanic water column - stratification and sluggish circulation which result in long residence time of water masses that are not in contact with the atmosphere, and/or increased oxygen consumption by microorganisms in the process of organic matter regeneration (increased export production and regeneration). Marine barite formation in the water column and accumulation in sediments is not sensitive to oxygen content yet they directly respond to organic matter delivery and regeneration within the ocean twilight zone and may shed light on causes of anoxic events in the geological record. Examples from two prominent wide spread anoxic events will be presented.

  13. Expression of 25 high egg production related transcripts that identified from hypothalamus and pituitary gland in red-feather Taiwan country chickens.

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    Chen, Lih-Ren; Chao, Ching-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shiue, Yow-Ling

    2007-07-01

    Expression levels of 33 high egg production candidate transcripts in Red-feather Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reactions (PCR) in this study. Candidate transcripts were previously identified from a L2-B (L2-subtract-B) hypothalamus/pituitary gland subtractive cDNA library. In this subtractive cDNA library, two divergently selected strains of TCCs, B and L2 were used. These two strains were originated from one single population and were further subjected (since 1982) to the selections of body weight/comb size (B) and eggs to 40wk of age (L2), respectively. Hypothalamuses and pituitary glands that sampled from Red-feather TCCs were previously grouped into high (Red-high; n=20) and low (Red-low; n=20) egg productions based on the rate of lay after 1st egg (hen-day laying rate; %). Rates of lay after 1st egg (mean+/-S.E.) in the Red-high and the Red-low subpopulations were 72.2+/-0.6 and 23.0+/-3.5, respectively (P<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR validated that 25 candidate transcripts were significantly higher expressed in the Red-high than in the Red-low hens. These transcripts were ANP32A, BDH, CDC42, CNTN1, COMT, CPE, CTNNB1, DIO2, EIF4E, GARNL1, HSPCA, LAPTM4B, MBP, NAP1L4, NCAM1, PARK7, PCDHA@, PGDS, PLAG1, PRL, RAD21, SAR1A, SCG2, STMN1 and UFM1. Among these transcripts, 15 (79.0%), 13 (68.4%), and 12 (63.2%) genes were annotated to involve in cellular physiological process (GO:0050875), metabolism (GO:0008152) and cell communication (GO:0007154). Identified transcripts that related to high egg production are most active in focal adhesion, adherens junction, MAPK signaling, tight junction and cell adhesion pathways.

  14. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

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    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  15. 中国蛋鸡生产布局优化研究——基于比较优势的实证分析%STUDY ON THE LAYOUT OF EGG CHICKEN PRODUCTION IN CHINA

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    潘丹; 曹光乔

    2011-01-01

    该文在分析中国蛋鸡生产布局变动的前提下,从比较优势的角度对中国蛋鸡生产布局的优化进行研究.研究表明:目前中国蛋鸡的生产布局基本符合比较优势原则,蛋鸡的生产布局正由自然性布局决定向经济型布局决定转变.同时,资源禀赋、社会经济条件等因素导致中国蛋鸡的比较优势具有一定的差异,今后中国应该在比较优势的基础上,根据市场、资源及环境的原则进一步优化蛋鸡生产布局.%Based on the comparative advantage theory, this paper studied on the layout of egg chicken product in China. The conclusions can be listed as follows: Firstly, the current egg chicken production layout in China was basically coincided to the principle of comparative advantage, which was transferring from natural conditions to the economic factors decision - made; Secondly, the differences in the natural resources and socio - economic conditions lead to some differences on egg chicken comparative advantage among different main production districts. So in the future, based on the comparative advantage, China should optimize the layout of egg chicken production according to the market, resources and environmental principles.

  16. Salmonella in chicken meat, eggs and humans; Adelaide, South Australia, 2008.

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    Fearnley, Emily; Raupach, Jane; Lagala, Fil; Cameron, Scott

    2011-04-29

    Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these have led to subsequent decreases in notification rates in humans. A descriptive case-series of human Salmonella infections notified in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was conducted in 2008. Human Salmonella serotypes identified were then compared to serotypes identified from a retail chicken and egg survey conducted over the same time period in Adelaide. Ninety-four human cases of salmonellosis were included in the study. Thirty-one serotypes were identified and 61.7% of these were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the week prior to illness, 62.8% of participants reported eating chicken and 47.9% reported eating eggs. Salmonella was identified in 38.8% of retail chicken samples; S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium phage type 135a were most commonly identified. No egg contents were found to contain Salmonella, but the pathogen was isolated on 3.5% of egg external surface samples. Eleven serotypes were common to both chicken and human samples, two serotypes were common to eggs and humans, and one serotype (S. Infantis) was common to all three sources. Serotypes of Salmonella isolated from chicken and egg samples included serotypes that were also isolated from humans, in cases included in this study, and in outbreaks previously investigated within Australia. Poultry meat and eggs are potential sources of introducing a defined range of human pathogens into South Australian kitchens. Ongoing systematic surveillance of animals and their food products, at farm and retail level for Salmonella could provide more definitive evidence of links between food sources and human infections; and also

  17. PREVALÊNCIA DE SALMONELLA EM PRODUTOS DE FRANGOS E OVOS DE GALINHA COMERCIALIZADOS EM PELOTAS, RS, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CHICKEN PRODUCTS AND HEN'S EGGS FROM PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

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    Ana Cristina Baú

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de Salmonella em produtos de frangos e ovos de galinhas, os sorovares mais freqüentes e sua sensibilidadea a antimicrobianos, foram investigados em Pelotas, Brasil, no período de maio de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Um total de 124 amostras de produtos de frangos obtidas em supermercados e açougues e 94 amostras de 6 unidades de ovos de galinhas obtidas em supermercados e feiras-livres foram analisadas através do método convencional de cultivo. Entre as amostras de produtos de frangos analisadas, 13 (10,48% continham salmonelas. Os 13 isolamentos de salmonelas realizados foram sorotipificados como S. enteritidis (10, S. anatum (1 e S. enterica subespécie enterica sorovar 3,10:e,h:- (2. Todas as cepas isoladas foram resistentes à penicilina G e sensíveis aos demais antimicrobianos testados. Em amostras de ovos, não foram detectadas salmonelas.The prevalence of Salmonella in chicken products and hen's eggs, the most frequent serovars and their antimicrobial sensitivity, were investigated in the city of Pelotas, Brazil from May 1997 through October 1998. A total of 124 samples of chicken products obtained from local supermarkets and butcher shops, and 94 samples of eggs (6 units each obtained from supermarkets and street vendors, were examined through standard cultivation procedures. Salmonella were detected in 13 (10,48% samples of chicken products. Among the 13 strains of salmonellae isolated, 10 were serotyped as S. enteritidis, 1 was S. anatum and 2 were S. enterica subsp. enterica sorovar 3,10:e,h:-. All strains isolated were resistant to penicillin G and susceptible to the others antimicrobial drugs tested. Hen's eggs were not found contaminated with salmonellae.

  18. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

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    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  19. Omega-3 chicken egg detection system using a mobile-based image processing segmentation method

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    Nurhayati, Oky Dwi; Kurniawan Teguh, M.; Cintya Amalia, P.

    2017-02-01

    An Omega-3 chicken egg is a chicken egg produced through food engineering technology. It is produced by hen fed with high omega-3 fatty acids. So, it has fifteen times nutrient content of omega-3 higher than Leghorn's. Visually, its shell has the same shape and colour as Leghorn's. Each egg can be distinguished by breaking the egg's shell and testing the egg yolk's nutrient content in a laboratory. But, those methods were proven not effective and efficient. Observing this problem, the purpose of this research is to make an application to detect the type of omega-3 chicken egg by using a mobile-based computer vision. This application was built in OpenCV computer vision library to support Android Operating System. This experiment required some chicken egg images taken using an egg candling box. We used 60 omega-3 chicken and Leghorn eggs as samples. Then, using an Android smartphone, image acquisition of the egg was obtained. After that, we applied several steps using image processing methods such as Grab Cut, convert RGB image to eight bit grayscale, median filter, P-Tile segmentation, and morphology technique in this research. The next steps were feature extraction which was used to extract feature values via mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis from each image. Finally, using digital image measurement, some chicken egg images were classified. The result showed that omega-3 chicken egg and Leghorn egg had different values. This system is able to provide accurate reading around of 91%.

  20. Cholecystokinin and pancreatic cancer: the chicken or the egg?

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    Smith, Jill P; Solomon, Travis E

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) causes the release of pancreatic digestive enzymes and growth of the normal pancreas. Exogenous CCK administration has been used in animal models to study pancreatitis and also as a promoter of carcinogen-induced or Kras-driven pancreatic cancer. Defining CCK receptors in normal human pancreas has been problematic because of its retroperitoneal location, high concentrations of pancreatic proteases, and endogenous RNase. Most studies indicate that the predominant receptor in human pancreas is the CCK-B type, and CCK-A is the predominant form in rodent pancreas. In pancreatic cancer cells and tumors, the role of CCK is better established because receptors are often overexpressed by these cancer cells and stimulation of such receptors promotes growth. Furthermore, in established cancer, endogenous production of CCK and/or gastrin occurs and their actions stimulate the synthesis of more receptors plus growth by an autocrine mechanism. Initially it was thought that the mechanism by which CCK served to potentiate carcinogenesis was by interplay with inflammation in the pancreatic microenvironment. But with the recent findings of CCK receptors on early PanIN (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia) lesions and on stellate cells, the question has been raised that perhaps CCK actions are not the result of cancer but an early driving promoter of cancer. This review will summarize what is known regarding CCK, its receptors, and pancreatic cancer, and also what is unknown and requires further investigation to determine which comes first, the chicken or the egg, "CCK or the cancer."

  1. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

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    Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Tanya, Agatha; Tchankou, Carine; Ngondi, Judith; Oben, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4) consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL) and 4 (59.41 mg/dL) compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl), although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05). Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (pdiabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile. PMID:27717410

  2. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

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    Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhao, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wu

    Full Text Available Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies.

  4. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S.C. E-mail: sandracv@itn.mces.pt; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  5. Gas exchange and hatchability of chicken eggs incubated at simulated high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, A H

    1985-02-01

    Chicken eggs laid at sea level were incubated at sea level (control conditions), at a simulated altitude of 5.5 km without any further measures (natural conditions), and at a simulated altitude of 5.7 km at optimal incubator gas composition (optimal conditions). Under optimal conditions the incubator relative humidity was 70% throughout incubation, the gas mixture supplied to the incubator contained 45% O2-55% N2, and the ventilation rate was reduced to 6% of control in order to maintain the normal air-space gas tensions and to compensate for the increased eggshell conductance at altitude. The embryos that developed under control conditions showed a normal CO2 production with 94% hatchability of fertile eggs. Under natural conditions at altitude all embryos died within a few days. Optimal conditions resulted in an almost normal gas exchange and in an improvement of hatchability from 0 to 81% of fertile eggs.

  6. Lead in New York City community garden chicken eggs: influential factors and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-08-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48 % of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p 50 % of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (120 mg/kg and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers.

  7. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commercial layer chicken in Namakkal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palani Srinivasan; Perumal Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods:A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39%of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3%to 20%and 0.5%to 7.0%respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with

  8. VIPR-1基因SNP位点与如皋黄鸡产蛋性能和蛋品质的关联分析%Association of SNP of VIPR-1 Gene with Egg Production and Egg Quality Traits in Rugao-yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 王克华; 李东锋; 杨宁

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the effect of genotype combinations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VIPR-1) gene on the egg production and egg quality traits in Rugao-yellow Chicken. 410 purebred Rugao-yellow Chicken were used.The SNPs of the base mutation G-T at position 1063 (PA site) and mutation C-T at position 3522 (Pbsite)in the intron of PRL gene were detected by SELDI-TOF. Association analyses showed that the PA site was significantly associated with the age of first egg (AFE), the total number of egg of 40 w(EN40), egg shell strength(ESS), yolk rate(YR)and yolk-albumen rate(YAR)(P0.05), was significantly associated with egg weight (EW), egg shape index (ESI), egg specific gravity(ESG),egg shell thickness (EST)of the egg quality traits (P<0.05). The result of genotype combinations effect suggested that among nine different genotype combinations, GTTT and TTTC genotypes were the dominant combination with the egg production traits.%本研究旨在分析VIPR-1基因的SNP位点与产蛋性能和蛋品质之间的关联性.实验以如皋黄鸡为素材,采用飞行时间质谱技术对VIPR-1基因内含子2第+1063位碱基(PA位点)的G-T突变和第+3522位碱基(PB位点)的T-C突变进行单位点和多位点组合效应分析.结果表明:PA位点的多态性与产蛋性状中的开产日龄(AFE)和40周龄总产蛋数(EN40)呈显著相关(P<0.05);与蛋品质性状中的蛋壳强度(ESS)、蛋黄比率(YR)和蛋黄蛋白比(YAR)呈显著相关(P<0.05);等位基因T有利于产蛋量和蛋品质的改善.PB位点与本次实验所测的5个产蛋性状相关均不显著(P>0.05),与蛋品质性状中的蛋重(EW)、蛋形指数(ESI)、蛋壳厚度(EST)和蛋比重(ESG)相关显著(P<0.05).组合效应分析结果表明,对于产蛋性能,GTTT和TTTC组合基因型个体的组合效应显著.

  9. A Chicken's Egg as a Reaction Vessel to Explore Biomineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Natural composites, formed through biomineralization, have highly ordered structures which have been aptly explored for functional applications. Though the role of organic phases has been well understood in biomineralization, not enough attention has been paid to the role of bio-membranes which are often found encapsulating the chamber in which mineralization occurs.We have used the natural protein and semi-permeable membrane of chicken eggs to grow different materials such as ceramics,semi-metals and metals to understand the role of bio-membranes in biomineralization. We here report the successful biomimetic synthesis of calcite, cadmium sulphide, and silver having homogeneous morphologies. We have found that the membrane operates like a tuned gateway, playing a significant role in controlling the morphology of the inorganic crystals formed during biomineralization.

  10. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  11. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  12. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  13. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Emily J; MacFarlane, Geoff R

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300mglead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1mglead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs.

  14. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P < 0.01). In Eimeria spp.-infected eggs (group E), lesions of score were between 1 and 2. Mono-infection with C. perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  16. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Emily J., E-mail: Emily.Grace@newcastle.edu.au; MacFarlane, Geoff R.

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300 mg lead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1 mg lead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs. - Highlights: • We measured metal contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops in NSW Australia. • The levels of As, Cd, Cu and Zn were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs • The HIL for Pb in soil and the health standard for Pb in produce was exceeded in 7 of the 26 sites. • The level of Pb in home-grown eggs was higher than in commercial eggs. • As soil Pb increased, concentrations of Pb in eggs increased. No relationship was detected for Pb in feed.

  17. Crystallization of Chicken Egg-White Lysozyme from Ammonium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Chicken egg-white lysozyme was crystallized from ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0-7.8, with protein concentrations from 100 to 150 mg/ml. Crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion or batch-crystallization methods. The protein crystallized in two morphologies with an apparent morphology dependence on temperature and protein concentration. In general, tetragonal crystals could be grown by lowering the protein concentration or temperature. Increasing the temperature or protein concentration resulted in the growth of orthorhombic crystals. Representative crystals of each morphology were selected for X-ray analysis. The tetragonal crystals belonged to the P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 space group with crystals grown at ph 4.4 having unit-cell dimensions of a = b = 78.7 1, c=38.6 A and diffracting to beyond 2.0 A. The orthorhombic crystals, grown at pH 4.8, were of space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2 and had unit-cell dimensions of a = 30.51, b = 56.51 and c = 73.62 A.

  18. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  19. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  20. Effect of mating combination and environmental factors on hatchability of chicken eggs in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Dclin; LI Kui; QIANGBA Yangzong; TANG Xiaohui; ZHU Mengjin; XU Rifu; FAN Bin; LIU Bang

    2007-01-01

    To improve the hatchability of introduced highyield chickens in Tibet,and ameliorate the egg yield and reproduction traits of the local Tibetan chickens,four mating combinations between the Recessive White and Tibetan chicken were employed to investigate the effect of the mating combination and environmental factors on hatchability in this study.The results showed that the fertility of the eggs with Tibetan chicken as female parent was significantly lower than that with Recessive White as female parent (P<0.05),while hatchability was the reverse (P<0.05).The embryonic mortality of Recessive White was significantly higher by 7.95% than the Tibetan chickens,particularly during the last stage of incubation.The hatchability of combination Ⅲ,whose female parent was Tibetan chicken,was higher by 20.44% than combination Ⅱ,whose female parent was Recessive White.This provided a theoretical basis for a cross using the Tibetan chicken as female parent.Binary logistic regression analysis results also showed that the mating combination and environmental temperature were of importance to egg hatchability.

  1. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  2. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  3. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  4. The Effect of Supplemental Carbon Dioxide in Chicken Incubation with Eggs from Heavy Breeder Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Carlea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study followed the results of 0.85% CO2 influence on chick embryonic development. Biological material wascomposed of chicken eggs obtained from COBB500 hybrid broiler breeder parents. After weight determination ofchick embryos in different stages of development, egg components and embryos annexes, pH measurements ofalbumen and yolk sac were made. All of this analysis was made in order to determine the positive influence of 0.85%CO2 level on multistage chick incubation.

  5. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...

  6. BMP15外显子1 SNPs检测及其与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状的关联性分析%Detection of SNPs of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Gene Exon1 and Its Association with Egg Production Traits in Female Line of Shaobo Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春苗; 黎寿丰; 赵振华; 黄华云; 薛龙岗

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在阐明骨形态发生蛋自15(Bone morphogenetic protein l5,BMP15)基因多态性与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状之间的关系,为鸡繁殖性状的标记辅助选择提供科学依据.采用PCR-RFLP技术检测261只邵伯鸡母系BMP15的基因多态性,用最小二乘法分析该基因多态性与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状的关系.发现BMP15基因外显子1序列中存在3个多态位点C397T、A474G和C594T,其中C397T位点C→T的突变使亮氨酸变为苯丙氨酸,经RFLP检测,3个多态位点均发现3种基因型.x2检验表明,邵伯鸡母系在这3个位点均处于Hardy-Weinberg平衡.用最小二乘法分析这3个位点的多态性与邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状之间的关系,结果发现,C397T位点TT基因型个体的开产日龄显著早于CT型个体(P<0.05),TT型个体的300日龄产蛋数显著高于CT型个体(P<0.05) ;A474G位点AA、AG和GG型个体间的各性状差异均不显著(P>0.05) ;C594T位点CC型个体的开产日龄显著早于CT与TT型个体.3个位点的合并基因型TTAATT对开产日龄、开产体质量、开产蛋质量、300日龄平均蛋质量、300日龄产蛋数均有显著影响(P<0.05).对于邵伯鸡母系而言,TTAATT是最有利基因型,本研究结果初步表明,BMP 15基因合并基因型TTAATT可以作为邵伯鸡母系产蛋性状潜在的DNA分子标记.%The objective of the present study were to elucidate the relationship between polymorphisms of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) gene and egg production traits in female line of Shaobo chicken and to provide a scientific basis for marker-assisted selection for reproductive traits of chicken. Polymorphisms of exonl of BMP15 gene were detected in 261 female line of Shaobo chicken by PCR-RFLP. The relationship between polymorphisms of BMP15 gene and egg production traits in female line of Shaobo chicken was analyzed by least squares linear model. Three polymorphic sites C397T, A474G and C594T were found in exonl of BMP15, and C

  7. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  8. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  9. Effect of sodium fluoride and high fluorine fertilizer phosphates on performance of laying chickens and egg shell quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, H.J. Jr.; Sullivan, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Caged layer chickens were placed on corn-soybean meal diets containing the following dietary variables for a period for 16 weeks: monosodium phosphate (MSP); MSP plus 500 ppm F as NaF; diammonium phosphate (DAP); concentrated superphosphate (CSP); and feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Egg production rate was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of F to diets containing MSP. Feed efficiency was not depressed by added F, and was improved by CSP. Egg weight was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of NaF to diets containing MSP. Egg shell breaking strength was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by NaF and DAP. No statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed among treatments in percent checked and cracked eggs; however, the trends corresponded closely with breaking strength. Dietary treatments had not effect on mortality. Fluorine content of the egg was affected by dietary F level and duration of feeding period. After 16 weeks, F content of egg shell was 38 and 35 ppm for MSP and DCP, respectively, 150 ppm for both MSP + NaF and DAP, and 140 ppm for CSP. Fluorine contents of yolk and albumen were not affected by dietary treatments, and mean values were .55 and .35 ppm F, respectively, for yolk and albumen.

  10. Receptor specificity of influenza A H3N2 viruses isolated in mammalian cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, James; Chen, Li-Mei; Carney, Paul J; Garten, Rebecca; Foust, Angie; Le, Jianhua; Pokorny, Barbara A; Manojkumar, Ramanunninair; Silverman, Jeanmarie; Devis, Rene; Rhea, Karen; Xu, Xiyan; Bucher, Doris J; Paulson, James C; Paulson, James; Cox, Nancy J; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O

    2010-08-01

    Isolation of human subtype H3N2 influenza viruses in embryonated chicken eggs yields viruses with amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) that often affect binding to sialic acid receptors. We used a glycan array approach to analyze the repertoire of sialylated glycans recognized by viruses from the same clinical specimen isolated in eggs or cell cultures. The binding profiles of whole virions to 85 sialoglycans on the microarray allowed the categorization of cell isolates into two groups. Group 1 cell isolates displayed binding to a restricted set of alpha2-6 and alpha2-3 sialoglycans, whereas group 2 cell isolates revealed receptor specificity broader than that of their egg counterparts. Egg isolates from group 1 showed binding specificities similar to those of cell isolates, whereas group 2 egg isolates showed a significantly reduced binding to alpha2-6- and alpha2-3-type receptors but retained substantial binding to specific O- and N-linked alpha2-3 glycans, including alpha2-3GalNAc and fucosylated alpha2-3 glycans (including sialyl Lewis x), both of which may be important receptors for H3N2 virus replication in eggs. These results revealed an unexpected diversity in receptor binding specificities among recent H3N2 viruses, with distinct patterns of amino acid substitution in the HA occurring upon isolation and/or propagation in eggs. These findings also suggest that clinical specimens containing viruses with group 1-like receptor binding profiles would be less prone to undergoing receptor binding or antigenic changes upon isolation in eggs. Screening cell isolates for appropriate receptor binding properties might help focus efforts to isolate the most suitable viruses in eggs for production of antigenically well-matched influenza vaccines.

  11. Influence of storage on the position of the germinal disc in the fertilized unincubated chicken egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, A; Meister, S; Bergmann, R; Koch, E

    2011-10-01

    The breeding of male layer chickens is currently considered to be highly uneconomical. In Germany alone, 40 to 50 million newly hatched male chickens were killed annually immediately after hatching. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method for sexing chickens early in the embryonic development, preferably before incubation. The genotypic sex of an egg can be determined using information found in the germinal disc, so knowledge of the exact position of the germinal disc is essential for further sexing, or for other actions such as the in ovo injection of agents. Previous studies have shown that the germinal disc is located somewhere on top of the yolk. However, no studies have yet been performed that investigate the influence of time spent in horizontal storage on the position of the germinal disc. Magnetic resonance imaging was chosen to determine this influence on the position of the germinal disc. It was found that eggs placed horizontally for long periods of time before scanning had significant changes in the positions of their germinal discs compared with those of eggs scanned minutes after positioning. The position of the germinal disc in eggs, minutes after horizontal positioning, deviated 14.7 ± 0.6 mm from the maximum vertical plane of the egg (zero position) in the z-direction; eggs scanned after 96 h of horizontal positioning showed a deviation of only 4.9 ± 1.6 mm. The x-axis also exhibited changes in the position of the germinal disc over time. Immediately after horizontal positioning, the eggs showed a deviation of 0.4 ± 0.4 mm in the x-direction, whereas the deviation after 96 h was 2.9 ± 0.5 mm. These results show that horizontal positioning of the egg hours before the measurement is necessary.

  12. Egg whites from eggs of chickens infected experimentally with avian hepatitis E virus contain infectious virus, but evidence of complete vertical transmission is lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J

    2007-05-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. Vertical transmission of HEV has been reported in humans, but not in other animals. In this study, we showed that avian HEV could be detected in chicken egg-white samples. Subsequently, avian HEV in egg white was found to be infectious, as evidenced by the appearance of viraemia, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion in chickens inoculated with avian HEV-positive egg white, but not in chickens inoculated with HEV-negative egg white. To further assess the possibility of vertical transmission of avian HEV, batches of embryonated eggs from infected hens were hatched, and hatched chicks were monitored for evidence of avian HEV infection. However, no virus was detected in samples collected from the hatched chicks throughout this study, suggesting that avian HEV could not complete the vertical transmission cycle. The possible implications of our findings are also discussed.

  13. Effect of egg weight on hatchability and hatchling weight in Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, embryonic deaths and hatchling weight of three rural breeds (Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens. Materials and Methods: Three different egg weight groups classified into small: ( 45g were used in the experiment. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. Simultaneously quadratic type equation was used to determine the egg weight for optimum hatchability and hatchling weight. Results: Percentage hatchability of medium-sized eggs was higher (P < 0.05 than those in large sized eggs. Similarly, large–sized eggs had higher (P < 0.05 percentage hatchability than small sized eggs in all breeds. Hatchability percentage changed by ratio 0.4077 with one unit change in mean egg weight of Fayoumi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.5488 with one unit change in egg weight of Desi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.3767 with one unit change in egg weight of crossbred chickens. Mean hatchling weight in Fayoumi eggs changed by ratio of 0.6760; Desi eggs by ratio of 0.5955 and crossbred chicken eggs by ratio of 1.3613 with one unit change in mean egg weight. The overall mean hatchling weight as percentage of mean egg weight in case of Fayoumi was 67.10, in Desi 62.42 and 68.36 in case of cross birds. There was no evidence that hatchabilitypercentage increased with increase in egg weight in all the three strains of birds. Small-sized eggs had higher (P<0.05 embryonic deaths than those of medium and large-sized eggs in three breeds. Hatchling weight from large eggs were (P < 0.05 higher than those of small eggs in three breeds. Mean hatchling weight of Fayoumi changed by ratio 0.676 with one unit change in mean egg weight. In case of Desi chickens, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 0.5955 with one unit change in egg weight. In case of crossbred chicken, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 1.3613 with one unit change in

  14. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  15. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance.

  16. A rapid and convenient dot-immunobinding assay for chicken egg-yolk antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG PING RUAN; LI MA; XIN SHENG YAO; QIAN WEN; HONG YUN ZOU; WEI LUO; XIAO NING WANG

    2006-01-01

    The dot-immunobinding assay was applied to investigate the characteristics of chicken egg yolk antibodies. This method of assay was proved to be a rapid and simple method to demonstrate and characterize the egg-yolk antibody IgY in comparison with the traditional ELISA assay. By using the BandScan software, the gray scale value of dots and the background could be determined. According to the intensity of dots (gray scale value) compared to the standard sample of 10 μg, how much IgY remained can be determined in a shorter time.

  17. The jejunal cellular responses in chickens infected with a single dose of Ascaridia galli eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Ferdushy, Tania;

    2015-01-01

    This histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate the cellular response in the jejunum to Ascaridia galli during the first 7 weeks of infection. Fourty-two ISA Brown chickens (7 weeks old) were infected orally with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs each while 28 chickens were left ...

  18. Associations of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor (GnRHR) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Genes' Polymorphisms with Egg-Laying Traits in Wenchang Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xu; ZHU Wen-qi; LI Hui-fang; YAN Mei-jiao; TANG Qing-ping; CHEN Kuan-wei; WANG Jin-yu; GAO Yu-shi; TU Yun-jie; YU Ya-bo

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were selected to identify the genotypes of Wenchang (Chinese indigenous breed) chicken with restricton fragment length polymorphisms. The associations of the SNPs with the total egg production (NE), average days of continual laying (ADCL), and number of double-yolked eggs (DYE) traits were analyzed. The frequency of restriction enzyme A/a alleles in the population was for GnRHR 0.69 (Bpu1102 Ⅰ A) and 0.31 (Bpu1102 Ⅰ a) and for NPY 0.46 (Dra Ⅰ B) and 0.54 (Dra Ⅰ b). Trait data from a total of 120 hens, which were purebred introduced from Hainan Province, China from one generation were recorded. Two significant effects of genes' marker were found: for GnRHR and number of eggs (dominant; t= 2.67, df= 116) and NPY and number of eggs (additive; t= 1.97, df= 116). The current research supports the effects of GnRHR and NPY genes on egg-laying traits of chickens.

  19. In-depth analysis of the chicken egg white proteome using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hen's egg white has been the subject of intensive chemical, biochemical and food technological research for many decades, because of its importance in human nutrition, its importance as a source of easily accessible model proteins, and its potential use in biotechnological processes. Recently the arsenal of tools used to study the protein components of egg white has been complemented by mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies. Application of these fast and sensitive methods has already enabled the identification of a large number of new egg white proteins. Recent technological advances may be expected to further expand the egg white protein inventory. Results Using a dual pressure linear ion trap Orbitrap instrument, the LTQ Orbitrap Velos, in conjunction with data analysis in the MaxQuant software package, we identified 158 proteins in chicken egg white with two or more sequence unique peptides. This group of proteins identified with very high confidence included 79 proteins identified in egg white for the first time. In addition, 44 proteins were identified tentatively. Conclusions Our results, apart from identifying many new egg white components, indicate that current mass spectrometry technology is sufficiently advanced to permit direct identification of minor components of proteomes dominated by a few major proteins without resorting to indirect techniques, such as chromatographic depletion or peptide library binding, which change the composition of the proteome.

  20. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  1. Productivity of local chickens under village management conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusanya, N A; Katule, A M; Mutayoba, S K; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E; Minga, U M

    2002-09-01

    The productivity of local chickens under village management conditions was studied in six villages situated in three climatic zones within Morogoro District in Tanzania. Two villages were picked in each climatic zone (warm and wet, warm and dry, cool and wet) for the study. The data were obtained by actual measurement, qualitative observations and interview of members of the households directly responsible for the care of chickens. In addition, data sheets were given to selected farmers to record the performance of their chickens. The mean flock size for the three zones was 16.2, with a range of 2 to 58. The overall mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 11.8, 44.1 g and 83.6%, respectively. The overall mean chick survival rate to 10 weeks of age was 59.7%. The mean live weights for cocks and hens were 1948 g and 1348 g, respectively. The mean growth rates to the age of 10 weeks were 4.6 g/day and 5.4 g/day, while those from 10 to 14 weeks of age were 8.4 g/day and 10.2 g/day for female and male birds, respectively. The age at first lay ranged between 6 and 8 months, and the average hen had three laying cycles per year. Most of the chickens were left to scavenge during the day and were provided with simple housing at night (95.2% of the owners). Only small amounts of supplementary feeds were occasionally given and minimal health care was provided. It was concluded that the low productivity of chickens was partly due to the prevailing poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper health care, poor nutrition and housing.

  2. Identification of TENP as the Gene Encoding Chicken Egg White Ovoglobulin G2 and Demonstration of Its High Genetic Variability in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Keiji; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Ibrahim, Hisham R; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Maeda, Yoshizane; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Ovoglobulin G2 (G2) has long been known as a major protein constituent of chicken egg white. However, little is known about the biochemical properties and biological functions of G2 because the gene encoding G2 has not been identified. Therefore, the identification of the gene encoding G2 and an analysis of its genetic variability is an important step toward the goal of understanding the biological functions of the G2 protein and its utility in poultry production. To identify and characterize the gene encoding G2, we separated G2 from egg white using electrophoresis on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Two polymorphic forms of G2 protein (G2A and G2B), with different mobilities (fast and slow respectively), were detected by staining. The protein band corresponding to G2B was electro-eluted from the native gel, re-electrophoresed under denaturing conditions and its N-terminal sequence was determined by Edman degradation following transfer onto a membrane. Sequencing of the 47 kDa G2B band revealed it to be identical to TENP (transiently expressed in neural precursors), also known as BPI fold-containing family B, member 2 (BPIFB2), a protein with strong homology to a bacterial permeability-increasing protein family (BPI) in mammals. Full-length chicken TENP cDNA sequences were determined for 78 individuals across 29 chicken breeds, lines, and populations, and consequently eleven non-synonymous substitutions were detected in the coding region. Of the eleven non-synonymous substitutions, A329G leading to Arg110Gln was completely associated with the noted differential electrophoretic mobility of G2. Specifically G2B, with a slower mobility is encoded by A329 (Arg110), whereas G2A, with a faster mobility, is encoded by G329 (Gln110). The sequence data, derived from the coding region, also revealed that the gene encoding G2 demonstrates significant genetic variability across different chicken breeds/lines/populations. These variants, and how they correlate with egg

  3. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis antimicrobial peptide resistance genes aid in defense against chicken innate immunity, fecal shedding, and egg deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Jessica A; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian β-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens.

  4. The Effect of Disinfection of Hatching Eggs on Hatchability of Oravka Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this the work was evaluated effect of disinfection of Oravka hatching eggs by formalin gas (20 g KMnO4+ 30 g formaldehyde of 40 % concentration to 1 m3 of a space and ozone (0.450 ppm in time 12 hours on fertility,hatchability, spontaneity of chickens hatching and embryonal mortality during incubation. The hatching was realisedin Bios Midi incubator at a standard technology process of the hatching. We recorded a positive effect of disinfectionof ozone on hatchability from fertilised eggs (91.79% compared with disinfection of formalin (91.10% A totallyembryonal mortality of chickens had not record any difference between two methods of disinfection but we recordedpositive effect of ozone on embryonic mortality of chicks to 7 day of incubation and from 15 to 21 day of incubation.We searched more spontaneous chicks hatching from hatching eggs disinfected by ozone in 510 hours of incubation.It is possible to recommend disinfection of hatching eggs by ozone, as an alternative way of disinfection of hatchingeggs usable in hatching practice, on the base of obtained experimental results. This way of disinfection hatching eggsis more ecological not only from the point of environment, but also of the healthy of employees of the hatchery.

  5. Difference Analysis of Egg Quality between Royal Chicken,Guinea Fowl and Commercial Chicken%贵妃鸡蛋、珍珠鸡蛋及商品鸡蛋品质差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳芳

    2013-01-01

    This article measured and compared the quality and nutrient content in Royal chicken eggs,Guinea fowl eggs and the commercial chicken eggs. The results showed that the content of protein and fat in Royal chicken eggs and Guinea fowl eggs was higher than that in the commercial chicken eggs. The content of egg yolk in the commercial chicken eggs was only 59.3% of Royal chicken eggs,and 62.6% of Guinea fowl eggs. So it suggested that children and the old eat more Royal chicken eggs and Guinea fowl eggs.%对贵妃鸡蛋、珍珠鸡蛋及商品鸡蛋的品质及营养成分含量进行测定,并对各指标进行比较分析。结果表明,贵妃鸡蛋和珍珠鸡蛋的蛋白质及脂肪含量略高于商品鸡蛋,商品鸡蛋蛋黄卵磷脂的含量仅为贵妃鸡蛋的59.3%,珍珠鸡蛋的62.6%,建议儿童和老年人多食用贵妃鸡蛋及珍珠鸡蛋。

  6. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  7. The metabolic control of schistosome egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Edward J.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease caused by infection with trematode parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Despite ongoing treatment programs, the prevalence of schistosomiasis has failed to decline and the disease remains a cause of severe morbidity in millions of people. Understanding the biology of egg production by schistosomes is critical since eggs allow transmission of the infection, and when trapped in host tissues induce the immune responses that are responsible for the pathologic changes that underlie disease development. Unusually among trematodes, adult schistosomes exhibit sexual dimorphism and display a fascinating codependency in that the female is dependent on the male to grow and sexually mature. Thus virgin females are developmentally stunted compared to females from mixed-sex infections and are unable to lay eggs. Moreover, fecund female schistosomes rapidly lose the ability to produce eggs when placed in tissue culture. Here we discuss the metabolic regulation of egg production in schistosomes, and in particular the critical role played by fatty acid oxidation in this process. PMID:25850569

  8. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  9. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  10. Glycosylated chicken ZP2 accumulates in the egg coat of immature oocytes and remains localized to the germinal disc region of mature eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Shunsuke; Kohno, Yoshinori; Iwata, Yuki; Arai, Mayumi; Okumura, Hiroki; Oshima, Kenzi; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an egg coat, which is a specific extracellular egg matrix consisting of several glycoproteins with a conserved zona pellucida (ZP) domain. Two mammalian egg coat subunits, ZP2 and ZP3, have been suggested to act as sperm receptors. In bird eggs, however, ZP2 has never been identified in the egg coat of mature oocytes and ovulated eggs. Here we report that chicken ZP2 is expressed in immature small follicles and remains as an egg-coat component locally in the germinal disc region of mature eggs. RT-PCR analysis indicated marked expression of the ZP2 and ZP4 genes in the granulosa cells of immature white follicles, whereas the ZP3 and ZPD genes showed marked expression in the cells of maturing yellow follicles. ZP2 was identified in the egg coat isolated from immature follicles as a heavily N-glycosylated glycoprotein of ∼200 kDa, which was enzymatically converted to a 70-kDa deglycosylated form. Immunoblotting and immunohistological analyses showed that ZP2 was localized around the germinal disc region of mature follicles. ZP2 was accumulated in the egg coat of immature white follicles at the earlier stages of oocyte development and became a minor component in the egg coat of maturing yellow follicles, except for the germinal disc region. Localization of ZP2 in the germinal disc region of mature eggs, where sperm bind to the egg coat at high density, suggests some role for ZP2 in the preferential binding and penetration of sperm in the germinal disc region of bird eggs.

  11. Efficient production of transgenic chickens using self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyong XU; Yan SUN; Hongmei DING; Meng WANG; Yafei CAI; Jie CHEN; Honglin LIU

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the simple and effective production of transgenic chickens, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was expressed by using third-generation self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors. In our experiments, lentiviruses were injected into 204 fertilized eggs, from which 30 ( 15% ) chickens were hatched. The exogenous gene was detected in the genomes of 16 out of 30 (53%) chickens. The green fluorescence signal was observed directly in various body parts, and was particularly significant in the testes. The transgenes were also found in the offspring of these chickens. The results indicate that HIV-based lentivirul vectors can be used to generate transgenic birds economically and effectively [Current Zoology 55 (5): 383 - 387,2009].

  12. Gene expression profiling to identify eggshell proteins involved in physical defense of the chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibut Vonick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As uricoletic animals, chickens produce cleidoic eggs, which are self-contained bacteria-resistant biological packages for extra-uterine development of the chick embryo. The eggshell constitutes a natural physical barrier against bacterial penetration if it forms correctly and remains intact. The eggshell's remarkable mechanical properties are due to interactions among mineral components and the organic matrix proteins. The purpose of our study was to identify novel eggshell proteins by examining the transcriptome of the uterus during calcification of the eggshell. An extensive bioinformatic analysis on genes over-expressed in the uterus allowed us to identify novel eggshell proteins that contribute to the egg's natural defenses. Results Our 14 K Del-Mar Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for transcriptional profiling in the hen's uterus during eggshell deposition. A total of 605 transcripts were over-expressed in the uterus compared with the magnum or white isthmus across a wide range of abundance (1.1- to 79.4-fold difference. The 605 highly-expressed uterine transcripts correspond to 469 unique genes, which encode 437 different proteins. Gene Ontology (GO analysis was used for interpretation of protein function. The most over-represented GO terms are related to genes encoding ion transport proteins, which provide eggshell mineral precursors. Signal peptide sequence was found for 54 putative proteins secreted by the uterus during eggshell formation. Many functional proteins are involved in calcium binding or biomineralization--prerequisites for interacting with the mineral phase during eggshell fabrication. While another large group of proteins could be involved in proper folding of the eggshell matrix. Many secreted uterine proteins possess antibacterial properties, which would protect the egg against microbial invasion. A final group includes proteases and protease inhibitors that regulate protein activity in

  13. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

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    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  14. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  15. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  16. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaad T. Bakir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better biodiesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v. The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  17. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

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    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  18. 骨疏康在集约化鸡场的应用及其对产蛋后期蛋鸡生产性能、蛋壳品质和骨代谢的影响%Application of Gushukang in intensive chicken farms and its effects on production performance, egg quality and bone metabolism of end-of-lay hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振雷; 侯加法

    2011-01-01

    Effects of Gushukang(GSK)on bone metabolism of hens at the end of lay were studied in intensive chicken farms. 1 000 ISA layers of 55 week old were randomly assigned to two groups. The control was provided with basal diet, the GSK group was provided with basal diet adding 1% GSK. The experiment lesd for 10 weeks. The results indicated that cracked eggs rate and feed-egg ratio decreased significantly, laying rate, eggshell strength, bone index, bone radiographic density, cortical bone width, percent of cortical bone area, and bone strength increased significantly,while biochemical markers of bone metablism such as serum Ca, P and ALP decreased significantly in the GSK group than those of the control. It was revealed that GSK can be used in intensive chicken farms and could increase production performance and egg quality, improve bone metabolism in end-of-lay hens.%选择1000只55周龄的蛋鸡,随机分为2组。对照组饲喂基础日粮,骨疏康组在基础日粮中添加1%的骨疏康,试验期为10周。结果显示,与对照组比较,骨疏康组的破壳蛋率和料蛋比显著降低,产蛋率、蛋壳强度,骨指数、骨放射密度、皮质骨厚度、皮质骨面积百分率,骨强度显著增加,而血清骨代谢生化标志物血钙、血磷和血清碱性磷酸酶水平则显著降低。表明骨疏康可用于集约化蛋鸡场,并显著提高产蛋后期蛋鸡的生产性能和蛋壳品质,改善骨代谢。

  19. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in commercial chicken eggs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodi, Felix E; Nguku, P; Okolocha, E; Kabir, J

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry can result in residues in eggs. The joint FAO/WHO committee recommended banning the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in food animals due to its public health hazards of aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, allergy, antibacterial resistance and carcinogenicity. This paper determines the prevalence of CAP residues in chicken eggs and assesses the usage and awareness of its ban amongst poultry farmers in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of registered poultry farmers in FCT was conducted using questionnaires to determine CAP administration in poultry and awareness of its ban. Pooled egg samples were collected from each poultry farm surveyed and from randomly sampled government-owned markets in FCT. Source of eggs by state were identified by the marketer at the time of collection. Samples were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for the presence of CAP, and prevalence was determined. Of 288 total pooled samples collected, 257 (89.2%) were from the markets and 31 (10.8%) were from poultry farms. A total of 20 (7%) pooled egg samples tested CAP-positive; market eggs originated from 15 (41%) states of the country. Of the market eggs, 16 (6.2%) pooled samples tested positive. Of eggs from poultry farms, four (12.9%) tested positive. Mean CAP concentrations in the positive samples ranged from 0.49 to 1.17 µg kg(-1) (parts per billion). CAP use amongst poultry farmers in FCT was 75.5%; awareness of the CAP ban was 26.3%. Though 66% of veterinarians were unaware of a CAP ban, they were more likely to be aware than other poultry farmers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Farm managers who use CAP were more likely to be aware of CAP ban than the farm managers not using CAP (OR = 5.5; p = 0.04). Establishing a drug residue surveillance and control program and enforcement of CAP legislation/regulation is needful to educate and prohibit the widespread CAP use amongst Nigerian poultry farmers.

  20. Purification of Egg White Lysozyme from Indonesian Kampung Chicken and Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wulandari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg white lysozyme (EWL has considerably a wide functional protein exhibiting antibacterial activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. The EWL is widely applied in food industry and is considerably safe. Despite its high potency, EWL of Indonesian poultry has never been studied and exploited. This study was aimed to purify EWL from two Indonesian poultry: kampung chicken and Cihateup duck, and compared to egg of commercial laying hens. The eggs in this study were obtained from field laboratory of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB and classified in AA quality based on the interior quality. First attempt to purify the EWL was performed by using ethanol precipitation yielding purified EWL which was still contaminated by other proteins, hence designated as partially purified EWL. Final concentrations of partially purified EWL of kampung chicken, commercial laying hens, and Cihateup duck were about 5800, 5400, and 5500 μg/mL, respectively. To confirm whether the use of ethanol in the purification affecting EWL antibacterial activities, the activities were examined against Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated that the partially purified EWL exhibited ability to inhibit S. aureus at 6 and 26 h suggesting that the method was feasible as it did not interfere EWL antibacterial activities. Yet, based on SDS-Page, purity was the issue in ethanol precipitation method. Further attempt using ion exchange chromatography at pH 10 successfully purified lysozyme as indicated by a single band corresponding to lysozyme size (~14 kD free from bands of other proteins. Altogether, a single step of ion exchange chromatography is sufficient and promising to isolate EWL from Indonesian poultry for various industrial purposes.

  1. Production and Evaluation of Anti-Salmonella Typhimuruim Immunoglobulin Y Isolated from Serum and Eggs Laid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saadati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the production of antibodiesin serum as well as egg yolk raised against S. typhimurium and the cross-reactivityof this antibody with other enteric bacteria.Materials and Methods: White egg–laying hens were immunized with S. typhimurium,heat-killed whole cell, in Freund's adjuvant. Immunization was done with107 conlony forming unit (CFU of bacteria per hen which was injected into thebreast muscle of lay. Specific antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay in the serum and in eggs. The serum and eggs of two adultswhite Leghorn hens were not immunized with S. typhimurium used as a control.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. typhimuruim inthe serum as well as in eggs. The production of IgY in serum was higher than IgYproduced in egg yolk. Anti-S. typhimurium IgY cross-reacted 63%, 25% and 14%with S. typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and E. coli respectively.Conclusion: The findings indicate that eggs from hens immunized with S. typhimuruimhave not specific antibodies for the detection of S. typhimuruim, but theymay have the potential of being a useful source of passive immunity against thispathogen.

  2. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  3. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  4. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

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    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  5. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  6. Preparation and characterization of keratin and chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yao; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of keratin-chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite films were studied using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to demonstrate and quantify the secondary transformation of composite films. The results showed that the secondary structure of treated films was transformed from disordered structure to ordered conformation including α-helix conformation and β-pleated-sheet conformation due to the increase of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The absorption features of treated films were exhibited by the UV-vis spectra. The bule-shift and decreased intensity indicated the change of microenvironment due to the concentration of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The transmission electron microscopy images of composite films supported the aggregation resulting from microenvironment. The effect of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster was characterized by the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) images which showed the gradually intensive luminescence with increasing Au cluster and the transformation from the whiskers to nanoparticle.

  7. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils.

  8. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

  9. Evaluation of virulence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from humans and chicken- and egg-associated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Gokulan, Kuppan; Barnette, Dustyn; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W; Deck, Joanna; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Hart, Mark E; Foley, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a leading cause of salmonellosis throughout the world and is most commonly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. Salmonella Enteritidis has enhanced ability to colonize and persist in extraintestinal sites within chickens. In this study, 54 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from human patients (n=28), retail chicken (n=9), broiler farms (n=9), and egg production facilities (n=8) were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid analysis, genetic relatedness using XbaI and AvrII pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the presence of putative virulence genes. Nine isolates were evaluated for their abilities to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines. Overall, 56% (n=30) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent tested, yet no isolates showed resistance to more than three antimicrobials. All isolates carried a common ∼55-kb plasmid, with some strains containing additional plasmids ranging from 3 to 50 kb. PFGE analysis revealed five XbaI and AvrII clusters. There were significant overlaps in the PFGE patterns of the isolates from human, chicken, and egg houses. All isolates tested PCR positive for iacP, purR, ttrB, spi4H, rmbA, sopE, invA, sopB, spvB, pagC, msgA, spaN, orgA, tolC, and sifA, and negative for iss, virB4, and sipB. Of the isolates selected for virulence testing, those containing the iron acquisition genes, iutA, sitA, and iucA, and ∼50-kb plasmids demonstrated among the highest levels of macrophage and epithelial cell invasion, which may indicate their importance in pathogenesis.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  11. Evaluation of sildenafil pressurized metered dose inhalers as a vasodilator in umbilical blood vessels of chicken egg embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Hiranphan, Phetai; Laphanayos, Kampanart; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. The delivery of sildenafil directly to the lung could have several advantages over conventional treatments for pulmonary hypertension because of the local delivery, a more rapid onset of response, and reduced side effects. The major problem of sildenafil citrate is its limited solubility in water. Sildenafil citrate was complexed with cyclodextrins (CDs) to enhance its water solubility prior to development as an inhaled preparation. Four sildenafil citrate inhaled formulations were prepared with the aid of HP-β-CD (#1), α-CD (#2) and γ-CD (#3) and their effects were compared with the formulations without CDs (#4). The sildenafil citrate pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) used ethanol as a solvent, PEG400 as a stabilizing agent, sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant and HFA-134a as a propellant. All formulations consisted of sildenafil citrate equivalent to a sildenafil content of 20μg/puff. These products were evaluated according to a standard guideline of inhalation products. Vasodilation testing was performed to investigate the efficacy of sildenafil pMDIs in relieving a vasoconstricted umbilical blood vessel of the chicken egg embryo. The sildenafil contents of the pMDI formulations #1-#3 were within the acceptance criteria (80-120%). The emitted doses (ED) were 102.3±11.5%, the fine particle fractions (FPF) were 60.5±5.6% and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were 2.3±0.3μm. The vasodilatory activity of those formulations reduced umbilical blood pressure by 67.1-73.7% after treatment by intravenous injection whereas only a 50.1-58.0% reduced blood pressure was obtained after direct spraying of the sildenafil pMDI containing CDs. With sildenafil formulations of a pMDI without CD the blood pressure was reduced by only 39.0% (P-valuevessels of chicken egg embryos after spraying sildenafil-CDs pMDIs was

  12. Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly other bacteria on housefly eggs, help curtail the growth of fungal resource competitors and (2) that such fungi indeed adversely affect the development of housefly larvae. Bacteria washed from housefly eggs significantly reduced the growth of fungi in chicken manure. Nineteen bacterial strains and ten fungal strains were isolated from housefly eggs or chicken manure, respectively. Co-culturing each of all the possible bacterium-fungus pairs revealed that the bacteria as a group, but no single bacterium, significantly suppressed the growth of all fungal strains tested. The bacteria's adverse effect on fungi is due to resource nutrient depletion and/or the release of antifungal chemicals. Well-established fungi in resources significantly reduced the number of larval offspring that completed development to adult flies.

  13. Effect of Beeswax, Gelatin and Aloe vera Gel Coatings on Physical Properties and Shelf Life of Chicken Eggs Stored at 30°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Iroshan Mudannayaka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was to determine the effect of beeswax, gelatin and Aloe vera gel coatings on internal quality and shelf life of chicken eggs compared to uncoated and mineral oil coated eggs. Four hundred and seventy five brown shell eggs were obtained from 32 weeks old Lohmann classic brown layers and all the eggs were randomly divided into five groups as ninety five eggs per group. Mineral oil, beeswax, Aloe vera gel and gelatin coatings were applied on eggs as four treatments and one group of eggs were uncoated and kept as control group. Then all the eggs were stored at 30°C and relative humidity of 70% - 75% for six weeks of storage period. Beeswax and gelatin coated eggs showed significantly (P<0.05 lower weight loss values and preserved albumin and yolk quality of eggs than uncoated eggs. Eggs coated with mineral oil and beeswax showed similar results for weight loss, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH. Based on the Haugh Unit, eggs can be classified into four grades as AA (above 72, A (72-60, B (59-31 and C (below 30. Quality of uncoated eggs, Aloe vera coated eggs and gelatin coated eggs dropped from AA to B and mineral oil and beeswax coated eggs changed from initial AA quality to A quality after six weeks of storage at 30°C. Results of microbiological analysis showed that all coated eggs were microbiologically safe throughout the storage period. The present study demonstrated that, in comparison to the mineral oil and the uncoated eggs, beeswax is a better novel coating material and gelatin can also be successfully used as coating material in preserving the internal quality and extending the shelf life of chicken eggs stored at 30 °C for six weeks.

  14. Arsenic residue in the products and by-products of chicken and ducks: a possible concern of avian health and environmental hazard to the population in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Samanta, Srikanta; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Arsenicosis caused due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic on chicken and duck in an arsenic endemic zone. The concentration of arsenic was higher in chicken and duck feed and their by-products than that in the respective samples of control area. Arsenic concentration in the eggs of both chicken and duck was higher than that in the respective samples of control area. Thus, we concluded that arsenic enters into food chain through the intake of contaminated eggs. Furthermore, adverse health effect of arsenic on avian population is due to the alteration in haematobiochemical indices.

  15. Importance of Indigenous Breeds of Chicken for Rural Economy and Their Improvements for Higher Production Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Padhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous/native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. They play a major role for the rural poor and marginalised section of the people with respect to their subsidiary income and also provide them with nutritious chicken egg and meat for their own consumption. Performance of native fowl can be improved by change in husbandry, feeding, and better health cover. However, genetic improvement may be made either through selection and crossbreeding or by utilisation of both selection and crossbreeding. Improvement through selection may be time consuming but the improvement will be permanent. Through crossbreeding improvement may be faster but research has to aim for the production of native-type birds with higher production potential. In the present review efforts have been made to present the importance of native fowl to rural economy and their improvement for higher production performance.

  16. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air q...

  17. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DESI PARENT CHICKENS AND THEIR FIRST PROGENY MAINTAINED ON DEEP LITTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Sahota, B. M. Bhatti and L. A. Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine effect of selection process of Desi field chickens on the productive performance of Desi progeny versus their parents maintained under deep litter system. For this purpose, 300 adult pullets (about 30 weeks-old each of Desi parents and their first progeny were maintained in 4 separate pens on floor under optimal managemental conditions for experimental period of one year. The experimental birds were fed ad-libitum a balanced layer’s ration prepared at Nutrition Section of this Institute. They had free access to clean and fresh drinking water. 16 hours lighting schedule giving natural light supplemented with artificial light was followed. The results indicated significant (p<0.01 improvement in egg production, feed conversion efficiency and egg mass of Desi progeny in comparison to their parents which could be attributed to effect of breeding using selection process carried out in Desi parent. However, performance of Desi progeny in respect of egg size and mortality rate varied non-significantly from their parents. Based on the findings of this study it may be concluded that productive performance of Desi native chickens could be improved through breeding using selection technique.

  18. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  19. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  20. Preparation and Preliminary Characterization of Crystallizing Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp(sup 101) using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp(sup 101) lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His(sup 15), located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp(sup 101)-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His(sup 15) have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  1. Buffer Effects in the Solubility, Nucleation and Growth of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ursula J.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals is important for determination of their three-dimensional structure, which relates to their biochemical functions and to the practical goal of designing pharmaceuticals to modify that function. While many proteins have been successfully crystallized by a variety of methods, there is still limited understanding of the process of nucleation and growth of even the simplest proteins. Chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) is readily crystallized under a variety of conditions, and studies underway at MSFC are designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which the crystals nucleate and grow. We have investigated the effect of buffer choice on the solubility, nucleation and growth of CEWL. CEWL was purified by dialysis against a .05M phosphate buffer and chromatographic separation from contaminants in a sepharose column. Solubility studies were made as a function of buffer concentration for phosphate and formate buffers, and the nucleation and growth of crystals at 10 C was studied as a function of pH for oxalate, succinate, formate, butyrate, carbonate, phosphate and acetate buffer solutions. The solubility data support the conclusion that there is a solubility minimum as a function of buffer concentration for amphiphilic molecules, while no minimum is observed for a phosphate buffer. Nucleation is suppressed at pH greater than pKa for all buffers except phosphate. The aspect ratio of the (110) faces is shown to be a function of crystal size, rather than pH.

  2. POLYMORPHISM IN PROMOTER OF PROLACTIN GENE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PRODUCTION TRAITS IN CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova O. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin (PRL - is a peptide hormone. It effects on metabolic processes in mammals and birds. Indel genotype mutations in a prolactin gene were determined in 595 hens and cocks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. We studied four different breeds: Cornish, White Russian, Pushkin, Yurlov crower. Homozygous of insertion II, homozygous deletion of DD and heterozygous ID were observed in all groups. The differences in frequencies of genotypes and alleles were observed in all groups. Homozygotes II and allele I (frequency is 0,83 were the most common for Russian white chickens with high egg production and the lack of the instinct of incubation. Prolactin gene deletion was more common for beef Cornish. The frequency of D allele was 0,84. Pushkin chickens proved to be closer to the egg type. A significant number of heterozygotes with this mutation were noted in a population of Yurlov crower. It is recommended to use gene prolactin as a marker of productive indicators in chickens

  3. Effect of fructooligosaccharides and antibiotics on laying performance of chickens and cholesterol content of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Liu, L; Li, K; Hao, K; Xu, C

    2007-04-01

    1. Nine hundred and sixty 25-week-old Lohmann Brown layers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 216 layers in each group. Layers in group one were fed a control diet, group 2 received the control diet plus 20 mg/kg zinc bacitracin and 4 mg/kg colistinsulfate, and the remaining three groups received control diet plus 2000, or 4000, or 6000 mg/kg fructooligosaccharide (FOS). 2. The results showed improvements in egg production, feed consumption and feed conversion of layers when 2000 mg/kg FOS was added to the diets. 3. The results also showed some additional improvements in the group supplemented with 2000 mg/kg FOS, including increases in egg shell thickness, yolk colour and Haugh unit, and decreases in yolk cholesterol concentration. 4. However, larger (excessive) doses of FOS did not improve the performance of layers.

  4. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Becky J; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the egg-allergic children who underwent EBP oral food challenge (OFC) in our allergy clinic to help define any specific predictors to be used in predicting the outcome of such challenges. We performed a retrospective chart review and 43 egg-allergic patients underwent EBP OFC in our outpatient allergy office from January 2011 to December 2012 were excluded. Nine patients who did not have a prior history of symptomatic egg ingestion. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of the remaining 34 patients were all recorded and analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 22 (64.7%) were boys. Average age of first reaction to egg was 12.90 months, with average age at EBP OFC of 71.32 months. The average of the most recent skin-prick test wheal size was 10.10 mm and serum-specific IgE to egg white was 3.21 kU/L. Twenty-eight of the 34 patients (82.4%) passed the EBP OFC. Of the six patients who failed, none required epinephrine. After analysis of all of the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings, no risk factors, such as skin-prick test wheal size, were identified to be associated with an increased risk of failing EBP OFC. EBP OFC is a valuable tool to assess tolerance. As seen in our group of patients, the majority of egg-allergic patients pass EBP OFC. Thus, OFC should be considered as a clinical tool to expand a patient's diet and to improve quality of life as early as possible. Because we were unable to determine any clinical or laboratory predictors helpful to select egg

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  6. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other location. The new label for such product shall indicate the country of origin except for products... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products. 590.956 Section 590.956 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  7. Detection of Chromium (Cr using X-ray Fluorescence Technique and Investigation of Cr Propagation from Poultry Feeds to Egg and Chicken Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuzzaman Rajib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents possibility of detecting the presence of Chromium (Cr in poultry in Rajshahi area using X-ray fluorescence (XRF technique. It also investigates the propagation of Cr from poultry feeds to chicken flesh. Poultry feeds were collected from different vendors at Rajshahi. It was found that some of the locally produced poultry feeds contained a considerable amount of Cr that propagates to the chicken meat and egg. This Cr might be hazardous for human health. Among the four most widely used feeds in Rajshahi region maximum Cr concentration of 17.3 ppm was detected in “Adorsho feed (Pabna”. Transmission of Cr from feed to egg and various parts of chicken were investigated with chicken samples of different ages grown by feeding “Adorsho feed”. An average of 4.3 ppm of Cr was found in Yolk and 2.7 ppm was found in the egg-white. Highest concentration of Cr was found to be 5.9 ppm in the brain of 29-days old chicken. The concentration of Cr was different in various parts of chicken depending on its age. The experimental results indicate that the XRF technique can be used efficiently to detect the presence and transmission of heavy metals like Cr from feed to egg and poultry

  8. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  9. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  10. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne;

    2016-01-01

    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... rates during the spring in Disko Bay, while the low temperature in the Bay explained why the egg production rate here is much lower than at more southerly localities despite high food concentrations. This study suggests that an increase in magnitude of the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom...

  11. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between......Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (q...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...

  12. 保健酱香软包装卤鸡蛋的研制%Research on soysauce-like aroma type soft package food of feed chicken egg with healthy effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安森亚; 彭志宏; 王斌; 李云芳; 魏建春

    2012-01-01

    Taking the feed chicken egg as the mother stock, the experiment introduced the feed chicken egg's health care function, explored the technological conditions and the product formula of processing soysauce-like aroma type soft package egg food with health effect. The result showed that the optimum technological conditions were: with the weight ratio of egg and sauce liquid 1:1.5, using formula Ⅲ and saucing eggs for 480min under pressure/temperature 0.15MPa/126℃. The most ideal sauce liquid formula was Ⅲ: 500g of water, soy sauce 100g, composite high intensity sweeteners 0.12g, MSG 1.0g, chicken power 0.5g, composite spices 1.2g. The products have bright brown color, hard and tough texture, and with strong soysauce-like aroma. The products also have a certain health care function.%以土鸡蛋为主料,研究了加工具有保健作用的酱香型软包装卤鸡蛋食品的工艺条件和产品配方.确定最佳工艺技术是:压力/温度为0.15MPa/126℃,配方Ⅲ,卤制时间480rain,蛋料重量比1∶1.5.最优卤料液配方是Ⅲ:水500g,酱油100g,复合高倍甜味剂0.12g,味精1.0g,鸡精0.5g,复合香辛料1.2g.成品外表呈棕褐色,质地坚韧,酱香浓郁,具有一定的保健作用.

  13. EMA-real-time PCR as a reliable method for detection of viable Salmonella in chicken and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luxin; Mustapha, Azlin

    2010-04-01

    Culture-based Salmonella detection takes at least 4 d to complete. The use of TaqMan probes allows the real-time PCR technique to be a rapid and sensitive way to detect foodborne pathogens. However, unlike RNA-based PCR, DNA-based PCR techniques cannot differentiate between DNA from live and dead cells. Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) is a dye that can bind to DNA of dead cells and prevent its amplification by PCR. An EMA staining step prior to PCR allows for the effective inhibition of false positive results from DNA contamination by dead cells. The aim of this study was to design an accurate detection method that can detect only viable Salmonella cells from poultry products. The sensitivity of EMA staining coupled with real-time PCR was compared to that of an RNA-based reverse transcription (RT)-real-time PCR. To prevent false negative results, an internal amplification control was added to the same reaction mixture as the target Salmonella sequences. With an optimized EMA staining step, the detection range of a subsequent real-time PCR was determined to be 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/mL for pure cultures and 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/mL for food samples, which was a wider detection range than for RT-real-time PCR. After a 12-h enrichment step, EMA staining combined with real-time PCR could detect as low as 10 CFU/mL Salmonella from chicken rinses and egg broth. The use of EMA with a DNA-based real-time PCR can successfully prevent false positive results and represents a simple, yet accurate detection tool for enhancing the safety of food.

  14. 9 CFR 590.930 - Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported egg products; retention in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.930 Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under...

  15. A kinetic study of egg production, fecal egg output, and the rate of proglottid shedding in Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, H

    1992-06-01

    To estimate the rate of shedding of the proglottids during normal development of Hymenolepis nana in mice, 2 parameters, i.e., egg production and fecal egg output, have been determined. Changes in the number of eggs/proglottid along the length of the worm showed that, not only in vitro but also in vivo, a considerable number of eggs is discharged in situ while the proglottids are still attached to the worm. The in situ egg discharge, however, accounts only for a small fraction of the eggs appearing in the feces, and it can be neglected in the estimation of the shedding of proglottids. In H. nana the larva rotates 90 degrees in the egg during its development. This seems to occur in a short period, quite in concert within each proglottid. The transition point (the proglottid where 50% of the eggs have begun rotating) can be a useful landmark to estimate the rate of proglottid shedding. Egg numbers at the transition points approximate the genuine egg production, because in situ egg discharge mostly occurs only after the proglottids have passed the transition point. The 3 processes, i.e., the rotation of the larva in the egg, the in situ egg discharge, and the shedding of proglottids, usually occur in an orderly way. However, on day 20 of infection, just before the worms are lost (or destrobilated), shedding of proglottids seems to be inhibited, whereas the other processes are apparently normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  17. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters.

  18. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424 mg/ml. Spearman-Karber value of potency of anti tetanus IgY are 35 IU/ml. ?This research concluded that Chickens was capable of produced of anti tetanus in eggs yolk with value of potency are 35 IU/ml.

  19. Isolation and characterization of emerging subgroup J avian leukosis virus associated with hemangioma in egg-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hanzhang; Zhang, Henan; Ning, Zhangyong; Chen, Ruiai; Zhang, Wenyan; Qing, Aijian; Xin, Chaoan; Yu, Kangzhen; Cao, Weisheng; Liao, Ming

    2011-08-05

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), first isolated in 1989, predominantly causes myeloid leukosis (ML) in meat-type or egg-type chicken. Since 2006, the clinical cases of hemangioma rather than ML in commercial layer flocks associated with ALV-J have been reported, but it was still not clear whether the novel oncogenic ALV-J had emerged. We characterized SCAU-HN06 isolate of ALV-J from hemangioma in commercial Roman layers through animal experiment and full-length proviral genome sequence analysis. The SPF white leghorn egg-type chickens infected with SCAU-HN06 in ovo at day 11 of incubation showed an overall incidence of 56% hemangioma and 8% renal tumor throughout the 22-week trial, the mortality rate was 16%. Most genes of SCAU-HN06 isolate showed high nucleotide sequence identity to JS09GY6 which was isolated from Hy-Line Variety Brown layers suffering hemangioma. The 19-bp insertion in leader sequence and one key deletion in E element were the common features of SCAU-HN06 and JS09GY6. SCAU-HN06 and those ALV-Js associated with hemangioma, possibly recombinants of ALV-J and other avian retrovirus, may share the same ancestor.

  20. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  1. Bioconversion of chicken wastes to value-added products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Forgacs, T.; Isbister, J. (ARCTECH, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Increasing quantities of chicken waste concerns the poultry industry because of escalating disposal costs and the potential for environmental pollution. Biological conversion of these wastes to valuable products such as methane and/or chemical feed-stocks appears to be feasible. Biomethanation of chicken waste by a sewage sludge microbial consortium produced as much as 69 mol% methane in the gas phase. Acetic and propionic acids were the major acids produced during the bioconversion. Addition of chelating agents and other micro-nutrients enhanced methane production and shifted the ratios of intermediates accumulated. Preliminary data indicate that more than 60% of the chicken waste carbon was converted and that the nitrogen-rich residue may have potential as a soil additive. (author).

  2. Food and predators affect egg production in song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Liana; Clinchy, Michael; Smith, James N M

    2006-10-01

    Although the possibility that food and predators may interact in limiting avian populations has long been recognized, there have been few attempts to test this experimentally in the field. We conducted a manipulative food addition experiment on the demography of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) across sites that varied in predator abundance, near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, over three consecutive breeding seasons. We previously showed that food and predators had interactive effects on annual reproductive success (young fledged per female). Here, we report the effects on egg production. Our results show that food limits the total number of eggs laid over the breeding season ("total egg production") and that interactive food and predator effects, including food effects on nest predation, determine how those eggs are "parceled out" into different nests. Food addition alone significantly affected total egg production, and there was no significant interannual variability in this result. At the same time, both food and predators affected the two determinants of total egg production: "clutch number" (total number of clutches laid) and average clutch size. Both clutch number and size were affected by a food x predator x year interaction. Clutch number was lower at low-predator locations because there was less nest predation and thus less renesting. Food addition also significantly reduced nest predation, but there was significant interannual variation in this effect. This interannual variation was responsible for the food x predator x year interactions because the larger the effect of food on nest predation in a given year, the smaller was the effect of food on clutch number; and the smaller the effect of food on clutch number, the larger was the effect of food on clutch size. Potential predator and year effects on total egg production were thus cancelled out by an inverse relationship between clutch number and clutch size. We suggest that combined food and

  3. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  4. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  5. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  6. 7 CFR 57.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated egg products. 57.840 Section 57.840 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations...

  7. Initiating egg production in turkey breeder hens: thyroid hormone involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopes, T D; Millam, J R; Steinman, M Q

    2010-10-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in the expression of photosensitivity-photorefractoriness in female turkeys was investigated through the use of an antithyroidal agent, 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU). In experiment 1, females held continuously from hatch on long day lengths (16L:8D; LD) and fed 0.1% PTU from 0 to 16 wk, began laying eggs at 26 wk of age, peaking at 75% hen-day egg production by 29 wk, whereas controls initiated lay 3 wk earlier but only achieved less than 50% hen-day egg production. In experiment 2, PTU treatment from 10 to 18 wk severely suppressed plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine, as confirmed by RIA. Egg production of PTU and control hens held on LD from hatch began by 23 wk, with PTU hens reaching a substantially greater rate of lay than controls. Eggs were smaller initially in both treatments but exceeded 75 g by 28 wk. In experiment 3, recycled hens on short day lengths (8L:16D) received PTU for 2 wk before LD and 12 wk thereafter; a subset of these hens was killed after 48 h of LD for immunohistochemical analysis of fos-related antigen (FRA) expression in the tuberal hypothalamus as a marker of photoinduced neuronal activity. The PTU treatment completely forestalled egg production until its withdrawal; egg production then rose sharply to control levels before resuming, along with controls, a typical seasonal decline. The PTU treatment did not impair photoinduced FRA expression. Together, these results demonstrate the following: 1) that a period of pharmacological suppression of triiodothyronine and thyroxine can substitute for short day exposure in conferring photosensitivity on juvenile-aged turkeys (and is actually superior to short day exposure), 2) that reproductive development does not limit egg production of turkey hens photostimulated as young as approximately 20 wk of age, and 3) that effects of thyroid suppression on photostimulation lie downstream of photoinduced FRA expression. Taken together, these results suggest that there is

  8. Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.

  9. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiang He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively impact the internal structure and sensory property of sponge cake. Based on the result of this research, optimum content of egg replacer in sponge cake is 3.6 g. In the industrial production of sponge cake, different types of wheat flour and additives would be used. The optimum content of egg replacer may be different from the result of this research. Therefore, in the industrial production, the optimum content of egg replacer should be determined based on experiment.

  10. Effect of storage period and egg weight on hatchability in Prelux-G chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan TERČIČ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the influence of storage period and egg weight on hatchability of Slovenian provenance Prelux-G eggs. The layer breeders were reared in partially slatted floor pens. At the beginning of the experiment they were 31 weeks old and at the end 35 weeks. Hatching eggs were collected daily and kept in one farm storage compartment at the temperature 15 °C. Eggs were classed by storage period (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days and egg weight size categories (XL-extra large, L-large, M-medium and S-small. The highest hatchability (88.97 % was obtained at six days storage time. In comparison with this result, the hatchability of fresh eggs (74.63 %, 12 days storage time (74.99 % and 14 days storage time (62.87 % was significantly (P < 0.01 lower. Hatchability was insignificantly (P > 0.05 lower in small sized eggs (78.97 % and significantly (P < 0.01 lower in large sized eggs (76.72 % than in medium sized eggs (82.44 %. The highest percentage of dead embryos was recorded at 14 days storage time (26.90 % and in large sized eggs (19.72 %. The average body weight of the chicks produced from the eggs of older hens was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than those from younger hens.

  11. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  12. A genome-wide screen identifies Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the HtrA heat shock protein as crucial factors involved in egg white persistence at chicken body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspoet, R; Shearer, N; Appia-Ayme, C; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Thompson, A; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-05-01

    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are an important source of human foodborne Salmonella infections. Salmonella Enteritidis is able to contaminate egg white during formation of the egg within the chicken oviduct, and it has developed strategies to withstand the antimicrobial properties of egg white to survive in this hostile environment. The mechanisms involved in the persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white are likely to be complex. To address this issue, a microarray-based transposon library screen was performed to identify genes necessary for survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white at chicken body temperature. The majority of identified genes belonged to the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway. Additionally, we provide evidence that the serine protease/heat shock protein (HtrA) appears essential for the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white at chicken body temperature.

  13. Susceptibility of chickens, quail, and pigeons to an H7N9 human influenza virus and subsequent egg-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    H7N9 human influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (Anhui2013) showed low pathogenicity in chickens, quail, and pigeons, with quail being the most susceptible among the species tested. IVPIE1-1, which was recovered from a dead chicken after intravenous inoculation of Anhui 2013, had broader tissue tropism in chickens than did the original inoculum, as well as amino acid substitutions in the polymerase acidic gene and neuraminidase gene segments, but its pathogenicity was not enhanced. Viruses obtained after passage of Anhui 2013 in 10- and 14-day-old embryonated eggs showed rapid accumulation of amino acid substitutions at the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin protein. Two strains obtained through egg passage, 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13, replicated better in intranasally infected chickens than did the original Anhui 2013 strain, yet the new isolates showed low pathogenicity in chickens despite their amino acid substitutions. The increased virus replication in chickens of 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13 was not correlated with temperature-sensitive replication, given that virus replication was suppressed at increased temperatures. The existence of highly susceptible hosts, such as quail, which permit asymptomatic infection, facilitates increased mutation of the virus through amino acid substitution at the receptor-binding site, and this might be one of the mechanisms underlying the prolonged circulation of H7N9 influenza virus.

  14. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  15. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  16. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  17. STUDY OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES OF SLAUGHTER PRODUCTS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glotova I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For comparative evaluation of aroma-forming substances of primary and secondary products of slaughter broilers, we used the multi-channel gas analyzer "MAG-8" and the methodology "an electronic nose". The objects of study served as the heads and feet of chickens-broilers of cross "ROSS-308", subjected to hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of native tissue structure at 0,24 MPa. As a control sample when assessing the composition of the equilibrium gas phase above the heads and feet of broiler chickens used poultry, meat, broiler chickens, obtained by cutting of carcasses, with the natural ratio of bone and muscle tissue. The identification of volatile components of the equilibrium gas phase above the samples was carried out according to the following classes of organic com-pounds in accordance with the numbers of sensors in the matrix: 1 – hydrophilic compounds, water; 2 – alcohols, ketones; 3 – acid, water, light alcohols; 4 – ester; 5 – sulfur-containing compounds, esters; 6 – phenol, and other aromatic compounds; 7 – alcohols, nitrogen compounds, water; 8 – acid. The analysis shows that control and experimental samples do not have significant differences in the aromatic-skim com-pounds, ketones and sulfur-containing compounds. The comparison group of "control – leg" also has no significant differences according to the groups of compounds: ketones, alcohols, esters; nitrogen-containing compounds. The largest differences recorded for the sample "legs broiler chickens", and the moisture content and nitro-gen-containing compounds, this sample is superior and head, and the main raw mate-rial in the processing of broiler chickens. The results show that heads of broiler chickens, thermo-processed under pressure can be used to realize emulsified protein-fat products of the type Pasternak masses corresponding to the traditional products of poultry meat for sensormatics the aroma profile without the use of food additives. For

  18. 9 CFR 590.945 - Foreign egg products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign egg products offered for... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.945 Foreign...

  19. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  20. Egg production methdos in marine fisheries: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernal, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the Fisheries Research special issue on egg production methods (EPM) that emerged from a dedicated workshop held in Athens, Greece, in 2010. The workshop considered if EPMs are still valid today, it reviewed recent developments in the methods and discussed the utilit

  1. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  2. Genetic effects of polymorphisms in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken age at first egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Min

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age at first egg (AFE, an important indicator for sexual maturation in female chickens, is controlled by polygenes. Based on our knowledge of reproductive physiology, 6 genes including gonadotrophin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I, neuropeptide Y (NPY, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1, and prolactin (PRL, were selected as candidates for influencing AFE. Additionally, the region between ADL0201 and MCW0241 of chromosome Z was chosen as the candidate QTL region according to some QTL databases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of mutations in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken AFE. Results Marker-trait association analysis of 8 mutations in those 6 genes in a Chinese native population found a highly significant association (P G840327C of the GnRH-I gene with AFE, and it remained significant even with Bonferroni correction. Based on the results of the 2-tailed χ2 test, mutations T32742394C, T32742468C, G32742603A, and C33379782T in the candidate QTL region of chromosome Z were selected for marker-trait association analysis. The haplotypes of T32742394C and T32742468C were significantly associated (P T32742394C and T32742468C were located in the intron region of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2 gene, which appeared to be associated in the endocytosis and development of the oocyte. Conclusion This study found that G840327C of the GnRH-I gene and the haplotypes of T32742394C-T32742468C of the SH3GL2 gene were associated with the chicken AFE.

  3. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-01

    The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  4. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Björn; Schade, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk by means of a precipitation procedure (PEG. Polson et al. 1980). The method involves two important steps. The first one is the removal of lipids and the second is the precipitation of total IgY from the supernatant of step one. After dialysis against a buffer (normally PBS) the IgY-extract can be stored at -20°C for more than a year. The purity of the extract is around 80 %, the total IgY per egg varies from 40-80 mg, dependent on the age of the laying hen. The total IgY content increases with the age of the hen from around 40 mg/egg up to 80 mg/egg (concerning PEG precipitation). The laying capacity of a hen per year is around 325 eggs. That means a total potential harvest of 20 g total IgY/year based on a mean IgY content of 60 mg total IgY/egg (see Table 1). PMID:21559009

  5. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens.

  6. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  7. Association of cGH EcoRV Gene with Production in Tolaki Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amrullah Pagala

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available cGH (Chicken Growth Hormone gene plays a crucial role in production responses of chicken. The objective of the research was to investigate the association of cGH gene with production in Tolaki chicken. Tolaki chicken is native chickens from Southeast Sulawesi Province of Indonesian. cGH gene was genotyped in 58 Tolaki chicken with PCR-RFLP. PCR was used to amplify genomic DNA for GH gene (399 bp. The amplicon was cutted by EcoRV and produced three genotypes: AA, AG, and GG and two alleles: A and G allele. The study showed the association of GH gene polymorphism with Production traits. GG genotype have better production (daily weight gain and feed conversion than AG genotype in Tolaki chicken, providing evidence that GH gene might be an important candidate gene for production traits.

  8. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  9. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.

  10. In-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces layer-chicken egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Baskaran, Sangeetha A; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Schreiber, David T; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States, causing gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated eggs. Chickens are the reservoir host of S. Enteritidis. In layer hens, S. Enteritidis colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, leading to egg contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation with trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) plant compound obtained from cinnamon, in reducing S. Enteritidis cecal colonization and systemic spread in layers. Additionally, the effect of TC on S. Enteritidis virulence factors critical for macrophage survival and oviduct colonization was investigated in vitro. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by a triangle test. Supplementation of TC in feed for 66 days at 1 or 1.5% (vol/wt) for 40- or 25-week-old layer chickens decreased the amounts of S. Enteritidis on eggshell and in yolk (Pliver, and oviduct in TC-supplemented birds was decreased compared to that in controls (P0.05). In vitro cell culture assays revealed that TC reduced S. Enteritidis adhesion to and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells and reduced S. Enteritidis survival in chicken macrophages (P<0.001). Follow-up gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that TC downregulated the expression of S. Enteritidis virulence genes critical for chicken oviduct colonization (P<0.001). The results suggest that TC may potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce egg-borne transmission of S. Enteritidis.

  11. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p units were increased linearly (p production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  12. Composition of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids in freeze-dried chicken embryo eggs with different days of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Célia Maria Teixeira de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids omega--3 and omega--6 composition and specially DHA were determined in freeze-dried chicken embryo eggs with pre-determined incubation periods. Fertile and embryo eggs presented palmitic (23.18 + 0.54%, stearic (7.70 + 0.28%, palmitoleic (3.00 + 0.19%, oleic (36.28 + 0.58%, linoleic (22.18 + 0.34%, linolenic (1.08 + 0.04%, arachidonic (2.04 + 0.03%, docosahexaenoic (0.91 + 0.03%, total omega-3 acids (2.26 + 0.10% and total omega-6 acids (24.62 + 0.33%. There were no significant differences in total contents of omega-3 fatty acids (p=0.1226 between freeze-dried chicken embryo eggs with different incubation periods (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days and fertile freeze-dried chicken eggs (day 0. However, there were significant differences in total medium contents of omega-6 fatty acids (p=0.0001. There was also a strong statistical evidence that quadratic model was related with expected values of DHA content (p= 0.0013.

  13. Complete genome sequence of an avian leukosis virus isolate associated with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in egg-type and meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun; Li, Hongxin; Zhang, Huanmin; Xie, Qingmei; Chang, Shuang; Shang, Huiqin; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo

    2012-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that developed myeloid leukosis (ML). In recent years, field cases of hemangioma (HE) or HE and ML, rather than ML alone, have been reported in commercial layer flocks exposed to ALV-J with a high incidence in China. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of an ALV-J isolate that caused both HE and ML in egg-type and meat-type chickens in China. These findings will provide additional insights into the molecular characteristics in genomes, host range, and pathogenicity of ALV-J.

  14. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nal(r) strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis.

  15. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  16. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in chicken egg in commercial layer farms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Kodimalar; R A Rajini; S Ezhivalavan; G Sarathchandra

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics as an integral part of poultry and livestock production industry has recently received increasing attention as a contributory factor in the international emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human beings. To gauge the presence of the aforementioned scenario in the Indian context, a preliminary survey was conducted to assess the use of chlortetracycline (CTC) in 12 commercial layer farms and to quantify and confirm its residue in the egg. Samples of feed and eggs were collected at day 0 (prior to CTC addition), 3rd, 5th and 7th day during treatment and on the 9th and 14th day (2nd and 7th day after withdrawal of CTC) from each of the 12 commercial poultry farms studied. Concentration of CTC in feed was significantly ( < 0.01) high on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. On the 9th day and 14th day CTC concentration in feed was significantly ( <0.01) lower compared to the earlier 3 days studied. A highly significant difference ( <0.01) of the antibiotic residue in egg was observed in all the 5 days with high residual levels of CTC in egg. CTC in feed and its residue in egg were detected even on the 9th and 14th day respectively.

  17. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in organic egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Malin, Daniella; Smith, Pete; Hillier, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Models and tools are used to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture from management processes when measurements are not available. The Cool Farm Tool is widely used by farmers for this purpose. This study focus on the livestock part of the tool. The GHG emissions from livestock include enteric methane emissions from ruminants, nitrous oxide emissions from manure management, land use and land-use change, feed production, processing and transport. A case study is presented of organic egg producers in the USA, who used the tool over three years to calculate their emissions with the Cool Farm Tool. The highest GHG emissions were produced through feed, followed by transport and manure management. The farmers became more aware about the emissions in egg production and started to take action to reduce emissions. The results showed that the averaged GHG emissions decreased over the three years of the study.

  18. Pulsed electric field processing of egg products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, K

    2016-02-01

    Thermal processing ensures safety and enhances the shelf-life of most of the food products. It alters the structural-chemical composition, modifies heat labile components, as well as affects the functional properties of food products. This has driven the development of non-thermal food processing techniques, primarily for extending the shelf-life of different food products. These techniques are currently also being evaluated for their effects on product processing, quality and other safety parameters. Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an example of non-thermal technique which can be applied for a variety of purpose in the food processing industry. PEF can be used for antimicrobial treatment of various food products to improve the storability or food safety, for extraction and recovery of some high-value compounds from a food matrix or for stabilization of various food products through inactivation of some enzymes or catalysts. Research on the application of PEF to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in different egg products is being currently focused. It has been reported that PEF effectively reduces the activity of various microorganisms in a variety of egg products. However, the PEF treatment also alters the structural and functional properties to some extent and there is a high degree of variability between different studies. In addition to integrating findings, the present review also provides several explanations for the inconsistency in findings between different studies related to PEF processing of egg products. Several specific recommendations for future research directions on PEF processing are well discussed in this review.

  19. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne; Ishani A.H.M.E.Herath; Jayasinghe J. M. Priyanath; Ahn, Dong U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines ar...

  20. Bisphenol S alters embryonic viability, development, gallbladder size, and messenger RNA expression in chicken embryos exposed via egg injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L

    2016-06-01

    Amid concerns about the toxicological effects and environmental prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA), efforts to find suitable, safer replacement alternatives are essential. Bisphenol S (BPS) is a potential chemical substitute for BPA; however, few studies are available confirming that it has a more desirable ecotoxicological profile. In the present study, BPS was injected into the air cell of unincubated, fertilized chicken embryos at 6 concentrations ranging from 0 μg/g to 207 μg/g egg to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Concentrations of BPS increased in a dose-dependent manner in whole-embryo homogenates, and exposure to the highest dose, 207 μg/g, resulted in decreased pipping success (estimated median lethal dose  = 279 μg/g; 95% confidence interval = 161-486 μg/g). Exposure to BPS also reduced growth metrics including embryo mass and tarsus length, whereas the most pronounced phenotypic effect was the concentration-dependent, significant increase in gallbladder size at concentrations ≥52.8 μg/g. These adverse phenotypic outcomes were associated with the modulation of gene targets from a chicken ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array, which are involved with xenobiotic metabolism, lipid homeostasis, bile acid synthesis, and the thyroid hormone pathway. Expression levels of 2 estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin, were too low at the sampling time point assessed (i.e., pipping embryos) to quantify changes, and no effects were observed on circulating free thyroxine or bile acid concentrations. The present study provides novel, whole-animal toxicological data for a BPA replacement alternative that is not well characterized. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1541-1549. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds.

  2. Changes in the antigenicity and allergenicity of ovalbumin in chicken egg white by N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Yoon, Taek Joon; Kim, Ha Hyung; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-02-15

    Ovalbumin (OVA), an (hen) egg allergen, is one of the most abundant glycoprotein allergens associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity through the T-helper type 2 immune response. The effect of deglycosylation of the N-terminal glycan in OVA on allergenicity and antigenicity after N-acetylglucosaminidase treatment was studied. N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated OVA (N-OVA) evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. N-OVA significantly (pN-OVA decreased the antigenicity of OVA 1000-fold. These results suggest that the degree of allergenicity and antigenicity reduced with deglycosylation of N-terminal glycan in OVA.

  3. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  4. Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Riordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.

  5. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...

  6. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjun Leng; Kun-Nan Hsu; Richard EAustic; Xin genLei

    2014-01-01

    Background:This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods:Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5%DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5%or 15%DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results:The 15%DFA diet decreased (P<0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P<0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5%DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P<0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions:Feeding laying hens with 7.5%DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15%inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization.

  7. An experimental test of the ability of Daphnia galeata resting egg production in Lake Biwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumi K. Tsugeki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Daphnia galeata population in Lake Biwa (Japan had almost ceased producing resting eggs by the 1980s. To examine whether D. galeata had lost the ability to produce resting eggs, or if chemical contamination was inhibiting resting egg production, individuals collected in fall (November and late winter (March, were reared in the laboratory. More than 50% of these D. galeata individuals produced resting eggs irrespective of the month of collection, when reared with food supplied at a level lower than that available during the maternal generation. The results reflect that D. galeata in Lake Biwa have a high ability to produce resting eggs when appropriate stimuli are provided. As chemical substances, such as endocrine disrupters, are known to inhibit resting egg production in Daphnia and these accumulate in lake sediments, we tested whether Daphnia individuals produce resting eggs when reared in sediment-conditioned lake water. In sediment-conditioned lake water, only a few Daphnia that were collected in March produced resting eggs, while 50% of the individuals collected in November produced resting eggs. Thus, D. galeata collected from Lake Biwa are able to produce resting eggs, but genetic variation likely leads to variation in resting egg production in the presence of chemical contaminants. These results suggest that the recent decrease in the resting egg production of Daphnia populations in lake Biwa is mainly due to a decrease in the strength of the environmental queue that stimulates resting egg production rather than a genetic shift to strains that have a lower ability to produce resting eggs; yet, we cannot rule out the possibility that a chemical contamination plays a role in the decrease of resting egg production.

  8. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  9. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  10. The effects of welfare-enhancing system changes on the environmental impacts of broiler and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of 2 alternative UK broiler production systems that aim to improve bird welfare (a lower stocking density indoor system and the same system combined with heat exchangers for ventilation air) were compared with the baseline standard indoor system of broiler production. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of egg production in the conventional battery cage system (banned in the European Union in 2012) and its replacement, the enriched colony cage system, were compared. All comparisons were based on data obtained from the UK poultry industry, and the life cycle assessment method from cradle to farm gate was applied in the analyses. The results show that the lower density system slightly increased the global warming potential (GWP) of broiler production (by 2%), compared with the standard indoor system, due to increased heating requirements. However, when combined with the heat exchanger, the GWP was actually reduced by 3% when compared with the standard system. Both alternative systems for broilers resulted in a reduction in the eutrophication potential (by up to 8%) and acidification potential (by up to 10%). The results also showed that the colony cage system had 8% lower primary energy use and 3% lower GWP than the baseline cage system, due to better energy use efficiency and slightly improved productivity. There were only minor differences in the eutrophication and acidification potentials between different egg production systems. The results suggest that welfare-friendly changes in chicken systems can be achieved without a compromise in their environmental impacts.

  11. Generation of Live Attenuated Novel Influenza Virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) Vaccines with High Yield in Embryonated Chicken Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Wang, Weijia; Zhou, Helen; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Shambaugh, Cindy; Kim, Lomi; Zhao, Jackie; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Several live attenuated influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in eggs, reassortants expressing the HA and NA of CA09 were passaged in MDCK cells and variants exhibiting large-plaque morphology were isolated. These variants replicated at levels approximately 10-fold higher than the rate of replication of the parental strains in embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis indicated that single amino acid changes at positions 119, 153, 154, and 186 were responsible for the improved growth properties in MDCK cells and eggs. In addition, the introduction of a mutation at residue 155 that was previously shown to enhance the replication of a 1976 swine influenza virus also significantly improved the replication of the CA09 virus in eggs. Each variant was further evaluated for receptor binding preference, antigenicity, attenuation phenotype, and immunogenicity. Mutations at residues 153, 154, and 155 drastically reduced viral antigenicity, which made these mutants unsuitable as vaccine candidates. However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses. PMID:19864389

  12. Generation of live attenuated novel influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) vaccines with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Wang, Weijia; Zhou, Helen; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Shambaugh, Cindy; Kim, Lomi; Zhao, Jackie; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Several live attenuated influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in eggs, reassortants expressing the HA and NA of CA09 were passaged in MDCK cells and variants exhibiting large-plaque morphology were isolated. These variants replicated at levels approximately 10-fold higher than the rate of replication of the parental strains in embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis indicated that single amino acid changes at positions 119, 153, 154, and 186 were responsible for the improved growth properties in MDCK cells and eggs. In addition, the introduction of a mutation at residue 155 that was previously shown to enhance the replication of a 1976 swine influenza virus also significantly improved the replication of the CA09 virus in eggs. Each variant was further evaluated for receptor binding preference, antigenicity, attenuation phenotype, and immunogenicity. Mutations at residues 153, 154, and 155 drastically reduced viral antigenicity, which made these mutants unsuitable as vaccine candidates. However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses.

  13. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  14. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  15. Investigation of nonlinear models to describe long-term egg production in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, Dogan; Karaman, Emre; Aksoy, Tulin; Firat, Mehmet Ziya

    2013-06-01

    In this study, long-term egg production was monitored in a Japanese quail flock, which had not undergone any genetic improvement, for 52 wk as of the age of sexual maturity. The study aimed to detect some traits with respect to egg production, to determine the cumulative hen-housed egg numbers, and to compare goodness of fit of different nonlinear models for the percentage of hen-day egg production. The mean age at first egg was 38.9 d and the age at 50% egg production was 45.3 d. The quail reached peak production at 15 wk of age (wk 9 of egg production period) when the percentage of hen-day egg production was found to be 94%. The cumulative hen-housed egg number for 52 wk as of the age of sexual maturity was 253.08. The monomolecular function, a nonsigmoid model, was used in the nonlinear regression analysis of the cumulative egg numbers. Parameters a, b, and c of the monomolecular model were estimated to be 461.70, 473.31, and 0.065, respectively. Gamma, McNally, Adams-Bell, and modified compartmental models, widely used in hens previously, were used in the nonlinear regression analysis of the percentages of hen-day egg production. The goodness of fit for these models was compared using the values of pseudo-R², Akaike's information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion. It was determined that all the models are adequate but that the Adams-Bell model displayed a slightly better fit for the percentage of hen-day egg production in Japanese quail than others.

  16. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  17. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  18. Chicken or Egg: Global Economic Crisis or Ideological Retrenchment from Welfare in Three European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Aase Mygind; Judd, Dawn; Boeckh, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms then this converge......As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms...

  19. Review of researches on yolk percentage in chicken egg%鸡蛋蛋黄比例研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 郑江霞; 徐桂云

    2014-01-01

    蛋黄是鸡蛋的精华部分,蛋黄比例是衡量鸡蛋营养价值的一项重要指标,市场中不同消费群对鸡蛋中蛋黄的含量需求有所不同。掌握蛋黄比例的变化规律及其影响因素对产品质量和市场销售有重要的作用。本文从蛋黄比例的相关概念、研究意义及其影响因素等方面,对蛋黄比例近几年相关研究结果进行了综述,并提出对蛋黄比例研究和育种的思考,为今后相关的研究工作提供参考。%Yolk is the essence of an egg, and yolk percentage is a key index to determine nutritional value of an egg. Different consumption groups demand for various amounts of yolk in an egg. Understanding the variation of yolk percentage and its influence factors can be important to the products quality and market sales. In this review, we summarize the definition, research significance and influence factors of yolk percentage, and present some research results and current research progress on yolk percentage. Moreover, some thinking on the research and breeding of yolk percentage is put forward, which will provide reference for future research works.

  20. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Three populations of the copepod Acartia tonsa, two from the Baltic Sea and one from the U.S. East Coast, were compared for resting egg production at conditions of saturating and limiting food availability. All three populations produced eggs that hatched within 72 h when incubated at 17°C...... (subitaneous eggs), but the two Baltic populations in addition produced eggs that hatched at a much slower rate, in the course of a month (delayed hatching eggs [DHE]). Such eggs were not produced by the U.S. population. The fraction of DHE increased when food was limiting. Females from a Baltic population...... that were incubated individually all produced subitaneous eggs, but about half the females consistently also produced DHE. Cold storage that mimicked boreal winter conditions synchronized the hatching of DHE after extended storage, indicating that spring hatching of DHE might seed the water column...

  1. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  2. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. McAuley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia. Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P<0.001 in egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h. Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min and temperature (4, 22 and 42°C, with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P<0.05 than S. Sofia after 1 min at 4°C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P<0.05 levels at 22°C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks.

  3. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M.; Duffy, Lesley L.; Subasinghe, Nela; Hogg, Geoff; Coventry, John; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h) compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h) and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h). Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min) and temperature (4, 22 and 42°C), with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P < 0.05) than S. Sofia after 1 min at 4°C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P < 0.05) levels at 22°C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks. PMID:26539536

  4. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of Draft Compliance Guide and PGA Message Set Pilot Program AGENCY... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  5. Copepod egg production, moulting and growth rates and secondary production in the Skagerrak in August 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, W.T.; Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of hydrography, chlorophyll, moulting rates of juvenile copepods and egg production rates of adult female copepods were made at eight stations along a transect across the Skagerrak. The goals of the study were to determine (i) if there were correlations between spatial variations in ...

  6. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  7. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs.

  8. How the discovery of ribozymes cast RNA in the roles of both chicken and egg in origin-of-life theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Neeraja

    2012-12-01

    Scientific theories about the origin-of-life theories have historically been characterized by the chicken-and-egg problem of which essential aspect of life was the first to appear, replication or self-sustenance. By the 1950s the question was cast in molecular terms and DNA and proteins had come to represent the carriers of the two functions. Meanwhile, RNA, the other nucleic acid, had played a capricious role in origin theories. Because it contained building blocks very similar to DNA, biologists recognized early that RNA could store information in its linear sequences. With the discovery in the 1980s that RNA molecules were capable of biological catalysis, a function hitherto ascribed to proteins alone, RNA took on the role of the single entity that could act as both chicken and egg. Within a few years of the discovery of these catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) scientists had formulated an RNA World hypothesis that posited an early phase in the evolution of life where all key functions were performed by RNA molecules. This paper traces the history the role of RNA in origin-of-life theories with a focus on how the discovery of ribozymes influenced the discourse.

  9. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  10. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  11. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  12. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Enhanced Production of Ovotransferrin from Egg White for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad M. A. Alshammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovotransferrin is the second most abundant protein (~12-13% of the total egg protein in egg white after ovalbumin. Ovotransferrin is a potent natural antimicrobial agent as it possesses antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and is also the major metal binding protein found in egg, which makes it an industrially important protein. Ovotransferrin was extracted from egg white using its metal (iron binding properties. In the present study, eggs from two different sources were used (fresh local eggs from domestic household source and poultry eggs from shops to compare the results and Response Surface Methodology was used for the experiment design and data analysis. The following extraction conditions were optimized so as to maximize the yield of ovotransferrin from egg white: ethanol % (v/v and pH and volume (mL of 25 mM FeCl3/50 mL of egg white. A maximum yield of ~85 ± 2.5% was obtained near the optimum extraction conditions. The yield was calculated based on the theoretical value (934 mg of ovotransferrin in 100 mL of 1.5x diluted egg white solution. Our results suggest that efficient downstream processing may reduce the cost of overall production process of this promising enzyme, making it a natural and cost-effective alternative to the existing chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents.

  13. Analysis of the Production and Operation Status of Silkworm Eggs Producing Farms in China——Based on Questionnaire Survey to 136 Silkworm Eggs Producing Farms Nationwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Jianqin; Gu; Guoda; Feng; Huaisong

    2014-01-01

    Through statistical analysis on questionnaire survey data from 136 silkworm eggs producing farms in China,it was concluded that most silkworm eggs producing farms had such problems as follows: old production facilities and poor production condition,heavy staff burden,weak scientific and technological support,small operation scale and heavy surplus production capacity; narrow silkworm eggs sale channels and stubborn regional segmentation,insufficient innovation and lack of technological support for diversified expansion. All these problems led to low labor productivity,low asset utilization rate and poor economic benefit in silkworm eggs producing farms in China. Except the provinces( regions) of Guangxi,Guangdong and Yunnan,the silkworm eggs producing farms in other provinces were generally at deficit condition. In the light of ownership,although silkworm eggs producing farms of different ownership systems were in the red,those of the private sector had the minimum deficit. Based on these findings,it is proposed to deepen system reformation of silkworm eggs producing farms,loosen control to price and circulation of silkworm eggs,implement large-scaled production and operation,speed up scientific and technological innovation,expand diversified development channels,and reinforce government support so as to increase production and operation benefits of silkworm eggs producing farms in China.

  14. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni sequence types persist in Finnish chicken production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Katrin Llarena

    Full Text Available Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%], and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST, but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3% delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.

  15. Antimicrobial usage in chicken production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Trung, Nguyen V; Hoa, Ngo T; Mai, Ho Huynh; Thanh, Tuyen H; Campbell, James I; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hardon, Anita; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial antimicrobials (usage per week per chicken and usage per 1000 chickens produced) in the Mekong Delta and to investigate factors associated with usage. Twenty-eight types of antimicrobial belonging to 10 classes were reported. Sixty-three per cent of all commercial formulations contained at least two antimicrobials. On 84% occasions, antimicrobials were administered with a prophylactic purpose. The overall adjusted quantities of antimicrobials used/week/chicken and per 1000 chickens produced (g) were 26.36 mg (SE ± 3.54) and 690.4 g (SE ± 203.6), respectively. Polypeptides, tetracyclines, penicillins and aminoglycosides were the antimicrobials used by most farms (18.6% farms, 17.5%, 11.3% and 10.1% farms, respectively), whereas penicillins, lincosamides, quinolones, and sulphonamides/trimethoprim were quantitatively the most used compounds (8.27, 5.2, 3.16 and 2.78 mg per week per chicken, respectively). Factors statistically associated with higher levels of usage (per week per chicken) were meat farms (OR = 1.40) and farms run by a male farmer (OR = 2.0). All-in-all-out farming systems (correlated with medium farms) were associated with reduced levels of antimicrobial usage (OR = 0.68). Usage levels to produced meat chickens were considerably higher than those reported in European countries. This should trigger the implementation of surveillance programmes to monitor sales of antimicrobials that should contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of existing antimicrobials in Vietnam.

  16. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  17. Frozen Egg Products for Air Force Missile Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Residual 40 .1028 French toast (comm.) Scrambled eggs (comm. ) French toast ( sour dough ) Western egg &ham, dry minced onion 6 mo. Puffy omelet...on - 30 sec. off. Heat for 4 on cycles. Acceptable Ingredients Bread - Columbo: Sour French Oruweat: English muffin toasting bread Oroweat...storage of 6 months at -18*C. 2/ — Oroweat whole wheat bread. 3/ — Oroweat English Muffin toasting bread. — Columbo sour French bread. c

  18. Effects of organic mineral dietary supplementation on production performance and egg quality of white layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIM Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at evaluating the effect of organic trace mineral supplementation of commercial layer diets on productive performance and egg quality. One-hundred-ninety-two Hy Line W36 white 69-w-old layers were distributed into a completely randomized design with three treatments, and eight replicates, with eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (R1, and two others experimental diets containing 0.250 ppm (R2 and 0.500 ppm (R3 of an organic source of zinc, manganese, and selenium. Feed intake (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and kg/kg egg, egg weight (g, egg production (%, thin and cracked eggshells (%, specific gravity (g/mL, Haugh Units, total egg solids (%, yolk yield, white and shell yields (%, eggshell thickness, and egg Se content were evaluated Tukey's test analyzed differences among means at 5% of probability using PROC GLM in SAS (2000. Although not significant as compared to the non-supplemented diet, improvements on relative cracked-plus-thin shells were observed with the use of organic mineral blend. The addition of the organic blend to the diet at 0.250 kg/ton resulted in (p<0.05 higher total egg solids. Also, as compared to eggs from control group, fresh and dried yolk yields were higher with the dietary inclusion of the organic mineral blend at 0.250 and 0.500 kg/ton.

  19. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  20. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ago, the earliest fully land-dwelling animals, the reptiles, developed a self-contained egg with a tough, ... and brown shell eggs. Araucuna chickens in South America lay eggs that range in color from medium ...

  1. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2015-01-01

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases...

  2. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  3. Prolactin as a Candidate Gene Controlling Molting and Egg Production of Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Susanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of molting is a crucial problem in the local ducks that need to be handled from many aspects including genetic aspect. Handling of molting genetically can be done quickly and accurately when the control genes have been found. The search for marker genes of molting can be conducted in poultry through broodiness naturally, because its physiological processes are related to the continuity of egg production. This paper describes the mechanism of molting, the relationship of molting with prolactin hormone and the association of prolactin gene polymorphism with molting and egg production. Molting and egg production were influenced by the prolactin hormone, that may be controlled by the prolactin gene. High concentration of prolactin hormone will inhibit the function of pituitary gland, decreasing production of gonadotrophin hormone (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone hence ovulation ceased. This will stop egg production and at the same time molting proccess occurred.

  4. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (pAST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  5. Genotype x environment interaction as it relates to egg production in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, L A; Kelly, M J; Miller, S P; Wood, B J

    2010-06-01

    Genotype x environment (GxE) interactions can reduce the accuracy of a model to predict the performance of an animal and have an undesirable influence if not accounted for when estimating breeding values. Consequently, identification of these GxE is necessary when considering a turkey breeding program. Reranking based on the genetic prediction of turkey egg production, fertility, and hatchability in different seasons was indicative of a potential GxE interaction. Quantification of the GxE interactions was based on the genetic correlation estimated when traits were expressed in different seasons. Egg production was expressed as the percentage of days with an egg produced; fertility represented the proportion of hatched eggs that contained a fertile embryo; and hatchability was defined as the percentage of fertile eggs that produced a live bird. Variance components and heritability for egg production, fertility, and hatchability were estimated using ASReml. The heritability (h(2)) of egg production was calculated to be 0.32 for both lines with the phenotypic and genetic variance, 141.3 and 45.58 (percent days with egg produced)(2) and 118.3 and 38.35 (percent days with egg produced)(2) for female and male lines, respectively. The h(2) estimates for fertility were 0.08 in both lines with and of 293.3%(2) and 24.03%(2), and 576.9%(2) and 48.43%(2) for female and male lines, respectively. The hatchability h(2), and estimates were 0.09, 267.1%(2), and 24.44%(2), respectively, for the female line and 0.15, 582.2%(2), and 90.01%(2) for the male line, respectively. Based on an animal model, the variance components were used to calculate estimated breeding values for each trait. The annual fluctuation in estimated breeding values resulted in the need to evaluate egg number, fertility, and hatchability as 2 traits, summer and winter lay. The correlation between the 2 traits was less than unity (female line: r(egg production) = 0.76, r(fertility) = -0.20, r(hatchability) = 0

  6. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...... efficiencies for energy retention in protein (Kop = .50), fat (Kof = .79), and carbohydrates (Koc = .79)] increased from .26 Mcal at 27 wk of age to .29 Mcal at 48 wk, corresponding to 5.93 and 6.07 Mcal/kg egg....

  7. STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  8. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were m...

  9. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  10. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  11. RapidChek SELECT Salmonella enteritidis test system for the detection of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry house drag swabs, shell egg pools, and chicken carcass rinsates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Mark T; Gonzalez, Verapaz; Sutzko, Meredith I; Allen, Ann-Christine Olsson; Creamer, Samantha; Onisk, Dale V; Lindpaintner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The RapidChek SELECT Salmonella Enteritidis Test System was validated for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in poultry house drag swabs, shell egg pools, and chicken carcass rinsates. The method utilizes RapidChek SELECT Salmonella (AOAC PTM License No. 080601) proprietary primary and secondary enrichment media. Following enrichment, an immunochromatographic test strip is inserted into the tube containing the secondary enrichment broth, developed for 10 min, and interpreted. Salmonella Enteritidis-inoculated samples (1-5 CFU SE/analytical unit) were tested by the test method as well as the appropriate cultural reference method U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (drag swabs and egg pools) or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (chicken carcass rinsates). A total of 80 samples were tested by both methods in the study. Fifty-two samples were positive by the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella Enteritidis method and 38 were found positive by the respective reference method. The sensitivity of the method was 100% and the specificity was 100%. The accuracy of the test method was 137%, indicating that the method was more sensitive than the reference method. The RapidChek SELECT Salmonella Enteritidis method was tested with 82 Salmonella Group D1 strains including 63 Salmonella Enteritidis strains as well as 32 non-Salmonella Group D1 strains representing 10 bacteria genera. The test method detected all 82 Group D1 strains (100% sensitivity). None of the non-Salmonella Group D1 or other genera of bacteria were detected, indicating a specificity of 100%. The method was shown to be highly robust and stable under control and accelerated stability conditions.

  12. Assessment of microbial contamination of chicken products sold in Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindhe S.N

    Full Text Available Three restaurants were randomly selected in Parbhani city for the purchase of chicken products which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the chicken curry samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count :1.1- 1.47 x 106 cfu/g ; Enterobacteriaceae count: 1.57- 2.17 x 106 cfu/g ; lactic acid bacteria count(LAB count :1.70 - 2.33 x 106 cfu/g. With respect to the sample of Tandoori chicken, the total aerobic count ranged from 3.54 x 106 cfu/g; S. aureus count: 1.8 x105- 2 x 107; Enterobacteriaceae count: 5.09 x 108 cfu/g; LAB count :1.3 -4.6 x 108 cfu/g. Probable organisms isolated from chicken curry were E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Lactobacillus sp., and S. aureus while those organisms isolated from Tandoori chicken include Salmonella, Proteus, Shigella, S. aureus, Klebsiella and Lactobacillus sp. Most of the chicken products sampled were therefore considered to pose health risk to consumers, making it imperative to institute not only sanitary measures during processing, storage and marketing but also to ensure steady source of power supply. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 208-210

  13. Propagation of planktonic copepods: production and mortality of eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Tiselius, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Data on fecundity and egg mortality of neritic copepods were collected in various seasons, areas and under various hydrographical conditions. On a seasonal basis variations in fecundity (F) were related to temperature rather than to the abundance of phytoplankton (P). However, a strong correlation....... The implications for phenology and distribution of copepods are discussed....

  14. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  15. Antimicrobial residue detection in chicken yolk samples following administration to egg-producing chickens and effects of residue detection on competitive exclusion culture (PREEMPT) establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, J L; Caldwell, D Y; McElroy, A P; Hargis, B M; Caldwell, D J

    2000-12-01

    Competitive exclusion (CE) cultures may offer alternatives to antimicrobial agents for disease prophylaxis in poultry. To avoid potential transfer of antibiotic resistance, safe and effective CE cultures must, by necessity, be highly sensitive to antimicrobial residues. The following studies evaluated the effect of maternal administration of selected antibiotics on the establishment of a licensed CE culture, PREEMPT. Selected antibiotics were administered to actively laying hens for a period of 7 days (experiment 1) or 9 days (experiment 2) in drinking water [sulfadimethoxine (0.05%), enrofloxacin (0.005%), and tylosin tartrate (0.05%)] or feed (sulfadimethoxine with ormetoprim, 250 ppm). In experiment 1, fertile eggs were collected daily and subjected to bioassay for detectable antimicrobial residues in yolk. Antimicrobial residues were not detected during the 7 days of treatment or the subsequent 3 days following cessation of treatment in the control, sulfadimethoxine, sulfadimethoxine with ormetoprim, or tylosin treatment groups. However, detectable residues were observed in eggs derived from enrofloxacin-treated hens on days 6 and 7 during antibiotic administration and also on days 2 and 3 post-antibiotic administration. In experiment 2, antimicrobial residues were also only detected in yolks from hens treated with enrofloxacin. Residue detection occurred on days 2-6 of antibiotic administration, on day 9 of antibiotic administration, on days 1-3 post-antibiotic administration, and also on day 7 post-antibiotic administration. A subset of eggs from each experimental group, corresponding to days 2-6 of antibiotic administration, days 4-6 post-antibiotic administration, and days 14-16 post-antibiotic administration, were pooled for incubation, and chicks hatched from these pools of fertile eggs were treated with PREEMPT at hatch. When 48-h cecal propionate concentrations were used as an index of culture establishment, reduced (P < 0.05) efficacy was observed only

  16. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  17. Detection of Listeria spp. in liquid egg products and in the egg breaking plants environment and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes by PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoal, Katell; Fablet, Aurore; Courtillon, Céline; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne; Protais, Jocelyne

    2013-08-16

    Human listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis, cerebromeningitis, bacteremia or septicemia, with acute lethality and potentially leading to death. A study has shown that 29.5% of the caged laying hens in France are contaminated by L. monocytogenes (Chemaly et al., 2008). However, very little information regarding egg and egg product contamination is currently available. The objective of this study is to determine the sanitary status of egg products and egg breaking plants in France regarding Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes contaminations. The sampling scheme performed in five egg breaking plants in Western France during one year have revealed that 8.5% of raw egg products were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. No pasteurized egg products have been shown to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. However, a high level of contamination by Listeria spp., and particularly by L. innocua, has been shown with 26.2% and 1.8% of raw and pasteurized egg products contaminated, respectively. This work has also revealed the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the environment of egg breaking plants with 65.1% and 8.0% of contaminated samples, respectively. The typing of 253 isolates of L. monocytogenes by PFGE using ApaI and AscI enzymes has revealed a high diversity with 46 different pulsotypes and has shown that the raw material is a source of contamination of egg breaking plants. One L. monocytogenes cluster was dominant in the 5 egg-breaking plants during the four seasons studied. The issue of which strains are better adapted to egg products must be considered and studied in depth by comparing them to pulsotypes from strains of other chains. However, the traceability of L. monocytogenes in plants during the various seasons has also made it possible to highlight the presence of strains that are specific to egg breaking plants. The study of cleaning and disinfection methods in these plants as well

  18. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  19. Integration: valuing stakeholder input in setting priorities for socially sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Lee, Y; Thompson, P B; Bawden, R; Mench, J A

    2011-09-01

    Setting directions and goals for animal production systems requires the integration of information achieved through internal and external processes. The importance of stakeholder input in setting goals for sustainable animal production systems should not be overlooked by the agricultural animal industries. Stakeholders play an integral role in setting the course for many aspects of animal production, from influencing consumer preferences to setting public policy. The Socially Sustainable Egg Production Project (SSEP) involved the development of white papers on various aspects of egg production, followed by a stakeholder workshop to help frame the issues for the future of sustainable egg production. Representatives from the environmental, food safety, food retail, consumer, animal welfare, and the general farm and egg production sectors participated with members of the SSEP coordination team in a 1.5-d workshop to explore socially sustainable egg production. This paper reviews the published literature on values integration methodologies and the lessons learned from animal welfare assessment models. The integration method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop and its outcome are then summarized. The method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop can be used to obtain stakeholder input on sustainable production in other farm animal industries.

  20. Optical properties of tumor tissues grown on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs: tumor model to assay of tumor response to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Kariyama, Yoichiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Ishii, Takuya; Kitajima, Yuya; Inoue, Katsushi; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the optical adequacy of a tumor model prepared with tumor cells grown on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken egg is evaluated as an alternative to the mouse tumor model to assess the optimal irradiation conditions in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The optical properties of CAM and mouse tumor tissues were measured with a double integrating sphere and the inverse Monte Carlo technique in the 350- to 1000-nm wavelength range. The hemoglobin and water absorption bands observed in the CAM tumor tissue (10 eggs and 10 tumors) are equal to that of the mouse tumor tissue (8 animals and 8 tumors). The optical intersubject variability of the CAM tumor tissues meets or exceeds that of the mouse tumor tissues, and the reduced scattering coefficient spectra of CAM tumor tissues can be equated with those of mouse tumor tissues. These results confirm that the CAM tumor model is a viable alternative to the mouse tumor model, especially for deriving optimal irradiation conditions in PDT.

  1. Egg production of tench (Tinca tinca L. kept in semi-intensive culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez R.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the effect of different intervals of degrees-days on egg production of tench (Tinca tinca L., 480 breeders were kept in 15 x 10 x 1 m bare concrete tanks from February until July and fed on commercial feed. Males and females were held together under natural photoperiod and temperature conditions. Ovulation was hormonally inducted (LH-RHa in three groups at different degrees-days (group I: 1090, group II: 1175 and group III: 1536. In the groups I and II, a mean of 88% of females was injected, obtaining a 98% of positive response, without significant differences in the egg production between both groups (10.7% body weight, b.w.. With 1536 degrees-days, percentages of injected and stripped females were significantly lower. First stripping yielded a total of 9332 g of eggs (8.3% b.w.. A second hormonal induction was evaluated in each group at 1900, 2047 and 2111 degrees-days respectively. A mean of 85% of the initial females of the three groups received a second hormonal treatment, obtaining a 92% of positive response, without significant differences in egg production among the groups. The second stripping yielded an egg production (598 g, 5.9% b.w. significantly lower than the first one. Relating to males, semen was obtained without hormonal induction throughout 50 days and the positive response was around 90%. With the exception of eggs obtained in the first induction of group III (1536 degrees-days, where overripening process was detected, further mean fertilization (over 80% and hatching rates (around 35% support the good quality of eggs and sperm. This study showed that the advantages of the broodstock’s maintenance in small concrete tanks are not only easiness of handling and possibilities of yield prediction, but also a good egg production at higher densities than in big earthen ponds.

  2. Egg production of tench (Tinca tinca L. kept in semi-intensive culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodríguez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the effect of different intervals of degrees-days on egg production of tench (Tinca tinca L., 480 breeders were kept in 15 x 10 x 1 m bare concrete tanks from February until July and fed on commercial feed. Males and females were held together under natural photoperiod and temperature conditions. Ovulation was hormonally inducted (LH-RHa in three groups at different degrees-days (group I: 1090, group II: 1175 and group III: 1536. In the groups I and II, a mean of 88% of females was injected, obtaining a 98% of positive response, without significant differences in the egg production between both groups (10.7% body weight, b.w.. With 1536 degrees-days, percentages of injected and stripped females were significantly lower. First stripping yielded a total of 9332 g of eggs (8.3% b.w.. A second hormonal induction was evaluated in each group at 1900, 2047 and 2111 degrees-days respectively. A mean of 85% of the initial females of the three groups received a second hormonal treatment, obtaining a 92% of positive response, without significant differences in egg production among the groups. The second stripping yielded an egg production (598 g, 5.9% b.w. significantly lower than the first one. Relating to males, semen was obtained without hormonal induction throughout 50 days and the positive response was around 90%. With the exception of eggs obtained in the first induction of group III (1536 degrees-days, where overripening process was detected, further mean fertilization (over 80% and hatching rates (around 35% support the good quality of eggs and sperm. This study showed that the advantages of the broodstock’s maintenance in small concrete tanks are not only easiness of handling and possibilities of yield prediction, but also a good egg production at higher densities than in big earthen ponds.

  3. Comparative analysis of village chicken production in two farming systems in Burkino Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.; Nianogo, A.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare village chicken production in two farming systems in Burkina Faso. The systems were those in which crops and livestock production were, respectively, the most important. A rapid rural appraisal preceded a monitoring study in which data were collected fortnigh

  4. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  5. Cracking the Egg: Potential of the Developing Chicken as a Model System for Nonclinical Safety Studies of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, Sigrid; Austdal, Lars Peter Engeset; Roald, Borghild; Glover, Joel Clinton; Paulsen, Ragnhild Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    The advance of perinatal medicine has improved the survival of extremely premature babies, thereby creating a new and heterogeneous patient group with limited information on appropriate treatment regimens. The developing fetus and neonate have traditionally been ignored populations with regard to safety studies of drugs, making medication during pregnancy and in newborns a significant safety concern. Recent initiatives of the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have been passed with the objective of expanding the safe pharmacological treatment options in these patients. There is a consensus that neonates should be included in clinical trials. Prior to these trials, drug leads are tested in toxicity and pharmacology studies, as governed by several guidelines summarized in the multidisciplinary International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use M3 (R2). Pharmacology studies must be performed in the major organ systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous system. The chicken embryo and fetus have features that make the chicken a convenient animal model for nonclinical safety studies in which effects on all of these organ systems can be tested. The developing chicken is inexpensive, accessible, and nutritionally self-sufficient with a short incubation time and is ideal for drug-screening purposes. Other high-throughput models have been implemented. However, many of these have limitations, including difficulty in mimicking natural tissue architecture and function (human stem cells) and obvious differences from mammals regarding the respiratory organ system and certain aspects of central nervous system development (Caenorhabditis elegans, zebrafish).This minireview outlines the potential and limitations of the developing chicken as an additional model for the early exploratory phase of development of new pharmaceuticals.

  6. LEI0258 microsatellite variability and its relationship to B-F haplotypes in Brazilian (blue-egg Caipira chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Rosa Carlos André da Veiga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 149 chickens from two different sources (one non-commercial, the other commercial was tested for variability of the LEI0258 microsatellite. Fifty- three genotypes, explainable by 15 alleles, were found. There are clear allele and heterozygosity differences between the two samples. One of them was simultaneously studied for the MHC B-F haplotypes. Strong genetic disequilibrium was observed between the variants of the two systems, therefore providing a cheap alternative for MHC genotyping.

  7. Outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in large multi-age egg layer chicken flocks in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingred S. Preis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent (November 2010 outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT in a multi-age laying hen facility in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described. Previous ILT outbreak in laying hens was only notified in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2002. In the outbreak described here, the affected population was approximately eight million hens, with flock sizes ranging from 100,000 to 2,900,000 chickens. The average mortality ranged from 1 to 6%, and morbidity was around 90% (most of the twenty seven farms of the area were positive for ILT virus. Three multi-age laying farms from one company were selected for this report. Clinical signs included prostration, dyspnea, conjunctivitis, occasional swelling of the paranasal sinuses and bloody mucous nasal discharge. Severely affected chickens presented with dyspnea, gasping and became cyanotic before death. At necropsy, these chickens had fibrinous exudate blocking the larynx and the lumen of cranial part of the trachea. In addition, conjunctivitis with intense hyperemia, edema and sinuses with caseous exudate were present. On histopathology, there were marked necrosis and desquamation of respiratory ephitelium and conjunctiva with numerous syncytial cells formation and fibrinous exudate. Moderate to marked non suppurative (especially lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltration in the lamina propria also was observed. Sixteen out of 20 examined chickens, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the syncytial cells. The DNA extracted from larynx and trachea produced positive PCR results for ILT virus (ILTV DNA using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE samples. Amplicons from a small region of ICP4 gene were submitted to sequencing and showed 100% identity with ILTV EU104910.1 (USA strain, 99% with ILTV JN596963.1 (Australian strain and 91% with ILTV JN580316.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 CEO vaccine strain and JN580315.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 TCO vaccine strain.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  9. Effect of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on Japanese quail growth, egg production and plasma metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juráni, M; Lamosová, D; Mácajová, M; Kostál, L; Joubert, E; Greksák, M

    2008-01-01

    1. Birds have been proposed as a suitable model for studies on ageing because of their long life in comparison with similar-sized mammals. However, some weak fliers, such as Galliformes, are the exception to this rule. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the treatment with rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis), a natural source of flavonoid antioxidants and compounds with phyto-oestrogenic activity, on postnatal development and egg production of aged Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 2. Substitution of drinking water with traditional rooibos tea or diet supplementation with ground rooibos tea affected body weight of Japanese quail up to 100 d of age. The body weight of males drinking rooibos tea or eating rooibos-supplemented food decreased significantly. There was a trend toward increased body weight of tea drinking females and a significant increase in the body weight of hens fed the rooibos-supplemented diet. Although rooibos treatment did not significantly increase egg production in young hens, the decrease in egg production of rooibos-treated aged hens (360 d of age) was significantly reduced, regardless of the egg production levels (high - 80%; low - 20%) before the treatment. 3. The results suggest that treatment with rooibos tea positively affected body weight and egg production in quail hens and prolonged the productive period of aged animals. Further studies would be needed to address the question whether these effects are due to the antioxidant or phyto-oestrogenic activities of rooibos.

  10. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90% were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes. Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of

  11. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  12. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  13. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  14. MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION MAKING IN STRATEGIC PLANNING OF TABLE EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crnčan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objective was to analyze and evaluate different systems of table egg production by using the multiple criteria analysis, the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in decision making within strategic planning of production. The survey involved 79 producers of table eggs registered in the Records on laying hens’ farms in the Republic of Croatia. In the first stage, the research defined the criteria and sub-criteria for system evaluation which were compared in pairs in order to determine the weight or importance for each of them. Alternatives were evaluation based on definition of priorities of examinees and the extent to which they meet each of the defined criteria and sub-criteria. Intensity of examinees’ preferences were entered into the Expert Choice software in order to evaluate ranking results of egg production systems. Defined model consisted of a quantitative criterion of economic indicators, and the other two referred to qualitative criteria, market indicators and technical-technological factors. Each criterion had its corresponding sub-criteria that were evenly distributed in numerical order. Based on individual assessments of the examinees, overall cumulative evaluation was obtained for the table egg production systems. Accordingly, the most acceptable alternative to egg production is the indoor keeping system (priority 0.301. It is followed by the free-range system of keeping laying hens (priority 0.253. The third-ranked alternative is egg production by hens kept in conventional cages (priority 0.226, while the fourth-ranked least acceptable alternative, as of the total evaluation, is the ecological system of egg production (priority 0.220. Taking into account the obtained results of multiple criteria evaluation as well as EU and world trends in changing consumers’ habits including food safety and quality as well as customers’ preferences towards local market and local products, it is recommended that eggs

  15. The effect of foeniculum vulgare essence on production performance, egg quality and reproductive parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Taki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fennel essence on performance, egg quality and ovarian morphology of commercial laying eggs for ten weeks. In this experiment, one hundred and forty 30-wk-old commercial egg laying type Hy-Line (W36 were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 8 birds per each. Treatments were a control (0.0% essence and diets containing 200, 400 and 600 ppm fennel essence. Performance parameters include egg weight and egg production was recorded daily and feed intake, FCR and egg quality parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds of each replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered for analysis of ovarian morphology. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Levels of 200 and 400 ppm of fennel essence showed a significant increase in egg weight. Levels of fennel essence had no significant effect on feed intake and FCR but it caused significant increase in yolk color and had significant effect on the properties of egg shell. Levels of essence had no significant effect on the relative weight of the ovary, oviduct and stroma but 200 ppm of fennel essence had significant effect on weight of large yellow follicles. The results showed that the addition of fennel essence improved egg weight, egg shell and yolk color and had a significant effect on the large yellow follicles.

  16. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during...

  17. Chrysopa septempunctata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Vitellogenin Functions Through Effects on Egg Production and Hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Mao, J; Zeng, F

    2015-12-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a precursor of major egg storage protein, vitellin (Vt), and plays primary roles in reproduction of oviparous vertebrates and invertebrates. Chrysopa septempunctata Wesmael is an important and common predator of various insect pests. Here, we first cloned C. septempunctata Vg gene, CsVg. The complete CsVg cDNA was 5664 bp, which encodes an 1810-residues protein with a predicted molecular mass of 206.23 kDa. Expression profile revealed that CsVg mRNA first appeared on day 4 after emergence, maximally accumulated on day 10, and then declined gradually. RNAi mediated by injection of dsRNA depleted CsVg transcripts, significantly reduced egg-laying amount, and decreased egg hatching rate, suggesting that CsVg functions through effects on egg production and hatching in C. septempunctata.

  18. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  19. 鸡源黄病毒卵黄抗体间接ELISA检测方法的建立%Establishment of an Indirect ELISA for Detecting Egg Yolk Antibody Against Chicken Flavivirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施少华; 傅光华; 程龙飞; 王建; 陈红梅; 万春和; 胡思科; 宋秀梅; 黄瑜

    2013-01-01

    A novel Flavivirus infection, which mainly caused egg-dropping in ducks and chickens, has spread throughout China since 2010. To carry out the serological surveillance in chickens with minimum stress, an indirect enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting egg yolk antibody against Flavivirus in layer chickens has been developed by coating plate with chicken-origin Flavivirus FQ-C1 isolate. The optimal working concentration of antigen was 5. 7 ng · μL-1 , the working concentration of egg yolk antibody was 1: 160 dilution and that of HRP-labeled goat anti-chicken IgG was 1 : 3 200. After a color reaction of 10 minutes with Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) liquid substrate, a threshold of positive/negative (P/N) ≥ 2. 1 was determined as positive standard for the ELISA. The results indicated that the ELISA established by this research provided a high sensitivity and specificity test, which was suitable for the detection of antibodies against Flavivirus in immune laying hens.%为在检测产蛋鸡黄病毒抗体水平过程中减少应激,以鸡源黄病毒FQ-C1株为包被抗原,建立检测鸡源黄病毒卵黄抗体的间接ELISA方法.确定的优化条件是包被抗原浓度为5.7 ng·μL-1,卵黄抗体以1∶160倍稀释,羊抗鸡IgG酶标抗体以1∶3 200稀释.经特异性、敏感性检验表明该方法特异性强、敏感性高,适合于产蛋鸡免疫后的抗体检测.

  20. Effect of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY against diarrhea in domesticated animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Diraviyam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. METHODS AND RESULTS: Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012. A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets--22; Mice--14; Poultry--7 and Calves--6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment--prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type--bacterial or viral. Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: The present systematic review (SR and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  1. How to house a hen : assessing sustainable development of egg production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further develop and apply a methodology to assess the contribution of animal production systems to sustainable development (SusD). The practical use of the methodology is tested in a case study on egg production systems, because of the upcoming ban on the battery-c

  2. Immunization of chickens with quail and turkey perivitelline membrane proteins: production of antibodies and their effects on fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, P; Compton, M M; Howarth, B

    2000-02-01

    The cross-reactivity of antibodies developed against zona pellucida proteins and their subsequent deleterious effect on fertility in heterologous species is well documented. However, similar investigations have not been undertaken in avian species. In Experiment 1, White Leghorn hens were immunized with intact germinal discs (GD) of quail and chickens. Chicken GD proteins did not elicit an immune response in chicken hens, whereas quail GD proteins were highly immunogenic. Anti-quail GD antibodies did not bind with chicken inner perivitelline membrane (IPM) proteins as determined by immunoblot analysis. To examine the fertility of immunized hens, artificial insemination was performed at weekly intervals for 4 wk following the booster immunization. No significant differences were detected in fertility or hatchability of immunized hens when compared with unimmunized control hens. In Experiment 2, White Leghorn hens were immunized with intact turkey GD, solubilized turkey perivitelline membrane (PM) modified with dinitrophenol (DNP), and solubilized chicken IPM modified with DNP. High titers of antibodies were detected against the turkey GD and the DNP-modified turkey PM proteins. A weak immune response was observed in hens immunized with modified chicken IPM proteins. The fertility and hatchability of eggs laid by immunized hens, however, were not significantly different from those of unimmunized hens. Antibodies from immunized hens were further analyzed using an in vitro assay that assesses sperm penetration of intact IPM. Sperm penetration of intact IPM was inhibited to the same extent when IPM was preincubated with preimmune as well as anti-PM immunoglobulins. Collectively, these results suggested that the antibodies developed in these hens did not cross-react with the chicken IPM proteins involved in sperm-egg interaction and thus did not influence the fertility.

  3. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was sele

  4. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  5. Assessing the role of food quality in the production and hatching of Temora longicornis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Visser, Andre; Jespersen, C.

    2009-01-01

    We utilized the varying fatty acid composition of phytoplankton to create 19 different food treatments based on different ratios of 5 potentially important fatty acids and offered these to the copepod Temora longicornis. Egg production and hatching was monitored and related to ingested carbon......, dietary fatty acids and the utilization of maternal fatty acid reserves. Egg production rates depended on ingested carbon and the fatty acid 20:5n-3 from the diet and from the female reserves. Hatching success showed a significant dependence on the ingested and maternal fatty acids 22:6n-3, 18:5n-3 and 18...... fatty acid reserves depending on dietary fatty acid availability during reproduction and that egg production and hatching are dependent on different dietary fatty acids....

  6. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  7. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentration....... Hatching success of eggs was negatively correlated with some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids related to phytoplankton senescence....... (0.4 mg m(-3)). Excluding this high production rate from statistical analysis, the remaining egg-production rates were found to be positively correlated with phytoplankton biomass, as well as with parameters representing healthy phytoplankton condition, food quality and diatom-type fatty acids...

  8. The effect of the humic acid and herbal additive supplement on production parameters of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied.  A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.

  9. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  10. Genetic parameters of body weight, egg production, and shell quality traits in the Shan Ma laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R L; Chen, H P; Rouvier, R; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2016-11-01

    Three hundred and four female ducks of the Chinese indigenous Shan Ma breed, progeny of 11 sires and 104 dams, were used to study laying traits. Among them, 264 ducks were used to study the egg shell quality traits of eggs laid at 300 days of age. The mean age at first egg was 109 days with an average egg weight of 49.6 ± 3.7 g. Between 210 and 300 days of age, egg weight increased from 65.0 ± 3.9 g to 67.0 ± 4.2 g and the mean of the number of eggs laid up to 300 days was 161 ± 15.0. Egg length was 59.57 ± 3.01 mm and egg width was 45.02 ± 1.98 mm, leading to a shape index of 1.32 ± 0.08. Egg shell thickness was about 0.31 mm whatever the shell region, and the breaking strength was 28.80 ± 8.29 N. The heritability's estimated using restricted maximum likelihood ( REML: ) methodology were high for egg weights (ranging from 0.43 to 0.61), intermediate for the number of eggs laid (ranging from 0.38 to 0.43), and low for the age at first egg (0.13). Heritability's for egg shell quality traits varied from 0.20 for the breaking strength to 0.44 for egg length, with in-between values of 0.28 for shell thickness and 0.34 for the shape index. The number of eggs laid was not genetically correlated with the age at first egg or egg weight, but was correlated with body weight (rg = +0.54 ± 0.23). High positive correlations were found between egg weight and body weight traits, and both of these traits (except egg weight at first egg) were highly and positively correlated with egg length and width. Breaking strength was genetically correlated with egg shell thickness (rg = +0.54 ± 0.19) and the shape index (rg = +0.71 ± 0.23). These results suggest that an efficient selection strategy could be implemented to improve the egg production of the pure Shan Ma duck line.

  11. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  12. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos...... was calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and then slowing down between 16 and 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. HE...... followed the pattern of gas exchange, with a mean around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19. The main source of HE was oxidized fat. In addition to respiration experiments chemical analyses were carried out on 60 eggs from RO and 60 from LA. Prior to chemical analyses...

  13. Effect of immersion and inoculation in ovo of Lactobacillus spp. in embryonated chicken eggs in the prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis after hatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, R A; Milbradt, E L; Coppola, M P; Rodrigues, J C Z; Andreatti Filho, R L; Padovani, C R; Okamoto, A S

    2013-06-01

    The protection level against Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated in chickens after in ovo treatment with different species of Lactobacillus spp. inoculated into the air cell or by immersion in broth culture. Two hundred forty embryonated eggs were distributed into 8 groups, corresponding to treatments with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus salivarius, and control. On d 18 of incubation, 4 groups were inoculated with 0.1 mL of inoculum in the air cell and 4 groups were immersed for 3 min in culture of each treatment. Two days after hatching, 0.5 mL of Salmonella Enteritidis culture was inoculated by the intraesophageal route. On d 5 of life, the chicks were euthanized and the ceca were processed to obtain Salmonella Enteritidis counts. There was no decrease in Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of chick ceca, regardless of treatment or route of administration. Lactobacillus spp. samples used in the treatment showed no probiotic potential in chicks when inoculated in ovo, in relation to Salmonella Enteritidis inhibition in poultry ceca.

  14. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  15. Salmonella Enteritidis in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patricia L; Naugle, Alecia L; Jackson, Charlene R; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Rose, Bonnie E; Pritchard, Katrine M; Levine, Priscilla; Saini, Parmesh K; Schroeder, Carl M; Dreyfuss, Moshe S; Tan, Regina; Holt, Kristin G; Harman, Jane; Buchanan, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR-HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 through 2003, 293,938 samples collected for these testing programs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica serotypes. Of these samples, 12,699 (4.3%) were positive for Salmonella, and 167 (1.3%) of the positive samples (0.06% of all samples) contained Salmonella Enteritidis. The highest incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis was observed in ground chicken PR-HACCP samples (8 of 1,722 samples, 0.46%), and the lowest was found in steer-heifer PR-HACCP samples (0 of 12,835 samples). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were characterized by phage type, pulsed-field gel electrophoretic pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phage typing of 94 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates identified PT13 (39 isolates) and PT8 (36 isolates) as the most common types. One isolate from a ready-to-eat ham product was characterized as PT4. Electrophoretic analysis of 148 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates indicated genetic diversity among the isolates, with 28 unique XbaI electrophoretic patterns identified. Of these 148 isolates, 136 (92%) were susceptible to each of 16 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin alone, and 10 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from FSIS-regulated products emphasizes the need for continued consumer education on proper food handling and cooking practices and continued work to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products.

  16. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  17. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three freeze-dried (FD egg products (whole egg (WE, egg yolk (EY and egg white (EW were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P, Quindim (Q and Meringue (M. The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formulations of the same desserts made with fresh (F or spray-dried (SD egg products. The sensory analysis results for confections made with FD egg products showed good acceptance by panelists. A principal component analysis of the sensory evaluation data was carried out to identify similarities between the different egg products. The PCA supported the conclusion that FD egg products can substitute their fresh and SD counterparts in dessert formulations with good acceptability while keeping the advantages conferred by the freeze-drying method.

  18. Microbiological Evaluation of Pork and Chicken By-Products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Lim, Jong-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the microbiological risk of pork and chicken by-products by enumerating indicator bacteria (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and identifying pathogens such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic isolates was determined, and molecular subtyping was performed using automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Pork and chicken by-products were collected from 10 processing plants. The mean numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli from 95 pork by-product samples and 64 chicken by-product samples were 5.1, 3.6, and 2.4 log CFU/g and 4.5, 3.0, and 1.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The numbers of indicator bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and gizzard) were significantly higher than those in other organs. Salmonella and Campylobacter species were detected in 3 and 5 of 95 pork by-product samples and in 6 and 3 of 64 chicken by-product samples, respectively. Four of 9 Salmonella isolates examined were resistant to eight antibiotics, and each of these resistant strains produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Most Campylobacter isolates were resistant to tetracycline (7 of 8 strains) and quinolones (7 of 8 strains). The similarity in rep-PCR patterns among Salmonella isolates was more closely associated with serotype than with the processing plant and type of meat. Conversely, the rep-PCR patterns of Campylobacter isolates were specific to the processing plant. Our findings could help agencies develop regulations for protection from foodborne bacterial infections arising from animal by-products.

  19. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeira, N. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Barbour, E.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: eb01@aub.edu.lb; Nehme, P.A. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamadeh, S.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Zurayk, R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bashour, I. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  20. A reanalysis of North Sea plaice spawning-stock biomass using the annual egg production method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty about the quality of current virtual population analysis-based stock assessment for North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) has led to various abundance indices. We compared biomass estimates from the annual egg production (AEP) method with current stock assessments based on catch-at-ag

  1. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators: an application to egg production sytems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    1. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators (SI) is an effective way to make sustainable development measurable. The egg production sector was used as a case study to illustrate this approach. 2. The objective was to select SI for economic, ecological and societal issues, and to analyse t

  2. 78 FR 19181 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation... site provides the ability to type short comments directly into the comment field on this Web page or.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Egg Products Industry Survey. Type of Request: New information...

  3. EFFECTS OF BAITS AND BAIT ALTERNATIVES ON SLUG MORTALITY, EGG PRODUCTION, AND SEEDLING SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two non-bait slug control formulations that are not attractive to earthworms including Durham 3.5 and 7.5 (3.5 and 7.5%, metaldehyde, respectively) and SlugFest AWF (all-weather-formula, 25%, metaldehyde), a liquid spray product were investigated for their efficacy in reducing egg fecundity and slu...

  4. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  5. Interaction of hen production type, age, and temperature on laying pattern and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumová, E; Gous, R M

    2012-05-01

    The effect of production type (layer vs. broiler breeder), age (onset and end of laying cycle), and temperature (20 and 28°C) on various aspects of the egg production process and quality was evaluated. Highly significant differences were detected between laying hens and broiler breeders (P ≤ 0.001) in all production parameters. Similarly, age significantly affected rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001; 75.4% for young vs. 62.6% for old), mean sequence length (P ≤ 0.001; 7.7 d for young vs. 2.6 d for old), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). However, there was no effect of temperature on rate of lay, sequence length, or feed intake. Significant interactions between hen type and age were apparent in rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001), sequence length (P ≤ 0.001), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). A significant interaction between production type and age (P ≤ 0.015) was evident in egg weight, but egg component proportions were dependent only on hen type. Egg shape index was significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.004), by temperature (P ≤ 0.028), and an interaction between type and age (P ≤ 0.001). Specific gravity declined with age (P ≤ 0.035) and increasing temperature (P ≤ 0.013).

  6. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  7. Where do egg production methods for estimating fish biomass go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Bernal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The special theme volume of Fisheries Research is intended to synthesise the current understanding of the methods and applicability of egg production methods (EPM). It originates from a workshop in Athens which also focused on the future challenges to both the science and logistics of carrying out a

  8. Grain Sorghum: A Conundrum for Chicken-Meat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y. Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy utilisation. The recent quantification of kafirin, the dominant protein fraction in sorghum, has allowed its nutritional significance to be assessed. This is important as indirect evidence suggests that kafirin concentrations in local sorghums are increasing as an unintended consequence of breeding programs. Presently, Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannin but, from analyses and assessments of other polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acids, “non-tannin” phenols appear to be negative influences. Anecdotally, white sorghums are considered to be superior to red varieties thus the fact that polyphenolic pigments are responsible for the “redness” of sorghum assumes relevance. Inclusions of sulphite reducing agents in broiler diets have generated promising responses but seem dependent on sorghum properties. Preliminary studies have shown the possibilities of using rapid visco-analyser (RVA starch pasting profiles, promatest protein solubilities and grain textures to indicate sorghum quality and further studies are required to confirm these hypotheses. These assessments may indicate which sorghums will best respond to reducing agents such as sodium metabisulphite. Finally, the usually modest responses of broilers to exogenous feed enzyme inclusions in sorghum-based are considered in this review.

  9. Emergence of Enteric Viruses in Production Chickens Is a Concern for Avian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mettifogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been identified in recent years in the intestinal contents of chickens and turkeys with enteric problems, which have been observed in commercial farms worldwide, including Brazil. Molecular detection of these viruses in Brazil can transform to a big threat for poultry production due to risk for intestinal integrity. This disease is characterized by severely delayed growth, low uniformity, lethargy, watery diarrhea, delayed feed consumption, and a decreased conversion rate. Chicken astrovirus (CAstV, rotavirus, reovirus, chicken parvovirus (ChPV, fowl adenovirus of subgroup I (FAdV-1, and avian nephritis virus (ANV were investigated using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, which may play a role in enteric disease, was included. The viruses most frequently detected, either alone or in concomitance with other viruses, were IBV, ANV, rotavirus, and CAstV followed by parvovirus, reovirus, and adenovirus. This study demonstrates the diversity of viruses in Brazilian chicken flocks presenting enteric problems characterized by diarrhea, growth retard, loss weight, and mortality, which reflects the multicausal etiology of this disease.

  10. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  11. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Radiation Research Center for Bio-Technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-03-15

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation (P<0.05), whereas that of EWP was not affected by irradiation. The foaming ability of LEW and EWP was significantly increased by irradiation as a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The volume and the height of angel cake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control (P<0.05). For EWP, the volume and the height of angel cake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products (P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  12. Fatty acid oxidation is essential for egg production by the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, parasitic flatworms that cause the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis, have been considered to have an entirely carbohydrate based metabolism, with glycolysis playing a dominant role in the adult parasites. However, we have discovered a close link between mitochondrial oxygen consumption by female schistosomes and their ability to produce eggs. We show that oxygen consumption rates (OCR and egg production are significantly diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1, which catalyzes a rate limiting step in fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO and by genetic loss of function of acyl CoA synthetase, which complexes with CPT1 and activates long chain FA for use in FAO, and of acyl CoA dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the first step in FAO within mitochondria. Declines in OCR and egg production correlate with changes in a network of lipid droplets within cells in a specialized reproductive organ, the vitellarium. Our data point to the importance of regulated lipid stores and FAO for the compartmentalized process of egg production in schistosomes.

  13. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND CHOLESTEROL IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Shakoor, M. A. Javed1, Z. Iqbal2 Z. Nasir and N. Mukhtar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and cholesterol in layers. for this purpose. 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (3 experimental units/treatment containing 2,5% canola oil, 5% canola oil, 2.5% soybean oil, 5% soybean oil and control without any oil (all five rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous for a period of9 weeks. Effect of these treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg mass, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio and egg quality parameters including shell thickness, albumen quality, yolk index, egg cholesterol level and yolk fatty acid composition were studied. The results indicated that the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and egg mass was non-significant. Significantly (P<0.05 less yolk cholesterol was found in hens fed diets containing oils compared with the control. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acids (SFA content decreased as oils percentage increased. Total Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was significantly (P<0.01 greater in canola and soybean oil fed hens eggs than the control diet fed hens eggs. Addition of 5% canola oil to the diet resulted in yolk omega-6:omega-3 PUFA being significantly lower (P<0.01 than those of the control diets.

  15. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  16. Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Nordgren, R

    1995-03-01

    Cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD11 line cells produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate derived from the Aloe vera plant. Neither cell type produced detectable amounts of NO in response to similar concentrations of yeast mannan, another complex carbohydrate. Nitric oxide production was dose dependent and inhibitable by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine. In addition, the production of NO was inhibited by preincubation of ACM with concanavalin A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ACM-induced NO synthesis may be mediated through macrophage mannose receptors, and macrophage activation may be accountable for some of the immunomodulatory effects of ACM in chickens.

  17. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in chicken meat and other food animal products: a market-basket pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick A; Love, David C; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical drugs are extensively used in industrial food animal production. We examined whether residues of veterinary antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were detectable in a small market-basket sample of retail chicken (n=39), ground beef (n=3) and milk (n=3) samples. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to assess the concentration of 59 PPCPs and their residues in animal products. All samples of ground beef, milk, and 14 chickens were analyzed individually, while an additional 25 chicken samples were pooled and analyzed in groups of five. The majority of PPCPs were not detected in meat and milk samples. Caffeine was detected in two of three milk samples (0.4 ng/mL, 2.0 ng/mL) and in 10 of 19 individual and pooled chicken samples (median: 18.6 ng/g, range: 6.1-28.8 ng/g). Acetaminophen was detected in three of three milk samples (median: 1.5 ng/mL, range: 1.4-2.1 ng/mL). Antibiotics in the tetracycline class were detected in two of three milk samples (median: 1.0 ng/mL, range: 0.1-2.0 ng/mL) and did not exceed regulatory residue tolerances of 300 ng/mL. There are no regulatory residue tolerances for caffeine or acetaminophen in animal products. The acetaminophen detections in milk, however, raise questions about extra-label and unapproved use of pharmaceutical drugs in food animal production, as this drug is not approved for use in lactating dairy cattle or any other type of food animal production. Additional studies are needed to confirm our finding of PPCPs in meat and dairy products.

  18. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass......1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry...

  19. Immune response to the cestode Hymenolepis nana: cytokine production during infection with eggs or cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchedda, M; Bortoletti, G; Gabriele, F; Wakelin, D; Palmas, C

    1997-03-01

    Analysis of cytokine production (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5) by in vitro Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells measured daily after egg or cyst infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana showed that cytokine production varies during parasite development and between different host strains (BALB/c and C3H/He mice). Egg infection stimulates a rapid increase in IFN-gamma, independent of mouse strain. In addition, in BALB/c mice a Th2-like response (IL-4, IL-5 secretion) was stimulated 4-5 days p.i., when the parasites are thought to begin their lumenal phase. After infection with cysts significant increases in IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed at the time when autoinfection with eggs is thought to occur. The level of IFN-gamma paralleled that seen after a primary egg infection. This suggests that there is a predominantly Th1-type response during the tissue phase of H. nana development and that, in BALB/c mice, a Th2 polarization occurs during the first few days of the lumenal phase. The cytokine patterns observed are discussed in relation to host responses during chronic helminth infection.

  20. Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species isolated from poultry products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu; Ejikeugwu Chika; Anioketta Ogonna; Iroha Chidinma; Ajah Monique; Moses Ikechukwu; Eluu Stanley; Nwakaeze Emmanuel; Afiukwa Ngozi; Nwuzo Agabus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella species isolated from various poultry products including chicken meat, poultry eggs, poultry bird's drinking water, and poultry feed. Materials and methods: A total of 79 samples comprising of chicken meat (n=20), egg shell (n=15), poultry egg contents (n=18), drinking water (n=14), and poultry feed (n=12) were bacteriologically and microscopically analyzed for the isolation of Salmonell...

  1. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanil R Parma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2 are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx was developed using anti-Stx2 B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933 and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 400 ng /ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for 2 strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  2. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C.; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates. A survey of relevant anti-rotavirus IgY basic studies and clinical trials among neonatal animals (since 1994-2015) and humans (since 1982-2015) have been reviewed and briefly summarized. Our analysis of a number of rotavirus investigations involving animal and human clinical trials revealed that anti-rotavirus IgY significantly reduced the severity of clinical manifestation of diarrhea among IgY-treated subjects relative to a corresponding control or placebo group. The accumulated information as a whole depicts oral IgY to be a safe and efficacious option for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in neonates. There is however a clear need for more randomized, placebo controlled and double-blind trials with bigger sample size to further solidify and confirm claims of efficacy and safety in controlling diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection especially among human infants with health issues such as low birth weights or compromised immunity in whom it is most needed.

  3. 9 CFR 590.411 - Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in official egg products plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the Egg Products Inspection Act, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Fair Packaging and... broken from the shell, shall have a total egg solids content of 24.20 percent or greater. (e) Nutrition... provisions of 21 CFR part 101, promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the...

  4. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old

  5. Fast Screening of Chicken Egg Lysozyme in White Wine Products by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-quan; JIANG Jie; LI Ming; ZHAO Zhan-feng; FU Jun

    2012-01-01

    Fast detection of trace lysozyme,one of the most important food allergens in white wine samples,was achieved by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment in this study.The multiply-charged ions of m/z 1587 were chosen for the quantitative detection of lysozyme in white wine,showing linear dynamic signal responses in a range of 5-75 μg/mL with a linearity coefficient of 0.999 and an acceptable relative standard deviation(RSD)of 8.0%-15.0% for directly measuring lysozyme in the complex food samples.The limit of detection for lysozyme in white wine sample was calculated to be 5 μg/mL,which was lower than the amounts that can provoke allergic reactions(oral test with 3 mg or labial test with 1 mg/mL).A single sample analysis was completed within 1 min.The data demonstrate that extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a useful tool for fast screening lysozyme in the complex matrix,showing promising application in the rapid detection of food allergen.

  6. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  7. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  8. Occurrence, Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Chicken Products and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bayomi, Rasha M; Ahmed, Heba A; Awadallah, Maysa A I; Mohsen, Rasha A; Abd El-Ghafar, Abeer E; Abdelrahman, Mahmoud A

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus in food is a consequence of inadequate hygienic handling and processing, posing a potential risk to public health. The current study aimed to characterize virulence factors, as well as antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from retail chicken products and hand swabs from vendors in Egypt. In addition, genetic relatedness of the isolates from chicken and humans was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using protein A as a target. A total of 110 samples were collected from chicken products (n = 80) and vendors (n = 30). Overall, 30 (37.5%) chicken products samples were positive for S. aureus, whereas hand swabs from meat handlers revealed that 18 (60%) were positive. Ten MRSA strains were characterized by the presence of the mecA gene, comprising seven isolates from chicken and three from humans. Virulence-associated factors were evaluated by PCR, revealing that 31.3% of S. aureus isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, whereas 10.4% were positive for the sea and sed genes each, and only two isolates were positive for γ-hemolysin-associated gene. Genotyping using spa PCR-RFLP showed identical restriction banding patterns of MRSA isolates of human and chicken meat origin, indicating the genetic relatedness of the isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize PVL-positive MRSA from chicken products and to utilize spa-RFLP for evaluating the genetic relatedness between MRSA of human and chicken origin in Egypt.

  9. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  10. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  11. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  12. Enhanced polyunsaturated fatty acids production in Mortierella alpina by SSF and the enrichment in chicken breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and soybean meal were used as the substrates for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in solid-state fermentation (SSF by Mortierella alpine. These fermented products were fed to laying hens. PUFA enrichment from chicken breasts was studied. Methods: The maximum productivity of PUFA was achieved under optimized process condition, including 1% w/w yeast extract as additive, an incubation period of 5 days at 12°C, 10% v/w inoculum level, 75% moisture content, and pH 6.0. The hens were then fed with ration containing soybean DDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The control group was fed with basal ration. Results: Under the optimal condition, M. alpine produced total fatty acids (TFA of 182.34 mg/g dry substrate. It has better mycelial growth when soybean meal was added to DDGS (SDDGS. PUFA in fermentation product increased with higher soybean meal content. The addition of 70% soybean meal to DDGS substrate yielded 175.16 mg of TFA, including 2.49 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 5.26 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The ratios of ω-6/ω-3 found in chicken breasts fat were all lower than that found in control by 36.98, 31.51, 18.15, and 12.63% for SDDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil, respectively. Conclusions: This study identified an optimized SSF process to maximize PUFA productivity by M. alpine as the strain. This PUFA-enriched feed increased the PUFA contents as well as the proportions of ω-6 and ω-3 in chicken breasts and liver.

  13. Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous chicken production in sub Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry sub sector is a privileged entry point for promoting gender equality. Gender inequalities in poultry and livestock activities are now more and more acknowledged by governments, scientists, and farmers in sub Saharan Africa. This is on the background that gender inequality has translated into loss of opportunities or potential gains on agricultural production and food security. This has been exacerbated by the fact that the progress in empowering women in agriculture and reducing gender inequality has been slow despite this realization. The paper presents an overview of the development of the indigenous chickens sector in sub Saharan Africa and its implication on addressing gender equality. The assumption is that despite the multitude of socio-economic constraints faced by women in agriculture they are capable of raising indigenous chickens for the welfare of their households, hence promoting indigenous chickens  can give women a chance to control more income, reducing gender inequality. Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment is critical to the success of these development goals.

  14. METHOD OF INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF BROILER CHICKENS THROUGH THE USE OF FUNCTIONAL ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova L. N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental work, we studied the effect of the inulin prebiotic on the growth, development and efficiency of growing broiler chickens of the Isa cross. In accordance with the scheme of the experiment, the first control group was fed a complete feed (CF by periods of growth. In the second group, inulin was added to the CF for the first 21 days of growth. In the third group prebiotic was added to the CF at the same rate throughout the whole period of rearing the chicks (42 days. In the second and third groups, we found the tendency to increase the intensity of growth rate in poultry by 1.6 and 3.0%, respectively, compared with the control. Feed costs for weight gain were decreased by 2.1-2.7%. In the chime of the blind processes of the intestine of the chickens of 2-3 experimental groups it was found the reduction of staphylococci and enterococci CFU, while similar to the control group lactobacilli CFU. The muscle tissue in the chickens of experimental groups had greater protein content. The optimal range of indicators is the use of inulin for the first 21 days of rearing poultry. Because of the production audit, an increase in live weight of chickens was found, in the experimental group by 2.7% (p ≤ 0.05, a decrease of feed costs by 7.5%, increase of the survival rate of poultry by 2.0% and profitability by 3.1%

  15. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality.

  16. Growth characteristics of Salmonella enteritidis in pasteurized and unpasteurized liquid egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakha, Mohammad Zaher; Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Growth characteristics of a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial products of pasteurized and unpasteurized liquid whole egg were studied with a growth model developed by us. The unpasteurized product contained total bacteria at 10(7.3) CFU/g, but no Salmonella. When the products were spiked with Salmonella at various doses ranging from 10(1) to 10(4) CFU/g, growth curves of the pathogen at 24°C were well described with our model. Salmonella growth curves at constant temperatures from 8°C to 36°C in the two products were also well described with the model. The Baranyi model also described well most of the growth curves. The rate constants of growth for Salmonella at various constant temperatures were well described with the square root model. The maximum cell level, N(max) of Salmonella was constant at all temperatures in the pasteurized products, while a linear relationship between log N(max) and the temperature was observed in the unpasteurized ones. Salmonella growth in the unpasteurized product was highly suppressed in comparison with that in the pasteurized. This study also suggested the suitability of our model for application in the Salmonella growth analysis in pasteurized and unpasteurized liquid egg products.

  17. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the flock of origin and found no evidence of communicable diseases of poultry. (vi) The eggs were... regions where exotic Newcastle disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 is considered to... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  18. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  19. The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Jefferson-Moore, K Y; Einstein, M E; Cheng, H W; Rubin, D A

    2013-02-01

    Enrichment of pullet cages with perches has not been studied. Our objective was to determine if access to metal perches during all or part of the life cycle of caged White Leghorns affected egg traits, foot health, and feather condition. Treatment 1 represented control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had perches only during the egg laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Comparisons between chickens that always had perches with controls that never had perches showed similar performance relative to egg production, cracked eggs, egg weight, shell weight, % shell, and shell thickness. More dirty eggs occurred in laying cages with perches. Feed usage increased resulting in poorer feed efficiency in hens with perch exposure during the pullet phase with no effect during egg laying. Perches did not affect hyperkeratosis of toes and feet. The back claw at 71 wk of age broke less if hens had prior experience with perches during the pullet phase. In contrast, during egg laying, the back claw at 71 wk of age broke more due to the presence of perches in laying cages. Perches in laying cages resulted in shorter trimmed claws and improved back feather scores, but caused poorer breast and tail feather scores. In conclusion, enriching conventional cages with perches during the entire life cycle resulted in similar hen performance compared with controls. Fewer broken back claws but poorer feed efficiency occurred because of prior experience with perches as pullets. Perch presence during egg laying improved back feather scores with more trimmed nails but caused more dirty eggs, broken back claws, and poorer breast and tail feather scores. Although perches allow chickens to express their natural perching instinct, it was not without causing welfare problems.

  20. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2009-07-01

    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (PTropic of Cancer.

  1. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    Threshold concentration, retention efficiency and egg-production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were examined using the algal species Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso, Dunalietta tertiolecta Butcher, Rhodomonas baltica Karsten, Ditylum brightwellii Grunow and Thalassiosira weissflogii...

  2. Chicken-egg Extracts Have the Key Roles in Maintaining and Enhancing the Cell Activity%鸡卵细胞提取液有维持和增强细胞活性的关键作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮光萍; 王金祥; 庞荣清; 姚翔; 阮光洪; 朱光旭; 朱向情; 蔡学敏; 何洁

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the identification of an extract with the ability to maintain and enhance the survival and differentiation of cells which will be useful in cellular biology research.Four types of egg extracts were prepared.The spleen cells from male mice were permeabilized with the extracts and cultured respectively,and then transfused into female mice.The GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood of female mice and Y chromosome in bone marrow cells were detected to compare the different abilities of spleen cells to survive and differentiate in vivo.Surviving GFP-positive spleen cells were detected in the female mice of chicken-egg-white and whole-egg extracts group.At 120 days after transplantation,the percentage of cells containing a Y chromosome in the bone marrow positively correlated with the percentage of GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood.After permeabilization by chicken-egg-white or whole-egg extracts,spleen cells demonstrate significantly enhanced survivability.The results show the vital role of chicken-egg-white extracts in maintaining and enhancing the survival of spleen cells.Therefore,the chicken-egg-white extracts may be of use in future stem cells study.%该文鉴定了一种提取物具有维持和增强细胞存活与分化的能力,这将在细胞生物学研究中得到应用.制备四种卵细胞提取物,雄鼠的脾细胞被提取物渗透并培养,然后输注给雌鼠.在移植后雌鼠外周血中GFP阳性细胞和骨髓细胞中的Y染色体被检测,对比脾细胞在体内存活与分化的不同能力.移植蛋白和全蛋提取液处理的脾细胞的雌鼠外周血检测到GFP阳性细胞,在移植后120 d,雌鼠骨髓中检测到的Y染色体阳性率与外周血中的GFP阳性细胞率呈正比.用蛋白和全蛋提取液渗透脾细胞后,脾细胞在雌鼠体内存活能力强于其他提取液.结果表明,鸡蛋白提取液有维持并增强脾细胞存活的作用.因此蛋白提取物可在将来用于干细胞功能的维持.

  3. Diet influence on egg production of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Egg production in the copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated using different densities of the microalgae Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis galbana. Male and female were kept under controlled conditions (salinity 30, 20°C, photoperiod 12L:12D, acclimated to the experimental conditions and left over a period of 24 h to allow copulation. Algal densities tested were equivalent in biovolume and corresponded to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60.10³ cells.mL-1 of T weissflogii. Ten acclimated female were separated, transferred to glass bottles and exposed for further 24 h to the corresponding experimental medium. After this period, the eggs were fixed and counted. Copepod egg production reached a threshold value when T weissflogii, C. muelleri and I. galbana were supplied at 10.10³, 140.10³ and 640.10³ cells.mL-1, respectively. Mean egg production corresponded to 28.0 ± 0.5, 20.1 ± 1.0 and 22.0 ± 3.5 eggs.female-1 .day-1, respectively. Copepods fed T weissflogii showed the highest mean egg production while those fed I. galbana reached a maximum egg production when the algae were supplied at a density two- to fourfold higher, considering the biovolume of T weissflogii and C. muelleri. These differences are explained considering the different sizes of the microalgae used to feed the copepods.A produção de ovos do copépode Acartia tonsa foi avaliada utilizando diferentes densidades das microalgas Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri e Isochrysis galbana. Machos e fêmeas foram colocados sob condições controladas (salinidade 30, 20°C, fotoperíodo 12L:12D, aclimatados às condições experimentais e mantidos juntos por 24 h para permitir a copula. As densidades de algas foram equivalentes em biovolume e corresponderam a 0, 2,5, 5, 10, 20, 40 e 60,10³ células.mL-1 de T. weissflogii. Dez fêmeas aclimatadas foram separadas, transferidas para frascos de vidro e expostas por mais 24 h ao meio experimental

  4. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  5. Validation of FoodChek™ - Salmonella for Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Eggs, Derivative Products, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Tremblay, Renaud; Martinez, Gabriela; Giuffre, Michael; Hammack, Thomas; Fernandez, Maria Cristina; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The FoodChek™ - Salmonella assay is an immunomagnetic lateral flow assay for the rapid detection (shorter than 24 h) of the most frequently isolated Salmonella (groups B-E) in eggs, egg-derivative products, and environmental surfaces. The FoodChek - Salmonella assay correctly identified 99.6% (239/240) of the samples tested in the matrix studied, and the statistical analysis of the method comparison study results demonstrated that it performs as well as U.S. culture-based reference methods. Ninety-nine percent of the 103 Salmonella strains tested belonging to serogroups B-E were detected during the inclusivity study. Concerning the exclusivity, 31 nontarget strains were tested. No cross-reactivity was observed in FoodChek - Salmonella assay enrichment conditions. In addition, the assay shows strong robustness, good stability, and consistency among lots. The present study proves that the assay is an effective tool for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in whole liquid eggs, liquid egg white (liquid egg albumen), shell eggs, dried whole eggs, dried egg yolks, and environmental surfaces as stainless steel, plastic, rubber, ceramic tiles, and sealed concrete.

  6. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  8. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs and within the U.S., table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Table egg producers have noted increased incidence of “off- color” or discolored (DC) eggs derived from breeder he...

  9. Microbial diversity associated with odor modification for production of fertilizers from chicken litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticknap, Julie J; Nonogaki, Hirofumi; Place, Allen R; Hill, Russell T

    2006-06-01

    Litter from the chicken industry can present several environmental challenges, including offensive odors and runoff into waterways leading to eutrophication. An economically viable solution to the disposal of waste from chicken houses is treatment to produce a natural, granulated fertilizer that can be commercially marketed for garden and commercial use. Odor of the final product is important in consumer acceptance, and an earthy odor is desirable. By understanding and manipulating the microbial processes occurring during this process, it may be possible to modify the odors produced. Geosmin and related volatiles produced by soil actinomycetes are responsible for earthy odors, and actinomycetes are likely to be present in the composting manure. Bacterial communities at each stage of the process were analyzed by culturing studies and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The processing steps changed the culturable bacterial community, but the total community was shown by DGGE to be stable throughout the process. A local agricultural soil was analyzed in parallel as a potential source of geosmin-producing actinomycetes. This agricultural soil had higher microbial diversity than the compost at both the culturable and the molecular levels. Actinomycete bacteria were isolated and analyzed by AromaTrax, a gas chromatography-olfactometry system. This system enables the odor production of individual isolates to be monitored, allowing for rational selection of strains for augmentation experiments to improve the odor of the final fertilizer product.

  10. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  11. The effect of iodine in production of broiler chickens and selected quality indicators of breast muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Semivanová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different effects on the human health it is necessary to avoid excessive or insufficient consumption of iodine. Iodine deficiency weakens the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causes hypothyroidism and can lead to various developmental and functional disturbances known as the disorders from iodine deficiency. The latest literary knowledge about the use of iodine in the broiler chickens identifies the concentration of iodine 5 mg per kg feed as safe for a given group of the animals. Working Group on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed of  Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed notes that the maximum authorized limit of iodine in the feed of the broiler chickens 10 mg per kg does not represent a health risk. The aim of our research was an observation and assessment of the effect of feed mixtures with iodized oil on production quality of the line hybrid chickens Cobb 500 and selected indicators of breast muscle. For comparison, a control group consists of the chickens, which were fed the feed mixtures without iodized oil. Dietary iodine in the form of potassium iodide was applied to sunflower oil. The mixture was heated at 70 °C with continuous stirring until dissolution of potassium iodide. The content of iodine in iodine suplement was 0.04  mg per g per 1 kg of feed mixture of starter, growth and the finisher was used 5 g of iodine supplement. The oil mixture was mixed into kibbled grain of corn and carefully homogenized with other components of  the feed mixtures. To meet the aim of research, we realized an experiment, where body weight of the chickens was observed at the end of the experiment, the breast muscle weight and chemical analysis was made from selected indicators of breast muscle. A body weight of broiler chickens at the beginning and the end of the experiment and a breast muscle weight were observed by weighing on the Kern ECB 20K20 type scale with an accuracy of d = 0

  12. Genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of parasite multidrug resistance transporters disrupts egg production in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kasinathan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs are ATP-dependent transporters involved in efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. When overexpressed, these transporters can mediate multidrug resistance (MDR in mammalian cells, and changes in Pgp expression and sequence are associated with drug resistance in helminths. In addition to the role they play in drug efflux, MDR transporters are essential components of normal cellular physiology, and targeting them may prove a useful strategy for development of new therapeutics or of compounds that enhance the efficacy of current anthelmintics. We previously showed that expression of Schistosoma mansoni MDR transporters increases in response to praziquantel (PZQ, the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and that reduced PZQ sensitivity correlates with higher levels of these parasite transporters. We have also shown that PZQ inhibits transport by SMDR2, a Pgp orthologue from S. mansoni, and that PZQ is a likely substrate of SMDR2. Here, we examine the physiological roles of SMDR2 and SmMRP1 (the S. mansoni orthologue of MRP1 in S. mansoni adults, using RNAi to knock down expression, and pharmacological agents to inhibit transporter function. We find that both types of treatments disrupt parasite egg deposition by worms in culture. Furthermore, administration of different MDR inhibitors to S. mansoni-infected mice results in a reduction in egg burden in host liver. These schistosome MDR transporters therefore appear to play essential roles in parasite egg production, and can be targeted genetically and pharmacologically. Since eggs are responsible for the major pathophysiological consequences of schistosomiasis, and since they are also the agents for transmission of the disease, these results suggest a potential strategy for reducing disease pathology and spread.

  13. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  14. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production, growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens The main objective of the

  15. Correlation Research of Beijing-You Chicken between Polydactyly Characteristic and Product Quality%北京油鸡多趾性状与产品品质相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学泽; 贾亚雄; 胡彦鹏; 赵春颖; 李兴民; 陈继兰; 陈余

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences of the Beijing-You chicken product quality between different dactyly.Through the production performance,egg quality and meat characteristics comparative analysis research,we could get the correlation between the Beijing-You chicken polydactyly characteristic and its product quality.So this research could provide the reference to characteristic breeding and the development of the product quality of Beijing-You chicken.In this test,we selected Beijing-You chicken (for meat and eggs),and divided into 3 groups (four-toed (4F),single five toes (SF)and double five toes (DF))with 4 replicates per gu-oup and 60 hens per replicate,720 hens totally.Then,the production performance (weight,laying rate and egg weight),egg quality (haugh unit)and muscle quality (pH,waterholding capacity, shear force,TPA,andnucleotide metabolites)were determined,respectively.The results showed that the weight of DF Beijing-You chicken in 120 days and 240 days of age were slightly higher than that of 4F and SF Beijing-You chicken,but no significant difference (P > 0.05 );The egg weight of DF Beijing-You chicken in 1 60 days of age was significantly higher than other Beijing-You chicken (P 0.05).The performance of body weight and egg weigh of DF Beijing-You chicken were superior than 4F and SF Beijing-You chicken in the early stage,but had no significant difference.In addition,the muscle quality of different dactyly Beijing-You chicken had their own advantages,overall,the correlation between leg muscle quality and different dactyly was greater than the brisket.%本研究旨在探讨不同趾型北京油鸡产品品质的差异,通过对其生产性能、蛋品质和肉品特征的比较分析,获知北京油鸡多趾特征与其产品品质之间的相关性,为北京油鸡特色养殖及产品品质开发利用提供参考。试验选取肉蛋兼用型北京油鸡,分为3组(双四趾、单五趾和双五趾),每组4

  16. EFFECT OF DIETARY CALCIUM LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION AND EGG SHELL QUALITY IN BROILER BREEDER HENS FROM 36 TO 60 WEEKS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different calcium (Ca levels in diet on shell quality and egg production of Ross broiler breeder hens from 36 to 60 weeks of age. A total of 198 pullets were reared on restricted diets with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% Ca, up to 22 weeks. The pullets in each experimental diet were further randomly divided into three treatments with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% dietary Ca (66 birds per treatment and fed from 23 to 60 weeks. The hens were caged individually. The cages were fitted with feed troughs and water nipples. Birds were fed breeder diet (23 to 34 weeks, breeder diet phase 2 (35 to 46 weeks and breeder diet phase 3 (47 to 60 weeks feed intake was administered according to Ross Breeders recommendations. The rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous with different levels of Ca and P and were administered according to Ross Breeders Recommendations. Dietary treatment significantly (P0.05 differences were found in these variables between 2.5 and 3.5% Ca levels. All the eggshell quality variables increased over time while egg mass and egg production declined. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that increasing Ca level from 1.5 to 2.5% could improve eggshell quality. Present results suggest that the 2.5% Ca (3.8 g Ca/hen/day seems to be adequate to support egg production and improving eggshell quality of broiler breeders.

  17. Vertical distribution, grazing and egg production of calanoid copepods during winter-spring in Gullmarsfjorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Tiselius, P.

    1998-01-01

    The vertical distribution of copepods in relation to their potential food was examined in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden (58 degrees 15.6' N, 11 degrees 27.2' E). Plankton distributions were determined from bottle samples at 5 m intervals on four occasions; 30 January, 28 February, 7 March and 10 April...... were superfluous throughout the water column. Copepods and ciliates were never correlated. Ingestion as determined from gut fluorescence and egg production analyses suggested a higher degree of herbivory during the spring bloom than before and after. There was potential for copepod predation control...

  18. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak.

  19. Seroprevalence of avian hepatitis E virus and avian leucosis virus subgroup J in chicken flocks with hepatitis syndrome, China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Liu, Baoyuan; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the di...

  20. Genetic evaluation of early egg production and maturation traits using two different approaches in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; El-Full, E A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a multi-trait selection program based on aggregated breeding values using an animal model Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) in Japanese quail. The estimated genetic gain was compared by both mixed model and least squares methods. Data of 1,682 female Japanese quails were collected through four consecutive generations to estimate genetic gain, depending on aggregated breeding values, for age at first egg (AFE), body weight at sexual maturity (BWSM), and days needed to produce the first ten eggs (DN10). Estimates of cumulative selection response were favorable for all the studied traits and significant for AFE (-3.03) and BWSM(10.38), but not significant for DN10(-0.15). Estimates of direct heritability were moderate for AFE (0.21) and BWSM(0.25) but low for DN10(0.08), while estimates of maternal heritability were moderate for AFE (0.19) but low for BWSM(0.04) and DN10(0.01). High (0.45 to 0.56) genetic and low (-0.01 to -0.18) phenotypic correlations were observed among the studied traits. Negative (-0.23 to -0.95) correlations between additive genetic and maternal genetic effects were observed for all traits. Genetic trends were -0.76 (P=0.031), 2.54 (P=0.037), and -0.06 (P=0.052) with calculated product-moment correlations between breeding values, estimated by BLUP and phenotypic selection methods, of 0.78 (P=0.002), 0.77 (P=0.004), and 0.61 (P=0.007) for AFE, BWSM, and DN10, respectively. Aggregated breeding value estimation based on animal model BLUP could be an effective method of constructing a selection program to achieve a favorable selection response in egg production traits in Japanese quail.

  1. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product.

  2. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.

  3. Body Resistance and Productive Performances of Crossbred Local Chicken Fed Inulin of Dahlia Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fajrih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to examine the role of inulin as a prebiotic derived from dahlia flower tuber in the form of powder and extract as a prebiotic on body immunity of crossbred local chicken. The research was assigned in a completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 4 replications (10 birds each. The treatments applied were T0: basal ration, T1: ration + 0.4% powder, T2: ration + 0.8% powder, T3: ration + 1.2% powder, T4: ration + 0.39% extract, T5: ration + 0. 78% extract, T6: ration + 1.17% extract. The birds were reared for conditioning from day 1 until day 21, and dietary treatment was given thereafter until 11 wk of age. The data were statistically analyzed according to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test at the level of 5% probability. The results showed that feeding inulin in the form of powder or extract significantly (P<0.05 increased the weight of bursa fabricius and BWG, but it decreased meat fat and cholesterol while the weight of spleen was not affected. In conclusion, the higher levels of feeding inulin in the form of powder at 1.2% (T3 and extract at 1.17% (T6, improves health status, performances and product quality of crossbred local chicken.

  4. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  5. The toxic level of sodium selenite in the diet of laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, J F; Latshaw, J D

    1978-07-01

    Female chickens were fed graded levels of sodium selenite to determine at what level a selenium toxicity occurred. In the first experiment a basal diet was supplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 ppm of selenium. These levels had no effect on egg production, egg weight or fertility of the eggs. Hatchability of fertile eggs was significantly decreased by 5 ppm of dietary selenium. In the second experiment a basal diet was supplemented with 0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 ppm of selenium. Egg weight and hatchability were significantly decreased by 7 and 9 ppm, and egg production was decreased by 9 ppm of selenium in the diet. When selenite was added to the diet, there was a lag of 2 to 3 weeks before the selenium content of the egg reflected the content of the diet. As long as the selenium content of the diet remained the same, egg selenium remained the same. When selenium was no longer supplemented, egg selenium content decreased. Two weeks after cessation of selenite supplementation, egg selenium was markedly reduced. Four weeks after cessation of selenite supplementation, egg selenium levels approached those of birds fed a basal diet continuously.

  6. Turkey hen fertility and egg production after artificial insemination and multiple oviduct eversion during the pre-laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakst, M R

    1988-07-01

    The onset of egg production (mean 18.3 days after the onset of photostimulation) and the rate of egg production (flock averaged 4.9 eggs per bird per week for the first 8 weeks of egg production) were not affected by 5 days of twice daily oviduct eversion ('venting') in the pre-laying period when compared to unvented controls. After the onset of photostimulation, pre-laying hens were inseminated twice daily on Days 12 to 16 with 3 microliter semen containing 15 x 10(6) spermatozoa, and compared with groups of hens inseminated once daily on Days 15 and 16 with 15 microliters semen containing 75 x 10(6) spermatozoa or 41 microliter semen containing 200 x 10(6) spermatozoa. Fertility remained high for the first 5 weeks of egg production. However, by Week 6 the fertility of the hens receiving frequent low doses of semen dropped significantly below that of the others, which suggests that multiple inseminations with a low semen volume containing relatively low numbers of spermatozoa does not lead to an increase in the efficacy of sperm transport and storage in the oviduct.

  7. Economic Appraisal of Small and Medium Scale Poultry Egg Production in Ife and Ilesha Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari Ahmed Olugbenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study appraised the economic performance of small and medium scale poultry egg production in Ife and Ilesha metropolis, Osun State Nigeria. A purposive sampling was used to select one hundred and twenty poultry egg farmers, cluster sampling was used to select areas where small and medium scale were concentrated in the study area then sixty (60 small scale and sixty (60 medium scale were randomly selected to form the population of the study. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were employed for budgetary analysis and economic performance. The ordinary least square was used to determine the significant variables influencing the gross margin of poultry egg farmers at different levels of scale of production. The study shows that the gross margin of small farms was ₦575.65 while the gross margin of medium farms was ₦43672.62. The total production cost of small and medium farms were ₦1480.25 and ₦29654.43 respectively. The results further reveal that costs of feed constituted the largest share of the total costs for the two categories of farm size. The amount spent on drug and feed were the only significant determining factors of revenue accruable to both categories of poultry egg farmers. Although, poultry egg production was profitable in the study area, the level of profit depended on the scale of operation.

  8. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion and salmonella infection in BALB/c mice by sialyloligosaccharides and their derivatives from chicken egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Sakanaka, Senji; Sasaki, Ken; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Noda, Tetsuji; Amano, Fumio

    2002-06-05

    The effects of an egg-yolk-derived sialyloligosaccharide (YDS), asialo-YDS, and a sialylglycopeptide of YDS (SGP) on bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and on Salmonella infection in BALB/c mice were examined. YDS, its derivative asialo-YDS, and SGP strongly inhibited the binding of Salmonella enteritidis but not E. coli K-88 to a human epithelial cell line, Caco-2. In a Salmonella infection experiment using BALB/c mice, oral administration of these reagents effectively prevented the bacteria from proliferating in spleen, as well as preventing lethality. An experiment using radioactive SGP orally administered to mice revealed that the compound was absorbed from the intestine into blood and eliminated via urine within 8 h. However, these reagents did not influence the production of TNF-alpha or NO. in culture macrophages. The results suggest that they inhibit Salmonella infection not by activating macrophages but by inhibiting the entry of bacteria through the gut, suggesting that YDS and its derivatives are useful for preventing Salmonella infection when ingested continuously.

  9. Association ofVIPR-1gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with egg production in laying quails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-jin PU; Yan WU; Xiao-juan XU; Jin-ping DU; Yan-zhang GONG

    2016-01-01

    The laying quail is a worldwide breed which exhibits high economic value. In our current study, the vas-oactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VIPR-1) was selected as the candidate gene for identifying traits of egg produc-tion. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection was performed in 443 individual quails, including 196 quails from the H line, 202 quails from the L line, and 45 wild quails. The SNPs were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Two mutations (G373T, A313G) were detected in al the tested quail populations. The associated analysis showed that the SNP genotypes of theVIPR-1 gene were sig-nificantly linked with the egg weight of G373T and A313G in 398 quails. The quails with the genotype GG always exhibited the largest egg weight for the two mutations in the H and L lines. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in-dicated that G373T and A313G loci showed the weakest LD. Seven main diplotypes from the four main reconstructed haplotypes were observed, indicating a significant association of diplotypes with egg weight. Quails with the h1h2 (GGGT) diplotype always exhibited the smalest egg weight and largest egg number at 20 weeks of age. The overall results suggest that the alterations in quails may be linked with potential major loci or genes affecting reproductive traits.%题目:VIPR-1基因多态性及其单倍型与蛋用鹌鹑产蛋性能的相关性研究目的:蛋用鹌鹑 VIPR-1基因单核苷酸多态性(SNP)研究。创新点:首次开展蛋用鹌鹑 VIPR-1基因多态性研究,发现了两个与蛋重相关的多态性位点。方法:以VIPR-1基因设计引物,进行聚合酶链式反应–限制片段长度多态性分析,获得基因突变位点。并通过关联性分析,研究基因多态性与繁殖性状之间的相关性。结论:在个体数为443个(202只L个体、196只H个体和45只野生鹌鹑个体)的群体中

  10. Residues of plant protection products in grey partridge eggs in French cereal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, Elisabeth; Devillers, James; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of the eggs of farmland birds by currently used plant protection products (PPPs) is poorly documented despite a potential to adversely impact their breeding performance. In this context, 139 eggs of 52 grey partridge Perdix perdix clutches, collected on 12 intensively cultivated farmlands in France in 2010-2011, were analysed. Given the great diversity of PPPs applied on agricultural fields, we used exploratory GC/MS-MS and LC/MS-MS screenings measuring ca. 500 compounds. The limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg, a statutory reference. A total of 15 different compounds were detected in 24 clutches. Nine of them have been used by farmers to protect crops against fungi (difenoconazole, tebuconazole, cyproconazole, fenpropidin and prochloraz), insects (lambda-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam/clothianidin) and weeds (bromoxynil and diflufenican). Some old PPPs were also detected (fipronil(+sulfone), HCH(α,β,δ isomers), diphenylamine, heptachlor(+epoxyde), DDT(Σisomers)), as well as PCBs(153, 180). Concentrations ranged between literature.

  11. Modeling fish egg production and spatial distribution from acoustic data: a step forward into the analysis of recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ospina-Álvarez

    Full Text Available To date, there are numerous transport simulation studies demonstrating the relevance of the hydrodynamics for the advection, dispersion and recruitment of early stages of marine organisms. However, the lack of data has conditioned the use of realistic locations for the model setup and configuration in transport studies. This work (I demonstrates the key role played by the use of the realistic initial position of the eggs of small pelagic fishes in the analysis of late-larval recruitment in coastal nursery areas and (II provides a general solution for deriving future egg positions and abundances from adult biomass obtained from acoustic surveys and available fecundity data. Using European anchovy in the NW Mediterranean as a case study, we first analyzed the impact of the initial location, timing, egg buoyancy and diel vertical migration of larvae on the potential late-larval recruitment to coastal areas. The results suggested that prior knowledge of the initial spawning grounds may substantially affect the estimates of potential recruitment. We then integrated biological and acoustics-derived data (the biomass and size structure, sex ratio, a weight-batch fecundity model, mean weight, number of fish and mean spawning to build a predictive model for interannual egg production. This model was satisfactorily contrasted with field data for two years obtained with the Daily Egg Production Method (DEPM. We discuss our results in the context of the fluctuations of European anchovy egg abundance from 2003 through 2010 in the NW Mediterranean and in terms of the potential applicability of the acoustics-based spatial predictive egg production model.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF BEE PRODUCTS IN COMBINATION WITH PROBIOTIC IN CHICKEN DIET ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bobko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of the addition bee pollen extract in combination of with probiotic and propolis extract in combination with probiotic in diet of chicken broilers Ross 308 on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles during 7 days storage by chilling was investigated. In the experiment were included 120 pieces of one day-old chicks, which were divided into 3 groups (control, E1 and E2. Feed mixtures and drinking water were given to chickens by ad libitum system until the age of 42 days. Bee pollen extract in amount of 400 mg.kg-1 added to feed mixtures plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E1, propolis extract in amount of 400 mg.kg-1 added to feed mixtures plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E2. During whole period of chilled storage (7 days were higher values of MDA determined in control group (C compared with experimental groups (E1 and E2. The higher average MDA values determined in breast muscle was in samples of control group (0.128 mg.kg-1 compared with experimental groups E1 (P0.05 and E2 (P≤0.05 (0.127 and 0.119 mg.kg-1, respectively after 7-day of chilled storage. The higher average MDA values (P0.05 were also determined in thigh muscles in control group (0.141 mg.kg-1 compared with experimental groups E1 (0.139 mg.kg-1 and E2 (0.128 mg.kg-1 after 7-day of chilled storage. Higher amount of MDA in thigh muscle compared to breast muscle is due to by higher amount of fat occurred in thigh muscle.

  13. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  14. AFLATOXIN B1 RESIDUES IN EGGS AND FLESH OF LAYING HENS FED AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINATED DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqer Mohammad Herzallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 and total Aflatoxins (AFT contaminated feed effect on aflatoxins residue level in eggs, muscles (breast, leg, organs (liver, kidney, gizzard and excreted aflatoxins in chicken litter of layer hens were monitored. Laying hens were on four levels of aflatoxins for 6 weeks and monitored weekly for the change in both AFB1 and AFT levels. Pronouncedly, the AFB1 and AFT were detected in eggs, muscles (legs, breast, organs (liver, kidney and gizzard and litter in noticeable amounts. Total Aflatoxin (AFT level was lowest in chicken breast (0.63 ppb and highest in liver (2.12 ppb and gizzard (1.22 ppb of chicken fed diet with 965.12 ppb. Whereas, AFB1 residue was 0.66 ppb in eggs, 1.59 ppb in liver tissues of hens given feed contaminated with 894.12 ppb. Residue level of AFB1 was high in liver and kidney of all treatments. The chicken breast tissues were lowest in AFB1 and AFT of values 0.72 and 0.63, respectively. Eggs production was significantly (p<0.05 affected with AFB1 contaminated feed and egg production was decreased by more than 30%.

  15. Effect of vitamin D2- and D3-enriched diets on egg vitamin D content, production, and bird condition during an entire production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Valaja, J; Rossow, L; Venäläinen, E; Tupasela, T

    2004-03-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during winter is a common problem for humans in Europe. One way to ease this problem is through the production of vitamin D-fortified eggs. To evaluate such a production process, the effects of vitamin D supplementation during an entire production period were assessed. Transfer of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) from the diet to egg yolks was measured using 2 different levels of both vitamins (6,000 and 15,000 IU/kg feed) relative to a control treatment (2,500 IU vitamin D3/kg feed). During the experiment, production parameters, egg quality (egg weight, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell fracture force, and Ca content of eggshell), and the condition of hens were monitored. At the end of the experiment histopathological tests were performed. Supplementing diets with vitamin D3 increased egg yolk vitamin D content more effectively than did supplementation with vitamin D2. For groups of hens receiving 6,000 or 15,000 IU of vitamin D3/kg feed, egg yolk vitamin D3 content ranged from 9.1 to 13.6 and from 25.3 to 33.7 microg/100 g, respectively. Corresponding values for birds fed vitamin D2 were 4.7 to 7.0 and 13.3 to 21.0 microg/100 g. Both supplements enhanced vitamin D3 content of egg yolks relative to the control diet (2.5 to 5.0 microg/100 g of egg yolk). Vitamin D supplements had no effects on production parameters compared with the control diet. However, especially vitamin D3 improved bone strength (P < 0.05). Autopsy at the end of the experiment indicated no detrimental accumulation of calcium in the kidneys, liver, heart, muscles, or lungs.

  16. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (pproduction was highest (pproduction, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  17. Use of capillary tubes and plate heat exchanger to validate U.S. Department of Agriculture pasteurization protocols for elimination of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, C B; Brackett, R E; Hung, Y C; Ezeike, G O

    1999-02-01

    D values for a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella Enteritidis in five different liquid egg products (whole egg, egg yolk, egg white, egg yolk + 5% sucrose + 5% NaCl, and egg yolk + 10% NaCl) were determined using 100-microl capillary tubes. The egg products were inoculated with approximately 1 X 10(10) organisms/ml and heated in capillary tubes to temperatures ranging from 51 to 68 degrees C for various time intervals. Using a pilot scale plate heat exchanger, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) protocols for pasteurization were also evaluated using egg products inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(7) Salmonella Enteritidis/ml. Results of experiments with capillary tubes suggested that almost all processes would result in less than the 9D process recommended by the USDA. However, when the egg products were pasteurized using the plate heat exchanger, a greater than 9D process was achieved for Salmonella Enteritidis in all products except egg yolk containing 5% sucrose + 5% NaCl, which received approximately a 4D process.

  18. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality.

  19. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.; Plourde, S.; Castellani, C.; Licandro, P.; Pierson, J.; Jónasdóttir, S. H.; Johnson, C.; Broms, C.; Debes, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Gaard, E.; Gislason, A.; Heath, M. R.; Niehoff, B.; Nielsen, T. G.; Pepin, P.; Stenevik, E. K.; Chust, G.

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a new, pan-North-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of eight representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000-2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index. Then we present a compilation of data on C. finmarchicus, including observations of abundance, demography, egg production and female size, with accompanying data on temperature and chlorophyll. This is a contribution by Canadian, European and US scientists and their institutions: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.820732, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.824423, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828393 (please also see Melle et al., 2013; Castellani and Licandro, 2013; Jónasdóttir et al., 2014).

  20. Detection of avian leukosis virus subgroups in albumen of commercial and native fowl eggs using RT-PCR in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh, Mostafa; Dadras, Habibollah; Mohammadi, Ali

    2010-12-01

    Avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) belong to Alpharetrovirus genus of the family Retroviridae that are widespread in nature. Different subgroups of ALV commonly infect egg-laying hens. They are responsible for economic losses due to both mortality and depressed performance in chickens. To investigate the presence of these viruses in chickens in Iran, 560 egg albumens were selected from different farms of Fars province, Iran. These eggs were obtained from flocks of two research centers of native fowl production (60 eggs), a broiler grandparent farm (100 eggs), three broiler breeder farms (300 eggs), and a commercial layer flock (100 eggs). Firstly, for primary screening a degenerative primer set (PU1 and PU2) were used in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive cases were detected in 47 of 300 (15.7%) samples from three broiler breeders, 40 of 100 (40%) samples from commercial layer, 53 of 60 (88.3%) samples from flocks of two research centers of native fowl production, and none from the samples of broiler grandparent. Then RT-PCR was undertaken with primers PA1 and PA2 on the positive samples. RT-PCR analysis detected ALVs in two of 47 (4.3%) samples from three broiler breeders, 13 of 40 (32.5%) samples from commercial layer, and 19 of 53 (35.8%) samples from flocks of two research centers of native fowl production. The sequencing results showed that subgroup E of ALV was the most detected virus among chicken eggs and subgroup B was more prevalent in the eggs of native fowls. This is the first report of the ALV subgroup B and E in egg albumen in Iran.

  1. Capsaicinoids improve egg production by regulating ovary nuclear transcription factors against heat stress in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Juturu, V; Sahin, K

    2016-12-12

    To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n = 180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or at 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kilogram for 12 weeks (2 × 3 factorial arrangement). The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66.9% and 88.1%, respectively, and reduced ovary superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities by 28.3%, 48.7% and 43.8%, respectively. There were magnifications in the ovary nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) levels by 42.4% and suppressions in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), protein kinase B (Akt) and haem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels by 29.2%, 38.2% and 30.7%, respectively, in heat-stressed quail. With increasing supplemental capsaicinoids, there were linear increases in egg production, antioxidant enzyme activity, linear decreases in ovary MDA and NF-κB levels and linear increases in ovary Nrf2, Akt and HO-1 levels at a greater extent in quail reared under TN condition than those reared under HS condition. Two-way treatment interactions showed that the degree of restorations in all response variables was more notable under the HS environment than under the TN environment as supplemental capsaicinoid level was increased. In conclusion, capsaicinoid supplementation alleviates oxidative stress through regulating the ovary nuclear transcription factors in heat-stressed quail.

  2. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  3. Optimization of the process of egg omelet production with fillings with extended storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sukmanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optimization of the egg omelets (EO production using high pressure (HP will allow to produce a minimum cost product during manufacturing and also to obtain a product with high consumer properties. Materialsand methods. The concerned product is -EO -a mixture of liquid egg with grated or chopped cheese, xanthan gum, water or milk and spices. The EO manufacturing process consisted of packing the mixture in an airtight container with heating and processing in the high pressure installation. The EO suitability for long-term storage was evaluated by the "water activity" term. The EO quality was evaluated by an expert. There was used the undetermined Lagrange multipliers method to obtain the optimal process parameters. Results. As a result of the central composite rotatabel plan there was developed optimization model allowed to obtain the optimal EO HP processing parameters: pressure – 690 МPа, temperature –1220С, treatment duration –7×60s, 14g of water on 100 g of melange, 13 g of dry milk on 100 g of melange, xanthan gum content -0,75% of the total mixture mass, 25 g of cheese on 100 g of melange. These indicators allow to obtain the EO process parameters with the next indicators: water activity -0.704 and comprehensive quality Score - 0.98 that characterize the product as a product with high quality indicators stable over a long period of storage. The developed model analysis with using of Student's t test, Fisher dyspepsia and predicted optimization values calculation errors confirmed the reliability of the optimization parameters obtained values and the optimization model reliability. The calculations results for the given optimization parameters are presented as confidence intervals, confirming that their experimental values do not exceed the respective intervals and thus confirm the results authenticity . Conclusions. These results have practical significance and were adopted as the basis for the technical documentation

  4. Enhancement of methane production from co-digestion of chicken manure with agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kosseva, Maria R; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The potential for methane production from semi-solid chicken manure (CM) and mixture of agricultural wastes (AWS) in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. To the best of author(')s knowledge, it is the first time that CM is co-digested with mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Two types of anaerobic digestion processes (AD process) were used, process 1 (P1) using fresh CM (FCM) and process 2 (P2) using treated CM (TCM), ammonia stripped CM, were conducted. Methane production in P1 was increased by 93% and 50% compared to control (no AWS added) with maximum methane production of 502 and 506 mL g(-1)VS obtained at 55°C and 35°C, respectively. Additionally, 42% increase in methane production was observed with maximum volume of 695 mL g(-1)VS comparing P2 test with P2 control under 55°C. Ammonia accumulation was reduced by 39% and 32% in P1 and P2 tests.

  5. An immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-11-15

    The tightly regulated expression of the PhiX174 lysis gene E from a multi-copy plasmid led to the stable production of an Salmonella Enteritidis bacterial ghost. The present study was conducted to evaluate induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced after single or double intramuscular immunization with the S. Enteritidis ghost and to assess its protective effect on colonization of the intestinal tract, visceral and reproductive organs, internal egg contamination, and egg production of laying chickens. A total of 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n=20); group A (non-immunized control), group B (immunized at 8 and 16 weeks of age) and group C (immunized at 16th week of age). Chickens from both immunized groups B and C demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. The population of CD3+CD4+ positive T cells in the immunized chickens was also significantly increased after immunization and virulent challenge. In addition, the immunized groups B and C showed significantly higher egg production and a lower percentage of S. Enteritidis contaminated eggs after challenge compared to those of group A. A comparison of challenge strain isolation from the immunized-challenged and non-immunized-challenged layer hens showed that the double immunization group induced excellent protection against intestinal, liver, splenic, and ovarian Salmonella colonization; however, the single immunized chickens showed lower counts only in the splenic and ovarian organs. Overall, the data give compelling evidence that vaccination with the S. Enteritidis ghost induced robust protective immunity against experimental avian salmonellosis and may contribute to the reduce incidence of egg contamination.

  6. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, D.; Bisgaard, M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility...... and to characterize the persistent strains. Methods and Results: Seventy-three S. Tennessee isolates collected from products over a 3-year period with intermittent contamination, and 15 control strains were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using two enzymes. Forty-five case isolates distributed......, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. Conclusions: It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain...

  7. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  8. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTD Jácome

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the production of hatchable eggs and of commercial eggs. Light is required for the release of hormones responsible for reproduction; however, the best lighting practices to stimulate laying poultry during the reproductive period still need to be determined, with the aim of saving electric energy, and therefore, to dilute production costs and comply with environmental sustainability requirements. This review showed that layers are indeed photostimulated with more than 12 hours of light, independently of the artificial lighting program applied. Results demonstrate that artificial lighting programs influence egg production, but not egg quality parameters. Intermittent lighting programs are good alternatives when layers are housed in open-sided houses, which are typically used in Brazil. Transcranial light reception is the most important route for the stimulation of reproduction in poultry.

  9. 林间草地放养对北京油鸡屠宰性能及肉、蛋品质的影响%Effects of Grazing on Interforest Grassland on Carcass Traits, Egg and Meat Qualities of Beijing Fatty Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛培春; 孟林; 郭强; 田小霞; 高婷婷

    2015-01-01

    content of crude ash and the es-sential amino acid of leg muscle of grazing Beijing fatty chicken on the artificial grassland significantly in-creased by 23. 42% and 20. 89%. Calcium content of breast muscle significantly increased by 29. 99%,and the crude fat and crude ash content of breast muscle significantly decreased 15. 69% and 33. 02%. The egg yolk cholesterol significantly decreased by 14. 58%. With reducing supplementary feeding amount by 15%, the feed weight ratio significantly decreased by 17. 65% and 15. 94%. Compared with control at age of 8—17 weeks and age of 18—25 weeks. Thus,Beijing fatty chicken grazing on orchard with inter-planting grasses could increase its carcass traits,egg and meat qualities and productivity benefit.

  10. Effect of dietary phosphorus level and source on productive performance and egg quality of two commercial strains of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N W; Sullivan, T W; Sunde, M L; Bird, H R

    1984-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of dietary total phosphorus (TP) level and source on the performance of two strains of commercial layers for two consecutive production years (26 to 68 and 76 to 116 weeks of age, respectively). Diet 1 contained .4% TP; Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained .5, .6, and .7% TP with supplemental P from dicalcium phosphate (DCP); Diets 5 and 6 contained .5 and .6% TP, respectively, with supplemental P from a sample of raw rock phosphate (RRP-1); Diets 7 and 8 contained .5 and .6% TP, respectively, with supplemental P from a second sample of raw rock phosphate (RRP-2). Calcium level was 2.75% in all diets, and crushed oyster shell provided ad libitum to all birds increased the total calcium to about 3.00%. Diet 1 was inferior to the average of all supplemented diets relative to feed consumption rate (P less than .005) and egg weight (P less than .005) during the first year. Diet 1 was also inferior relative to egg production rate (P less than .01), feed consumption rate (P less than .005), and egg weight (P less than .005) during the second year, whereas it was superior in shell quality (P less than .05) during the first year. Increasing TP from DCP resulted in a significant linear increase in feed consumption (P less than .05), feed conversion ratio, and Haugh units (P less than .005). Increasing TP from DCP also resulted in a significant linear decrease in shell quality (P less than .05) and significant linear and quadratic decreases in egg weight (P less than .005) during the first year. During the second year, increasing TP from DCP resulted in a significant linear decrease in egg production rate (P less than .005) and feed efficiency but significant linear (P less than .01) and quadratic (P less than .05) increases in feed consumption, and significant linear and quadratic increases (P less than .005) in Haugh units. Hens receiving RRP diets responded differently during the first and second years. The DCP supported greater

  11. Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pala, Valeria; Krogh, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Sieri, Sabina; Grioni, Sara; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Romieu, Isabelle; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Gonzalez Svatetz, Carlos Alberto; Rodriguez, Laudina; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Key, Timothy J.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Rinaldi, Sabina; Norat, Teresa; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Background: A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk. Objective: We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: Between 1992 and 2003, inf

  12. Conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas respecto al huevo de gallina en familias de comunidades urbana-rural, Costa Rica Knowledge, opinions and practices related to chicken eggs in families of urban-rural communities, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Peña Vázquez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Indagar sobre los conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas de la población respecto al consumo de huevo de gallina, con el objetivo de poder orientar los mensajes que se dirigen a la población en general, para mejorar el uso del mismo en los hogares. Materiales y método: Estudio descriptivo que aplica técnicas cualitativas y se apoya en variables cuantitativas. La población está compuesta por familias que residen en los distritos Central de Alajuela o Piedades de Santa Ana. Se empleó una muestra, seleccionada a conveniencia, 23 familias de Alajuela Centro y 29 de Piedades de Santa Ana. Además se trabajó con el personal de salud que labora en los Equipos Básicos de Atención en Salud. Resultados: Con respecto a conocimientos, las participantes conocen que el huevo es fuente de proteínas y vitaminas. Prefieren los huevos caseros y de cáscara de color oscuro; sin embargo consumen más los huevos industriales. Las razones de consumir huevo son la costumbre, buen sabor, versatilidad, rapidez y facilidad para prepararlo, además de un precio accesible. A nivel nutricional comparan el huevo con el aguacate y con alimentos pertenecientes al grupo de las carnes. Respecto a las prácticas, el huevo se consume en todos los tiempos de comida y principalmente en frituras. Discusión: no existen diferencias marcadas entre los conocimientos, prácticas y opiniones, entre población urbana y rural estudiada. Los conocimientos relacionados con el huevo tanto en las comunidades y el personal de salud son generales y difieren entre sí, dejando entrever una falta de información en ambos gruposObjective: To inquire into the knowledge, views and practices of the population regarding the consumption of chicken eggs, in order to target messages that go to the general population, to improve the use of the same household. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study applies techniques based on qualitative and quantitative variables. The population

  13. Evaluation of 3M Molecular Detection System and ANSR Pathogen Detection System for rapid detection of Salmonella from egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Ma, L M; Zheng, S; He, X; Wang, H; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S; Zhang, G

    2016-11-02

    Isothermal amplification assay is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Detection System (PDS) for the detection of Salmonella in egg products as compared to the Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method and a modified culture method (3M MDS and ANSR PDS preferred method). Two Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (18579, PT4; CDC_2010K_1441, PT8), one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (607310-1), and one Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (0723) isolates were used in this study. Seven wet egg products and 13 dry egg products were inoculated with these strains individually at 1 to 5 CFU/25 g. One set of test portions was prepared following FDA BAM procedures [with lactose broth (LB) as pre-enrichment broth]. Another set of test portions was prepared using buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broth, as instructed by the 2 detection systems. Results from 3M MDS and ANSR PDS were 100% in agreement with their BPW-based culture method results. When LB was used as pre-enrichment broth, the number of Salmonella positive test portions (80 tested), identified with the BAM, 3M MDS, and ANSR PDS, were 63, 61, and 60, respectively. In conclusion, both 3M MDS and ANSR PDS Salmonella assays were as effective as their BPW based culture methods and were equivalent to the BAM culture method for the detection of Salmonella in egg products. These sensitive isothermal assays can be used as rapid detection tools for Salmonella in egg products provided that BPW is used as pre-enrichment broth.

  14. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  15. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-03

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  16. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  17. Production and Characterization of Organic Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatrophacurcas Seed Cake and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylen G. Eroa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The processing of Jatrophacurcas (tubang-bakod to produce biodiesel entails wastes in the form of seedcake which can be converted into valuable product that can help nurture and improve soil properties. The College of Industrial Technology and the Chemical Engineering Department of Batangas State University (BatstateU conducted an experimental study which includes the composting of the combination of Jatropha Seed-Cake(JSC and Chicken Manure(CM , formulating ratios of JSC and CM andcharacterization of the organic fertilizer produced. Generally, this study aimed to promote proper waste disposal by producing an organic fertilizer from the waste of biodiesel production which uses Jatropha plant and proving the feasibility of making the fertilizer as the main source of nutrient for plants. Specifically, the nutrients that were considered were Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K and the Carbon: Nitrogen (C:N ratio. Composting lasted for 6 weeks, three formulations were used, 30(CM:70(JSC, 50(CM:50(JSC and 70(CM:30(JSC. The result implies that theorganic fertilizers produced can be a good substitute to the commercially available fertilizers.

  18. Bio-transformation of agri-food wastes by newly isolated Neurospora crassa and Lactobacillus plantarum for egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Li, J; Deng, Z

    2016-03-01

    Using bio-transferred feedstuff was a cost-effective approach to improve egg quality and production; particularly, the nutritive diet came from agri-food wastes. In this study, optimization of fermentation conditions and co-cultivation of Neurospora crassa with Lactobacillus plantarum was performed in a simple bioreactor. The optimized fermentation of beer lees substrates through N. crassa led to the hydrolysis rates of crude fiber increasing to 43.27%. Compared to that of using N. crassa alone, the combination of N. crassa and L. plantarum enhanced the content of amino acids (13,120 to 18,032 mg/100 g) on oil-tea seed cake substrates particularly. When hens were fed 10% fermented oil-tea seedcake substrate, the ratio of feed to egg decreased from 3.1 to 2.6, egg production ratio increased from 65.71 to 80.10%, and color of vitelline (Roche) increased from 8.20 to 10.20. Fifteen kinds of carotenoids were identified by HPLC in fermented oil-tea seed cake substrates. The results of this study highlighted that the mixed-fermentation by N. crassa and L. plantarum may be an effective way to convert agri-food wastes into high-valued biomass products, which could have a positive effect on hens and their eggs.

  19. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  20. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  1. Egg Production and Quality of Magelang Duck Fed Diets Containing Different Ratio of Omega 3 : Omega 6 and Organic Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Darmawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the feeding effect of diets containing different ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and organic Zn on egg production and quality of Magelang duck. A total of 90 ducks of 20 weeks old were randomly divided into 18 experimental units by assigning a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications. There were 6 dietary treatments, namely 1 ration without palm oil, fish oil and organic Zn with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 5 (R0, 2 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 1.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R1, 3 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 3 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R2, 4 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 4.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R3, 5 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 6 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R4, 6 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1 : 7.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R5. Observation was carried out for 9 wk. The results showed that the ration containing the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 = 1 : 3 and organic Zn (R2 produced significantly (P<0.05 the highest egg production and the lowest egg production was resulted by the dietary treatment without oil and organic Zn. Ration containing the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 = 1: 3 and organic Zn (R2 significantly (P<0.05 decreased feed conversion ratio to the lowest value and it was significantly different as compared to R0 and R5. It can be concluded that feeding diet containing ω-3 and ω-6 with the ratio of 1:3 + 200 ppm organic Zn improves egg production without decreasing egg quality.

  2. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Biček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and peafowl. Chicken IgY light chain specific mAb 3E10 revealed the presence of common epitopes on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and sparrow. Monoclonal antibody clone 1F5/3G2 was used to prepare horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugate and immunoadsorbent column. Conjugated mAbs were demonstrated to be excellent secondary antibodies for diagnostics of certain infections in different avian species. Since they do not react with mammalian immunoglobulins using our mAbs as secondary antibodies in human serodiagnostics would minimize background staining that appears when using mouse detection system. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA and immunoblot assay they recognized specific IgY antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Newcastle disease virus in sera of infected or vaccinated birds. Immunoadsorption as a method for removal of IgY from samples in which Mycoplasma synoviae specific IgY was predominant immunoglobulin class enabled more exact demonstration of specific IgA and IgM antibodies. Herein we are presenting effective mAbs useful in diagnostics of avian and mammalian infections as well as in final steps of detection and purification of chicken antibodies and their subunits produced in vivo or in vitro as polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies.

  3. Effects of Lipotropic Products on Productive Performance, Liver Lipid and Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravinia H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio  in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.

  4. Fat provisioning in winter impairs egg production during the following spring: a landscape-scale study of blue tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Kate E; Bearhop, Stuart; Leech, David I; Chamberlain, Dan E; Blount, Jonathan D

    2013-05-01

    1. Provisioning of garden birds is a growing phenomenon, particularly during winter, but there is little empirical evidence of its true ecological impacts. One possibility is that winter provisioning could enhance subsequent breeding performance, but this seems likely to depend on the types of nutrients provided. For example, whereas effects of macronutrients such as fat are unlikely to be carried over to influence breeding in small passerines, micronutrients such as dietary vitamin E (an antioxidant) may be stored or have lasting health benefits. 2. Here, we examine the carry-over effects of winter food supplements on egg production in wild populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Over three consecutive years, birds were provisioned with fat, fat plus vitamin E or remained unfed (controls). 3. The provision of fat in winter resulted in smaller relative yolk mass in larger eggs and reduced yolk carotenoid concentrations in early breeders. However, these effects were not seen in birds provisioned with fat plus vitamin E. Lay date, clutch size, egg mass and yolk vitamin E concentrations were not significantly affected by winter provisioning treatment. 4. Our results indicate that winter provisioning can have important downstream consequences, in particular affecting investment in egg production several weeks or months later. 5. Provisioning is widely applied to support garden bird populations and for the conservation management of endangered species. However, our results challenge the assumption that such practices are always beneficial at the population level and emphasize how the ecological impacts can depend on the specific nutritional profile of provisioned foods.

  5. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2002-05-01

    1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control.

  6. Economic analysis of interventions to improve village chicken production in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Sunn, K; Meers, J

    2013-07-01

    equipment used under improved chick management were not markedly associated with profitability. Net Present Values and Benefit-Cost Ratios discounted over a 10-year period were also similar to the deterministic model when mean values obtained through stochastic modelling were used. In summary, the study showed that ND vaccination and improved chick management can improve the viability and profitability of village chicken production in Myanmar.

  7. Mutations in and Expression of the Tumor Suppressor Gene p53 in Egg-Type Chickens Infected With Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Yulong, G; Liting, Q; Shuai, Y; Delong, L; Yubao, L; Lili, J; Sidang, L; Xiaomei, W

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic effects of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), we examined mutations in and the expression of p53 in the myelocytomas distributed in the liver, spleen, trachea, and bone marrow, as well as in fibrosarcomas in the abdominal cavity and hemangiomas in skin from chickens that were naturally or experimentally infected with ALV-J. Two types of mutations in the p53 gene were detected in myelocytomas of both the experimentally infected and the naturally infected chickens and included point mutations and deletions. Two of the point mutations have not been reported previously. Partial complementary DNA clones with a 122-bp deletion in the p53 gene ORF and a 15-bp deletion in the C-terminus were identified in the myelocytomas. In addition, moderate expression of the mutant p53 protein was detected in the myelocytomas that were distributed in the liver, trachea, spleen, and bone marrow. Mutant p53 protein was not detected in the subcutaneous hemangiomas or in the abdominal fibrosarcomas associated with natural and experimental ALV-J infection, respectively. These results identify mutations associated with abnormal expression of p53 in ALV-J-associated myelocytomas, suggesting a role in tumorigenesis.

  8. Bioassay for nisin in milk, processed cheese, salad dressings, canned tomatoes, and liquid egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakovirta, J; Reunanen, J; Saris, P E J

    2006-02-01

    A sensitive nisin quantification bioassay was constructed, based on Lactococcus lactis chromosomally encoding the nisin regulatory proteins NisK and NisR and a plasmid with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant gfp(uv) gene under the control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. This strain, LAC275, was capable of transducing the signal from extracellular nisin into measurable GFPuv fluorescence through the NisRK signal transduction system. The LAC275 cells detected nisin concentrations of 10 pg/ml in culture supernatant, 0.2 ng/ml in milk, 3.6 ng/g in processed cheese, 1 ng/g in salad dressings and crushed, canned tomatoes, and 2 ng/g in liquid egg. This method was up to 1,000 times more sensitive than a previously described GFP-based nisin bioassay. This new assay made it possible to detect significantly smaller amounts of nisin than the presently most sensitive published nisin bioassay based on nisin-induced bioluminescence. The major advantage of this sensitivity was that foods could be extensively diluted prior to the assay, avoiding potential inhibitory and interfering substances present in most food products.

  9. Serum gonadotropins and gonadal steroids associated with ovulation and egg production in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbels, T; Owens, D W; Licht, P; Limpus, C; Reed, P C; Amoss, M S

    1992-07-01

    Changes in serum concentrations of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids during the periovulatory period were monitored in green, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead, Caretta caretta, sea turtles. Turtles were from natural populations that nest on a coral island on the Great Barrier Reef. After nesting, each turtle was transferred to a holding tank and held for a maximum of 8 days. A time series of blood samples was obtained from each of five sea turtles (three C. mydas and two C. caretta) starting immediately after nesting and then at approximately 12-hr intervals until the time of release. Prior to release back into the ocean, each turtle was examined by laparoscopy to verify that ovulation had occurred. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (PRO), and testosterone (T) in both species exhibited significant changes during this period. Surges of FSH, LH, and PRO were evident within approximately 20 to 50 hr after each turtle had nested. The significant change in FSH concentration during the periovulatory period is the first such report for a reptile. Coincident with maximal concentrations of FSH, LH, and PRO was a decline in T concentrations in both species. Estradiol-17 beta concentrations were near or below assay sensitivity in the C. mydas, whereas those in the C. caretta were detectable but exhibited no significant changes. The dynamic changes in FSH, LH, PRO, and T concentrations are consistent with the hypothesis that these hormones facilitate specific physiological events during ovulation and egg production.

  10. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  11. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  12. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  13. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product.

  14. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shijie; Zheng, Jiangxia; Duan, Zhongyi; Yang, Ning; Xu, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into ...

  15. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  16. Use of capillary tubes and plate heat exchanger to validate U.S. Department of Agriculture pasteurization protocols for elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in liquid egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, C B; Brackett, R E; Hung, Y C; Ezeike, G O

    2000-07-01

    D-values for a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in five different liquid egg products (whole egg, egg yolk, egg white, egg yolk + 5% sucrose + 5% NaCl, and egg yolk + 10% NaCl) were determined using 100-microl capillary tubes. The egg products were inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(10) organisms/ml and heated in capillary tubes to temperatures ranging from 53 to 69 degrees C for various time intervals. Using a pilot scale plate heat exchanger, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) protocols for pasteurization were also evaluated using egg products inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(7) L. monocytogenes/ml. Results of experiments with capillary tubes suggested that all processes would result in less than the 9D process recommended by USDA. Moreover, although pasteurization with a plate heat exchanger provided greater lethality than did capillary tubes, all products still received less than a 5.4D process. Hence, these results suggest that the current USDA protocol may not be adequate to assure a large margin of safety.

  17. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  18. Effect of Forced Molting on body characteristics and post-molting egg production performance of Layers in Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafeeq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White leghorn layer (n=2740, with 85weeksof age, were submitted to forced molting by fasting for 13 days and changes in body characteristics and subsequent laying performance during second laying cycle were evaluated. Live body weight (LBW,ovary weight (OW, oviduct weight (OvW and oviduct length (OvL were measured before and after fasting. Post-fasting restricted feeding was applied, initially feeding crushed corn with added 2% Ca for 20 days and thereafter layer crumble feed was offered. Layers lost 632.16g (36% of their LBW and significant reductions of 45.32, 47.53 and 54% were observed in post-fasting/molt OW, OvW and OvL, respectively (p<0.05. Resting period was 49 days and birds consumed 4.79kg feed during resting period. Egg production reached 50% in the 3rd week and peak mean egg production (87% was recorded between 13 to16th weeks of production. Hence, it is concluded that while molting exhausted layers, the procedure adapted to induce molting and season would be a core factor in the subsequent laying cycle egg production and gain.

  19. Egg Production and Physical Quality in Cortunix cortunix japonica Fed Diet Containing Piperine as Phytogenic Feed Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic feed additive on quail performances and egg quality. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications and used ten quails with one week of age in each replication. The piperine was added to the diets at concentrations of 0 (T0, 15 (T1, 30 (T2, 45 (T3, and 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 for 8 consecutive weeks. The results showed that addition of 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 of piperine significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption, egg production, egg mass, income over feed cost (IOFC, and increased water consumption as compared to the other treatments. The addition of 15-60 mg piperine/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 reduced eggshell weight and increased egg yolk color score. The conclusion of this experiment was that the addition of piperine at 15-45 mg/kg body weight could be used as phytogenic feed additive to improve performance, IOFC, haugh unit, and yolk color.

  20. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  1. The past, present and future genetic improvement of indigenous chicken of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Lihare, G O;

    2014-01-01

    breeds with the local indigenous chicken. This scheme was complimented with farmer training on good management practices and vaccination for disease control. The scheme was partially successful with improved performance in the crossbreds that declined with subsequent generations. Failure of the programme...... on production traits, determined heritability estimate on growth. Current and ongoing research is focused on molecular characterization, selection for improved immune response, carcass quality, eggs production, growth and adaptation traits. The research is also concerned with conservation of these genetic...

  2. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Development, egg production and hatching success of the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus were measured in food mixtures to test their ability to obtain a complete nutrition by combining different nutritionally poor food species. In all the food mixtures used......, the copepods failed to moult past the first copepodite stage, and the mortality was high. In sharp contrast, mixing two nutritionally poor food species often resulted in egg production which was not significantly different from nutritionally high quality food, although hatching success in many mixtures was low...... mortality were, however, independent of either nitrogen or HUFAs in the diet. Our results show that adult copepods are effective in combining their nutrition from several food sources, whereas juveniles are not. We suggest that there are species- and life-stage-specific differences in nutritional...

  3. Clutch and egg size variation, and productivity of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus): effects of temperature, rainfall, and humidity

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Aziz; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted on the campus of the regional department of the forestry service, encompassing 2.25 ha in Antalya city center. The area has gardens and is surrounded by trees, providing nesting and feeding opportunities for many songbird species. The study aimed to determine clutch and egg size variation, breeding success, and productivity of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), in terms of clutch size and breeding attempts, and to evaluate variation in temperature, rainfall, and h...

  4. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  5. Rapid generation of a well-matched vaccine seed from a modern influenza A virus primary isolate without recourse to eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgroves, L.C.S.; Koudstaal, W.; McLeod, C.; Moncorgé, O.; Thompson, C.I.; Ellis, J.; Bull, C.; Havenga, M.J.E.; Goudsmit, J.; Barclay, W.S.

    2010-01-01

    Most influenza vaccines are produced in chicken eggs but recent human influenza strains often do not grow well in this substrate. The PER.C6® cell line is an alternative platform for vaccine production. Here we demonstrate that PER.C6 cells faithfully propagate recent clinical isolates, without sele

  6. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens.

  7. A direct temperature-resolved tandem mass spectrometry study of cholesterol oxidation products in light-aged egg tempera paints with examples from works of art

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Oscar F.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.; van der Horst, Jerre; Boon, Jaap J.

    2009-07-01

    Cholesterol (1) constitutes approximately 5% of the lipid fraction of eggs. The compound is therefore abundant in fresh egg tempera paints. The fate of cholesterol upon light ageing of egg tempera paint binding medium was investigated by direct temperature resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (DTMSMS). Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) such as 5,6-epoxycholestan-3-ol (2) and 3-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one (3) were positively identified in light-aged egg binding medium. Given the fast rate of oxidation of cholesterol, the corresponding oxidation products are better markers for egg tempera than the cholesterol molecule itself. Cholesterol and COPs were discovered in paints on German baroque altar pieces from the 16th and 18th C and in a 20th C glaze on a Mark Rothko Seagram Mural painting at Tate by DTMS fingerprinting analysis of paint microsamples.

  8. Good agricultural practices in broiler chicken production in the state of Paraná: focus on animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Broiler chicken welfare regulation at farm level is scarce in Brazil. This research aimed to study good agricultural practices at farm level adopted by broiler chicken companies in the state of Paraná, analyzing them in relation to the promotion of animal welfare. Twenty exporting companies were contacted, 15 answered the questionnaire. The participating companies were responsible for 76.3% of the State broiler production. Indicators related to the availability and the quality of food and water are being adapted by the companies, but still need to be improved. Regarding environmental indicators, companies had concerns about air and litter quality and about the implementation of emergency systems on totally enclosed broiler houses. Natural light has been replaced by low intensity artificial lighting. Footpad dermatitis was the most cited disease used as a sanitary indicator (93.3%, but little information was given about the maximum percentages allowed. Environmental enrichment is not used in poultry houses. This study identified agricultural programs with positive and negative impacts on animal welfare. Investments on research seem to be the only way to conduct changes on broiler chicken chain without reducing the quality of animals' life.

  9. Identification of eggs from different production systems based on hyperspectra and CS-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Cong, S; Mao, H; Zhou, X; Wu, X; Zhang, X

    2017-01-19

    1. To identify the origin of table eggs more accurately, a method based on hyperspectral imaging technology was studied. 2. The hyperspectral data of 200 samples of intensive and extensive eggs were collected. Standard normalised variables (SNV) combined with Savitzky-Golay (SG) were used to eliminate noise, then stepwise regression (SWR) was used for feature selection. Grid search algorithm (GS), genetic search algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation algorithm (PSO) and cuckoo search algorithm (CS) were applied by support vector machine (SVM) to establish a SVM identification model with the optimal parameters. The full spectrum data and the data after feature selection were the input of the model while egg category was the output. 3. The SWR-CS-SVM model performed better than the other models, including SWR-GS-SVM, SWR-GA-SVM, SWR-PSO-SVM and others based on full spectral data. The training and test classification accuracy of the SWR-CS-SVM model were respectively 99.3% and 96%. 4. SWR-CS-SVM proved effective for identifying egg varieties and could also be useful for the non-destructive identification of other types of egg.

  10. Uses of mechanically separated chicken meat for production from protein hydrolysates different proteolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Silvia Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrolyzed protein, derived from animal and vegetable sources, in specific formulations, is an area of growing interest. The aim of this study was to develop different powder hydrolysates with high protein value, from the enzymatic hydrolysis of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, a byproduct of the poultry industry, which can be a low-cost source for the production of these hydrolysates. The raw material used was frozen poultry mechanically deboned meat (MDM purchased from an abattoir in southern Brazil, before use it was thawed under refrigeration and homogenized in a processor by 2 minutes. Three commercial enzymes were used, Papain, Protamex® and Flavourzyme®. The hydrolysis occurred in a thermostatized bath with temperature, time and pH controlled. Proximal composition of the raw material and lyophilized hydrolysates, control analysis such as hydrolysis degree of hydrolysis, protein, total solids, ash and amino acid characterization of the hydrolysates were performed. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey’s averages test. The hydrolyzed obtained from the papain enzyme showed the best behavior, followed by Protamex and Flavourzyme. The hydrolysates from papain enzyme had higher protein content, soluble solids and lower ash content compared to other hydrolysates. The amino acid composition showed that the hydrolyzate from papain has a closer composition to what is recommended by the control organs. It was concluded that the protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken had high protein content characterizing them as a promising raw material in the formulation of special diets.

  11. Vision Technology for Automated Characterization of Parasite Eggs in a Medicinal Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    Eggs from the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova, constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug candidate targeting immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a.o. The drug candidate is currently being evaluated in clinical trials around the world. In the pres......Eggs from the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova, constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug candidate targeting immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a.o. The drug candidate is currently being evaluated in clinical trials around the world...... of degeneration of the larvae with the infectivity in minipigs, which is the current gold standard for measuring potency of the parasite eggs....

  12. Avian Adenoviruses Infections with Special Attention to Inclusion Body Hepatitis/ Hydropericardium Syndrome and Egg Drop Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first avian adenovirus (AAV associated with clinical disease was isolated from an outbreak of respiratory disease in quail in 1950 (Olson, 1950. Since that time, AAVs have been found in all types and breeds of chickens and from a variety of other avian species. The infections may be asymptomatic or associated with several clinical and pathological conditions. Vertical transmission via the egg is the most common way of transmission. Also horizontal transmission through faeces, contaminated egg trays, crates and trucks play a role in the infection route. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies in healthy poultry, and viruses have been isolated from normal birds. Avian adenoviruses in chickens are the etiological agents of 2 diseases known as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH and hydropericardium syndrome (HP. In some cases each condition is observed separately, however, recently the 2 conditions have frequently been observed as a single entity; therefore, the name hepatitis hydropericardium has been widely used to describe the pathologic condition. The syndrome is an acute disease of young chickens associated with anemia, haemorrhagic disorders, hydropericardium and high mortality. Egg-Drop-Syndrome (EDS is caused also by an adenovirus. The disease is characterised by a severe drop in egg production as well as the production of shell-less, thin-shelled, discoloured or misshapen eggs in apparently healthy birds. Ducks and geese are the natural host of the EDS virus. It was first described in chickens in the 1970s and spread to several countries world wide. The birds usually do not show any other signs of disease, and mortality is not expected. There is no specific treatment of the AAV infections. Active immunization by vaccination using an inactivated is wide spread.

  13. Prediction equations to estimate the demand of energy and crude protein for maintenance, gain and egg production for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jordão Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate requirements of energy and crude protein for maintenance, weight gain and egg production of Japanese quails in the period of 67 to 107 days of age. Two experiments were performed: one, to determine the requirements for maintenance of protein, and the other, for energy. Experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four dietary levels of offer and four replicates of six birds. The diets offered were: ad libitum (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% consumption ad libitum (below maintenance. The methodology used to estimate the demand for maintenance was the comparative slaughter. For estimation of the requirement for weight gain, eight groups of 15 quails were reared separately, fed ad libitum and housed under 22 ºC controlled temperature. From these poultry, three groups were slaughtered at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days of the trial. The requirement for egg production was obtained by taking the ratio of energy content, egg protein, efficiency of energy use and protein for egg production. Prediction equations that estimate maintenance requirement, weight gain and egg production in energy and crude protein of Japanese quail include: metabolizable energy (kcal/bird/day = 92.34*body weight0.75 + 6.23*weight gain + 4.19*egg mass; crude protein (g/bird/day = 6.71*body weight0.75 + 0.615*weight gain + 0.258*egg mass.

  14. Effect of production system, supermarket and purchase date on the vitamin D content of eggs at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kliem, Kirsty E; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D I

    2017-04-15

    The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (PD synthesis by birds having more access to sunlight, while 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was higher (PD may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was higher (PD concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling.

  15. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  16. Egg morphology and chorionic ultrastructure of key stored product insect pests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were imaged with scanning electron microscopy to explore how respiratory openings on the chorion surface may be related to the efficacy of fumigants. Each P. interpunctella eg...

  17. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  18. Reproductive escape: annual plant responds to butterfly eggs by accelerating seed production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas-Barbosa, D.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Gols, R.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1.Plants respond to insect herbivores with changes in physical and chemical traits, both locally and systemically, in leaves and flowers. Such phenotypic changes may influence the behaviour of every community member that interacts with the plant. Here, we address effects of plant responses to eggs a

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...

  20. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Tamie; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Okamoto, Fuyuki; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Sera, Nobuyuki; Furuta, Munenori; Onozuka, Daisuke; Oda, Takahiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in

  1. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamie Noda

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC. However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6% chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY, bla(CTX-M, bla(TEM, and bla(SHV resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2, and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2 and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes, bla(TEM (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20 and three bla(TEM-52 genes, and bla(SHV (n = 1, bla(SHV-12. All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006. This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2 in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2 in chicken

  2. Increase in Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Salmonella Isolated from Retail Chicken Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main ve...

  3. Collagen extraction from chicken feet for jelly production - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.10602

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Fernandes de Almeida

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to produce jellies with the collagen extracted from chicken feet. Jelly samples were prepared with flavors of pineapple (GAB and white chocolate (GCB. Using a hedonic scale, 30 untrained tasters evaluated sensory acceptance and willingness to consume the jellies. Results showed that GCB and GAB samples, respectively, scored 7.8 and 7.4 in the hedonic scale for all sensory attributes; indicating that both products had good acceptance. In relation to the willingness to consume the GCB and GAB samples, 85 and 74% of consumers, respectively, declared that they would consume once a week. 

  4. The performance of Nagrak and Kampung chicken kept intensively in Cibadak Sukabumi, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Gozali Nataamijaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the performance of Nagrak and Kampung chicken under intensive management system was conducted in Cibadak District of Sukabumi West Java. As many as 200 hens of Nagrak and Kampung, each were placed in individual cages. The birds were given 90 g of diet daily, the diet was the mixture of layer commercial diet and ricebran at equal ratio, drinking water was given ad libitum. Artificial insemination was conducted every three days using semen collected from 20 cockerels of each local bird. Disease control was done by vaccination against Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease. Sulfamix and antibiotics were given whenever needed. Eggs were collected twice a day, weighed and stored to be incubated or to be analyzed for their characteristics. Parameters observed were physical appearance, hen-day egg production, egg quality, egg fertility and hatchability, body weight, feed conversion and mortality. Results showed that Nagrak chicken physical appearance was different from that of Kampung chicken, yet their hen-day production were not significantly different (26.93 ± 14.10% vs 27.04 ± 16.20%. The egg characteristics of these birds (Nagrak vs Kampung were as follows: egg weight (36.29 ± 6.50 g vs 35.55 ± 5.42 g; yolk weight (16.61 ± 1.34 g vs 16.22 ± 2.11 g; albumen weight (17.31 ± 2.64 g vs 16.87 ± 1.35 g; shell weight 37 ± 0.81 g vs 2.46 ± 0.54 g; yolk color (9.62 ± 1.81 g vs 9.67 ± 1.70 g; haugh unit (83.60 ± 5.41 vs 83.45 ± 6.10; shell thickness (24.0 ± 0.83 µm vs 24.4 ± 0.67 µm, however no significant difference was found. Neither the egg fertility, hatchability nor mortality rate of the birds was significantly different. At 12 weeks old the average body weight of male Nagrak chicken (1260.04 ± 57.33 g was much higher (P<0.01 than that of male Kampung chicken (750.68 ± 60.11 g while the average body weight of female Nagrak chicken (980.37 ± 48.11 g was much higher (P<0.01 than that of female Kampung chicken (656

  5. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P heating system for broiler chickens.

  6. Effect of Polymorphism of some Candidate Genes from Growth Hormone Axis on Egg Production Traits in Mazandaran Native Fowls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Enayati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the allelic polymorphisms of GH, GHR and TGFβ3 genes and its association with egg production traits were investigated. Blood samples randomly were collected from breeder hens of Mazandaran native fowls breeding station and transported to the laboratory in cold chain condition. DNA was extracted using modified salting out method and the desired loci were amplified by specific primers. All samples genotyping were carried out by RFLP-PCR method. The frequency of each (+ and (- alleles was estimated at 0.7981 and 0.2019 for GH, 0.9937 and 0.0063 for GHR and 0.8037 and 0.1961 for TGFβ3 loci, respectively. The heterozygote genotype was detected in both GH and TGFβ3 loci but all individuals showed homozygote genotype in GHR marker site. The chi-squared test showed that all individuals in both GH and TGFβ3 loci were in HW equilibrium. Statistical analysis of showed that GH marker site had a significant effect on both phenotypic and breeding values of egg weight at puberty (EWM and age at first laying egg (AFE, respectively. The mean comparison showed that individuals with -/- genotype in GH marker site had higher phenotypic values for EWM but lower breeding values for AFE trait. The GHR and TGFβ3 loci and also the interaction between GH×TGFβ3 loci were not statistically significant on phenotypic and breeding values of mentioned traits..

  7. Males are here to stay: fertilization enhances viable egg production by clonal queens of the little fire ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Misato O.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of reproduction strategies is affected by both phylogenetic and physiological constraints. Although clonality may benefit females, it may not be selected if a male contribution is necessary to start egg laying and embryo development. In little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, sexual populations employ a typical Hymenopteran system of reproduction. In clonal populations, however, queens and males are produced with only maternal and paternal genomes, respectively, whereas sterile workers are produced sexually. Although this system requires both sexes for worker production, previous work has shown that workers may also be produced clonally by the queens. If so, why are males maintained in this species? Our data suggest that fertilization is necessary to increase the hatching rate of eggs. Although clonal queens can indeed produce both workers and queens without mating, the hatching rate is far below the level necessary to maintain functional colonies. On the other hand, virgin queens from populations exhibiting the original Hymenopteran reproduction system also show low hatching rates, but produce only haploid male eggs. Reasons for the existence of W. auropunctata males have been disputed. However, our data suggest that physiological constraints, such as the requirement for insemination, must be considered in regard to evolution of reproduction systems, in addition to ecological data and theoretical considerations of fitness.

  8. 抗内毒素Fab'的制备%Production of Fab' of the chicken egg yolk antibody against lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马思远; 张雅萍

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究抗内毒素卵黄免疫球蛋白(IgY)的活性片断Fab',探讨防治内毒素血症的新途径.方法 用内毒素(LPS)作为抗原免疫25周龄德国罗曼鸡,改良水溶法提取抗内毒素IgY,胃蛋白酶切后提取Fab'片断,光密度法测抗内毒素Fab'的浓度和含量、ELISA检测抗内毒素Fab'效价、SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳检测其分子量及纯度. 结果 抗内毒素Fab'含量为4.2 mg/mL蛋黄液,效价为1∶51 200,纯度为92%,相对分子质量为44 000. 结论 抗内毒素Fab'产量大、效价高、特异性强.

  9. 9 CFR 145.73 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks and products. 145.73 Section 145.73 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... POULTRY Special Provisions for Primary Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.73...

  10. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.

  11. Biogas Production from Citrus Wastes and Chicken Feather: Pretreatment and Codigestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, Gergely

    2012-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and economically feasible waste management technology, which lowers the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), decreases the soil and water pollution, and reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. The present thesis investigates the anaerobic digestion of waste from food-processing industries, including citrus wastes (CWs) from juice processing and chicken feather from poultry slaughterhouses. Juice processing industries generate 15-25 million tons of citrus wastes every year. Utilization of CWs is not yet resolved, since drying or incineration processes are costly, due to the high moisture content; and biological processes are hindered by its peel oil content, primarily the D-limonene. Anaerobic digestion of untreated CWs consequently results in process failure because of the inhibiting effect of the produced and accumulated VFAs. The current thesis involves the development of a steam explosion pretreatment step. The methane yield increased by 426 % to 0.537 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS by employing the steam explosion treatment at 150 deg C for 20 min, which opened up the compact structure of the CWs and removed 94 % of the D-limonene. The developed process enables a production of 104 m{sup 3} methane and 8.4 L limonene from one ton of fresh CWs. Poultry slaughterhouses generate a significant amount of feather every year. Feathers are basically composed of keratin, an extremely strong and resistible structural protein. Methane yield from feather is low, around 0.18 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, which corresponds to only one third of the theoretical yield. In the present study, chemical, enzymatic and biological pretreatment methods were investigated to improve the biogas yield of feather waste. Chemical pretreatment with Ca(OH){sub 2} under relatively mild conditions (0.1 g Ca(OH){sub 2}/g TS{sub feather}, 100 deg C, 30 min) improved the methane yield to 0.40 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, corresponding to 80 % of the theoretical yield. However, prior to digestion, the

  12. Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Hiduddify from Chickens and Poultry Meat in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Ameh, J.A.;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars and the antimicrobial susceptibility in chickens and poultry meat products in rural areas in Nigeria. The study was an observational cross-sectional investigation in which the target population included exotic...... in the environment. Further studies should be conducted to reveal if the serovar is present in eggs and causes salmonellosis among the general population....

  13. Shelf Stable Egg-Based Products Processed By Ultra High Pressure Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-03

    soybean oil, modified food starch, whey solids, salt, nonfat dried milk , and citric acid. Patties #2 and #4 (code 03-1426-10) also had #1 patty basic...Dimensions (mm) #1 46025-30020- 00 Basic ingredients: whole eggs, water, soybean oil, modified food starch, whey solids, salt, nonfat dried milk , and...oil, salt, modified food starch, whey , skim milk powder, and cheese) was used. Four formulations considered are shown in table 20. 42 Table 20

  14. Production performance and egg quality of quails (Coturnix japonica during several periods of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to analyze the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails throughout the day when submitted to different lighting programs. In each experiment, birds were submitted to a period of 28 days for adaptation to the lighting program. During the following three days, each day - from 7 am to 7 pm or 9 pm - was divided into six or seven periods of two hours each, and the remaining hours corresponded to another single period. All birds were submitted to the same management practices, and received water and feed ad libitum. The experimental diet was formulated according to NRC (1994 standards. It was observed lower feed intake in the period of 9 pm to 7 am, and a higher incidence of lay from 3 pm to 7 pm, as opposite to hens, which peak of egg laying occurs during the morning. Some controversial results were found among experiments as to eggshell quality during the different periods of the day. Variation on the lighting program had little influence on the other performance and egg quality parameters.

  15. Lactobacillus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bee products application using FISH and RTQ PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee products on the lactobacilli colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 400 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen in feed mixture with the addition of 450 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of lactobacilli in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and FISH method were investigated. Counts of lactobacilli on MRS agar were monitored. To check the reliability of traditional methods of cultivation samples were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacillus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected after hybridization of fluorescently labeled probe with bacterial cells. Counts of CFU of lactobacilli were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the third experimental group where was 450 mg of pollen added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using Real-time PCR method, we identified the species range of the genera Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Lactobacillus were L. crispatus, L. salivarius and L. acidophilus.

  16. Biogas production from chicken manure at different organic loading rates in a mesophilic-thermopilic two stage anaerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkılıc, Kenan; Ugurlu, Aysenur

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the biogas production from chicken manure at different organic loading rates (OLRs), in a mesophilic-thermophilic two stage anaerobic system. The system was operated on semi continuous mode under different OLRs [1.9 g volatile solids (VS)/L·d - 4.7 g VS/L·d] and total solid (TS) contents (3.0-8.25%). It was observed that the anaerobic bacteria acclimatized to high total ammonia nitrogen concentration (>3000 mg/L) originated as a result of the degradation of chicken manure. High volatile fatty acid concentrations were tolerated by the system due to high pH in the reactors. The maximum average biogas production rate was found as 554 mL/g VSfeed while feeding 2.2 g VS/L-d (2.3% VS - 3.8% TS) to the system. Average methane content of produced biogas was 74% during the study.

  17. Butyrate production in phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes isolated from the chicken caecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska; De Baere, Siegrid; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Louis, Petra; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Sixteen butyrate-producing bacteria were isolated from the caecal content of chickens and analysed phylogenetically. They did not represent a coherent phylogenetic group, but were allied to four different lineages in the Firmicutes phylum. Fourteen strains appeared to represent novel species, based on a level of ≤ 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards their nearest validly named neighbours. The highest butyrate concentrations were produced by the strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, clusters which are predominant in the chicken caecal microbiota. In only one of the 16 strains tested, the butyrate kinase operon could be amplified, while the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene was detected in eight strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV, XIVa and XIVb. None of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates carried this gene based on degenerate PCR analyses. However, another CoA-transferase gene more similar to propionate CoA-transferase was detected in the majority of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates. Since this gene is located directly downstream of the remaining butyrate pathway genes in several human cluster XVI bacteria, it may be involved in butyrate formation in these bacteria. The present study indicates that butyrate producers related to cluster XVI may play a more important role in the chicken gut than in the human gut.

  18. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  19. Occurrence of Listeria species in meat, chicken products and human stools in Assiut city, Egypt with PCR use for rapid identification of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Abd El-Malek

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to check the presence of Listeria spp. in some meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut (Egypt. A total of 100 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, luncheon, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken breast fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. In addition, 28 stool cultures examined for Listeria spp. from hospitalized children resident in Assiut Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 100 meat samples examined, Listeria spp. were detected in 8 (32% of minced frozen beef, 8 (32% of luncheon, 13 (52% of frozen chicken leg and 14 (56% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed, respectively. Regarding the examined 28 stool cultures from hospitalized children with underlying disease in Assiut Univ. hospital, 2 (7.14% were found positive for Listeria spp. For identification of L. monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, two primers were selected to detect 217-pb fragment ofthe prfA (transcriptional activator of the virulence factor gene for L. monocytogenes. 13 selected Listeria isolates displayed beta-haemolysis on sheep blood agar and positive CAMP test were further identified using PCR. PCR results showed that L. monocytogenes were confirmed in one of minced imported frozen meat examined, two of luncheon samples and two of frozen chicken legs with the total incidence of 5 isolates (5% from the total 100 examined food samples. This suggests the presence of a significant public health hazard linked to the consumption of these meat and chicken products sold in Assiut city contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The public health significance of these pathogens as well as recommended sanitary measures was discussed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 353-359

  20. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples 

  1. Production of Hygienical Oral Vinegar Egg Liquid%醋蛋保健口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎斌; 黄国平; 韩晋辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The re,arch aimed to improve the flavor of vinegar egg liquid. [ Method] With vinegar egg and honey as main materials,hygienical oral vinegar egg liquid was produced with adding Chinese medicinal herb extract. The selection of stabilizer and correctant ,the formula of the oral liquid were discussed. [ Result ] The optimal stabilizer was β-cyclodextrin and its dosage was 0. 1%. The best correctant was aspartame and its dosage was 0. 3 g/ml. By orthogonal test and sensory evaluation,the best formula of the this oral liquid was determined as: 25% enzymolysis solution of vinegar egg, 10% honey, 1% Chinese medicinal herb extract and 0. 3 g/ml aspartame. [ Conclusion ] The product improves the vinegar egg' s flavor and has abundant nutrition for the good function of health care.%[目的]改善醋蛋液口味.[方法]以醋蛋、蜂蜜为主要原料.加入中草药提取液,研制具有保健功能的醋蛋保健口服液,并对稳定剂和矫味剂的选择、口服液的配方等进行探讨.[结果]β-环糊精为最佳稳定剂,添加量为0.1%.阿斯巴甜为最佳矫味剂,添加量为0.3g/ml.通过正交试验和感官评定,确定了该保健口服液的最佳配方为:醋蛋酶解液25%、蜂蜜10%、中草药提取液1%、阿斯巴甜0.3g/ml.[结论]该产品改善了醋蛋风味,营养丰富且具有保健养生功效.

  2. Skin prick testing with extensively heated milk or egg products helps predict the outcome of an oral food challenge: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj Zein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow’s milk and hen’s egg are the most frequently encountered food allergens in the pediatric population. Skin prick testing (SPT with commercial extracts followed by an oral food challenge (OFC are routinely performed in the diagnostic investigation of these children. Recent evidence suggests that milk-allergic and/or egg-allergic individuals can often tolerate extensively heated (EH forms of these foods. This study evaluated the predictive value of a negative SPT with EH milk or egg in determining whether a child would tolerate an OFC to the EH food product. Methods Charts from a single allergy clinic were reviewed for any patient with a negative SPT to EH milk or egg, prepared in the form of a muffin. Data collected included age, sex, symptoms of food allergy, co-morbidities and the success of the OFC to the muffin. Results Fifty-eight patients had negative SPTs to the EH milk or egg in a muffin and underwent OFC to the appropriate EH food in the outpatient clinic. Fifty-five of these patients tolerated the OFC. The negative predictive value for the SPT with the EH food product was 94.8%. Conclusions SPT with EH milk or egg products was predictive of a successful OFC to the same food. Larger prospective studies are required to substantiate these findings.

  3. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  4. Foot dermatitis and productive traits in broiler chickens kept with different stocking densities, litter types and light regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meluzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the effects of high and low stocking density of broiler chickens, different types of litter and the adoption of short and long lighting regimen on broiler welfare through the evaluation of their productivity and incidence of foot pad dermatitis. 2,400 male Ross 508 were divided into 8 groups of four replicates each and reared in 32 pens according to a 3 factors experimental design of two levels each: low (LD or high (HD stocking density (11 and 14 birds/m2 for LD and HD respectively, chopped straw (CS or wood shaving (WS litters and short (SL or long (LL light regimens (16 h light and 8 h dark or 23 h light and 1 h dark respectively for SL and LL. Broiler growth rate and feed efficiency were positively influenced by a stocking density lower than 30 kg of live weight per m2. The adoption of a short light regimen reduced feed intake and improved feed conversion rate without modifying body live weight. Chickens reared on wood shaving litter showed a lower incidence of foot pad dermatitis.

  5. The Effects of L-arginine Supplement on Growth, Meat Production, and Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Ebrahimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary L-arginine on performance, meat production and its chemical composition, carcass fat deposition, intestine morphology and blood parameters of Ross broiler chickens during 46 days. In this experiment, 192 day old commercial female Ross broiler chicks were used with 4 dietary treatments and 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included 100, 153, 168 and 183 percentages of digestible arginine, based on the Ross catalogue recommendation. On 46th day of experiment, three chickens per replication were selected randomly, blood samples were collected from each, and thereafter they were slaughtered in order to measure carcass traits, intestine morphology and meat chemical composition. The results showed that dietary arginine treatments caused a significant increase on body weight, carcass efficiency, muscle yield, protein and fat content of muscle, heart weight, and growth of small intestine, while decreased abdominal fat weight. Arginine supplementation increased plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, but reduced plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, and urea. According to the results of this study, consumption level of 168% digestible arginine, based on the Ross catalogue recommendation, had the best results on growth improvement and carcass traits, while consumption level of 183% digestible arginine had the greatest fat carcass reduction.

  6. Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne illnesses in human, and multidrugresistance of Salmonella spp. has increased in developing countries with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the poultry production system. A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected retail markets of Chittagong City Corporation to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from commercial layer eggs, eggshell surface, and egg-storing trays. Materials and Methods: Chicken eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples from the retail markets were collected for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method against Salmonella isolates during the period from July to December 2013. Results: Out of the 310 layer eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples, the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was found in eggs trays (57.15% and the lowest (13.33% in eggs and the prevalence differed significantly (p0.05. Isolated Salmonella was tested for resistance to eight different antimicrobial agents, using disc diffusion method. Among eight antimicrobial tested (n=111, 100% resistance were found to ampicillin and amoxicillin followed by erythromycin (60-100%, tetracycline (72-93%, ciprofloxacin (22-66%, colistin (27-66%, enrofloxacin (42-54%, and pefloxacin 23.07% across the study sites. Ciprofloxacin remained sensitive in 40.9% cases and, pefloxacin and colistin appeared to be almost sensitive (61-72% against Salmonella isolates at studied areas. Salmonella isolates showed multidrug-resistance pattern up to five of the eight antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antibiotics needs to be adopted in commercial poultry farming system of Bangladesh to prevent the emergence of drug-resistance Salmonella to protect the public health consequences.

  7. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-10-01

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.

  8. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.;

    2015-01-01

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases incr...... lumen. Increased expression of DEF beta 1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the intestinal lumen. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens...... we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal...

  9. Effects of Fermentation Product Containing Phytase on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Phosphorous Apparent Metabolism of Laying Hens Fed Different Levels of Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; DONG Xiao-fang; TONG Jian-ming; XU Shang-zhong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermentation product containing phytase (FPP) that was fermented using waste vinegar residue (WVR) as substrate from Aspergillus ifcuum NTG-23 on productive performance, egg quality, and phosphorus apparent metabolism of laying hens. First, 375 22-wk-old Jinghong hens were allocated into 5 treatments (5 replicates of 15 hens each) in an 8-wk experiment for evaluating the parameters of productive performance, egg quality, serum, and tibia. Experimental diets contained 4%FPP and 96%corn-soybean diet. The levels of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) were 1.34, 1.01, 0.67, 0.34 and 0%. Next, thirty 31-wk-old Jinghong hens were fed 5 types of diets for evaluating phosphorous apparent metabolism rate. Egg productive rate, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, Haugh unit, egg albumen height, serum calcium, tibia ash, tibia ash calcium and tibia breaking strength were not different signiifcantly among 5 treatments. The signiifcant difference of average daily feed intake was not appeared when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.67%;the eggshell hardness, eggshell thickness and serum phosphorus were not reduced signiifcantly until the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.34%. The yolk color was improved when the laying hens fed deifcient DCP corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 22.14%reduction in excreta phosphorus was observed when the laying hens fed low phosphorus (0.67%DCP) corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 30%elevation of phosphorus apparent metabolism rate was obtained when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was decreased from 1.34 to 1.01%. The reducing cost of layer diet was totalized about 120 CNY 1 000 kg-1 diet when the content of DCP was 0.67%in corn-soybean-FPP diet. These results indicated that FPP could be applied in laying hen as a potential, cost-effective and rational application of WVR.

  10. Annual egg production rates of calanoid copepod species on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Eva R.; Franco-Gordo, Carmen; Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first estimations of calanoid copepod egg production rates (EPR) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific over an annual cycle (January-December 2011). Gravid females were collected twice monthly and incubated for 12 h without food to estimate EPR, weight-specific fecundity (Gf), spawning success (SS, percentage of females to spawn out of the total species incubated per month and season) and egg hatching success (EHS). This study reports the average EPR of 10 species and the monthly EPR and Gf of four planktonic calanoid copepods (Centropages furcatus, Temora discaudata, Pontellina sobrina, and Nannocalanus minor) that spawned with enough frequency to infer their seasonal reproductive patterns. These species showed distinct seasonal reproductive strategies. Most copepod species spawned sporadically with large EPR variability, while three copepod species reproduced throughout the year (C. furcatus, T. discaudata and P. sobrina) and N. minor spawned only during the mixed period (Feb-May). The four species had relatively similar average EPR (C. furcatus 16, T. discaudata 18, P. sobrina 13, and N. minor 12 eggs fem-1 day-1). These are the first EPR estimations of P. sobrina and its previously known reproductive period is expanded. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze EPR and species abundance of all calanoid copepods (40 spp.) collected throughout the time series in relation to temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations to identify the variables that best explained the copepod abundance variability. Temperature, Chl-a, and salinity had the strongest effect on the biological variables, linked to seasonal and episodic upwelling-downwelling processes in the surveyed area. As a result of moderate upwelling events and seasonal variation of environmental conditions, it appears relatively few species are capable of maintaining continuous reproduction under the relatively higher

  11. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation of laying hens: effects on egg fatty acid composition and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Franchini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a common term for a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid; the most commonly found in natural products is cis-9, trans-11-octadecanoic acid. Naturally occurring CLA is produced as an intermediate product of microbial metabolism of linoleic acid in the rumen. For this reason the CLA concentration is higher in ruminant products, such as milk, cheese and meat compared to products derived from monogastrics, particularly chicken meat and egg yolk. Recent investigations suggest that CLA have anticarcinogenic properties, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity (Ip et al., 1995; Nicolosi et al., 1997; Du et al., 2001...

  12. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Prinsen, M.K.; McNamee, P.M.; Roggeband, R.

    2009-01-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken

  13. Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose membranes with hyaluronic acid from chicken comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Sabrina Alves; da Silva, Bruno Campos; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel Cristina; Urbano, Alexandre; de Sousa Faria-Tischer, Paula Cristina; Tischer, Cesar Augusto

    2017-04-01

    The bacterial cellulose (BC), from Gluconacetobacter hansenii, is a biofilm with a high degree of crystallinity that can be used for therapeutic purposes and as a candidate for healing wounds. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a constitutive polysaccharide found in the extracellular matrix and is a material used in tissue engineering and scaffolding for tissue regeneration. In this study, polymeric composites were produced in presence of hyaluronic acid isolated from chicken comb on different days of fermentation, specifically on the first (BCHA-SABT0) and third day (BCHA-SABT3) of fermentation. The structural characteristics, thermal stability and molar mass of hyaluronic acid from chicken comb were evaluated. Native membrane and polymeric composites were characterized with respect to their morphology and crystallinity. The optimized process of extraction and purification of hyaluronic acid resulted in low molar mass hyaluronic acid with structural characteristics similar to the standard commercial hyaluronic acid. The results demonstrate that the polymeric composites (BC/HA-SAB) can be produced in situ. The membranes produced on the third day presented better incorporation of HA-SAB between cellulose microfiber, resulting in membranes with higher thermal stability, higher roughness and lower crystallinity. The biocompatiblily of bacterial cellulose and the importance of hyaluronic acid as a component of extracellular matrix qualify the polymeric composites as promising biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40 were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  15. A Review of Temperature, pH, and Other Factors that Influence the Survival of Salmonella in Mayonnaise and Other Raw Egg Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart from the use of pasteurized eggs, the main control mechanism identified is the pH of the raw egg products, which plays an important role in the consistency and stability while affecting the survival of Salmonella spp. However, currently there is no consensus regarding the critical pH limit for the control of Salmonella. The effectiveness of pH as a control mechanism is influenced by the type of acid used, with the effectiveness of lemon juice compared with vinegar highly debated. Additionally, Salmonella susceptibility to pH stresses may also be influenced by storage temperature (in some studies refrigeration temperatures protected Salmonella spp. from acidulants) and is further complicated by the development of Salmonella cross-tolerance-induced responses, pH homeostasis achieved by the cellular antiport and symport systems, and acid tolerance response (ATR). These mechanisms all provide Salmonella with an added advantage to ensure survival under various pH conditions. Other confounding factors include the fat content, and the addition of NaCl, garlic and plant essential oils (PEOs) from mint, cinnamon, cardamom and clove. PMID:27869756

  16. Using multiple regression, Bayesian networks and artificial neural networks for prediction of total egg production in European quails based on earlier expressed phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Vivian P S; Silva, Martinho A; Valente, Bruno D; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of total egg production (TEP) potential in poultry is an important task to aid optimized management decisions in commercial enterprises. The objective of the present study was to compare different modeling approaches for prediction of TEP in meat type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) using phenotypes such as weight, weight gain, egg production and egg quality measurements. Phenotypic data on 30 traits from two lines (L1, n=180; and L2, n=205) of quail were modeled to predict TEP. Prediction models included multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN). Moreover, Bayesian network (BN) and a stepwise approach were used as variable selection methods. BN results showed that TEP is independent from other earlier expressed traits when conditioned on egg production from 35 to 80 days of age (EP1). In addition, the prediction accuracy was much lower when EP1 was not included in the model. The best predictive model was ANN, after feature selection, showing prediction correlations of r=0.792 and r=0.714 for L1 and L2, respectively. In conclusion, machine learning methods may be useful, but reasonable prediction accuracies are obtained only when partial egg production measurements are included in the model.

  17. Ways of Improving Risk Management on Chicken Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Turc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ways of improving riskmanagement on broiler or egg chicken farms can be evaluated depending on therisk categories in emergency situations and on the components of riskmanagement. Risks can generate biological, natural, social and technologicalemergency situations. A risk element is any element that can deviate from thestrategies, plans and programmes of a chicken farm and allows predictingreality and confronting true achievements with expected results. Achieving thegoals of any broiler or egg chicken farm supposes knowing and assuming multiplerisks: risk management covers both risk identification and risk reaction. Riskanalysis supposes measures for the increase of transparency regarding chickenhealth safety, supply of experiences and protection within international tradewith broiler chickens and eggs or even live chicken. Risk analysis stipulatesthe improvement of phyto-sanitary measures and it aim at collecting, evaluatingand recording information that lead to recommendations, positions, approachesand actions as a response to an identified risk or danger; it is not meant tosupply decisions but to support decision-making.

  18. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition.

  19. Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L

    2012-12-01

    The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (Pegg yolk. The same aliquots were then cryopreserved for 15 days. Thawed spermatozoa preserved without egg yolk showed lower motility (Pegg yolk extender. No eggs were fertilized when hens were inseminated with semen that had been diluted with chicken egg yolk. The fertilization rate was only slightly higher when sperm diluted with quail egg yolk was used (1.5%). The best results were obtained when no egg yolk was used (13.8%). These results show that the addition of egg yolk of either type protects rooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen.

  20. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens.

  1. Adding Medicinal Herbs Including Garlic (Allium sativum and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris to Diet of Laying Hens and Evaluating Productive Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In trying to finding phytogenic antibiotic-substitutes this study was done and effects of adding graded levels of Medicinal Herbs (MH including garlic (Allium sativum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris to laying hens’ diet on productive performance investigated. Approach: A total number of 108 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens after production peak were randomly divided in 18 cages (n = 6. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME = 2720 Kcal Kg-1 and CP = 154.2 g Kg-1 including three levels (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 of ground mixture of garlic and thyme (1:1 were fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet during 6 week trial period. Collected data of Feed Intake (FI, Egg Production (EP, Egg Mass (EM and calculated Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR as well as egg traits were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on EP, EM and FCR in laying hens (p>0.05. Dietary inclusion of MH decreased FI in weeks 1-6 (p≤0.05. Including diet with 0.1% MP improved means of egg weight (g comparing to the other two experimental diets. Adding 0.2% MH to diet increased egg yolk color as well as blood lymphocyte counts and decreased egg shell weight comparing to other dietary treatments (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary inclusion of garlic and thyme can have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens in terms of improving egg weight and yolk color.

  2. Effect of the Inclusion of Organic Copper, Manganese, And Zinc in The Diet of Layers on Mineral Excretion, Egg Production, and Eggshell Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSS Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating the replacement of inorganic copper, manganese, and zinc sources by organic sources in the diet of laying hens during the second laying cycle in trace mineral excretion, egg production, and eggshell quality. Two hundred and fifty 100-week-old Dekalb hens were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. The control treatment consisted of a basal diet with all trace minerals in the inorganic form. The other treatments consisted of a basal diet with a mixture of the minerals copper, manganese, and zinc in the organic form with concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% of the levels of inclusion of inorganic mineral sources in the control treatment. Trace mineral excretion was determined in five layers per treatment by the method of total excreta collection. Excreta trace mineral contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Egg production and eggshell quality were determined by the mass of the eggs and the egg specific gravity, respectively. For all trace minerals examined, the dietary supplementation with organic sources reduced trace mineral excretion compared with the control group, even at 70% inclusion level, without compromising egg production or eggshell quality. The replacement of the inorganic trace mineral sources by organics source effectively reduced the excretion of copper, manganese, and zinc by laying hens in the second laying cycle.

  3. Aluminium Intake Impact on Broiler Chickens During a Production Cycle on Some Bioproductive Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on broiler chickens divided in 3 experimental groups (E1,E2, E3, fed during 7 weeks with a diet containing 20, 70 and 200 ppm Al, as aluminium oxide/ DM of the ration, and a control group. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary aluminium oxide on some bioproductive parameters (daily and weekly medium weight gain, daily medium feed consumption and feed conversion rate.Conclusions: excepting E3 group, both daily and weekly medium weight gain were inferiors to control group; daily medium feed consumption was lower on experimental groups than on control group and feed conversion rate was slightly higher on experimental groups than on control group.

  4. Quality attributes and consumer acceptance of new ready-to-eat frozen restructured chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marcio Aurelio; Villanueva, Nilda Doris Montes; Gonçalves, José Ricardo; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new restructured product, cooked and frozen ready-to-eat product that was prepared with boneless chicken meat (breast and drumstick) and mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM). Non-meat ingredients, such as transglutaminase (TG) and egg albumin powder, were tested to obtain a better strength of adhesion between the meat particles. Five formulations for restructured chicken were developed as follows: T1 (1 % transglutaminase), T2 (1 % transglutaminase and 15 % MSCM), T3 (1 % egg albumin powder), T4 (1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM) and T5 (1 % transglutaminase, 1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM). The results of the experiment showed a greater luminosity (L*) in the treatments with TG (T1) and albumin (T3). The treatments without MSCM (T1 and T3) presented significantly lower mean values for redness (a*) when compared to treatments with MSCM (T2, T4 and T5) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the treatments (p ≥ 0.05) when analyzing the percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol content. Consumer testing showed a high acceptance of the restructured products in all evaluated attributes. Similarly, with regard to the purchase intention, consumers mostly expressed that they would probably or certainly buy the products, for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5. Moreover, the meat cuts with no commercial value, can transform into new ready-to-eat products that have a high probability of success in the market.

  5. Development of SNP assays to determine genetic resistance to ALV-A in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus. Six subgroups of ALV, namely, A, B, C, D, E, and J were found in chickens. ALV subgroup A causes tumors primarily in egg-layer type of chickens; ALV is controlled by eradication schemes. ALV-A infection of chicken is mediated by a cellular host ...

  6. Efficient Production of an Engineered Apoptin from Chicken Anemia Virus in a Recombinant E. coli for Tumor Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Meng-Shiou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptin, a nonstructural protein encoded by the VP3 gene of chicken anemia virus (CAV, has been shown to not only induce apoptosis when introduced into the precursors of chicken thymocytes, but has been found to specifically kill human cancer cells, tumor cell and transformed cells without affecting the proliferation of normal cells. This tumor-specific apoptotic characteristic of the protein potentially may allow the development of a protein drug that has applications in tumor therapy. However, several major problems, which include poor expression and poor protein solubility, have hampered the production of apoptin in bacteria. Results Significantly increased expression of recombinant full-length apoptin that originated from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The CAV VP3 gene was fused with a synthetic sequence containing a trans-acting activator of transcription (TAT protein transduction domain (PTD. The resulting construct was cloned into various different expression vectors and these were then expressed in various E. coli strains. The expression of the TAT-Apoptin in E. coli was significantly increased when TAT-Apoptin was fused with GST-tag rather than a His-tag. When the various rare amino acid codons of apoptin were optimized, the expression level of the GST-TAT-Apoptinopt in E. coli BL21(DE3 was significantly further increased. The highest protein expression level obtained was 8.33 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 4 h at 25 °C. Moreover, approximately 90% of the expressed GST-TAT-Apoptinopt under these conditions was soluble. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified recombinant TAT-Apoptinopt protein was used to evaluate the recombinant protein’s apoptotic activity on tumor cells. The results demonstrated that the E. coli-expressed GST-TAT-apoptinopt showed apoptotic activity and was able to induce human

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  8. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Hulsegge, B.; Schokker, D.J.; Smits, M.A.; Fife, M.; Zoorob, R.; Endale, M.L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness.

  9. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  10. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2016-12-29

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Phens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  11. A comparison of linear demographic models and fraction of lifetime egg production for assessing sustainability in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Taylor K; Botsford, Louis W

    2013-06-01

    Conventional methods for management of data-rich fisheries maintain sustainable populations by assuring that lifetime reproduction is adequate for individuals to replace themselves and accounting for density-dependent recruitment. Fishing is not allowed to reduce relative lifetime reproduction, the fraction of current egg production relative to unfished egg production (FLEP), below a sustainable level. Because most shark fisheries are data poor, other representations of persistence status have been used, including linear demographic models, which incorporate life-history characteristics in age-structured models with no density dependence. We tested how well measures of sustainability from 3 linear demographic methods (rebound potential, stochastic growth rate, and potential population increase) reflect actual population persistence by comparing values of these measures with FLEP for 26 shark species. We also calculated the value of fishing mortality (F) that would allow all 26 species to maintain an accepted precautionary threshold for sharks of FLEP = 60%, expressing F as a fraction of natural mortality (M). Values of stochastic growth rate and potential population growth did not covary in rank order with FLEP (p = 0.057 and p = 0.077, respectively) and neither was significantly correlated with FLEP. Ordinal ranking of rebound potential positively covaried with FLEP (p = 0.00013), but the relative rankings of some species were substantially out of order. Adopting a sustainable limit of F = 0.16M would maintain all 26 species above the precautionary minimum value of FLEP (60%). We concluded that shark-fishery and conservation policies should rely on calculation of replacement (i.e., FLEP), and that sharks should be fished at a precautionary level that would protect all stocks (i.e., F< 0.16M).

  12. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  13. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  14. Potential of production of biodiesel starting from the chicken oil in the cooperatives of the West of Parana, Brazil; Potencial de producao de biodiesel a partir do oleo de frango nas cooperativas do oeste do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], Email: ssouza@unioeste.br; Neitzke, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PIBIC/CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Email: guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Luis Fernando Souza [Colegio Estadual Presidente Castelo Branco, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], Email: luisfsg@ibest.com.br; Bariccatti, Reinaldo Aparecido [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CECE/UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas], Email: bariccatti@unioeste.br

    2006-07-01

    Brazil occupies a prominence place in the development and use of sources renovate of energy, due to its great territorial extension, climate and several alternatives. One of these it is the bio diesel,o production which can substitute the oil diesel, decreasing the impacts to the environment. In the productive chain of chicken meat a residue, chicken oil, is generated with potential for biodiesel production. In this work they were certain characteristics physical chemistries, that can influence in the reactions of transesterification of the chicken oil. It was lifted up the potential of production of chicken oil in the cooperatives of the area west of the state of Parana and yield in biodiesel. The bio diesel production by cooperatives could be of 19.525.209,0 kg/year of bio diesel and the yield of 95%. (author)

  15. Delicious Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ONE day I learned a new method to cook eggs from one of my neighbors. The ingredients are two or three eggs and about 100 grams of tofu. First, beat the eggs in a bowl until they am Well mixed. Add some salt. Cut the tofu into small cubes and put them into the bowl as well. Then put the bowl in a steamer and steam for about ten minutes. When the eggs become a soft jelly, turn off the stove and let the dish cool before garnishing it with minced coriander, scallion and a teaspoon of sesame oil (or chili oil if you prefer). Serve. I served the steamed eggs with tofu to my family at supper. The appealing

  16. Editorial Comment The egg or the chicken?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vuong DuThinh

    2006-01-01

    @@ In this issue of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, Gao et al.,1 in a report of increased ostial pulmonary vein diameter by multislice CT angiography reported a statistically significant enlargement of the pulmonary veins in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). This finding alone should not be of any surprise as anatomic remodeling and general dilation of the cardiac chambers are well described in patients with CHF.

  17. HRD & Quality: The Chicken or the Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferketish, B. Jean; Hayden, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management is not a fad. Human resource development must be aligned with the culture of continuous improvement to make it work. Changes may be necessary in hiring, promotion, and performance appraisal. (SK)

  18. Egg production and associated losses of carbon, nitrogen and fatty acids from maternal biomass in Calanus finmarchicus before the spring bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Pond, David W.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2009-11-01

    We present concurrent data on ingestion, egg production and the loss of maternal biomass in pre-spring bloom female Calanus finmarchicus incubated under conditions representative of those in situ in the North Atlantic. A balanced metabolic budget was constructed and used to examine the relative importance of ingestion and biomass for fuelling egg production during the incubations. Ingested carbon was not sufficient to meet the observed demands for egg production. More than 80% of the carbon utilised by the females was instead derived from their biomass. Fatty acid analysis demonstrated that the storage reserves, 20:1 ( n-9) and 22:1 ( n-11), were virtually absent before experimentation began, and therefore could not have been used to supply the carbon required for egg production during the incubations. The C:N mass-specific ratio of the biomass utilised was 4.1, suggesting that the females had instead catabolised protein in order to meet their metabolic demands. These results suggest that C. finmarchicus adopts a sacrificial reproductive strategy when food availability is low.

  19. Effect of Supplemental Roughage on Behavior, Physiological Stress Response, and Egg Production Parameters of Farmed Partridges (Perdix perdix)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jørgen B.; Hansen, Bente Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of roughages (maize silage, rucola salad, or wheat sprouts) would reduce behavioral and physiological signs of stress and increase egg production. A total of 160 adult partridge breeder birds were housed...... in pairs of 1 male and 1 female/cage during the egg-laying period from April to June. Birds fed on maize silage spent more time laying and less time foraging than birds in the wheat sprout treatment (P ... concentrate only or concentrate with supplements of maize silage or fresh rucola salad...

  20. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...

  1. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P hens.

  2. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul M; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-07-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine.

  3. Influence of in ovo injection and subsequent provision of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, microbial profile, and immune status of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    as an alternative antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens was investigated. Methods: On day 1 of incubation, two groups of fertile eggs were injected with colloidal silver nanoparticles 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg. A third group was not injected and designated as a control group. At day 7 post...... bacteria, and immunoglobulin levels in broiler chickens. Silver nanoparticles are a potent antimicrobial agent for use in these birds. However, their activity and impact on growth performance should be explored further in a commercial poultry production setting....

  4. Effect of nutrient density on production performance, egg quality and humoral immune response of brown laying (Dahlem Red) hens in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Arun Kumar; Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama; Raju, Mantena Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha; Niranjan, Matam; Reddy, Maddula Ramkoti

    2012-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) with graded incremental levels of crude protein (CP) and essential amino acids (lysine and methionine) on production performance, egg quality and humoral immune response of Dahlem Red laying hens. Four experimental diets based on maize-soybean meal-deoiled rice bran were prepared. Diet 1 was fed as a control diet containing 2,600 kcal ME/kg, 15% CP, 0.75% Lys and 0.36% Met, and in the other three diets (D2, D3 and D4), concentrations of the above nutrients were increased by 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%, respectively. The levels of Ca (3.5%) and available P (0.32) were constant in all the diets. Each diet was offered ad libitum from 28 to 40 weeks of age to eight replicates containing six birds in each replicate. The egg production, egg weight and egg mass (in grams of egg per hen per day) were not affected by increasing the nutrient density up to 7.5% (2,795 kcal ME/kg diet) compared to the control group (2,600 ME/kg diet). However, feed consumption and feed efficiency (in grams of egg per gram of feed) were influenced by the variation in the nutrient density of diets. As the nutrient density increased by 5% (2,730 ME/kg diet), birds consumed significantly (P weeks was progressively improved by increasing the nutrient density up to 5%. Increasing the nutrient density beyond 5% in the diet had no further influence on the humoral immune response. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that Dahlem Red laying hens required 2,795 kcal/kg ME, 16% CP, 0.8% lysine and 0.4% methionine for eliciting optimum performance and immune response during 28 to 40 weeks of age.

  5. Synergistic approach for treatment of chicken coccidiosis using berberine--A plant natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Ahad, Shazia; Johri, R K

    2016-04-01

    Despite the advent of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Berberine, a natural alkaloid is well known in studies involving synergistic approaches, thereby reducing the dosage of principal drugs. Therefore, a study was designed to see whether a synergistic anticoccidial effect could be obtained between amprolium and berberine, in vivo using broiler chicken. Anticoccidial activity was measured in comparison to the reference drug amprolium on the basis of oocyst output reduction, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Oocyst output was measured using Mc-Masters counting technique. Different combinations of berberine and amprolium were tested and out of which 1:1 ratio was the most effective for controlling these parasites. Oral gavaging of 100(50 + 50) mg/kg body weight of 1:1 ratio of amprolium and berberine caused the equivalent reduction in number of oocysts (38.85 ± 9.61) one day prior to that of standard drug amprolium (49.95 ± 16.65) as well as pure berberine (44.4 ± 9.61) used in the study. Weight gain of birds was also highest in the synergistic group (1547.43 ± 12.86) among all the infected groups. Besides feed conversion ratio in the synergistic group was also better (1.387 ± 0.026). The results of this study proved the effectiveness of both amprolium and berberine and revealed synergism between amprolium and berberine against coccidian oocysts, confirmed by significant reduction in the number of coccidian oocysts shed in the feces, leading to better weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio. The study deep-rooted the synergistic potential of berberine, a natural bioactive compound for controlling a protozoan parasite and the results of this study corroborate with its use for treatment of severe diarrhoea, amoebiasis and intestinal infections.

  6. Productive performance of Creole chickens and their crosses raised under semi-intensive management conditions in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Magaña-Monforte, J G; Santos-Ricalde, R

    2004-06-01

    1. The productive performance of 4 chicken breed groups managed under semi-intensive conditions in Yucatan, Mexico was evaluated. Thirty-six mixed chickens, one week of age of each of the 4 breed groups (Creole, F1 Hubbard x Creole, 7/8 Hubbard x 1/8 Creole and Hubbard) were used. 2. During 1 to 3 weeks of age all birds were fed on a diet containing 210 g/kg crude protein (CP) and 12.95 MJ/kg metabolisable energy (ME). From weeks 4 to 7, they were given a diet with 190 g/kg CP and 12.55 MJ/kg ME. Food consumption and live body weight were recorded weekly. Statistical analysis of the data was performed according to complete randomised design and means comparison using Tukey test was carried out when necessary. 3. Creole chicks had the lightest weights at all ages as compared to their crosses and the Hubbard birds. At 7 weeks of age, Creole chicks were 2.11, 2.44 and 2.90 times lighter than their contemporary F1, 7/8 Hubbard x 1/8 Creole and Hubbard birds, respectively. Hubbard birds were heavier than F1 and 7/8 commercial x 1/8 Creole birds, and the latter group heavier than the F1 birds. Similarly, Creole chicks had the lowest growth rate compared to the other genetic groups. Heterosis for body weight up to 7 weeks of age was 8.2%. 4. Feed consumption was also lower for the Creole chicks at all ages. Food:gain ratio, however, was higher for the Creole chicks at all ages. Food:gain ratios from weeks 2 to 7 were 2.18, 2.65, 3.04 and 4.36 for the Hubbard, 7/8 Hubbard x 1/8 Creole, F1 and Creole birds, respectively. Heterosis for food:gain ratio from 2 to 7 weeks of age was -7.0%. 5. Crossbreeding of Mexican Creole birds with commercial type broilers might improve productive performance.

  7. Antimicrobial acti