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Sample records for chicken egg production

  1. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie M Mitchell; James R Johnson; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat an...

  2. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...

  3. The relationship between thyroxine secretion rate and egg production in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in 24 female White Leghorn Chickens by using 131I as tracer. The chickens were initially and intraperitoneally injected with 10μCi of 131I and then counted by means of a Gamma Well Type Scintillation Counter every 48 hours. A dose of 0,3 μg of thyroxine per 100 gr body weight was given as the first administration. After every two administrations of similar dose, the dose of the thyroxine was increased by 0,1 μg/100g body weight until the thyroxine secretion rate was reached. The injections were given in the neck region subcutaneously. The thyroxine secretion rate was found to be within the range from 0,5μg to 0,8μg per 100 g body weight. It also showed that the higher the thyroxine secretion rate, the higher the egg production became. This phenomenon occured both with the 7 and 9 months old chickens. However there was neither ralationship between the thyroxine secretion rate and the weight of eggs produced nor with the body weight of the chickens themselves. (author)

  4. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  5. Benefit cost analysis of Rhode Island Red chicken rearing in backyard on the basis of egg production performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze of the egg production features of backyard chicken rearing with an evaluation of production cost of an egg and there by benefit-cost analysis. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 60000 chicken covering five different agroclimatic zones in the state West Bengal, India. Initially each farmer was provided day-old Rhode Island Red chicks, commercial ration upto pre-laying stage having CP of 17.23% and 12.32% in chick and grower mash respectively along with common management support system for backyard poultry rearing viz. separate poultry night shelter and brooding facilities, deworming and vaccination and regular health check up system, later farmers were allowed to use the supplemented feed made by the locally available resources having various crude protein content. Results: It was observed that there was no significant variation in respect of total egg production under various supplemented crude protein containing feed, whereas significantly higher egg production feature is observed in Coastal and Old Alluvial zones. Conclusion: The study concluded that more profit was occurred to those farmers who provided the supplemented feed with less crude protein content along with scavenging. This scope is more in new alluvial zone. It was also observed that profit started from 11 month onwards in each agro-climatic zone as well as in each category of supplemented feed.

  6. Egg production response of laying chickens to feather clipping, cool water and aspirin during hot weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Herbert Kwabla

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week trial was conducted between March and May (hot-dry season) to determine effects of water temperature, feather clipping and aspirin on egg production of chickens. The treatments tested were hens given ordinary drinking water (control), cool water (100 g ice block per L) and aspirin (0.3 mg per L of ordinary water) and hens whose feathers were clipped (about two thirds of body feathers clipped). At 32 weeks of age, 120 Lohmann brown layer chickens of similar live weights were randomly divided into 12 groups of ten hens each and assigned to the treatments in triplicate using a completely randomized design. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Data included feed intake, water consumption, hen-day egg production and egg weight. Ambient house temperature, hen's cloacal temperature and water temperature were monitored daily during the experimental period. Mean daily ambient temperature increased from 28.4 to 35.0 °C during the study period with consequent increase in cloacal temperatures (40.31 to 41.18 °C) of hens, ordinary drinking water and cool water. None of the treatments had any significant (P > 0.05) effects on feed intake and water consumption of the birds. Hens given cool water produced more (P hens assigned to other treatments. Mean egg weight of each treatment was similar (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the provision of cool water in a hot-dry climate had a beneficial effect on egg laying performance of chickens. PMID:25187029

  7. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs. PMID:20063057

  8. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  9. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  10. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

  11. Relating productivity and trade 1980-2000: a chicken and egg analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Eleanor; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2006-01-01

    Given the nature and range of investigations of the trade/productivity relationship, we now know that possible reverse causation must be a consideration in empirical research. Indeed, some research finds that estimates of productivity gains attributed to trade capture instead the roles of institutions and geography. Here we estimate the relationship between productivity and trade for a panel of countries over the period 1980 to 2000 using instrumental-variables estimation of a productivity eq...

  12. Egg production dynamics and fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum residing in different caecal environments of chickens induced by fibre-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Gürbüz; Abel, Hansjörg; Savaş, Türker; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-10-15

    In modern husbandry systems, feed rations for laying hens may contain high levels of dietary fibre, which may only be fermented intestinally. Depending on fermentation properties, the type of dietary fibre may influence the intra-caecal environment constituting the predilection site of Heterakis gallinarum. We investigated egg production dynamics and fecundity of H. gallinarum residing in different caecal environments induced through different types of dietary fibre. Growing layers were fed a standard (CON) or an insoluble- (I-) or soluble- (S-) non-starch polysaccharides-(NSP) supplemented diet for the first 11 weeks (wk) of life in a twice-replicated experiment. At 3 wk of age, the birds were infected with 200 embryonated eggs of H. gallinarum. Starting from 3 wk post-infection (p.i.), individual daily total excreta were collected. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was determined (N = 2240), and the number of eggs per day (EPD) were estimated. The birds were necropsied 8 wk p.i. and the worm burdens were quantified. The nematode began to lay eggs as early as 23 d.p.i. and thereafter laid on average 436 eggs/d. I-NSP- and S-SNP-supplemented diets expedited the onset of patency by approximately 5 days, and increased total egg excretion by 110% and 185%, respectively, due to higher worm counts. The latter diet (S-SNP) additionally increased total egg excretion by 94% due to enhanced fecundity. Longitudinally collected data showed that fecundity of the nematode (EPD/female) was relatively stable starting from the second week of the patent phase. Results suggest that NSP-induced enlargement of caeca favoured establishment of the nematode while effects of an intensified microbial fermentation through S-NSP were crucial for an enhancement in the worm fecundity. Based on the long-term data obtained from daily collections of total excreta in experimentally H. gallinarum-infected chickens, it is concluded that a diet enriched with pea bran as source of insoluble

  13. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  14. A region on chicken chromosome 2 affects both egg white thinning and egg weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäki-Tanila Asko

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the results from genetic dissection of a QTL region on chicken chromosome 2, shown to affect egg weight and quality in an earlier genome scan of an F2 intercross between two divergent egg layer lines. As the 90% confidence intervals for the detected QTL covered tens of centiMorgans, new analyses were needed. The datasets were reanalysed with denser marker intervals to characterise the QTL region. Analysis of a candidate gene from the original QTL region, vimentin, did not support its role in controlling egg white thinning. Even after reanalysis with additional seven markers in the QTL area, the 90% confidence intervals remained large or even increased, suggesting the presence of multiple linked QTL for the traits. A grid search fitting two QTL on chromosome 2 for each trait suggested that there are two distinct QTL areas affecting egg white thinning in both production periods and egg weight in the late production period. The results indicate possible pleiotropic effects of some of the QTL on egg quality and egg weight. However, it was not possible to make a distinction between close linkage versus pleiotropic effects.

  15. Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY, production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalghoumi R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by Salmonella remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, the prevention and monitoring of Salmonella infection during the live phase may greatly reduce the contamination of poultry meat during slaughter and processing. With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY may be a useful and attractive alternative. This review offers summarized information about IgY production and the use of these antibodies for passive immunization, particularly in poultry.

  16. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; LI, GUOYUN; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...

  17. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  18. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs. PMID:25218438

  19. Protein and cholesterol content of Araucana chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somes, R G; Francis, P V; Tlustohowicz, J J

    1977-09-01

    Comparative data collected over two years are presented which refute the popular press claims that blue-shelled eggs of Araucana chickens have higher protein levels and lower cholesterol levels than market eggs. These comparisons were made between the eggs from the strains of Araucanas and those of White Leghorns and Sex-links. None of the differences found between test groups in % protein/g. albumen and % protein/g. yolk were shown to be consistently related to any one test group type. However, all Araucana test groups were significantly (P less than .01) lower in their total egg protein content than either control group by from 2.8--6.5%. This lower total protein content was the result of a consistent increase in the yolk/albumen ratio of the Araucana eggs over the market eggs. The Araucana eggs were consistently higher in their cholesterol levels on a mg./g. yolk basis than either of the market eggs. These increased concentrattions ranged from 2.0--6.9%. PMID:564510

  20. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p5 cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. Dvalue varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the Dvalue of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation

  1. Nuclear Technology Applications and Regulatory Infrastructure: Chicken-Egg Situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal and governmental infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security is a prerequisite for the use of nuclear and radiation technologies. The IAEA Statute as well the Safety Fundamentals and the Basic Safety Standards among others clearly enunciate this position. Developments or the pace of implementation of this important area in the case of Zimbabwe leaves one having to ponder as to whether the issues of nuclear technology applications and regulatory infrastructure requirements have fallen in the same category as the 'chicken-egg' quandary. What preceded the other: the chicken or the egg? This paper seeks to galvanize stakeholders to re-examine the ways, processes and efforts we have been making in dealing with issues related to establishing, maintaining, measuring and continuously improving regulatory effectiveness. (author)

  2. Depletion of florfenicol and florfenicol amine residues in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filazi, A; Sireli, U T; Yurdakok, B; Aydin, F G; Kucukosmanoglu, A G

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method for the analysis of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in chicken eggs and to determine FF and FFA residue depletion in eggs of laying hens. 2. The analytes were extracted from yolk, albumen and whole egg by phosphate buffer and ethyl acetate. Following purification, samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. 3. Fifty laying hens were divided into 5 groups, and each hen received doses of 20 mg/kg FF: Group 1 (received a single oral dose by gavage); Group 2 (a single intramuscular dose); Group 3 (a single subcutaneous dose); Group 4 (multiple oral doses for 3 d) and Group 5 (multiple oral doses for 5 d). 4. Limits of detection and of quantitation values were 1.94 and 6.45 g/10(9) g (ppb) for FF, respectively, and 0.48 and 1.58 ppb for FFA, respectively. Relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day variation below 11% also confirmed the usefulness of the method for analysing FF and FFA in eggs. 5. From the first day of both oral and parenteral administration, FF and FFA were detected at 0.1% and 0.08% of dosage, respectively, and 57% of the drugs were eliminated from the egg yolk. Elimination time of FF was 8 d in Groups 1, 2 and 3; 9 d in Group 4 and 10 d in Group 5. PMID:24945307

  3. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S. Cabo; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M. L.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages ( n=150) were found to not be significantly different ( pHACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. Dvalue varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the Dvalue of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  4. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  5. Production Performance of Fayoumi Chicken under Intensive Management

    OpenAIRE

    M K I Khan; M.J. Khatun; M.S.A. Bhuiyan; R. Sharmin

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted at Chittagong Government Veterinary College Pahartali, Chittagong to know the productive performance of Fayoumi chicken under intensive management. The Fayoumi pullets were collected from the Regional Government Poultry Farm, Pahartali, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The age and weight of each chicken were recorded at the laying of first egg and obtained the age and weight at sexual maturity was 163.63±1.17 days and 1253.11±16.42 g, respectively. Daily egg production was rec...

  6. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhao, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies. PMID:26713728

  7. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wu

    Full Text Available Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies.

  8. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S.C. E-mail: sandracv@itn.mces.pt; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  9. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commercial layer chicken in Namakkal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palani Srinivasan; Perumal Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods:A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39%of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3%to 20%and 0.5%to 7.0%respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with

  10. The application of superweak bioluminescence on freshness degree of chicken egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence of chicken egg in storage is studied by a detection system of superweak bioluminescence. The results show that egg has the strongest vigour on the third day after it is laid, subsequently the luminescence presents decay with oscillation. These eggs, which have been stored for 3 days, are most suitable for hatching. Different eggs have different luminescence intensities depending on the vigour of the egg. The stronger the vigour of the egg is, the more intensive the luminescence is. Superweak bioluminescence as a comprehensive index of biology and biochemistry response can be used for inspecting the freshness degree of the egg, and the test is nondestructive and sensitive

  11. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  12. The use of 2-dodecylcylobutanone for the identification of irradiated chicken meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutones which are useful markers for the identification of irradiated chicken meat and liquid whole egg. The compounds appear to be specific for irradiation since they are not generated by cooking, packing in vacuum or CO2 and are sufficiently stable to be detected throughout the shelf-life of these products. As the irradiation dose increases there is a linear increase in the amount of these compounds formed in chicken meat and so the method has potenetial for the estimation of irradiation dose. The procedure developed should be applicable for the identification of a range of foods of varying fat and fatty acid compostion. (author)

  13. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Eggs from other than chicken; duck, turkey, guinea, and goose eggs. (5) Other eggs—satisfactory for use... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the...

  14. Improving the outcome of a Marek's disease challenge in multiple lines of egg type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Arango, J; Arthur, J A; Settar, P; Kreager, K S; O'Sullivan, N P

    2013-06-01

    A challenge test following inoculation with a standard amount of a vv+ strain of the Marek's disease (MD) virus in multiple lines and multiple generations of egg type chicken and the corresponding phenotypic trend are described. This program significantly reduced mortality of progeny from selected sires for three to 11 generations in eight of the nine elite lines studied herein. In brown egg lines, a retrospective analysis of DNA indicated an association between the blood type B (major histocompatibility complex) of the sire and the MD mortality in the challenge of its progeny. As a result of the multigeneration stock amplification and crossbreeding processes used in the commercial breeding industry, improvement in survival after challenge at the elite level will translate to improved welfare for millions of birds at the commercial production level. PMID:23901770

  15. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Emily J; MacFarlane, Geoff R

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300mglead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1mglead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs. PMID:27135588

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  17. Irradiation of Poultry and Egg Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry and egg products may be treated advantageously with various kinds of irradiation process, in different circumstances. Where contamination with Salmonella is a problem, 'radicidation' may be carried out with doses of the order of 0.5 Mrad. This is particularly valuable for frozen products, such as whole egg and some kinds of poultry, especially duck. Dried-egg products may be treated also in this way. This application is described in detail by other authors (Ley, Mossel [2,3]). The treatment of poultry carcasses so that they can be stored indefinitely, or 'radappertization', can be achieved by doses of 4,5 Mrad. However, other processes must be associated with the irradiation, to prevent undesirable off-flavours. These can include pre-heating to inactivate enzymes, irradiation in the frozen state, in vacuum or nitrogen packs, or with activated charcoal included in the pack, and particular methods of cooking are sometimes recommended. These methods are of interest for army use, and have been extensively studied for the research programme of the United States Army. The 'radurization' process for poultry, i.e. increase in storage life by inactivation of most of the spoilage microorganisms, is of interest for commercial use. Doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 Mrad may be used without adverse effects on flavour, and will extend the periodjbefore microbial spoilage by 1.5- to 3-fold. Storage at chill temperatures (5°C or below) is necessary, and changes in flavour during storage may limit the extension of this period, so that 20 days at 1°C is about i the most obtainable without quality deterioration. The mechanism of these changes is not understood, but they are not due to microbial spoilage or to the irradiation. The eventual microbial spoilage of irradiated chickens at chill temperatures is due to non-pathogenic bacteria, which are normally present in the spoilage flora, though sometimes the proportions of different kinds of these bacteria may be altered, giving

  18. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens. PMID:23515571

  19. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a causal relationship could not be demonstrated. We conclude that nematode egg excretion through chicken feces in both natural and experimental infections shows repeatable diurnal fluctuations, which may indicate adaptive strategies by nematodes and eventually favor parasite spread. Since analytic sensitivity of fecal egg counts suffers from low egg concentrations in feces, samples taken during the daytime have a higher diagnostic value. PMID:25700938

  20. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals in chicken egg in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan; YEUNG Leo Wai Yin; YAMASHITA Nobuyoshi; TANIYASU Sachi; SO Man Ka; Margaret B. MURPHY; LAM Paul Kwan Sing

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples has drawn much attention. Recent human exposure studies found relatively high perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations in blood samples from several cities in China when compared with other countries. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to measure PFC concentrations and compositions in chicken egg samples from local markets in China; and (2) to conduct a preliminary human health risk assessment of egg consumption. Eight pooled egg samples from eight locations were analyzed for 11 PFCs. The results showed that close to 100% of the PFOS in the egg was distributed in egg yolk and PFOS was not detected in egg white (<0.08 ng/g wet weight, w/w). Of the perfluoroalkylsulfonates, only PFOS was detected in all egg samples, while of the perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was detected in all samples, followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (75% occurrence) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50% occurrence). PFOS concentrations in egg ranged from 45.0 to 86.9 ng/g w/w. The results suggested that current concentrations of PFOS in domestic chicken eggs are unlikely to cause immediate harm to Chinese populations.

  1. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  2. STRAIN EFFECT ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE TRAITS OF LOCAL IMPROVED EGYPTIAN AND CANADIAN CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. TAHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of strain on some productive as well as some reproductive traits of local improved dual purpose three Canadian strains (Shaver A, B and C and two Egyptian chicken strains (Salam and Mandarah. Results revealed that strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for (body weight at sexual maturity, body weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age, also strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for feed consumption (at sexual maturity, 90 days of egg production, 42 weeks and 65 weeks of age and (egg weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age. While strain effect for fertility, hatchability and scientific hatchability, age at sexual maturity, Egg number at first 90 days of egg production and egg number at 42 and 65 weeks of age were recorded for Egyptian chickens. Moreover, negative correlation estimates were observed between age at sexual maturity and egg number at different periods as well as positive correlation between body weight at 8 weeks of age and most of productive traits that of high great benefits to select for economic traits in chickens at earlier age.

  3. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of the membranes of chicken egg

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, C K; Chen, T. W.; Chan, H L; Ng, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Questions regarding the structure of the inner and outer shell membranes of the chicken egg were addressed in this study by correlating observations from light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The egg membrane had a limiting membrane, which measured .9 to .15 pn in thickness and appeared to be a continuous and an impervious layer, but the shell membrane did not. Under the SEM, each membrane was seen to be made up of severa1 fibre ...

  4. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  5. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  6. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  7. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  8. Detection of Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirus (TTMDV/SAV) in the sera of domestic village chickens and its vertical transmission from hen to eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzari, M; Salmanizadeh, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Although the infection of different animals and non-human primates with other members of Anelloviridae have already been reported there is no report about infection of animals with Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirs (TTMDV/SAV). The aim of this study was to detect the virus in domestic village chickens. Blood samples were collected from 79 domestic village chickens in Isfahan. Blood samples of five adult laying hens and one cockerel were collected in three consecutive weeks (days 1, 8 and 14) as experimental chickens. Ten eggs were randomly collected from the eggs laid during days 12 to 17 and thin and thick egg whites and yolk samples were collected aseptically. After DNA extraction Nested-PCR was performed using SMAs/SMAr primers. In PCR, 431 bp and 441 bp products were detected. The detected bands were extracted and sequenced. Totally 26 out of 79 (32.9%) of the blood samples were positive for the virus. The frequency of the infection of the different parts of the eggs tested was 76%. For the first time TTMDV/SAV was detected in domestic village chickens which also vertically transmitted to eggs. PMID:27175162

  9. Diversity in Population Size and Production Parameters of Selected Varieties of Plymouth Rock Chicken Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to compare population size, eggs and meat production of the locally adapted chicken breed – Plymouth Rock of different varieties (white, barred and buff in Slovakia reared in extensive system. From the view of population size in conditions of Slovak Republic, most numerous of Plymouth Rock variety is white (average effective population size 118.96, while the lowest numerous we recorded for buff variety (21.62. The highest eggs and meat production we noted in case of White Plymouth. For this reason, this variety of Plymouth Rock was used in hybridisation for development of modern hybrid combination for production of broiler chickens.

  10. Effect of egg weight on hatchability and hatchling weight in Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, embryonic deaths and hatchling weight of three rural breeds (Fayoumi, Desi and crossbred (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi chickens. Materials and Methods: Three different egg weight groups classified into small: ( 45g were used in the experiment. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. Simultaneously quadratic type equation was used to determine the egg weight for optimum hatchability and hatchling weight. Results: Percentage hatchability of medium-sized eggs was higher (P < 0.05 than those in large sized eggs. Similarly, large–sized eggs had higher (P < 0.05 percentage hatchability than small sized eggs in all breeds. Hatchability percentage changed by ratio 0.4077 with one unit change in mean egg weight of Fayoumi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.5488 with one unit change in egg weight of Desi. The hatchability changed by ratio 0.3767 with one unit change in egg weight of crossbred chickens. Mean hatchling weight in Fayoumi eggs changed by ratio of 0.6760; Desi eggs by ratio of 0.5955 and crossbred chicken eggs by ratio of 1.3613 with one unit change in mean egg weight. The overall mean hatchling weight as percentage of mean egg weight in case of Fayoumi was 67.10, in Desi 62.42 and 68.36 in case of cross birds. There was no evidence that hatchabilitypercentage increased with increase in egg weight in all the three strains of birds. Small-sized eggs had higher (P<0.05 embryonic deaths than those of medium and large-sized eggs in three breeds. Hatchling weight from large eggs were (P < 0.05 higher than those of small eggs in three breeds. Mean hatchling weight of Fayoumi changed by ratio 0.676 with one unit change in mean egg weight. In case of Desi chickens, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 0.5955 with one unit change in egg weight. In case of crossbred chicken, mean hatchling weight changed by ratio 1.3613 with one unit change in

  11. Use of irradiation for decontamination of chicken and spray-dried whole egg powder from Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 60Co gamma irradiation was investigated on the concentration of Salmonella (S.) typhimurium in artificially contaminated chicken carcasses and on the number of S. tennessee and S. agona in artificially contaminated spary-dried whole egg powder and liquid whole egg. Irradiation of carcasses and of liquid whole egg was carried out at deep frozen conditions between -10 0C and -18 0C and whole egg powder at 15-20 0C. The irradiation doses used where between 0.05 and 8.0 kGy. The D10-value of S. typhimurium in broiler chicks ranged between 0.57 and 0.74 and of S. agona and S. tennessee, resp., amounted to 0.95 and 1.07 in spray dried whole egg powder and 0.47 and 0.53, resp., in whole egg content. Irradiation caused drastic reduction of physiological microflora in chicken carcasses. By radiation treatment using a dose of 4.0 kGy, germ count reductions by 3-5 decimal powers were achieved. Resistance of microbes increased in following succession: Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp., other Enterobacteriaceae spp., Micrococcus spp., Flavobacteriaceae spp., yeasts. Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp., fungi. Results of microbiological and sensorial examinations allow following conclusions: (1) irradiation is highly effective against Salmonella. (2) Irradiation dose of 4.0 kGy is able to kill about 1 million Salmonellae per chicken. This guarantees safe elimination of naturally occurring Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses. (3) Irradiation of chicken carcasses up to 4.0 kGy causes no deterioration of quality, however storage longer than 4 months deteriorates sensorial qualities more than of unirradiated carcasses. (4) Whole egg powder tolerates a maximal irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy without deterioration of sensorial food quality. (5) Irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy eliminates about 100 to 1000 Salmonellae per kg whole egg powder, if the egg powder is stored 3 to 5 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  12. Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sola-Ojo, F. E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52 weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks obtained for FE. Significant difference (p0.05 differences in other egg quality traits measured.

  13. Transfer of orally administrated iodine-131 into chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenak, Turan E-mail: unak@sci.ege.edu.tr; Yildirim, Yeliz; Avcibasi, U.; Cetinkaya, Berkan; Uenak, G

    2003-03-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 as both as free iodide (Na{sup 131}I) and covalently bound to aniline (aniline-{sup 131}I) was added to the drinking water of two Leghorn laying hens as a single dose and also as a cumulative dose over 1 week. The radioactivity of the principal parts of the eggs, i.e. shell, white, and yolk, was measured, and the radioactivity levels per gram material, and percent of the total radioactivity were calculated. The radioactivity measurements were continued for 1 month following the administration of {sup 131}I. In the case of the single dose administration, the results obtained showed that about 15% of the total radioactivity administered as Na{sup 131}I was transported into the egg structure; compared to only about 1% for aniline-{sup 131}I. After cumulative administration, about 15% of the total administered radioactivity was transported into the egg structure with both forms of {sup 131}I. This was probably because of metabolic cleavage of iodine bonds in the labeled aniline molecules during the longer period of exposure. These results also showed considerable accumulation of {sup 131}I in the egg yolks. In the case of the single dose administration, {sup 131}I can be detected in eggs up to about 20 days after administration, and up to about 30 days, in the case of the cumulative administration over 1 week.

  14. Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation egg storage conditions (temperature, duration, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) affects viability, body mass, and physiological variables and functions in day 15 chicken embryos. Embryo viability was impaired in eggs stored for 2 and 3 weeks, with the effects greater at 22°C compared to 15°C. However, embryo size was reduced in eggs stored at 15°C compared with 22°C. Phenotypic change resulting from embryonic programming was evident in the fact that preincubation storage at 15°C diminished hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell concentration ([RBC]), and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Storage duration at 15°C more severely affected the time course (2, 6, and 24 h) responses of Hct, [RBC], and [Hb] to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by submersion compared with storage duration at 22°C. The time-specific regulation of acid-base balance was changed progressively with storage duration at both 22 and 15°C preincubation storages. Consequently, preincubation egg storage at 22°C resulted in poor viability compared with eggs stored at 15°C, but size and physiological functions of embryos in eggs stored for 1-2 weeks were worse in eggs stored in the cooler than stored under room conditions. Avian eggs thus prove to be useful for examining developmental consequences to physiology of altered preincubation thermal environment in very early stages of development (embryonic programming). PMID:26908714

  15. Prevalence and Pathology of egg bound syndrome in commercial white leghorn chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palani Srinivasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of egg bound syndrome in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India was studied over a period of two years from June 2009 to May 2011. Out of 24,158 carcasses examined, the egg bound syndrome was noticed in 663 cases with a overall mortality of 0.5 %. The study revealed that heat stress (28.66%, asphyxia (23.23%, hypocalcemia (17.35%, salpingitis (7.54%, large size egg (6.18%, dehydration (5.73%, vent trauma (5.28%, obesity (3.62%, abnormal ovulation (1.81% and oviduct neoplasm (0.60% were the various causes of egg bound syndrome in commercial layer chicken. Microbial analysis of the samples revealed the presence of Escherichia coli from cases associated with salpingitis. The syndrome was recorded with highest occurrence in 21-30 wk and 61-70 wk age laying chicken and with a higher incidence in summer season (44.95%.

  16. Isolation studies on the prevalance of salmonellae in chicken organs, eggs and feed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. Methods: A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. Results: The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide. (author)

  17. BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE OF TRITIUM IN CHICKENS AND EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies of tritium transport in the environment suggest that although water is the main route for human intake, other routes should not be ignored. The importance of eggs as a step in the pathway for human intake of tritium was assessed by intravenously administering a s...

  18. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance. PMID:26485361

  19. Cooling rates of living and killed chicken and quail eggs in air and in helium-oxygen gas mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, H; Turner, J S; Paganelli, C V

    1988-01-01

    1. In a helium atmosphere, heat is dissipated from a surface 3.5 times faster than it is in air. Eggs in a helium-oxygen atmosphere cool only 1.4 times faster than they cool in air. This signifies that internal resistance to heat flow is a significant factor in the cooling rates of eggs. 2. Heat flow occurs inside an egg in two ways: by conduction through the tissues and in flowing blood. Killing an embryo stops the latter, but not the former. Eggs cool more slowly after they have been killed, signifying that blood flow can be an important component in an egg's internal flows of heat. 3. Blood flow should be a relatively more important component of heat flow in large eggs than in small eggs. The difference in conductance between living and killed eggs is larger in 60 g chicken eggs than it is in 10 g quail eggs. PMID:2900113

  20. A rapid and convenient dot-immunobinding assay for chicken egg-yolk antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG PING RUAN; LI MA; XIN SHENG YAO; QIAN WEN; HONG YUN ZOU; WEI LUO; XIAO NING WANG

    2006-01-01

    The dot-immunobinding assay was applied to investigate the characteristics of chicken egg yolk antibodies. This method of assay was proved to be a rapid and simple method to demonstrate and characterize the egg-yolk antibody IgY in comparison with the traditional ELISA assay. By using the BandScan software, the gray scale value of dots and the background could be determined. According to the intensity of dots (gray scale value) compared to the standard sample of 10 μg, how much IgY remained can be determined in a shorter time.

  1. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

  2. In-depth analysis of the chicken egg white proteome using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hen's egg white has been the subject of intensive chemical, biochemical and food technological research for many decades, because of its importance in human nutrition, its importance as a source of easily accessible model proteins, and its potential use in biotechnological processes. Recently the arsenal of tools used to study the protein components of egg white has been complemented by mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies. Application of these fast and sensitive methods has already enabled the identification of a large number of new egg white proteins. Recent technological advances may be expected to further expand the egg white protein inventory. Results Using a dual pressure linear ion trap Orbitrap instrument, the LTQ Orbitrap Velos, in conjunction with data analysis in the MaxQuant software package, we identified 158 proteins in chicken egg white with two or more sequence unique peptides. This group of proteins identified with very high confidence included 79 proteins identified in egg white for the first time. In addition, 44 proteins were identified tentatively. Conclusions Our results, apart from identifying many new egg white components, indicate that current mass spectrometry technology is sufficiently advanced to permit direct identification of minor components of proteomes dominated by a few major proteins without resorting to indirect techniques, such as chromatographic depletion or peptide library binding, which change the composition of the proteome.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, S. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)], E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn; Liu, W.X.; Li, X.Q.; Zhou, D.X.; Li, X.; Yang, Y.F.; Yue, D.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Coveney, R.M. [Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 {+-} 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 {+-} 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 ± 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 ± 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure

  5. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens and small ruminants in particular play importantsoci-economic roles in developing countries. Production of village chickens is a source of easy and regular income for rural farmers in developing countries in general and inBurkina Fasoin particular. Unfortunately efforts to improve this production system were not very effective and village chickens still h...

  6. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation. (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the United...

  7. Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    F. E. Sola-Ojo; Ayorinde, K. L.; Jatto, O. M.; Toye, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE) and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE)} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52) weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE) of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks) compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks) obtained for FE. Significant difference (p

  8. Brewer's Grain from Cameroon Brewery in Breeder Chicken Rations : Effect on Productive and Reproductive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeni, MJ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of brewer's dried grain (BDG on the productive and reproductive traits in breeder chickens, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of ISA commercial breed were subjected to dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % levels of BDG. Feed and water were provided ad libitum over the 5-months experimental period. Reproductive and productive traits such as egg production, egg weight, albumen height, shell weight, semen quantity fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were measured. Results indicated that when BDG was fed at the 30 % level in the ration, the hen-day egg production (50.6 % was significantly (P of inclusion. There was a significant (P 0.05 was noticed between treatments for ratio of shell weight to egg weight, albumen height, semen quantity and fertility. The results suggest that although the 30 % level of BDG can be tolerated, the 20 %, level of BDG inclusion is more appropriate for breeder birds.

  9. The Effect of Disinfection of Hatching Eggs on Hatchability of Oravka Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this the work was evaluated effect of disinfection of Oravka hatching eggs by formalin gas (20 g KMnO4+ 30 g formaldehyde of 40 % concentration to 1 m3 of a space and ozone (0.450 ppm in time 12 hours on fertility,hatchability, spontaneity of chickens hatching and embryonal mortality during incubation. The hatching was realisedin Bios Midi incubator at a standard technology process of the hatching. We recorded a positive effect of disinfectionof ozone on hatchability from fertilised eggs (91.79% compared with disinfection of formalin (91.10% A totallyembryonal mortality of chickens had not record any difference between two methods of disinfection but we recordedpositive effect of ozone on embryonic mortality of chicks to 7 day of incubation and from 15 to 21 day of incubation.We searched more spontaneous chicks hatching from hatching eggs disinfected by ozone in 510 hours of incubation.It is possible to recommend disinfection of hatching eggs by ozone, as an alternative way of disinfection of hatchingeggs usable in hatching practice, on the base of obtained experimental results. This way of disinfection hatching eggsis more ecological not only from the point of environment, but also of the healthy of employees of the hatchery.

  10. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis antimicrobial peptide resistance genes aid in defense against chicken innate immunity, fecal shedding, and egg deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Jessica A; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian β-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens. PMID:25267840

  11. Productivity of local chickens under village management conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusanya, N A; Katule, A M; Mutayoba, S K; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E; Minga, U M

    2002-09-01

    The productivity of local chickens under village management conditions was studied in six villages situated in three climatic zones within Morogoro District in Tanzania. Two villages were picked in each climatic zone (warm and wet, warm and dry, cool and wet) for the study. The data were obtained by actual measurement, qualitative observations and interview of members of the households directly responsible for the care of chickens. In addition, data sheets were given to selected farmers to record the performance of their chickens. The mean flock size for the three zones was 16.2, with a range of 2 to 58. The overall mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 11.8, 44.1 g and 83.6%, respectively. The overall mean chick survival rate to 10 weeks of age was 59.7%. The mean live weights for cocks and hens were 1948 g and 1348 g, respectively. The mean growth rates to the age of 10 weeks were 4.6 g/day and 5.4 g/day, while those from 10 to 14 weeks of age were 8.4 g/day and 10.2 g/day for female and male birds, respectively. The age at first lay ranged between 6 and 8 months, and the average hen had three laying cycles per year. Most of the chickens were left to scavenge during the day and were provided with simple housing at night (95.2% of the owners). Only small amounts of supplementary feeds were occasionally given and minimal health care was provided. It was concluded that the low productivity of chickens was partly due to the prevailing poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper health care, poor nutrition and housing. PMID:12379059

  12. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  13. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3 [Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Rahayu HS

    2003-01-01

    Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs w...

  14. Effect of cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation on the hatching process of chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on fertilized chicken eggs was carried out to determine the effects of 60Co irradiation on the embryos, their fatality, and growth impairment or deformity, in particular. The experimental groups, consisting of 10 eggs each, recieved a 60Co irradiation of 50 to 2,000 rads on any one day between day 0 and day 20 of incubation. The larger the irradiation dose, the greater was the number of dead embryos. The fatality was higher in the groups receiving irradiation in the earlier stage (1st week). The resultant death was a chronic one. The irradiation also caused body weight decrease and growth impairment. A decrease in the brain and liver weights was noted, suggesting insufficiency in these organs. Deformity occurred in 4%, most of which involved impairments of skeletal growth, of the bones of the extremities and the bill, in particular. Administration of the SH amino acid, cysteine tended to alleviate the adverse effects of the 60Co irradiation. These results for fertilized chicken eggs suggest the possibility of abortion and the occurrence of deformities in human fetuses if they should be subjected to 60Co irradiation. (author)

  15. The jejunal cellular responses in chickens infected with a single dose of Ascaridia galli eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr; Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2015-07-01

    This histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate the cellular response in the jejunum to Ascaridia galli during the first 7 weeks of infection. Fourty-two ISA Brown chickens (7 weeks old) were infected orally with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs each while 28 chickens were left as uninfected controls. Six infected and four control chickens were necropsied at each time point 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-infection (dpi). Samples for histopathology were taken from three sites of the jejunoileum. Significantly higher eosinophil counts were seen in infected chickens compared to uninfected at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28 dpi (P galli infection induced changes in the mucosal thickness as reduced villi length at 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 dpi and in the degree of general cellular infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucosal layer. No adult worms were seen during the experiment; therefore, A. galli larvae have elicited a moderate cellular response in the lamina propria, mainly consisting of eosinophils in the early phase and later of mast cells. PMID:25877388

  16. Social order and egg production of hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, van E.H.; Groeneveld, J.; Brat, L.C.; Kleijn, L.J.K.; Schenk, P.M.

    1968-01-01

    1. For two flocks of 48 and 40 hens, consisting of the F1 of Rhode Island Red males and White Leghorn females, peck-order, aggressiveness and egg production were determined. Flock I was built up step by step by continually adding a group of 8 hens to the hens already present in the testing pen. Floc

  17. The Effect of Disinfection of Hatching Eggs on Hatchability of Oravka Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril Hrnčár; Simona Prachárová; Jozef Bujko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this the work was evaluated effect of disinfection of Oravka hatching eggs by formalin gas (20 g KMnO4+ 30 g formaldehyde of 40 % concentration to 1 m3 of a space) and ozone (0.450 ppm in time 12 hours) on fertility,hatchability, spontaneity of chickens hatching and embryonal mortality during incubation. The hatching was realisedin Bios Midi incubator at a standard technology process of the hatching. We recorded a positive effect of disinfectionof ozone on hatchability from fertili...

  18. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  19. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...

  20. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  1. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and residues in commercial chicken eggs from smallholder poultry keepers in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, H E; Simon, C; Karimuribo, E D; Mdegela, R H

    2010-08-01

    Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in commercial chicken eggs was determined in Morogoro municipality between January and February 2007. Twenty smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of antimicrobials, reasons of use and their awareness on antimicrobial withdrawal period. Seventy egg samples were collected for qualitative antimicrobial drug residues analysis by use of agar well diffusion and Delvotest SP assays. It was found that farmers use antimicrobial drugs as prophylaxis and treatment of common chicken diseases namely fowl typhoid (85%), infectious bursa disease (Gumboro) (65%) infectious coryza (65%), collibacilosis (55%), coccidiosis (54%), Newcastle disease (50%), helminthosis (20%) and fowl pox (15%). Antimicrobials accounted for 85% of the drugs commonly used. It was also found that 65% of the farmers treat their chicken themselves. The common drugs were oxytetracycline (75%), egg booster (50%), amprolium (35%), sulphamethoxypyridazine (35%), sulphanilamide (25%), chlortetracyclines (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), sulphadiazine-trimethoprim (20%), duoxycycline (20%), sulphadiazine (25%) and flumequine (10%). Eighty per cent of the farmers had knowledge on antimicrobial withdrawal period sold eggs before withdrawal period and almost 85% were unaware of possible effects of antimicrobial residues in humans. All 70 eggs were positive to antimicrobial residues by Delvotest kit, but 21.4% positive with agar well diffusion test. It was concluded that the presence of antimicrobial residues in table eggs could be of public health significance to the egg consumers in Morogoro municipality. PMID:19486498

  2. Aflatoxin B1 in eggs and chicken livers by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhizi, Behzad; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, low-cost and simple technique has been developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in eggs and livers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. In this study, the presence of AFB1 was investigated in 150 eggs and 50 chicken livers from the local market of Tabriz, Iran. AFB1 was extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (80:20) and cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction which is a very economical, fast and sensitive method. AFB1 was quantified by HPLC-UV without need for any complex derivatisation in samples to enhance the detection. The results showed that 72% of the liver and 58% of the egg samples were contaminated with AFB1 ranging from 0.30 to 16.36 µg kg (̶1). limit of detection and limit of quantification for AFB1 were 0.08 and 0.28 µg kg (̶ 1), respectively. The proposed method is suitable for fast analysing of AFB1 in egg and liver samples. PMID:26160230

  3. Effect of using radiation and some growth promoters on the economics of egg production during the second production season in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layer chicken farms are considered important projects which play a major role in the national economy, for their fast money cycles and their high profits. Many breeders have shared in animal production and egg production through the private projects in Egypt. Our government also established many layer chicken farms to solve the production problems and actual consumption food problems in egypt are due to a lack of food quality and quantity as well as in food calory. The egyptian consumer dose not obtain the same quantity of protein as his counter parts in the developed countries: Particular egg protein which considers a cheap source. 36 tabs.,5 figs.,21 refs

  4. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  5. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Buelow, Becky J.; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G.; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the e...

  6. Efficient production of transgenic chickens using self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyong XU; Yan SUN; Hongmei DING; Meng WANG; Yafei CAI; Jie CHEN; Honglin LIU

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the simple and effective production of transgenic chickens, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was expressed by using third-generation self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors. In our experiments, lentiviruses were injected into 204 fertilized eggs, from which 30 ( 15% ) chickens were hatched. The exogenous gene was detected in the genomes of 16 out of 30 (53%) chickens. The green fluorescence signal was observed directly in various body parts, and was particularly significant in the testes. The transgenes were also found in the offspring of these chickens. The results indicate that HIV-based lentivirul vectors can be used to generate transgenic birds economically and effectively [Current Zoology 55 (5): 383 - 387,2009].

  7. Pathogenicity of M. lipofaciens (strain ML64), isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Lierz, Michael; Stark, Robert; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Brokat, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Some Mycoplasma species are well known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey and a strain of M. lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be patho...

  8. Nutritional effects of egg shell membrane supplements on chicken performance and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Huff, W E; Huff, G R

    2015-06-01

    Eggshell membranes (ESM) contain a variety of proteins and peptides which help in the development of embryo and provide protection to it. Many of the peptides and proteins associated with ESM have antimicrobial, immune-modulatory, and adjuvant properties. We hypothesized that the membrane byproducts from egg, provided as posthatch nutritional supplements to chickens, may improve their performance and immunity. To explore its effect, we fed 3 groups of broiler chicks with feed containing 0, 0.2, and 0.4% ESM from d 1 posthatch through 14 d and regular feed thereafter. The birds were individually weighed at the onset of the study and at weekly intervals until the termination at third wk when they were bled and euthanized. The relative weights of liver, spleen, bursa, and heart, hematology profiles, and clinical chemistry variables including serum IgM, IgG, and corticosterone concentrations were measured. The chickens in the ESM treated groups showed a statistically significant increase in BW with no impact on relative organ weights. Compared with controls, the WBC and lymphocyte percentage increased in chickens fed 0.4% ESM whereas the monocyte percentage decreased at both levels of ESM. Except for the serum protein which increased in ESM fed birds no other metabolic clinical chemistry variables showed any significant change. Both IgM and IgG(Y) levels were elevated and corticosterone levels reduced in chickens fed ESM supplemented diets. Our results suggest that ESM supplements during the early phases of growth may improve immunity and stress variables, and enhance their growth performance without any detrimental effect on other physiological parameters. PMID:25840966

  9. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  10. 新型保健鸡蛋黄酸奶的研制%Research on new functional chicken egg yolk yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 彭志宏; 李和平; 李云芳; 魏建春

    2012-01-01

    Taking chicken egg yolk and fresh milk as main raw material,a new functional egg yolk yoghurt was made through lactobacillus fermentation. The experiment introduced chicken egg yolk health care function and explored the technological conditions and the product formula of processing egg yolk yoghurt with health effect. Orthogonal experiment results showed that the optimum technological conditions were: the egg yolk liquid amount to 15%, lactobacillus fermentation inoculum for 4%, yogurt stabilizer amount to 0.3%, adding sugar amount to 9%, at 40℃ for 5h fermentation.The product had orange yellow color, uniformity and smooth texture, and with delicious egg yolk smell and good flavor. And its acidity was 95°T, viable cell counts was 6.2×108cfu/ml.%以鸡蛋黄液、鲜牛乳为主要原料,通过乳酸菌发酵,制得保健型鸡蛋黄酸奶.正交试验结果表明,当蛋黄液加入量为15%,发酵剂接种量为4%,酸奶稳定剂的添加量为0.3%,白砂糖添加量为9%,在40℃条件下,发酵5h可获得橙黄色,均匀细腻,具有蛋黄特有的鲜香气味,色、香、味具佳的蛋黄酸奶,其酸度为95°T,乳酸菌活菌数为6.2× 108cfu/mL.

  11. Feed restriction in broiler chickens production

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraei M.

    2012-01-01

    The feed restriction program is on of the main techniques in growth curve manipulation for increasing production efficiency in broiler chicken. Quantities and qualitative feed restriction are procedures that can be used to manipulate the feeding strategies of poultry in order to decrease growth and metabolic rate to some extent and so alleviate the incidence of some metabolic diseases such as ascites, lameness, mortality, and sudden death syndrome and so im...

  12. Purification and properties of chicken egg-white cobalamin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K; Zak, Z

    1990-10-01

    A cobalamin-binding protein has been purified from chicken egg-white by using a combination of conventional and high performance ion-exchange chromatography. Following initial purification by DEAE-cellulose, ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephacryl S-200 CM-cellulose and affinity chromatography, appropriate fractions were further purified using the Pharmacia fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. Using this method of purification, egg-white CBP has been purified more rapidly and with greater recovery than with conventional column chromatography. The homogeneity of this protein was verified by SDS-PAGE. The Mr was 37,000 by SDS-PAGE and 39,000 by gel filtration, which indicated that it was a glycoprotein. The stokes radius was 4.1 nm and pI was 4.3. The protein bound 57COB12 with a molar ratio of 1/1 and kd of 0.40 microM. The egg-white CBP was composed of 294 amino acid residues. Thiol groups and metal ions were not connected with the Cbl-binding activities. PMID:2078588

  13. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  14. Is aboriginal food less allergenic? Comparing IgE-reactivity of eggs from modern and ancient chicken breeds in a cohort of allergic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. METHODOLOGY: Egg allergic children (n = 25 were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1-5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3-5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family.

  15. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    OpenAIRE

    Muje Gjonbalaj; Arben Musliu; Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina; Ilir Zenalaj

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908) is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predicto...

  16. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  17. Preparation and characterization of keratin and chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yao; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of keratin-chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite films were studied using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to demonstrate and quantify the secondary transformation of composite films. The results showed that the secondary structure of treated films was transformed from disordered structure to ordered conformation including α-helix conformation and β-pleated-sheet conformation due to the increase of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The absorption features of treated films were exhibited by the UV-vis spectra. The bule-shift and decreased intensity indicated the change of microenvironment due to the concentration of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The transmission electron microscopy images of composite films supported the aggregation resulting from microenvironment. The effect of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster was characterized by the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) images which showed the gradually intensive luminescence with increasing Au cluster and the transformation from the whiskers to nanoparticle.

  18. Body weight and enzymes activities in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with low level gamma rays before incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraljević Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma radiation upon body weight (BW, body weight gain (BWG, feed consumption (FC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. Our aim was also to investigate the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the blood plasma of those chickens. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. BW of chickens was measured by a single weighting of chickens on the 1st and 42nd day of the fattening period. An average BWG was calculated from the obtained results during the whole fattening period (i.e. from the 1st until the 42nd day. FC was measured each day during the fattening time and total feed consumption was calculated. On the basis of FC and BW, FCR was calculated (FC/BWG. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1st and 3rd day, or from the wing vein on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of all enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using reagents according to recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. BW of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was statistically significant higher than in the controls during the fattening period; on day 42 of fattening, BW of the experimental chickens was 90 g (i.e. 4.8 % higher than in the controls (P<0.05. FC during the fattening period did not essentially differ in the experimental and the control group. The AST activity was significantly increased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 and 10 (P<0.05, ALT activity was increased in the same

  19. Comparison of aviary, barn and conventional cage raising of chickens on laying performance and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, M; Chae, B J; Lohakare, J; Keohavong, B; Lee, M H; Lee, S J; Kim, D M; Lee, J Y; Ohh, S J

    2014-08-01

    This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC), barn (BR) and aviary (AV). The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird's free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800) pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week). There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP) and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1) average HDEP (%) of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g) were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2) were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g); feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5) and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g) data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g) and BR (127 g) tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g) during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs) in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV. PMID:25083115

  20. Evaluation of the in vivo antioxidative activity of redox nanoparticles by using a developing chicken egg as an alternative animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Chiaki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Ayaka; Noguchi, Chiho; Tanaka, Ryo; Yoshitomi, Toru; Nagasaki, Yukio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2014-05-28

    Antioxidants have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects as pharmacotherapies for cardiovascular diseases. The in vitro systems generally employed to evaluate antioxidants, however, are limited by having no appreciable in vivo redox status of the antioxidants. Therefore, we used our developing chicken egg model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidative activity of a redox nanoparticle possessing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (RNP(O)). The 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) elicited strong oxidative stress and its LD50 value for chick embryos was 3.5±0.9mg/egg. The low molecular weight nitroxide compound, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), which is known to have the highest level of antioxidant activity, showed no significant protective effect against AAPH-induced embryo lethality. On the contrary, RNP(O) had potent protective effects against AAPH-induced embryo lethality. Moreover, RNP(O) could significantly suppress the production of lipid peroxides in chick serum induced by hydrocortisone. Since RNP(O) has a longer retention time in blood than TEMPOL, RNP(O) may protect the embryo against lethal oxidative stress by suppressing lipid peroxidation. The validity of in vivo experiments using developing chicken eggs was supported by our data, where RNP(O) was determined to elicit strong antioxidative activity in vivo, irrespective of the lack of a significant difference in the in vitro activity between low-molecular weight TEMPOL and RNP(O). Our results support the use of the developing chicken egg model to evaluate the potential in vivo antioxidative activity of RNP(O). PMID:24637467

  1. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against TNFR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, M; Amirijavid, S; Entezari, M; Shafaroodi, H; Saghafi, Z Jokar

    2015-01-01

    TNF is from a big family of cytokines with different activities in different parts of the body. Among the various activities of TNFR1, induction of apoptosis by a receptor appears to be an attractive and promising one. This can be achieved through the death domain of the receptor in cells that are stimulated by ligand, to induce apoptosis. Activation of the receptor occurs through its occupation by ligands or its antagonists such as antibodies. Several kinds of antibodies, including antibodies of mammals and birds are used in the research and therapy field. Avian antibodies are highly regarded which is due to the many positive characteristics they have. Firstly, total protein of TNFR1 was cloned. Blood sampling was performed, white blood cell separation, extraction of RNA and at cDNA synthesis. After making sure from synthesis of cDNA, it was used as template for PCR reaction. The cloned fragment in the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, transferred to prokaryotic host, BL21(DE3) and the protein (TNFR1) expressed. After protein purification by affinity column were injected to immunize the chickens. Interestingly, antibodies purified from egg yolk of immunized chickens, in ELISA assay showed sufficient specificity. Such antibodies could able to ensure quick and immediate protection against several biotargets (Fig. 4, Ref. 37). PMID:25924641

  2. Polymorphisms associated with egg number at 300 days of age in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H P; Zeng, H; Zhang, D X; Jia, X L; Luo, C L; Fang, M X; Nie, Q H; Zhang, X Q

    2011-01-01

    We looked for variations that could be associated with chicken egg number at 300 days of age (EN300) in seven genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), GnRH receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y (NPY), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1), prolactin (PRL), and the QTL region between 87 and 105 cM of the Z chromosome. Ten mutations in the seven genes were chosen to do marker-trait association analyses in a population comprising 1310 chickens, which were obtained from a company located in Guangdong Province of China. The C1704887T of VIPR-1 was found to have a highly significant association with EN300. The T5841629C of DRD2 and the C1715301T of VIPR-1 were significantly associated with EN300. A highly significant association was also found between the C1704887T-C1715301T haplotypes of VIPR-1 and EN300. H1H3 had the highest EN300. Four PCR-RFLP variations in the candidate QTL region were selected to investigate their genetic effects on EN300. The haplotypes of T32742468C-G32742603A in this region showed a highly significant association with EN300. Bioinformatics analyses showed that both T32742468C and G32742603A were located in intron 1 of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2) gene. We conclude that five SNPs, including C1704887T and C1715301T of VIPR-1, T5841629C of DRD2, and T32742468C and G32742603A of SH3GL2, would be useful as markers for breeding to increase chicken EN300. PMID:22002122

  3. HERITABILITY OF PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION TRAITS IN COLORED SYNTHETIC BROILER BREEDER CHICKEN OF ODISHA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D.Nayak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding program in Odisha was started in 1994 to improve productivity of coloured synthetic broiler breeder chicken. The pedigree in the current study descended from 69 sires and 552 dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using sire and dam component of variances for various production and reproduction traits after necessary corrections for hatch effects were done. Heritability in male was found to be 0.232 ± 0.615 for body weight at 5th week while it was high (0.718 ± 0.129 in female. Age at first egg showed a low heritability (0.127 ± 0.131 estimated from sire component and was 0.191 ± 0.336 estimated from dam component of variance. Heritability for egg numbers up to 40 weeks laying was 0.624 ± 0.439 when estimated from dam component of variance but, was negative from sire component. Heritability value for body weight at 20th week of age (male was very high but it was low in females (0.035 ± 0.134 when estimated from sire component of variance. Egg weight had a very high heritability value (0.644 ± 0.265 but egg shape index had a low value (0.150 ± 0.240 when estimation was from sire component. The comparative rg values among 5th week body weight, 20th week body weight, ASM, egg weight, egg production were significant (p < 0.05. These traits seemed to have additive effect of genes and utilizing them as selection traits would improve both egg production and growth performance of breeder broiler chicken.

  4. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils. PMID:26197434

  5. 鸡早期产蛋性能与ESR1基因内含子1多态性相关分析%Analysis on the association of intron 1 of ESR1 gene with early egg production performance in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祥; 韦雄; 许厚强; 张勇; 孙鹃; 杨忠诚

    2012-01-01

    In order to seek the association between the polymorphism of intronl of ESRl gene and early egg production performance, PCR- SSCP and DNA sequence technology were used to analyze the genotypes at 124 blue-shell chickens, and the association between genotypes and characters was studied. The results showed that five genotypes of T1 T1 , T1 T2, T2T2, T1 T3 and T3 T3 in In1 fragment of ESR1 gene was exsited; the test group were in the high polymorphic state, the distribution of genotypes deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P< 0. 05). Variance analysis showed that early egg production performance indices between different genotypes reached to significant level (P< 0. 05 ) or highly significant level ( P<0. 01) , the individual performance of T1 T3 genotype had the advantage. Our finding suggested that artificial selection for this group could improve the egg production performance.%为探寻鸡ESR1基因内含子1多态性与早期产蛋性能存在的关联性,采用DNA测序和PCR-SSCP技术对124只绿壳蛋鸡的基因型与性状进行相关性研究.结果表明,鸡ESR1基因In1片段中发现5种基因型:T1T1、T1T2、T2 T2、T1T3和T3 T3;试验群体处于高度多态,群体遗传偏离了H ardy-Weinberg平衡(P<0.05).方差分析显示,各基因型个体间的早期产蛋性状指标达到了显著(P<0 05)或极显著(P<0.01)水平,其中T1T3基因型个体性能处于优势,对该群体进行人为选择可提高产蛋性能.

  6. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types. PMID:27108035

  8. Excision of foreign gene product with cathepsin D in chicken hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To easily and rapidly recover exogenous gene products from chicken egg yolk, we constructed pVTG-catD (VTG, vitellogenin; catD, cathepsin D), a vector cassette carrying two catD-recognition signal peptides (catD-RSPs) in addition to the cloning site. An enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-encoding DNA fragment was ligated into the pVTG-catD. When the resultant construct pVTG-EGFP-catD containing histidine- and myc-tags was transfected into the chicken hepatoma cell line LMH, EGFP-expression at 24 h post-cultivation was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Because a signal peptide (NTVLAEF) encoded in pVTG-EGFP-catD is recognized by catD, the VTG-EGFP fusion protein digested with catD was detectable by Western blotting. Digested exogenous gene product was recovered with nickel resin. These results indicate that catD-recognition sites bearing pVTG-catD and His-tags are functional in chicken LMH cells. Therefore, the system described here may be of use in making excision exogenous gene products in the chicken and in creating homozygous knock-in chickens

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  10. Complete genome sequence of an avian leukosis virus isolate associated with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in egg-type and meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new virus isolate was separated from a commercial egg-type flock of chickens in China and was determined as subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). ALV-J is known to cause myeloid leukosis. But this new isolate of viruses causes both hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in chickens. Hemangioma is an a...

  11. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Henrieta Arpášová; Miroslava Kačániová; Branislav Gálik

    2013-01-01

    Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10) and fed for 23 weeks with die...

  12. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  13. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland. PMID:24235220

  14. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  15. Estimation of selected residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney, liver, and egg of layer chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies were conducted for the estimation of quinolone residues in our local poultry products. The poultry products included muscle, kidney, liver and egg (yolk and white). The quinolones included in this study were, oxolonic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. An assessment of the variation of each analyte (quinolones antibiotic residues) in these products was made. A comparison was made among the analyte (quinolones) concentrations in different tissues/organs and their internationally permissible safer maximum residue limits (MRLS'). Infra Red spectra were used to detect the presence and identification of different quinolones. HPLC with ODS Column and U.V. detector was used for the quantification. (author)

  16. Preparation and Preliminary Characterization of Crystallizing Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp(sup 101) using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp(sup 101) lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His(sup 15), located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp(sup 101)-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His(sup 15) have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  17. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  18. Effects of feeding, housing and antiparasitic treatments in improving free range chicken production in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to determine the effects of feeding, housing and anti-parasitic treatment on the improvement of family poultry production in Morocco. Eight free range chicken flocks were partitioned into 2 groups; 'intervention' and 'no intervention' flocks. In 'Intervention' flocks, locally made brooders and poultry houses were provided, the birds received supplementary feeding and were subjected to anti-parasitic treatment against endo-parasites and ecto-parasites. Both categories of flocks were vaccinated against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease. Data relative to flock size and structure, mortality, egg production, chicken and egg sales, sale prices, feed consumption were collected at a bi-weekly to monthly basis from July 2002 - July 2003 and were subjected to appropriate statistical comparisons of proportions and means. Flock size and structure and flock and egg production was significantly improved in 'intervention' flocks. Mortality of young birds (Chicks and cockerels/pullets) in 'intervention' flocks was significantly lower than in 'no intervention' flocks. The cost-benefit analysis has shown that 'intervention' flocks have made better profit. The mean relative profit (output/input ratio) in 'intervention' flocks was 3.65 and only 2.55 in 'no intervention' flocks. These results indicate that the performed interventions had an overall beneficial effect on the studied parameters. (author)

  19. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, bu...

  20. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares;

    2014-01-01

    employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the...... salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products....

  1. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís M Nazareth

    Full Text Available Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF. We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group.

  2. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  3. The jejunal cellular responses in chickens infected with a single dose of Ascaridia galli eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2015-01-01

    This histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate the cellular response in the jejunum to Ascaridia galli during the first 7 weeks of infection. Fourty-two ISA Brown chickens (7 weeks old) were infected orally with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs each while 28 chickens were left as.......001), 28 (P < 0.01) and 42 dpi (P < 0.05). A. galli infection induced changes in the mucosal thickness as reduced villi length at 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 dpi and in the degree of general cellular infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucosal layer. No adult worms were seen during the experiment; therefore...

  4. Utilization of Chicken By-Products to Form Collagen Films

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudini A. Munasinghe; Jurgen G. Schwarz; Matthew Whittiker

    2015-01-01

    Chicken collagen casings could be an alternate source of collagen casings that are manufactured for sausages. The overall objective of this project was to extract chicken collagen from by-products of the broiler processing industries and to explore the possibility of making films. Chicken skin was washed, ground, and pretreated to remove the noncollagenous compounds. Collagen was extracted using acetic acid and pepsin. Solubilized collagen was salted-out and centrifuged at 20,000 ×g at 4°C fo...

  5. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Egg Production and Egg Shell Quality in Laying Hens Drinking Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mirabdollbaghi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water source, saline water (Tap water +2 g L-1 Na and tape water with a diet that supplemented by three level of Ascorbic Acid (0, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 of diet on laying hen`s performance and egg shell quality. This trail was carried out on 108 commercial laying hens (Hy-Line 32 weeks old for 12 weeks. All of the data were subjected to Two- way analysis of variance test. The result showed that egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/h/day, feed conversion ratio, feed consumptions didn`t effected by saline water but using saline water increased the percentage of eggs with damaged shells (p<0.01. Also the effect of different level of Ascorbic acid on egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/h/day, feed conversion ratio were not significant, but feed consumption reduced by using ascorbic acid (p<0.05. Egg shell thickness (mm, egg shell weight (%, egg shell weight (mg/cm2, egg specific gravity, egg shell calcium (% and egg shell phosphorous (% didn`t affected by saline water and different level of Ascorbic acid.

  6. Determination of Heavy Metals in Meat, Intestine, Liver, Eggs, and Chicken Using Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, se and Zn in meat, intestine, and liver of cow and goat, as well as in broiler, local breed chicken and eggs have been determined using Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Mercury was determined after being separated radiochemically. The results showed that concentration of the essential elements studied i.e. Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, and Ni were higher in liver and intestine than in the meat, but still in the normal range, while toxic elements As, Cd, and Pb were undetectable in all samples. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  8. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  9. Efficient production of germline transgenic chickens using lentiviral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    McGrew, Mike; Sherman, Adrian; Ellard, Fiona M; Lillico, Simon G; Gilhooley, Hazel J; Kingsman, Alan J.; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A.; Sang, Helen

    2004-01-01

    An effective method for genetic modification of chickens has yet to be developed. An efficient technology, enabling production of transgenic birds at high frequency and with reliable expression of transgenes, will have many applications, both in basic research and in biotechnology. We investigated the efficiency with which lentiviral vectors could transduce the chicken germ line and examined the expression of introduced reporter transgenes. Ten founder cockerels transmitted the vector to betw...

  10. Values and public acceptability dimensions of sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B; Appleby, M; Busch, L; Kalof, L; Miele, M; Norwood, B F; Pajor, E

    2011-09-01

    The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals. PMID:21844278

  11. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared a number of fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow, cascade blue, and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-l-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of asp101 using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. asp101 lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are at least partially "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to hisl5, located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. The fluorescently labeled protein is readily purified from the starting material by cation exchange chromatography. All the derivatives fluoresce in both the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determining the bound probe quantum yields, lifetimes, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes in comparison to the free probe. No appreciable changes are found in the lifetimes of any of the probes except for cascade blue, where Tau(sub free) = 3.52 ns vrs Tau(sub bound) = 2.8 ns. Spectral shifts are found in most cases. Particularly strong quenching upon binding is found in the case of the cascade blue derivative, likely due to probe interactions with the active site cleft. While none of the asp101 bound probes are well quenched by commonly employed solutes, such as potassium and sodium iodide, acrylamide, primuline, the chloride salts of manganese, cesium, and cobalt, trifluoroacetamide, trichloroethanol, and thallium iodide, in those cases where

  13. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products. PMID:24362433

  14. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424 mg/ml. Spearman-Karber value of potency of anti tetanus IgY are 35 IU/ml. ?This research concluded that Chickens was capable of produced of anti tetanus in eggs yolk with value of potency are 35 IU/ml.

  15. Organic poultry and egg production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bestman, Monique

    2011-01-01

    There are over 1 million organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Organic eggs are in high demand on the domestic market. Dutch organic poultry meat has a small but growing market share. To facilitate organic poultry farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic poultry meat and egg production. Hot topics are the protein content of poultry feed, organic rearing and animal health. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirat...

  16. A study of inoculation route and dosage levels on embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing tea mistlestoe (Scurrula oortiana extract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana has cytotoxic activity which is potential to be used in preventing viral induced-chicken tumor. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of different inoculation routes, dosage levels, and strains of embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing the tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana antiviral activity. Proper inoculation route was examined by inoculation of the extract at dose level of 0,2 mg/egg into embryonated layer eggs via allantoic cavity, chorio-allantoic membrane, and yolk sac. Effect of dose level of tea mistlestoe extract on embryo development was examined in groups of embryonated broiler eggs inoculated with the extract at 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 mg/egg. Inoculation of tea mistlestoe extract into allantoic cavity was the safest procedure as indicated by the absence of embryos mortality, and faster embryo growth compared to those of chorio-allantoic membrane and yolk sac-inoculated eggs. The extract induced different growth effects when inoculated into embryonated layer or broiler eggs. Administration of the extract at dose levels between 0,02–200 mg/egg reduced significantly the weight of broiler embryoes, but not the relative weights of liver, heart and spleen. Administration of similar dosage in layer embryoes did not cause any significant difference in the embryoes weight. This study suggests that the study of antiviral activity of tea mistlestoe extract in embryonated chicken eggs should be carried out on embryonated eggs of layer breeds and the extract should be inoculated via allantoic cavity.

  17. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  18. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...

  19. Molecular characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in naturally infected egg layer chickens in a multi-age flock in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Rodrigo de Macedo; Preis, Ingred Sales; Braga, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Drummond, Marcela Gonçalves; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; Ecco, Roselene

    2015-01-01

    The virus responsible for an outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in a multi-age flock of egg layer chickens under quarantine in Brazil was characterized. Layer chickens from this area with circulating gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV 1) were evaluated using histopathology and molecular characterization techniques based on sequences of infected-cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4) and thymidine kinase (TK) genes. The infected chickens that were analyzed were PCR-positive for GaHV-1 in the trachea and negative in most trigeminal ganglia. The lack of ILT lesions in the conjunctiva and respiratory tissues, combined with detection of viral DNA in the trachea, was found to be associated with latent infection. The sequences from five farms obtained in the present study were identical, and there were no deletions within the 272- to 283-bp region of the ICP4 gene, as observed in the sequences of vaccine strains (CEO and TCO). The lack of a deletion in the ICP4 fragment analyzed in this study indicates that the chickens were infected with a field virus. The absence of the T252M mutation in a fragment of the TK gene, in addition to the low mortality rate observed, suggests that the outbreak in the state of Minas Gerais was not caused by a highly virulent strain but rather by a field virus of lower virulence. In addition, using phylogenetic reconstructions, it was found that this field strain was grouped together in a separate branch, apart from the previously characterized Brazilian strains. The introduction of vectored vaccines apparently has been effective in reducing clinical disease and lesions, and preventing new outbreaks of disease. PMID:25385176

  20. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  1. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  2. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  3. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Estrogen-responsive genes encoding egg yolk proteins vitellogenin and apolipoprotein II in chicken are differentially regulated by selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Warren N; Bhatt, Vrushank D; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Bin Ariff, Ammar; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Ratna, Haran N

    2016-02-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins, apolipoprotein II (apo-II) and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo-II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo-II messenger RNA (mRNA) is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA-stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo-II, VG, and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin, and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver was stimulated by estrogen and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo-II and VG from the aforementioned treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays, and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo-II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo-II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the aforementioned genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production. PMID:26452509

  5. The effect of 60Co-γ ray on fertilized eggs and growing change in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fertilized eggs were stimulated by 60Co-γ ray of different doses. The experimental results show that the rate of hatching of different fertilized eggs reaches the maximum when the dose of 60Co-γ ray is 300rad. And, the higher the dose of 60Co-γ ray is used, the lower the rate of breeding and hatching are obtained. It is concluded that it is beneficial to growing of cock and the fertilized eggs are stimulated by the 60Co-γ ray of low doses. However, the growing of hen is inhibited and eggs are early produced with the low dose treatment of 60Co-γ ray

  6. Microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products (Luncheon, Burger and debonded minced chicken) which are produced by three companies (Halwany Bros.(H)-Faragalla (F) and Egypco (E)). The samples were purchased from local supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The examination illustrated that all examined samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. While Luncheon (F), Burger (H) and debonded minced chicken (E) were only positive for Salmonella spp. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at 0, 3, 6 and 9 kGy. The effects of radiation treatments and cold storage (5+,-1 degree) on the total volatile basic nitrogen (T.V.B.N.), microbiological quality and sensory properties of samples under investigation were studied. The results indicated that 3kGy dose of gamma irradiation completely destroyed Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. and caused slight increase in (T.V.B.N.) content for all samples. A gradual increase in total bacteria, molds and yeast and T. V. B. N. during storage were observed, while 6 kGy dose was also sufficient for destroying Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in all chicken meat products under investigation without any detectable effects on the sensory properties of these products and increased the shelf-life of luncheon, burger and minced for 8, 4 and 3 weeks respectively as compared with 4, 2 and 1 weeks for control samples

  7. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  8. Variation in trace element contents among chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisianakis, P; Giannenas, I; Gavriil, A; Kontopidis, G; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Despite substantial interest in the trace element content of eggs by poultry breeders, nutritionists, and environmental scientists, available data about trace elements levels in eggs are scarce. Trace element contents in yolk and albumen of chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs were analyzed to establish a baseline dataset and assess differences among trace element content in avian species. We measured the selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and thallium (Tl) contents in both yolk and albumen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. One hundred twenty eggs deriving from 24 birds of each species, reared in the same poultry farm in northern Greece, were used; bird feed was common and based on cereals and legumes and contained no added vitamins or microminerals. Trace element contents in yolks were far higher than those in albumen, except for V and Ni. In yolks, the highest content for Se, Mo, and Tl were in pigeon eggs, for Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cr in turkey eggs, and for Co and Ni in goose eggs. In albumen, Se was highest in duck eggs, while Zn, Mn, and Co in pigeon ones. It is concluded that there is a substantial, up to threefold, variation for trace element contents in eggs among different domestic avian species offered the same feed. PMID:18936883

  9. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production. PMID:26250098

  10. Genetic effects of polymorphisms in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken age at first egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Min

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age at first egg (AFE, an important indicator for sexual maturation in female chickens, is controlled by polygenes. Based on our knowledge of reproductive physiology, 6 genes including gonadotrophin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I, neuropeptide Y (NPY, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1, and prolactin (PRL, were selected as candidates for influencing AFE. Additionally, the region between ADL0201 and MCW0241 of chromosome Z was chosen as the candidate QTL region according to some QTL databases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of mutations in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken AFE. Results Marker-trait association analysis of 8 mutations in those 6 genes in a Chinese native population found a highly significant association (P G840327C of the GnRH-I gene with AFE, and it remained significant even with Bonferroni correction. Based on the results of the 2-tailed χ2 test, mutations T32742394C, T32742468C, G32742603A, and C33379782T in the candidate QTL region of chromosome Z were selected for marker-trait association analysis. The haplotypes of T32742394C and T32742468C were significantly associated (P T32742394C and T32742468C were located in the intron region of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2 gene, which appeared to be associated in the endocytosis and development of the oocyte. Conclusion This study found that G840327C of the GnRH-I gene and the haplotypes of T32742394C-T32742468C of the SH3GL2 gene were associated with the chicken AFE.

  11. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  12. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  13. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...... have been established according to the following model: OP, OF, or OE = a + b1 x egg (grams per day) + b2 x age (weeks). The average ME requirement [calculated with either measured or predicted chemical composition, and by applying a constant maintenance requirement of 98 kcal/kg BW.75 and partial...

  14. Quality comparison of three types of imitated free-range chicken eggs%三种仿土鸡蛋的品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周大薇; 毛建

    2012-01-01

    The experiment compared the quality of imitated free-range chicken eggs produced by three different chicken breeds, namely dwarf egg-laying hens with mix-color wings, imported egg- laying hens with pink eggshell and egg-laying hens with cyan claws and white wings, which were all bred indoor on the ground, also measured and analyzed several characteristics of~ the eggs. The result showed that the eggs of dwarf laying hens with mix-color wings enjoyed high quality.%本试验对矮小型麻羽蛋鸡、引进粉壳蛋鸡、青脚白羽鸡三个品种在地面平养方式下生产的仿土鸡蛋进行了品质比较,测定并分析了鸡蛋的几项物理性状。结果表明,矮小型蛋鸡所产的鸡蛋有较好的蛋品质。

  15. Age-related differences of Ascaridia galli egg output and worm burden in chickens following a single dose infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Homann, T; Erhardt, G

    2005-03-10

    Ninety white chickens (Lohmann LSL) were reared under helminth-free conditions and divided into five groups. Four groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at the age of 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Ten birds were kept as uninfected controls. Six and 10 weeks after infection (p.i.), individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The birds were slaughtered after the second sampling and their gastrointestinal tracts were examined for the presence of adult A. galli. The FEC increased from the first to the second sampling significantly in all the infected groups. The highest increase was shown in the group infected at 12 weeks of age, whereas the increase in the other groups was relatively moderate. However, the total worm burden and mean FEC at the second sampling were highest (p0.05) between any of the groups. Thyroxine (T4) was significantly different between the groups infected at 6 and 18 weeks of age (pgalli infections in layers, whereas a bird's hormonal and immune status, related to laying activity, seems to have a significant negative impact on resistance. PMID:15725544

  16. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  17. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Egg Production and Egg Shell Quality in Laying Hens Drinking Saline Water

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mirabdollbaghi; S.A. Hosseini; H. Lotfollahian; Mahdavi Ali; Kalanie Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water source, saline water (Tap water +2 g L-1 Na) and tape water with a diet that supplemented by three level of Ascorbic Acid (0, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 of diet) on laying hen`s performance and egg shell quality. This trail was carried out on 108 commercial laying hens (Hy-Line) 32 weeks old for 12 weeks. All of the data were subjected to Two- way analysis of variance test. The result showed that egg production (%), egg weight (g), egg...

  18. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. PMID:26049800

  19. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  20. Effects of Feeding Dietary Palm Kernel Cake on Egg Production 1 and Egg Quality of Khaki Campbell Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjas Asmara Samsudin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of graded levels of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on the laying performance and egg quality in Khaki Campbell ducks. Twenty-seven female Khaki Campbell ducks were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments viz T1 (0% PKC; control, T2 (15% PKC and T3 (35% PKC and the performance characteristics and egg quality traits were examined for 4 weeks. Ducks fed T2 and T3 had higher (P0.05 on the feed conversion ratio in ducks. Similarly, dietary PKC did not affect (P>0.05 the weekly egg production and the percentage of hen-day production. Ducks fed T2 and T3 had greater (P0.05 by dietary PKC. Results indicated that Khaki Campbell ducks could tolerate up to 35% PKC in their diets without detrimental effects on egg production and egg quality.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Leukosis Virus Isolate Associated with Hemangioma and Myeloid Leukosis in Egg-Type and Meat-Type Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jun; Li, Hongxin; Zhang, Huanmin; Xie, Qingmei; CHANG, SHUANG; Shang, Huiqin; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo

    2012-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that developed myeloid leukosis (ML). In recent years, field cases of hemangioma (HE) or HE and ML, rather than ML alone, have been reported in commercial layer flocks exposed to ALV-J with a high incidence in China. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of an ALV-J isolate that caused both HE and ML in egg-type and meat-type chickens in China. These findings will provide additional insights into the mol...

  2. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  3. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  4. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. PMID:22417604

  5. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in chicken egg in commercial layer farms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Kodimalar; R A Rajini; S Ezhivalavan; G Sarathchandra

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics as an integral part of poultry and livestock production industry has recently received increasing attention as a contributory factor in the international emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human beings. To gauge the presence of the aforementioned scenario in the Indian context, a preliminary survey was conducted to assess the use of chlortetracycline (CTC) in 12 commercial layer farms and to quantify and confirm its residue in the egg. Samples of feed and eggs were collected at day 0 (prior to CTC addition), 3rd, 5th and 7th day during treatment and on the 9th and 14th day (2nd and 7th day after withdrawal of CTC) from each of the 12 commercial poultry farms studied. Concentration of CTC in feed was significantly ( < 0.01) high on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. On the 9th day and 14th day CTC concentration in feed was significantly ( <0.01) lower compared to the earlier 3 days studied. A highly significant difference ( <0.01) of the antibiotic residue in egg was observed in all the 5 days with high residual levels of CTC in egg. CTC in feed and its residue in egg were detected even on the 9th and 14th day respectively.

  6. Gas-permeable ethylene bags for the small scale cultivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and other viruses in embryonated chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCurdy Kimberly S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryonated chicken eggs (ECE are sometimes used for the primary isolation or passage of influenza viruses, other viruses, and certain bacteria. For small-scale experiments with pathogens that must be studied in biosafety level three (BSL3 facilities, inoculated ECE are sometimes manipulated and maintained in small egg incubators within a biosafety cabinet (BSC. To simplify the clean up and decontamination of an egg incubator in case of egg breakage, we explored whether ethylene breather bags could be used to encase ECE inoculated with pathogens. This concept was tested by determining embryo survival and examining virus yields in bagged ECE. Results Virus yields acceptable for many applications were attained when influenza-, alpha-, flavi-, canine distemper-, and mousepox viruses were propagated in ECE sealed within ethylene breather bags. Conclusions For many small-scale applications, ethylene breather bags can be used to encase ECE inoculated with various viruses.

  7. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs

  8. Changes in parathyroid hormone receptor binding affinity during egg laying: implications for calcium homeostasis in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, T; Kawashima, M; Takahashi, T; Iwata, A; Oka, N; Tanaka, K

    1996-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor bindings were examined in the membrane fraction of the calvaria and the kidney of the hen by the use of [125I]PTH-related protein (PTHrP) binding assays. The binding specificity, reversibility, and saturation of the receptor were demonstrated. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) were obtained by Scatchard analyses. In both calvaria and kidney, Kd and Bmax values decreased at 3 h before oviposition in egg-laying hens, but not in nonlaying hens. Administration of 17 beta-estradiol or progesterone in vivo caused a decrease in the Kd and Bmax values. Ionized calcium concentrations in the blood plasma showed a decrease at 13 h before oviposition. The results suggest that the PTH receptor binding in the calvaria and the kidney is affected by ovarian steroid hormones and may play a role in maintaining the calcium homeostasis in the egg-laying hen. PMID:8970893

  9. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3 [Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rahayu HS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs were control and 63 eggs was omega-3 suplemented were collected from 64 Merawang chicken for eleven weeks. Feeding were arranged isonitrogenous (15.8% and isocaloric (2650 kkal/kg, and fed ad libitum. Omega-3 feeding was produced from fermentation of soybean waste (ampas tahu and mold (Rhizopus oligosporus, then mixed with sea fish oil waste (1:1, w/w. The result showed that no significant effect of the treatment on physical characteristic parameter. Omega-3 eggs significantly (P<0.05 increased the ratio of width and length of eggs. The score of yolk was increased in omega-3 eggs which indicated increase of omega-3 fatty acids and Æ’Ã’ caroten contents. The total lipid and cholesterol contents were lower (P<0.05 in omega-3 eggs, however, omega-3 fatty acids component (linolenat, EPA and DHA increased 10 and 6 times than control. Organoleptic test of colour, flavor, texture and taste of white portion, yolk portion and whole eggs were generally accepted by the panelis, both in the control and omega-3 eggs.

  10. Feed Conversion Efficiency in Japanese Quail Egg Production Mathematical Assisted

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Pârvu; Ioana Cristina Andronie; Violeta-Elena Simion; Carmen Bergheş; Adriana Amfim

    2010-01-01

    It was study the feed conversion efficiency in Japanese quail using energy and protein balances during the peak period of laying. The quails were given a diet with 20% crude protein and 2880 ME kcal/kg feed. The feed was given ad libitum. The environmental temperature was 250C (neutral thermal zone). The energy and protein balances were studied for three weeks. It was monitored the fallowing parameters: feed intake, excreted waste, body weight evolution, egg production. Feed, excreta and samp...

  11. Restriction of germline proliferation by soft x-ray irradiation of chicken embryos and its application to chimera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitor cells of gametes. Avian PGCs are located in the central region of the area pellucida at the blastoderm stage. PGCs enter the circulation soon after the formation of blood vessels in incubating eggs and eventually settle in the gonadal primordium. We have now examined exposure of chicken embryos to soft (low-energy) x-rays as a means of depleting endogenous PGCs and thereby improving the efficiency of chimera production. The blastoderm of White Leghorn eggs was exposed to soft x-rays for 0, 20, 40 or 60 s before incubation. The irradiated embryos manifested delayed development at 60 h of incubation. They also showed reduced numbers of circulating PGCs at stages 14 and 15 and of gonadal PGCs at stage 30. The hatchability of irradiated embryos was lower than that of nonirradiated controls. Irradiation for 20 s was found to provide the best outcome taking into consideration both the restriction of PGC proliferation and hatchability. Dispersed blastoderm cells of quail (black plumage) embryos were introduced into the blastoderm of chicken embryos irradiated for 20 s or of nonirradiated embryos. The number of donor-derived PGCs was higher in the irradiated embryos than in the nonirradiated controls at stage 30. These results suggest that soft x-irradiation of chicken embryos is a feasible approach to depletion of endogenous germ cells and consequent improvement in the efficiency of incorporation of donor PGCs

  12. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shields; Michael Greger

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated wi...

  13. Whole genome sequencing of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a newly developed blue-egg laying chicken breed, reveals its origin and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Byung-Ki; Yi, Jun-Koo; Ha, Jae-Jung; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Dong Yep

    2016-01-01

    Chicken, Gallus gallus, is a valuable species both as a food source and as a model organism for scientific research. Here, we sequenced the genome of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a rare chicken breed with unique phenotypic characteristics including flight ability, large body size, and laying blue-shelled eggs, to identify its genomic features. We generated genomes of Gyeongbuk Araucana, Leghorn, and Korean Native Chicken at a total of 33.5, 35.82, and 33.23 coverage depth, respectively. Along with the genomes of 12 Chinese breeds, we identified genomic variants of 16.3 million SNVs and 2.3 million InDels in mapped regions. Additionally, through assembly of unmapped reads and selective sweep, we identified candidate genes that fall into heart, vasculature and muscle development and body growth categories, which provided insight into Gyeongbuk Araucana's phenotypic traits. Finally, genetic variation based on the transposable element insertion pattern was investigated to elucidate the features of transposable elements related to blue egg shell formation. This study presents results of the first genomic study on the Gyeongbuk Araucana breed; it has potential to serve as an invaluable resource for future research on the genomic characteristics of this chicken breed as well as others. PMID:27215397

  14. Effects of processing on barriers of bacterial invasion in shell eggs and egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    To project a developing embryo, there are many physical and chemical barriers inherent in eggs for the prevention of invasion by bacteria and other microorganisms. As versatile as they are nutritious, eggs are subjected to many types of processing – from washing, grading, and packing shell eggs to ...

  15. Quantitative and temporal relationships of egg production and sound production by black drum Pogonias cromis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, J V; Burghart, S; Mann, D A

    2012-09-01

    The timing and levels of black drum Pogonias cromis sound production and egg production were compared in an estuarine canal basin of Cape Coral in south-west Florida. Surface plankton samples were collected hourly from 1800 to 0400 on two consecutive nights while continuous acoustic recordings were made simultaneously at five locations in the canal basin. Five pairs of nights were sampled during a part of the spawning season from late January to early April 2006. Pogonias cromis sound production and egg production occurred on all evenings that samples were collected; however, both the timing and levels of sound production were negatively associated with those of egg production. Egg production estimates ranged from a low of 4·8 eggs m(-3) in February to a high of 2889·2 eggs m(-3) in April. Conversely, maximum nightly sound pressure levels (SPL) ranged from a low of 89·5 dB in April to a high of 131·9 dB (re: 1 µPa) in February. The temporal centre of sound production was relatively stable among all nights sampled but spawning occurred earlier in the day as the season progressed and exhibited a strong, positive association with increased water temperature. The negative relationship between the levels of sound production and egg production was unexpected given the usefulness of sound production as a proxy for reproduction on a seasonal basis and may possibly be explained by differences in the spawning potential of the female population in the study area on nights sampled. Egg mortality rates increased throughout the season and were positively associated with densities of hydrozoans and ctenophores. PMID:22957862

  16. Feed Conversion Efficiency in Japanese Quail Egg Production Mathematical Assisted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pârvu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It was study the feed conversion efficiency in Japanese quail using energy and protein balances during the peak period of laying. The quails were given a diet with 20% crude protein and 2880 ME kcal/kg feed. The feed was given ad libitum. The environmental temperature was 250C (neutral thermal zone. The energy and protein balances were studied for three weeks. It was monitored the fallowing parameters: feed intake, excreted waste, body weight evolution, egg production. Feed, excreta and samples of egg and meat were analyzed according to Weende scheme. On the basis of digestibility and comparative slaughtering, were determined the energy and protein requirements for maintenance and for protein and fat retention mathematical assisted. The daily feed intake was 361 KJ gross energy and 5.32 g crude protein. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance were 648 KJ/kg0.75 and 6.2 g/ kg0.75. The efficiency of metabolisable energy utilisation on egg production was 26.6% and for corporal synthesis 5.5%. The obtained results will be used to develop a mathematical model for energy and protein retention in Japanese laying quail.

  17. Production of bio diesel from chicken frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different bio diesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better bio diesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v). The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  18. Efficient production of germline transgenic chickens using lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Michael J; Sherman, Adrian; Ellard, Fiona M; Lillico, Simon G; Gilhooley, Hazel J; Kingsman, Alan J; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Sang, Helen

    2004-07-01

    An effective method for genetic modification of chickens has yet to be developed. An efficient technology, enabling production of transgenic birds at high frequency and with reliable expression of transgenes, will have many applications, both in basic research and in biotechnology. We investigated the efficiency with which lentiviral vectors could transduce the chicken germ line and examined the expression of introduced reporter transgenes. Ten founder cockerels transmitted the vector to between 4% and 45% of their offspring and stable transmission to the G2 generation was demonstrated. Analysis of expression of reporter gene constructs in several transgenic lines showed a conserved expression profile between individuals that was maintained after transmission through the germ line. These data demonstrate that lentiviral vectors can be used to generate transgenic lines with an efficiency in the order of 100-fold higher than any previously published method, with no detectable silencing of transgene expression between generations. PMID:15192698

  19. Effect of origin and composition of diet on ecological impact of the organic egg production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.E.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential to reduce the integral ecological impact (i.e. impact along the egg production chain per kg egg) of Dutch organic egg production by replacing currently used imported diet ingredients with Dutch diet ingredients. We realized this objective by

  20. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    IMTD Jácome; LA Rossi; R Borille

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the pro...

  1. Significant reduction in allergenicity of ovalbumin from chicken egg white following treatment with ascidian viscera N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Seong; Park, Heajin; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jai Yeon; Lee, Young Kwang; Park, Ho-Young; Choi, Hee-Don; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2016-06-17

    Ovalbumin (OA) is the most abundant ingredient of chicken egg-white allergenic proteins. In the present study we investigated the possibility of reducing OA allergenicity by treatment with a natural protein exhibiting N-acetylglucosaminidase (NA) activity. Ascidian is cultivated as a food resource in northeast Asia. The ascidian viscera NA (AVNA) with almost no other exoglycosidases or proteolytic enzymes was isolated by applying size-exclusion chromatography to a protein precipitate of ascidian viscera. Intact OA was mixed with AVNA containing 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 Units of NA. Anion-exchange chromatography was then used to isolate OA from AVNA-treated OA. The electrophoretic patterns and N-glycans of each isolated OA from AVNA-treated OA (iOA) were analyzed, and the terminal N-acetylglucosamines of iOA were selectively cleaved with no other degradation occurring. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using rabbit anti-OA sera was performed to investigate the allergenicity of iOA, which was found to be significantly reduced depending on the increased NA activity compared to that of intact OA. These results indicate that OA allergenicity was reduced using a simple and mild treatment process with AVNA, and suggest that ascidian NA is an efficient natural protein for reducing the allergenicity of OA without requiring the use of harsh physical treatments or chemical conjugation. PMID:27178210

  2. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. ► The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. ► The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. ► Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. ► Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  3. Hepatosteatosis and estrogen increase apolipoprotein O production in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, Barbara; Weijler, Anna M; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Hermann, Marcela

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein O (ApoO) is a recently discovered plasma apolipoprotein that may also play a role in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Possibly due to this complexity, its physiological functions have not been elucidated yet. To gain insight from a non-mammalian experimental system, we have investigated the regulation of ApoO levels in an alternative, well-suited model for studies on lipid metabolism, the chicken. qPCR using specific primer pairs and Western blot analysis with our rabbit anti-chicken ApoO antiserum demonstrated ApoO in the liver of chickens fed a control or a fat-enriched diet, as well as in 2 chicken hepatoma cell lines, LMH cells and the estrogen-responsive LMH-2A cells, under conditions of lipid loading by incubation with BSA-complexed oleic acid. Induced triglyceride accumulation in both the liver and the hepatic cells was associated with significantly increased levels of ApoO mRNA and protein. Furthermore, upon treatment for 24 h with estrogen of the estrogen receptor-expressing LMH-2A cells, quantitative analysis of ApoO transcripts and Western blotting revealed increases of ApoO expression. Finally, upon a single administration of estrogen to roosters that leads to hyperlipidemia, higher hepatic levels of both ApoO transcript and protein were observed within 24 h. Based on these data, we propose that hepatic expression of ApoO is tightly linked not only to diet-induced hepatosteatosis, but also to increased lipoprotein-production induced by, e.g., hormones. The findings support a role of ApoO as an effector of compromised mitochondrial function that likely accompanies the onset of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27126072

  4. Analysis of a village chicken production system and performance of improved dual purpose chickens under a subtropical hill agro-ecosystem in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Chhetri, Bijoy; Ahmed, S K; Haunshi, Santosh

    2008-08-01

    This study was designed to analyze the low input backyard poultry production system practiced by the tribal farmers, and evaluate the performance of an improved dual-purpose breed, the Vanaraja. Results revealed that a significantly (p poultry houses made of locally available materials, such as bamboo and wood. Most of the farmers (65.9 %) did not provide balanced feed to their poultry and did not vaccinate their birds against any disease. Under standard management conditions, the average body weight of Vanaraja birds at 6 weeks was 625 +/- 10.9 g. Under backyard conditions, the body weight at 18 months was 3.6 +/- 0.8 kg. The age at first egg was 154 +/- 9 days in the backyard system, whereas under the intensive system it was 196 +/- 4 days. Annual production under the backyard and intensive systems of rearing was 176 +/- 9 and 152 +/- 7 eggs, respectively. Mortality of adult birds was 12 % and predation by foxes and wild cats accounted for 1.67 %. This study revealed that village chickens are an important income source for household expenses, and that traditional free-range poultry production in the smallholder sector of developing countries can possibly be improved through the use of improved dual-purpose birds. PMID:18575965

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum gro...

  6. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  7. Microbiological Difference of Eggs From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs from alternative production systems are a growing market share in the US. Meeting consumer requests for greater diversity in retail egg options has resulted in some unique challenges such as understanding the food safety implications of eggs from alternative housing practices. A study was con...

  8. EGG PRODUCTION AND HATCHABILITY OF LOCAL DUCKS UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE VS EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability.

  9. EGG PRODUCTION AND HATCHABILITY OF LOCAL DUCKS UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE VS EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability. 

  10. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjun Leng; Kun-Nan Hsu; Richard EAustic; Xin genLei

    2014-01-01

    Background:This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods:Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5%DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5%or 15%DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results:The 15%DFA diet decreased (P<0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P<0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5%DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P<0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions:Feeding laying hens with 7.5%DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15%inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization.

  11. Animal welfare in organic egg production - Emphasis on Mortality and Helminth Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2015-01-01

    The consumers’ motivation to buy organic products includes animal welfare aspects, and even though the retail market share for organic eggs in Denmark is relative high, there are a number of welfare issues in the organic egg production compared to other production systems, like higher mortality and prevalence of helminth infections, that are not in agreement with the consumers’ expectation. The aim of this PhD study was to investigate animal welfare in organic egg production in Denmark, wi...

  12. An experimental test of the ability of Daphnia galeata resting egg production in Lake Biwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumi K. Tsugeki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Daphnia galeata population in Lake Biwa (Japan had almost ceased producing resting eggs by the 1980s. To examine whether D. galeata had lost the ability to produce resting eggs, or if chemical contamination was inhibiting resting egg production, individuals collected in fall (November and late winter (March, were reared in the laboratory. More than 50% of these D. galeata individuals produced resting eggs irrespective of the month of collection, when reared with food supplied at a level lower than that available during the maternal generation. The results reflect that D. galeata in Lake Biwa have a high ability to produce resting eggs when appropriate stimuli are provided. As chemical substances, such as endocrine disrupters, are known to inhibit resting egg production in Daphnia and these accumulate in lake sediments, we tested whether Daphnia individuals produce resting eggs when reared in sediment-conditioned lake water. In sediment-conditioned lake water, only a few Daphnia that were collected in March produced resting eggs, while 50% of the individuals collected in November produced resting eggs. Thus, D. galeata collected from Lake Biwa are able to produce resting eggs, but genetic variation likely leads to variation in resting egg production in the presence of chemical contaminants. These results suggest that the recent decrease in the resting egg production of Daphnia populations in lake Biwa is mainly due to a decrease in the strength of the environmental queue that stimulates resting egg production rather than a genetic shift to strains that have a lower ability to produce resting eggs; yet, we cannot rule out the possibility that a chemical contamination plays a role in the decrease of resting egg production.

  13. Effect of fermented earthworm cast on egg production and egg quality as well as removal of odor in feces from egg laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Sung

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding fermented earthworm casts (EEC) to layers on egg-laying performance, blood lipid profiles, cecal microflora, and fecal odor removing performance. A total of 200 Hyline Brown layer chicks at 33-week-old were used in this study. They were randomly assigned to two numerically equal groups with 100 replications per treatment for 10 weeks. All the birds were caged individually. The control group was not treated with EEC. The EEC group was treated with top dressing containing 3.5% EEC. The present study revealed that egg production and egg weight were increased after feeding diet containing EEC at the top dressing level. Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength of EEC group were higher than those of control group. Egg yolk was determined for fatty acid profiling. It was found that EEC group had higher ratio of unsaturated- to saturated fatty acid as compared to control group. Lower ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were found in the egg yolk of EEC group. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were lower in the EEC group. However, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol content was higher in the EEC group as compared to that in control group. The number of cecal Lactobacillus was increased while the population of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria decreased in the EEC group. Fecal ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contents were lower in the EEC group as compared to those in control group. Taken together, these results suggested that EEC could improve egg production and egg quality. In addition, it could remove odour from laying-hen manure. PMID:27498506

  14. Inactivation of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus following pasteurization in liquid egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty seven million cases of shell eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product with these viruses has in the past result...

  15. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  16. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  17. Chasing Salmonella Typhimurium in free range egg production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-08-30

    Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. PMID:27527766

  18. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed. PMID:24046416

  19. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  20. Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

    2008-08-01

    Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel M.H.V. Isolation of viral IgY antibodies from yolks of immunized hens. Immunological Communications 1980; 9:475-493.) and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography, which gave pure (180-200kDa) specific antibodies against venom. High titre of more than 1:10,000 antibodies were detected by ELISA at the 135th day of observation. The lethal toxicity and various pharmacological activities like hemorrhagic activity, phospholipase activity, edema and procoagulant activities of venom were carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods. The effectiveness of antivenom in neutralizing these effects was carried out involving pre-incubation type experiments. The median effective dose (ED50) for Russell's viper venom was 0.96mg/2LD50/18g mice and for Saw-scaled viper venom it was 1.28mg/2LD50/18g mice. One millilitre of specific antivenom was effective in neutralizing 0.110mg of Russell's viper and 0.137mg of Saw-scaled viper venoms respectively (PD50). Antivenom was effective in neutralization assays in a dose dependent manner. The results indicate that antibodies raised in chicken could effectively neutralize the pharmacological effects induced by venoms and chickens therefore present an alternative and cheaper source of specific antibody generation. PMID:18550009

  1. Critical points on egg production: causes, importance and incidence of eggshell breakage and defects

    OpenAIRE

    Helenice Mazzuco; Antonio Gilberto Bertechini

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of broken eggs directly depends on the quality of the shell. It is important to consider that the problem of broken eggs is not due to a single factor but a combination of factors. Shell defects, irregularities in shell shape, texture and surface are commonly observed during a regular egg laying cycle and the causes are varied. The incidence of downgraded eggs still represents an important source of economic loss for the egg industry due to products damage and need for further ...

  2. Shelf-stable egg-based products processed by high pressure thermal sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a thermally sterilized egg-based product with increased shelf life without losing the sensory and nutritional properties of the freshly prepared product is challenging. Until recently, all commercial shelf-stable egg-based products were sterilized using conventional thermal processing; how...

  3. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  4. Ulcer disease prophylaxis in koi carp by bath immersion with chicken egg yolk containing anti-Aeromonas salmonicida IgY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Hongjian; He, Haiwen; Sato, Atsushi; Hatta, Hajime; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2015-04-01

    Ulcer disease, caused by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, is a serious concern in ornamental koi carp, because it induces skin ulceration, disfiguring ornamental fish and causing economic loses. The present study aimed to establish a novel prophylaxis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgY, against ulcer disease and to assess its feasibility in the ornamental fish industry. Addition of egg yolk powder containing anti-A. salmonicida IgY to rearing water provided significant protection against an A. salmonicida bath infection, whereas administration of non-specific IgY did not. Consecutive immersion of fish into rearing water containing specific IgY completely prevented ulcer disease resulting from cohabitation infection, indicating that this prophylaxis could prevent infection from such type of contact. Thus, passive immunization induced by immersing fish into aquarium water containing specific IgY is a prospective prophylaxis against diseases caused by pathogens that invade the skin and gills. PMID:25687817

  5. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  6. Chicken or Egg: Global Economic Crisis or Ideological Retrenchment from Welfare in Three European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Aase Mygind; Judd, Dawn; Boeckh, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms then this converge......As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms then this...... convergence is, in turn, having a marked impact on social work education and practice. Today it would appear that, to varying degrees, European social workers are driven by ever-growing managerialist objectives. Juxtaposed is the shift towards consumerism and individualism, which is manifested through various...

  7. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  8. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Michal Angelovič; Zdenko Tkáč; Juraj Jablonický; Marek Angelovič

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g....

  9. Estimation of heritability and breeding values for early egg production in laying hens from pooled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biscarini, F.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ellen, E.D.; Addo, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under commercial conditions, data on egg production in laying hens are usually collected per cage rather than individually. In current breeding programs, genetic evaluations are, however, based on individually recorded egg production. Because commercial flocks are not maintained in single cages, thi

  10. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  11. Method optimization and validation for the determination of eight sulfonamides in chicken muscle and eggs by modified QuEChERS and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Havlíková, Lucie; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; Solich, Petr; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2016-05-30

    A simple, effective and reliable method for the determination of eight sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapiridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfachloropiridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadoxine, sulfadimethoxin) in chicken muscle and eggs by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection has been developed and validated. Sulfonamides do not present native fluorescence, however their direct determination was achieved by on-line post-column photochemical derivatization by UV irradiation. Sample treatment was based on QuEChERS with several modifications depending on the matrix. Egg extracts were cleaned-up using PSA for the dispersive solid phase extraction step. On the other hand, a new clean-up sorbent, Supel™ QuE Z-Sep(+), has been successfully applied in chicken muscle extract and has proved to be effective for interference removal from this matrix. Under optimum conditions, recoveries from 65.9 to 88.1%, relative standard deviations lower than 10% (except for sulfachloropiridazine), and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 14 to 85μgkg(-1) were achieved. Thus, the method complies with current European requirements. PMID:26970595

  12. INFLUENCE OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE "TETRA +" ON PRODUCTIVITY OF COCKS AND LAYING HENS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazaryan R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the work experience carried out in the poultry breeding farm of Limited Liability Company «Incubator-poultry plant Pervomaiskaja» on the effect of the multifunctional feed additive «Tetra+» on productivity of males and laying hens in the production of broiler chickens. It is found that males experimental group receiving the feed additive in the diet «Tetra+» have better blood serum biochemical indices in comparison with the control group cockerels. This indicates that the feed additive «Tetra+» shows the properties to improve liver function and decreased intoxication of male manufacturers. It was revealed, that in the experimental group increased divorce figures, while the control group of males producing hatchability is reduced, and the end of observation of this indicator of the trend towards recovery is not evident. It recorded the highest percentage yield of hatching eggs from hens of the experimental group, while the control group showed a tendency to reduce this figure. Thus it may be noted that the use of a multifunctional feed additive "Tetra +" when feeding cocks and hens can improve productivity, reduce bird deaths and to strengthen the protective function of the body of birds

  13. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  14. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús; Ana Beatriz Zanqui; Patrícia Valderrama; Augusto Tanamati; Swami Arêa Maruyama; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Makoto Matsushita

    2013-01-01

    In this work, three freeze-dried (FD) egg products (whole egg (WE), egg yolk (EY) and egg white (EW)) were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P), Quindim (Q) and Meringue (M). The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formu...

  15. Characterization of Chicken By-products by Mean of Proximate and Nutritional Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Pil Nam; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Park, Beom Young; Moon, Sung Sil; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Though a great amount of chicken by-products are consumed everyday in many countries worldwide, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of nutritional composition of these by-products. In the present work, the basic information regarding the aspects of nutritional composition of chicken by-products such as; liver, gizzard, heart, lung, crop, small intestines, cecum and duodenum was studied. Our results revealed that the approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of th...

  16. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, CHUNHUI; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hong-Mei; Hu, Li; Li, Xia; Wu, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB) containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study.Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group) were administered diets containing 9, 3,...

  17. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Enhanced Production of Ovotransferrin from Egg White for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad M. A. Alshammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovotransferrin is the second most abundant protein (~12-13% of the total egg protein in egg white after ovalbumin. Ovotransferrin is a potent natural antimicrobial agent as it possesses antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and is also the major metal binding protein found in egg, which makes it an industrially important protein. Ovotransferrin was extracted from egg white using its metal (iron binding properties. In the present study, eggs from two different sources were used (fresh local eggs from domestic household source and poultry eggs from shops to compare the results and Response Surface Methodology was used for the experiment design and data analysis. The following extraction conditions were optimized so as to maximize the yield of ovotransferrin from egg white: ethanol % (v/v and pH and volume (mL of 25 mM FeCl3/50 mL of egg white. A maximum yield of ~85 ± 2.5% was obtained near the optimum extraction conditions. The yield was calculated based on the theoretical value (934 mg of ovotransferrin in 100 mL of 1.5x diluted egg white solution. Our results suggest that efficient downstream processing may reduce the cost of overall production process of this promising enzyme, making it a natural and cost-effective alternative to the existing chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents.

  18. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Three populations of the copepod Acartia tonsa, two from the Baltic Sea and one from the U.S. East Coast, were compared for resting egg production at conditions of saturating and limiting food availability. All three populations produced eggs that hatched within 72 h when incubated at 17°C (subit...

  19. Vertical Coordination in the Pork and Broiler Industries: Implications for Pork and Chicken Products

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in structure of the U.S. pork industry reflect, in many ways, past changes in the broiler industry. Production contracts and vertical integration in the broiler industry facilitated rapid adoption of new technology, improved quality control, assured market outlets for broilers, and provided a steady flow of broilers for processing. Affordable, high-quality chicken products have contributed to continual increases in U.S. chicken consumption, which has surpassed pork and beef on ...

  20. Sanitation Of Fresh Chicken Eggs By Ionizing Radiation And Its Effect On Their Physicochemical And Functional Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact fresh white and brown L.S.L shell eggs inoculated with 109 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella typhimurium, the effect of three doses 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units, yolk colour and yolk index), proximate composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), amino acids content, ,physicochemical properties (foaming ability, foaming stability and water holding capacity), the rheological change (viscosity), ph, protein solubility, carotenoids and lipid oxidation of the eggs were determined. The results revealed that at 2 kGy, the number of SE and S. typhimurium were reduced to non-detectable levels. The internal quality as freshness of eggs as measured by albumen height and the number of Haugh units as well as yolk colour and yolk index were all significantly reduced with increasing the irradiation doses. Non-significant changes were found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). Amino acids when irradiated at dose 2 kGy caused non-significant changes in their levels, but it caused significant decrease in total essential and non-essential amino acids with increasing irradiation dose at 4 and 6 kGy.After irradiation, the foaming ability and foaming capacity were increased while water holding capacity and viscosity were decreased with increasing radiation doses. The ph of the egg white and yolk was increased with increasing the radiation dose. The protein solubility was decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. Carotenoids of egg yolk were decreased with increasing doses of irradiation while lipid oxidation was increased with increasing radiation dose. Based on the obtained results, it

  1. 慢病毒载体导入种蛋内鸡胚技术研究%Transgenic Chickens Made by Injection of Lentiviral into Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕海峰; 易康乐; TREFIL P; 胡雄贵; 邓缘; 朱立军

    2012-01-01

    种蛋内鸡胚含有潜在的胚胎干细胞(BCs)或原生殖细胞(PGCs),是目前主要的转基因鸡研究方法.采用绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)基因的pLenti6/v5-DEST-GFP慢病毒表达载体,白来航鸡与伊萨鸡种蛋,结合种蛋赤道面开窗专利技术,对含这两种细胞胚的转基因技术进行了比较研究:转染白来航鸡囊胚,孵化13天时,GFP基因的PCR检出率为64.7%,孵化率极低;转染孵化72h伊萨鸡胚血液循环中PGCs,实验蛋孵化率为35.0%,在出壳后死亡的3只小鸡肝脏中,GFP基因的PCR检出率为100%,存活的4只鸡中有3只在12月龄的血液样品中,经PCR扩增出了GFP基因;转染孵化72~79h白来航鸡胚PGCs,7批次实验的平均孵化率为21.1%,能在赤道面窗口注射胚的种蛋比率,以73 ~ 77h胚龄的最高,为75.0% ~ 92.9%,注射病毒组出壳雏鸡血液DNA中,GFP基因PCR检出率为44.4%.两种方法比较,PGCs方法在实验蛋孵化率、胚定位在赤道面窗口率等方面有较强优势.因此为种蛋内胚细胞的转基因鸡技术研究提供了系统、可操作性强的方法.%There were two kinds of pluripotent stem cells in the fertile chicken eggs, one was blastodermal cells (BCs) and the other was primordial germ cells (PGCs) and both of them were the main methods of transgenic chicken. The White Leghorn (WL) and Isa Brown (IB) fertile eggs at the stage of BCs and PGCs, were windowed equatorially, and the Lentivrial vector pLenti6/v5-DEST-EGFP was microinjected into the eggs. For BCs fertile eggs from WL, the positive embryos was 64. 7% (11/17) when the 13-day embryos were checked by PCR. For the PGCs (eggs incubated for72h) stage fertile eggs from IB, the hatchability was 35% , three chickens died little time after hatching, which were all positive when checked using the liver DNA by PCR at the age of 1 month and 6 month. There were three chickens among four alive ones (75%) was positive when checked the blood DNA by PCR, however they

  2. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

  3. Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and brominated flame retardants in free-range chicken eggs from peri-urban areas in Arusha, Tanzania: Levels and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Brynildsrud, O B; de Boer, J; Hamers, T; Kamstra, J H; Lie, E; Mdegela, R H; Moberg, H; Nonga, H E; Sandvik, M; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-05-01

    The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased urbanization. Urban agriculture is common and of economic value for low income families. In Arusha, many households sell eggs from free-ranging backyard chicken. In 2011, 159 eggs from different households in five different locations in Arusha were collected, homogenized, pooled into 28 composite samples and analyzed for a wide selection of POPs. Levels of POPs varied widely within and between the locations. The levels of dieldrin and ΣDDT ranged between 2 and 98,791 and 2 and 324ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively. EU MRLs of 0.02mg/kg dieldrin for eggs were exceeded in 4/28 samples. PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes, toxaphenes and endosulfanes were found at lower frequency and levels. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), e.g polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromphenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were present in 100%, 60% and 46% of the composite samples, respectively. Octa-and deca-BDEs were the dominating PBDEs and BDE 209 levels ranged between toxicity reference values (TRVs) such as the provisional tolerable intake (PTDI) or Reference Doses (RfDs). In one sample dieldrin exceeded the PTDI (100ng/kgbw/day). Correlation was found between bio-TEQs and lipid adjusted levels of ΣPBDEs, suggesting similar sources. Open fires in backyards may be one of the sources for contamination of eggs with BFRs and dioxins. PMID:26897409

  4. Identification of irradiated pasteurized egg products: a combined method to use in routine control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteurized egg products (whole egg, egg yolk and egg white) were tested for irradiation treatment in the German food control laboratories in Oldenburg/Niedersachsen and Kassel/Hessen as well as in the food irradiation laboratory of the German federal health office. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric measurements on the fat components of egg-products showed clearly whether the product had been irradiated or not. While in unirradiated samples no traces of special hydrocarbons (according to the fatty acid composition of egg) and no traces of the irradiation-specific compound 2-Dodecyl-cyclobutanone were found, irradiated control samples as well as products of two belgian suppliers contained these substances. Additionally, regarding the rather high time consumption of gas chromatography, electron spin resonance (ESR)-measurements were carried out on the packaging material of egg products. Irradiated packaging material (cellulose) could be easily detected by the appearance of a signal pair in the ESR spectrum (cellulose radical). ESR measurements are very fast and easy to perform so that this method can be used for screening. Microbiological investigations showed remarkably reduced total numbers of microorganisms for some irradiated samples, but the microbiological status is influenced by other factors like storage-time and -temperature, so that microbiological tests can not be used successfully for screening on irradiation treatment

  5. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  6. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF PULLETS AND SPENT LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. YASMEEN, S. MAHMOOD1, M. HASSAN, N. AKHTAR AND M. YASEEN2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Production performance and egg quality characteristics of pullets and spent layers were compared in this study. Forty birds, each from the flocks of pullets (24 weeks old and spent layers (76 weeks old were selected as experimental birds. The birds from each age group were divided into five replicates, each comprising of eight birds. All the experimental birds were fed a commercial layer ration @ 110g/bird/day for 12 weeks. The data on egg production, feed consumption, egg weight and egg quality characteristics viz. shell thickness, shell weight, breaking strength, albumen diameter, albumen weight and yolk weight were recorded. The data thus collected were utilized for calculation of FCR, Haugh unit and yolk index values. The results revealed that pullets produced more eggs and utilized their feed more efficiently than spent layers. However, egg weight in spent layers was higher than in their counterparts. Pullets also produced eggs with thicker shell and higher Haugh unit values when compared to the spent layers. Feed consumption and yolk index values remained unaffected due to the age. Pullets also had better egg quality characteristics than those of spent layers.

  7. Use of gamma radiation for the economic production of an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is an important cash crop of irrigated areas of Pakistan. Average yield per hectare is very low as compared to other cane growing countries of the world. Amongst the factors responsible for this low yield are insect pests as the major limiting factor. Insect pests have devastating effects on production of this crop. Conservative estimates indicate that insect pests reduce crop yield up to 80%, while 20% is common. It has always been difficult to control borer pests with insecticides due to the concealed feeding habits of the damaging stage, i.e. larvae. Moreover, insecticides are expensive and hazardous, cause environmental pollution and insect pests become resistant. Interest has resurfaced in using the biological control, which has long been recognised as an important tool in suppressing insect pests. The beneficial insects have been successfully manipulated with a variety of augmentation and conservation strategies. However, production of natural enemies in an efficient and economical way is a prerequisite for any biological control programme. Considerable technological advances have been made in mass-rearing of parasitoids and predators for augmentative biological management of the pests. Irradiation may play a significant role in the economical production of natural enemies. The studies reported here were designed specifically to evaluate the feasibility of using nuclear techniques for efficient and economical production of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis, a polyphagous parasitoid of lepidopteran pests. Eggs of Angoumois grain moth were obtained from the moths reared in the laboratory at 25±2 deg. C in 2.5-liter glass jars. For this purpose, a large numbers of 1- to 2-day old adults were collected from stock cultures and placed in inverted 1-liter plastic jars with screen bottoms. Eggs that fell through screen bottoms were collected by sifting them with the help of a 70- mesh screen. The egg cards were prepared having approx. 2,000 eggs

  8. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  9. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  10. PRODUCTIVITY OF LAYERS AND EGG QUALITY IN FREE RANGE AND CAGE SYSTEM OF HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đ. Senčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with two groups of Lohmann Brown hybrid layers. Production of eggs lasted for 52 weeks. A control group of layers was kept in the conventional housing system, that is, in cages, while experimental group was kept in the free range system. Layers from the free range system, compared to those kept in cages, laid fewer eggs, (266:295, they consumed more feed on daily basis (129 g : 115 g, more feed per kilogram of egg weight (2.83 kg : 2.35 kg, they had higher mortality rate (6.80 % : 5.50 % and lower end of lay body weight (1.95 kg : 2.10 kg. Eggs from free range layers, compared to those from the cages system, had significantly (P0.05 were determined between the free range and the cages system of housing hens. Considering somewhat lower productivity and higher mortality rate of hens, higher feed consumption per kilogram of egg mass, but also better quality of eggs, profitability of egg production in the free range system will depend, to the maximum extent, on market evaluation of the production.

  11. STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  12. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Santos M Herrera G.; Aslam Díaz C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final) that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet), 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group con...

  13. Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetic Modification and Other Possible Production Attributes for Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, John C.; Pan, Xiqian; Sirolli, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Today's consumers face foods whose production attributes they are often largely unfamiliar with and uncertain about. This study surveyed Delaware consumers about labeling, health risk concerns, and knowledge of five potential attributes for chicken: free-range, treated with antibiotics, irradiated, fed genetically modified (GM) feed, and GM chicken. Respondents were highly in favor of labeling all attributes, and perceived a high health risk from and had a low self-reported knowledge of many ...

  14. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  15. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  16. Propagation of planktonic copepods: production and mortality of eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Tiselius, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Data on fecundity and egg mortality of neritic copepods were collected in various seasons, areas and under various hydrographical conditions. On a seasonal basis variations in fecundity (F) were related to temperature rather than to the abundance of phytoplankton (P). However, a strong correlatio...

  17. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  18. Optical properties of tumor tissues grown on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs: tumor model to assay of tumor response to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Kariyama, Yoichiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Ishii, Takuya; Kitajima, Yuya; Inoue, Katsushi; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the optical adequacy of a tumor model prepared with tumor cells grown on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken egg is evaluated as an alternative to the mouse tumor model to assess the optimal irradiation conditions in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The optical properties of CAM and mouse tumor tissues were measured with a double integrating sphere and the inverse Monte Carlo technique in the 350- to 1000-nm wavelength range. The hemoglobin and water absorption bands observed in the CAM tumor tissue (10 eggs and 10 tumors) are equal to that of the mouse tumor tissue (8 animals and 8 tumors). The optical intersubject variability of the CAM tumor tissues meets or exceeds that of the mouse tumor tissues, and the reduced scattering coefficient spectra of CAM tumor tissues can be equated with those of mouse tumor tissues. These results confirm that the CAM tumor model is a viable alternative to the mouse tumor model, especially for deriving optimal irradiation conditions in PDT.

  19. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation ( Pcake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control ( Pcake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products ( P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  20. Production measurements affected by x irradiation of chicken semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.) and Dark Cornish semen was x-irradiated with 1000 R and introduced into S.C.W.L. hens to produce S.C.W.L. and crossbred chicks. The irradiation reduced the fertilizing capacity of the semen about 25% and the hatchability of the embryos about 38%. Semen of the two breeds was affected differently since there was much less alteration of embryonic development among purebred, S.C.W.L. chicks than among Cornish-sired crossbreds. As is typical, crossbred chicks gained weight faster than purebred S.C.W.L. irrespective of radiation damage. After irradiation, live weight was 4% less at 16 weeks of age for the crossbreds but no substantial effect on growth was evident for the S.C.W.L., although they were significantly heavier at hatching in the irradiated population. The rate of egg production in the first 30 days declined 15% under pressure from the irradiation damage. The distribution, as well as the frequency, of embryonic mortalities changed after parental semen irradiation. The majority of embryonic deaths occurred during the first 6 days of incubation with a coincidental decrease in the proportion of deaths occurring late during incubation. Posthatching mortalities were not affected for S.C.W.L. but were doubled for Cornish up to 16 weeks old

  1. Assessment of microbial contamination of chicken products sold in Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindhe S.N

    Full Text Available Three restaurants were randomly selected in Parbhani city for the purchase of chicken products which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the chicken curry samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count :1.1- 1.47 x 106 cfu/g ; Enterobacteriaceae count: 1.57- 2.17 x 106 cfu/g ; lactic acid bacteria count(LAB count :1.70 - 2.33 x 106 cfu/g. With respect to the sample of Tandoori chicken, the total aerobic count ranged from 3.54 x 106 cfu/g; S. aureus count: 1.8 x105- 2 x 107; Enterobacteriaceae count: 5.09 x 108 cfu/g; LAB count :1.3 -4.6 x 108 cfu/g. Probable organisms isolated from chicken curry were E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Lactobacillus sp., and S. aureus while those organisms isolated from Tandoori chicken include Salmonella, Proteus, Shigella, S. aureus, Klebsiella and Lactobacillus sp. Most of the chicken products sampled were therefore considered to pose health risk to consumers, making it imperative to institute not only sanitary measures during processing, storage and marketing but also to ensure steady source of power supply. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 208-210

  2. Outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in large multi-age egg layer chicken flocks in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingred S. Preis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent (November 2010 outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT in a multi-age laying hen facility in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described. Previous ILT outbreak in laying hens was only notified in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2002. In the outbreak described here, the affected population was approximately eight million hens, with flock sizes ranging from 100,000 to 2,900,000 chickens. The average mortality ranged from 1 to 6%, and morbidity was around 90% (most of the twenty seven farms of the area were positive for ILT virus. Three multi-age laying farms from one company were selected for this report. Clinical signs included prostration, dyspnea, conjunctivitis, occasional swelling of the paranasal sinuses and bloody mucous nasal discharge. Severely affected chickens presented with dyspnea, gasping and became cyanotic before death. At necropsy, these chickens had fibrinous exudate blocking the larynx and the lumen of cranial part of the trachea. In addition, conjunctivitis with intense hyperemia, edema and sinuses with caseous exudate were present. On histopathology, there were marked necrosis and desquamation of respiratory ephitelium and conjunctiva with numerous syncytial cells formation and fibrinous exudate. Moderate to marked non suppurative (especially lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltration in the lamina propria also was observed. Sixteen out of 20 examined chickens, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the syncytial cells. The DNA extracted from larynx and trachea produced positive PCR results for ILT virus (ILTV DNA using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE samples. Amplicons from a small region of ICP4 gene were submitted to sequencing and showed 100% identity with ILTV EU104910.1 (USA strain, 99% with ILTV JN596963.1 (Australian strain and 91% with ILTV JN580316.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 CEO vaccine strain and JN580315.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 TCO vaccine strain.

  3. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, P. K.; B.G. NATH

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  4. Elevated corticosterone during egg production elicits increased maternal investment and promotes nestling growth in a wild songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids circulating in breeding birds during egg production accumulate within eggs, and may provide a potent form of maternal effect on offspring phenotype. However, whether these steroids affect offspring development remains unclear. Here, we employed a non-invasive technique that experimentally elevated the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs in a wild population of house wrens. Feeding corticosterone-injected mealworms to free-living females prior to and during egg production increased the number of eggs that females produced and increased corticosterone concentrations in egg yolks. This treatment also resulted in an increase in the amount of yolk allocated to eggs. Offspring hatching from these eggs begged for food at a higher rate than control offspring and eventually attained increased prefledging body condition, a trait predictive of their probability of recruitment as breeding adults in the study population. Our results indicate that an increase in maternal glucocorticoids within the physiological range can enhance maternal investment and offspring development. PMID:27189763

  5. The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino acids. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino acid balance close to that required for eg...

  6. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  7. Effects of Compound Chinese Herbs on Egg Quality of Guangxi Partridge Chickens%中草药复方制剂对广西麻鸡蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛洪伟; 王霖涵; 韦宗海; 唐燕飞; 黄何元

    2012-01-01

    为研究中草药对广西麻鸡蛋品质的影响,随机选取35周龄广西麻鸡2000只为试验动物,进行7周的饲养试验。试验鸡群随机分为2组,每组2个重复。在饲养过程中,对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂基础饲粮+中草药复方制剂。结果表明,试验组在蛋形指数、蛋壳厚度、蛋壳强度优于对照组,但差异不显著(P〉0.05);蛋比重、蛋黄颜色、蛋黄比率、哈氏单位和血、肉斑率显著优于对照组(P〈0.05)。说明中草药能够在一定程度上提高广西麻鸡的蛋品质量。%The feeding test was conducted to evaluate the effect of compound Chinese herbs on egg quality of Guangxi partridge chicken. Two thouand Guangxi partridge chickens were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each group had 2 repeats. Control group was provided with basic diet, while test group was fed with basic diets added to compound Chinese herbs. The results showed that compound Chinese herbs could improve egg-shape index, shell strength, shell thickness(P 0.05), yolk color, percentage of yolk, haugh unit of eggs and percents of blood and meat spots in eggs, specific gravity of eggs were improved significantly(P 0.05). So compound Chinese herbs can improve egg quality of Guangxi partridge chicken.

  8. 不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡蛋品质的影响%Effects of Different Rearing Systems on Egg Quality of Huainan Spotted-yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏世广; 吴义景; 李俊营; 唐焰; 许月英; 徐珊珊; 张永德; 李绍全

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of different rearing systems on egg quality of Huainan spotted-yellow chicken. [ Method] The egg quality of 90 210-day Huainan spotted-yellow chickens with around 70% laying rate which were raised in cages, free range and pasture was detected. [ Result] The eggs of the chickens raised in free range were heavier (47. 13 g) than that of the chickens raised in pasture (P < 0. 01) and in cages ( P <0.05 ) ; the eggshell of the chickens reared in pasture was thicker than that of the chickens reared in cages and free range respectively by 2.32% ( P < 0.05 ) and 7. 32% ( P < 0.01). The eggshell strength of the chickens raised in cages was the highest, higher than those raised in free range by 26.67% (P < 0. 05 ). The albumen water content of caged spotted-yellow chickens was the lowest, lower than that of free range and pasture raised chickens respectively by 1.92% and 1.45% (P <0.01); the yolk water content of caged chickens was the highest, higher than that of pasture raised chickens (P < 0.05 ) and significantly higher than that of free range raised chickens ( P < 0.01). [ Conclusion] The egg quality of Huainan spotted-yellow chickens varied under different rearing systems.%[目的]研究不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡蛋品质的影响.[方法]对来自笼养、平养带运动场和林地散养的210日龄、产蛋率约70%的90个淮南麻黄鸡鸡蛋进行了蛋品质测定.[结果]蛋重以平养最大(47.13 9),显著高于林地散养(P<0.01)和笼养鸡的蛋重(P<0.05);蛋壳厚度以林地散养最大,分别比笼养和平养分别高2.32% (P <0.05)和7.32% (P <0.01).蛋壳强度以笼养最高,比平养高26.67% (P <0.05).笼养淮南麻黄鸡蛋蛋白含水率最低,比平养和林地散养组的蛋白含水率分别低1.92%和1.45%(P<0.01);笼养淮南麻黄鸡的蛋黄含水率最高,显著高于林地散养组(P<0.05)且极显著高于平养组(P<0.01).[结论]不同饲养方式下淮南麻

  9. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 100 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  10. Effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of Calanus hyperboreus from Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Vestergaard; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Møller, Eva Friis; Henriksen, Karen Vestergaard; Markager, Stiig; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    The effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus were investigated in Disko Bay, western Greenland, from winter to spring 2009. The abundance of females in the near bottom layer and the egg production of C. hyperboreus prior to...... pellet and egg production were monitored. Food had a clear effect on fecal pellet production but no effect on egg production, while temperature did not have an effect on egg or fecal pellet production in any of the experiments. Analyses of carbon and lipid content of the females before and after the...... compared to smaller Calanus spp. which are reported to exploit minor temperature elevations for increased egg ­production...

  11. Production-economic results in hatching eggs production for Arbor Acres laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Miroslav; Tešić Milan; Sinovec Zlatan; Palić Todor

    2005-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on Arbor Acres laying hens divided into two experimental groups, with group! having an initial mass of 2.70 kg, and group II of 2.15 kg. On entering exploitation, the laying hens were 22 weeks old and the experiment lasted 43 weeks. The production results were followed and analyzed according to the periods of exploitation: the first period was from 23-44 weeks, the second period from 45-52 weeks, and the third period from 53-65 weeks. The percent egg-laying abi...

  12. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  13. Outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in large multi-age egg layer chicken flocks in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A recent (November 2010) outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in a multi-age laying hen facility in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described. Previous ILT outbreak in laying hens was only notified in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2002. In the outbreak described here, the affected population was approximately eight million hens, with flock sizes ranging from 100,000 to 2,900,000 chickens. The average mortality ranged from 1 to 6%, and morbidity was around 90% (most of the twenty seven ...

  14. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima, H; Neser, F W C; Van Marle-Koster, E; De Kock, A

    2007-04-01

    Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods was carried out in four zones of north-west Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The majority of the respondents were female (74.16%). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households, are responsible for chicken rearing while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Almost all farmers provided night shelter for their chickens, in part of the kitchen (1.36%), in the main house (39.07%), in hand-woven baskets (7.29%), in bamboo cages (1.51%) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77%). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as fengele) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will enable not only the improvement of poultry production but also family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community. PMID:17691543

  15. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  16. MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION MAKING IN STRATEGIC PLANNING OF TABLE EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crnčan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objective was to analyze and evaluate different systems of table egg production by using the multiple criteria analysis, the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in decision making within strategic planning of production. The survey involved 79 producers of table eggs registered in the Records on laying hens’ farms in the Republic of Croatia. In the first stage, the research defined the criteria and sub-criteria for system evaluation which were compared in pairs in order to determine the weight or importance for each of them. Alternatives were evaluation based on definition of priorities of examinees and the extent to which they meet each of the defined criteria and sub-criteria. Intensity of examinees’ preferences were entered into the Expert Choice software in order to evaluate ranking results of egg production systems. Defined model consisted of a quantitative criterion of economic indicators, and the other two referred to qualitative criteria, market indicators and technical-technological factors. Each criterion had its corresponding sub-criteria that were evenly distributed in numerical order. Based on individual assessments of the examinees, overall cumulative evaluation was obtained for the table egg production systems. Accordingly, the most acceptable alternative to egg production is the indoor keeping system (priority 0.301. It is followed by the free-range system of keeping laying hens (priority 0.253. The third-ranked alternative is egg production by hens kept in conventional cages (priority 0.226, while the fourth-ranked least acceptable alternative, as of the total evaluation, is the ecological system of egg production (priority 0.220. Taking into account the obtained results of multiple criteria evaluation as well as EU and world trends in changing consumers’ habits including food safety and quality as well as customers’ preferences towards local market and local products, it is recommended that eggs

  17. Kepekaan Telur Spesific Pathogen Free dan Clean Egg Terhadap Virus Flu Burung (SENSITIVITY OF SPESIFIC PATHOGEN FREE EGGS AND CLEAN EGG TO THE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES SUBTYPE H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza which is  in Indonesia  known as Flu Burung  is caused by the avian influenza virussubtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1. Vaccination is one of the major strategies for preventing and eradicatingAIV-H5N1 in Indonesia. Several factors can affect the potential vaccine such as viral content and mediaused for the propagation of the virus. One of the media commonly used to propagate  the virus is pathogenspecific free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs. However, as the SPF eggs production is limited and expensive,the use of clean embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative need to examined. This study aimed todetermine the sensitivity of SPF and clean embryonated chicken eggs to the AIV-H5N1. The virus usedwas seed avian influenza virus (A/ Chicken/West Java (Subang/29/2007  which haa previously werepropagated  in SPF eggs and the Clean Eggs. The virus titer was determined as Embryo infective Dose 50%(EID50 using Reed and Muench method. Sensitivity of SPF eggs and Clean Egg to the VAI-H5N1 wascompared using  Chi-square statistical analysis. The titers of Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 were106.83EID50/0.1ml in SPF eggs and 106.17EID50/0.1 ml in the Clean Eggs. Statistical analysis showed that,the sensitivity of SPF Eggs and Egg Clean  for the propagation of the VAI-H5N1 was not significantlydifferent.

  18. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during...

  19. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  1. Assessment of welfare and egg production of laying hens moravia ssl in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the welfare of laying hens Moravia SSL housed in small-scale hen house with free range, behavior, egg production and selected physical indicators of eggs and chemical indicators of egg mass. The laying hens were kept in a hen house on deep litter. Breeding facility of hen house was within the meaning of recommendation for applying the principles of welfare, i.e. the space and breeding facility within the meaning of enriched breeding environment. Stocking density of the laying hens corresponded with recommendations for unrestricted movement and implementing natural activities. The hen house was equipped with the perch, nest, feeder and drinker. The commercial feed mixture was used for feeding, which is intended for laying hens. The kitchen remains were added to feed mixture, as are wet bread, the non-edible remains of foodstuffs. A feed mixture was served to laying hens 825 g per day. The laying hens had free access to drinking water, grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing and in the free range. We focused investigation of on the egg laying intensity, selected parameters of physical egg quality and chemical egg contents. Time to relax of laying hens was adjusted according to the summer and winter breeding seasons. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. These activities were investigated in laying hens too in dependent of year period, more in the summer. Housing of the hens was equipped with the perch. The laying hens regularly used a perch. A beginning of occupation the perch was at the time of time growing dark, at the end of the light day. A nesting material was selected regular, monthly exchange. It was meadow hay of excellent quality for the collection of high quality and safe eggs from nests in the hen house

  2. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  3. Farmer-driven research on village chicken production in Sanyati, Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on village chicken production in Sanyati, Zimbabwe, were initiated in 1998. The objective was, in cooperation with the farmers, to find means to improve chicken production by decreasing mortality and increasing growth. The aim is that more chickens should reach slaughter weight. Thus, household consumption and income can be increased. The improvements will facilitate women empowerment since women traditionally are responsible for chicken management. The studies are primarily carried out as on-farm trials but on-station support trials are also conducted. The approach has been practical and multi-factorial, while improvements in management and feeding have been subjects for research. The studies are on-going and, thus, no final results are presented in this paper. All figures shown on mortality and growth should be considered as indications and trends only. However, the results so far have shown that high mortality among young chickens is a major constraint. The causes of mortality are numerous, e.g. predation, diseases, parasites and accidents. (author)

  4. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens. PMID:23155026

  5. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  6. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  7. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  8. Automated method for egg collection and new pupae separation device for medfly mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly approach for suppression or eradication of insect pests and is used in many area-wide integrated programmes against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The mass-rearing procedures, used in specialized sterile medfly males producing facilities, still require considerable physical labor. Increasing demand for sterile males of high quality and acceptable cost for extending SIT programmes require a reduction of human labor by automation of the production process or some of its parts. The aim of this work was to develop an automated system for egg collection, as well as a new device for the separation of pupae from the pupation medium (sawdust). Both devices were tested in the medfly lab at the Institute of Zoology, SAS. Automated system for egg collection: The automated egg collecting system includes continuous collection of produced eggs in gentle stream of water, which permanently circulates in collecting channels. The eggs accumulate in collecting pots, which have a bottom constructed from soft mesh. Eggs are gently washed by a soft stream of well-oxygenated water and can be easily collected for the subsequent bubbling procedure. The automated egg collecting system consists of the following components: collecting channels, holders of collecting channels, water inlet, water pump, egg collecting pot and water reservoir. The developed new egg collecting system is fully automated and egg collecting is the only needed manual labor. Operating of the new egg collecting system is simpler and can be done in a shorter time than in other systems. Currently used separators usually utilise vibration to separate the pupae from the pupation medium. It results in a dusty environment in the pupae separation area. In the developed separator, the sawdust is exhausted in the initial phase of the sawdust-pupae mixture movement on the endless belt and small

  9. Multiplexed Analysis of Cage and Cage Free Chicken Egg Fatty Acids Using Stable Isotope Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Torde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binary stable isotope labeling couple with LC-ESI-MS has been used as a powerful non-targeted approach for the relative quantification of lipids, amino acids, and many other important metabolite classes. A multiplexed approach using three or more isotopic labeling reagents greatly reduces analytical run-time while maintaining excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. Three isotopic cholamine labeling reagents have been developed to take advantage of the pre-ionized character of cholamine, for ESI, and the ease by which stable isotopes can be incorporated into the cholamine structure. These three cholamine labeling reagents have been used to relatively quantify three fatty acid samples simultaneously. The quantification resulted in the observation of 12 fatty acids that had an average absolute error of 0.9% and an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. Caged versus cage-free isotope labeling experiments showed that cage-free eggs have an increased level of omega-3 fatty acids as compared to caged eggs. This multiplexed fatty acid analysis provides an inexpensive and expedited tool for broad-based lipid profiling that will further aid discoveries in the mechanisms of fatty acid action in cells.

  10. Effect of immersion and inoculation in ovo of Lactobacillus spp. in embryonated chicken eggs in the prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis after hatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, R A; Milbradt, E L; Coppola, M P; Rodrigues, J C Z; Andreatti Filho, R L; Padovani, C R; Okamoto, A S

    2013-06-01

    The protection level against Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated in chickens after in ovo treatment with different species of Lactobacillus spp. inoculated into the air cell or by immersion in broth culture. Two hundred forty embryonated eggs were distributed into 8 groups, corresponding to treatments with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus salivarius, and control. On d 18 of incubation, 4 groups were inoculated with 0.1 mL of inoculum in the air cell and 4 groups were immersed for 3 min in culture of each treatment. Two days after hatching, 0.5 mL of Salmonella Enteritidis culture was inoculated by the intraesophageal route. On d 5 of life, the chicks were euthanized and the ceca were processed to obtain Salmonella Enteritidis counts. There was no decrease in Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of chick ceca, regardless of treatment or route of administration. Lactobacillus spp. samples used in the treatment showed no probiotic potential in chicks when inoculated in ovo, in relation to Salmonella Enteritidis inhibition in poultry ceca. PMID:23687152

  11. Synthesis of stocks and phenotypic effects of dwarf and bantam sex-linked major genes in egg-type chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolfo William Silvestre Custódio

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the production of stocks segregating dwarf (dw, bantam (dwB and normal (dw+ alleles, as well as the characters, shank length, adult body weight, age at sexual maturity and egg production. Heterozygous K dw+/k dwB sires were mated to normal (dw+ dams to produce stock D6.a, and mated to dwB females to produce stock D6.b. Stock D4.a came from mating F1 heterozygous dwB dw sires to dwarf Leghorns. In a third series of matings, 7/8 Sebright and 1/8 dw-Leghorn dwB dw sires were crossed to three groups of dams of different genotypes. The progeny of the normal (dw+, dwarf (dw, and bantam (dwB dams were designated as stocks D4.b, D4.c and D4.d, respectively. The dw+ dams were White Leghorn strain cross females. The difference between the rate of laying of normal (69.7% and their bantam sisters (68.6% was not statistically significant when the average 32-week body weight of the dw+ sisters was 1,897 g. However, when the 32-week body weight of the normal daughters from the same sires and smaller dams was around 1,646 g, the difference between the rate of laying of the normal (78.1% and their bantam sisters (75.9% was significant (P Neste trabalho descreve-se a obtenção de seis plantéis experimentais, segregantes para os alelos ligados ao sexo, dwarf (dw, bantam (dwB e normal (dw+, em galinhas para ovos. Comparações entre desempenhos entre plantéis hemizigóticos para genes maiores no locus dwarf também foram efetuadas com relação a comprimento de canela medida na 16ª semana de idade, peso do corpo adulto, produção de ovos e maturidade sexual. Machos heterozigotos (K dw+/ k dwB foram acasalados com fêmeas normais (dw+ e com fêmeas bantam (dwB. As progênies fêmeas, nos referidos acasalamentos, foram denominadas de D6.a e D6.b, respectivamente. Galos 7/8 Sebright e 1/8 dw-Leghorn heterozigotos (dwB dw foram acasalados com três grupos de galinhas de diferentes genótipos (dw+, dw e dwB. As progênies das m

  12. Impact of Gamma Radiation Processing to Improve the Hygienic Quality of some Chicken Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For food to be entirely safe from the microbiological viewpoint, it must need to contain the least possible counts of microorganisms of hygienic importance. This investigation aims to study the possible use of gamma radiation for bacterial decontamination of chicken products which are produced in Egypt. One hundred and twenty samples of frozen chicken kofta and burgers (60 each) were purchased from retail markets at Cairo Governorate. They were surveyed for the hygienic quality as well as the effect of gamma radiation (dose levels of 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on the bacterial population, chemical and sensory quality of these products. The results indicated that the total aerobic bacterial counts (APC) ranged from 106 to 107 cfu/g in the examined samples. Moreover, some samples were contaminated with food borne pathogens such as Listeria species and Salmonella species. Gamma irradiation greatly reduced the microbial density of the studied food samples. The microbial reduction increased as the dose level of irradiation increase, whereas irradiation of chicken products at 3 kGy dose reduced aerobic counts and eliminated Salmonella and Listeria species, also it proved to be of great importance in increasing the safety and acceptability of ready to eat frozen chicken products with no adverse effect on their chemical or sensory quality

  13. Determinants of adoption of management interventions in indigenous chicken production in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ochieng, Justus; Owuor, George; Bebe, Bockline Omedo

    2012-01-01

    In Africa, many rural farming households keep indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) in traditional scavenging systems characterized by low input and low output. To improve productivity, African governments and development partners disseminate a management intervention package consisting of feed supplementation, vaccination, brooder, chick rearing equipment and improved housing. Some smallholder farmers adopt the full package, while others adopt the feed supplementation and vaccination only,...

  14. Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

  15. Egg quality in layers housed in different production systems and submitted to two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAD Barbosa Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production system using cages is a highly polemical issue in Europe, because of the space restriction imposed to laying hens. It is considered that the cage system might compromise important comfort movements, welfare and egg quality. This study evaluated egg quality and welfare of two strains of hens housed in a conventional system (battery laying cages or litter system with nest and perches, and submitted to heat stress or comfort conditions. Two groups of 20 birds (10 Hy-line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown were submitted to two environmental conditions (26°C and 60% RH or 35°C and 70% RH and two housing systems (cages or litter in the early production phase. Egg quality was analyzed based on egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, and Haugh units. Yolk and shell contamination by Salmonella sp was also assessed. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in quality parameters was observed in eggs produced by laying hens under heat stress, mainly in the birds housed in cages.

  16. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  17. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three freeze-dried (FD egg products (whole egg (WE, egg yolk (EY and egg white (EW were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P, Quindim (Q and Meringue (M. The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formulations of the same desserts made with fresh (F or spray-dried (SD egg products. The sensory analysis results for confections made with FD egg products showed good acceptance by panelists. A principal component analysis of the sensory evaluation data was carried out to identify similarities between the different egg products. The PCA supported the conclusion that FD egg products can substitute their fresh and SD counterparts in dessert formulations with good acceptability while keeping the advantages conferred by the freeze-drying method.

  18. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    end of spawning. Lipid composition and egg and larval quality of 34 family crosses were investigated. Results indicated that ARA uptake into eggs from broodstock diet was highly efficient achieving proportions of ARA up to 84% higher in eggs than in the diet. EPA was 42–76% higher, and DHA was 155......Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak and......–173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  19. Toxicity of vanadium in female Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubena, L F; Phillips, T D

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary vanadium, fed after the onset of production, on hen day egg production, body weight changes, and mortality in laying breed chickens. Calcium orthovanadate was fed to 29-week-old female laying breed chickens at calculated levels of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 ppm dietary vanadium for five consecutive 28-day laying periods. Hen-day egg production and hen body weights were not influenced by the addition of 12.5 or 25 ppm dietary vanadium. Overall hen body weights and the hen day egg production were decreased in hens fed diets to which 50 ppm vanadium was added with a severe reduction in both parameters at 100 ppm. There were no mortalities during the experiment in the groups fed the 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 ppm vanadium diets. Mortality in the group fed the 100 ppm vanadium diet was 11, 39, and 56% at the end of the 28-day Periods 3, 4, and 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in egg weights, although a trend existed for lower egg weights with increasing levels of dietary vanadium. PMID:6828413

  20. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos was...... calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and then slowing down between 16 and 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. HE...... followed the pattern of gas exchange, with a mean around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19. The main source of HE was oxidized fat. In addition to respiration experiments chemical analyses were carried out on 60 eggs from RO and 60 from LA. Prior to chemical analyses the...

  1. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W A; Sumner, D A

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. PMID:25480736

  2. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  3. Vertical distribution, grazing and egg production of calanoid copepods during winter-spring in Gullmarsfjorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Tiselius, P.

    1998-01-01

    were superfluous throughout the water column. Copepods and ciliates were never correlated. Ingestion as determined from gut fluorescence and egg production analyses suggested a higher degree of herbivory during the spring bloom than before and after. There was potential for copepod predation control of...

  4. 78 FR 19181 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups,...

  5. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  6. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  7. Where do egg production methods for estimating fish biomass go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Bernal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The special theme volume of Fisheries Research is intended to synthesise the current understanding of the methods and applicability of egg production methods (EPM). It originates from a workshop in Athens which also focused on the future challenges to both the science and logistics of carrying out a

  8. 9 CFR 590.411 - Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in official egg products plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of 21 CFR part 101, promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Fair... container in use or proposed for use in respect to egg products at any official plant is false or misleading... of labels for use in official egg products plants. 590.411 Section 590.411 Animals and...

  9. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    OpenAIRE

    CC Pizzolante; SK Kakimoto; ESPB Saldanha; C Laganá; Souza HBA de; JE Moraes

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 %) and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL), 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL), 3- 50% F...

  10. Production and reproduction of egg- and meat-type quails reared in different group sizes

    OpenAIRE

    TC Santos; AE Murakami; JC Fanhani; CAL Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Egg- and meat-type quails were reared in groups of different sizes with a fixed female-to-male ratio of 2 to 1 and an area of 158 cm² per bird. The aim was to investigate the influence of group size on quail production and reproductive variables. To this end, 360 quails (180 meat and 180 egg-type quails) were assigned in a completely randomized experimental design to one of three treatments with ten replicates each. The treatments consisted of groups with nine, six, or three quails per cage. ...

  11. Effect of different litter treatments on production performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Bjedov S.; Žikić D.; Perić L.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Milošević N.

    2013-01-01

    In modern poultry production, foot pad dermatitis (FPD) represents one of the main problems on broiler chicken legs with significant affect on animal welfare and performance. This problem is not solved by the using of straw as litter. Different treatments of straw are needed to eliminate the adverse effects of this material as litter. The most widely used method to improve the quality of litter is chopping straw and application of microbial products on that...

  12. Production and reproduction of egg- and meat-type quails reared in different group sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Egg- and meat-type quails were reared in groups of different sizes with a fixed female-to-male ratio of 2 to 1 and an area of 158 cm² per bird. The aim was to investigate the influence of group size on quail production and reproductive variables. To this end, 360 quails (180 meat and 180 egg-type quails were assigned in a completely randomized experimental design to one of three treatments with ten replicates each. The treatments consisted of groups with nine, six, or three quails per cage. Birds were observed for three cycles of 14 days. Daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced (p < 0.05 by group size in both types of quails. Quail type influenced (p < 0.05 daily feed intake, feed conversion, and egg weight due to the typical differences between meat and egg-type birds. Despite the observed differences in production parameters, the mean values observed were typical of meat- and egg-type quails. The number of hydrolysis points (holes per mm² on the vitelline membrane on the germinal disc area was higher in meat quails (2.89 ± 0.21 than in egg quails (2.15 ± 0.13. This parameter was not influenced by the number of birds per cage, which suggests that the number of males inside the cage did not modify the spermatozoa pool inside the female oviduct. We concluded that a ratio of two females per male in cages with three, six, and nine birds/cage is recommended, as no deleterious effect on quail reproduction was observed.

  13. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  14. Fatty acid oxidation is essential for egg production by the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, parasitic flatworms that cause the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis, have been considered to have an entirely carbohydrate based metabolism, with glycolysis playing a dominant role in the adult parasites. However, we have discovered a close link between mitochondrial oxygen consumption by female schistosomes and their ability to produce eggs. We show that oxygen consumption rates (OCR and egg production are significantly diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1, which catalyzes a rate limiting step in fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO and by genetic loss of function of acyl CoA synthetase, which complexes with CPT1 and activates long chain FA for use in FAO, and of acyl CoA dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the first step in FAO within mitochondria. Declines in OCR and egg production correlate with changes in a network of lipid droplets within cells in a specialized reproductive organ, the vitellarium. Our data point to the importance of regulated lipid stores and FAO for the compartmentalized process of egg production in schistosomes.

  15. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  16. Association of Beta2-Positive Clostridium perfringens Type A With Focal Duodenal Necrosis in Egg-Laying Chickens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, M; Barrios, M A; Stabler, L; Zavala, Guillermo; Shivaprasad, H L; Lee, M D; Villegas, A M; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-03-01

    Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is a poorly understood intestinal disease of egg layers, and has been associated with drops in egg production and decreased egg weights. The etiology of this disease is still unknown, but the condition has been associated with Clostridium colinum and Clostridium perfringens. In order to investigate the etiology, duodenal samples were taken from hens with FDN. The hens originated from table egg layer farms in three states. The samples were examined by histopathology, bacteriology, and immunohistochemistry. Macroscopically, all samples contained focal to multifocal, variably sized, reddened or brownish gray areas of mucosal erosion. Histopathology revealed mild to severe heterophilic and lymphoplasmacytic enteritis with loss of enterocytes at the villous tips, luminal fibrinonecrotic exudate, and variable numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria within the lesions in 16/30 samples. Clostridium perfringens was isolated by anaerobic bacteriology from 4/13 samples that had characteristic microscopic lesions of FDN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that all four isolates were Type A C. perfringens, positive for beta2 gene and negative for necrotic enteritis toxin B and enterotoxin genes. PCR for Clostridium colinum applied to DNA extracted from frozen intestinal samples yielded negative results in 14/14 duodenal samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 7C. perfringens, alpha and beta2 toxins stained a few to numerous long rod-shaped bacteria present in the lesions. IHC for alpha and beta2 toxins also stained enterocytes at the villous tips, inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, as well as degenerated and sloughed enterocytes present within the luminal exudate. These findings suggest that C. perfringens may play a role in the development of FDN. Experimental challenge studies with these isolates still need to be performed in order to reproduce the disease and fulfill Koch's postulates. PMID:26953942

  17. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeira, N. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Barbour, E.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: eb01@aub.edu.lb; Nehme, P.A. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamadeh, S.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Zurayk, R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bashour, I. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  18. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  19. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. PMID:26592708

  20. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications

  1. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  2. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F;

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg ...

  3. Production of Castor Culture in Depending to Fertilization With Bed Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ednalva Cavalcanti de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization of crops with organic products, where the content organic matter in soil is low, it is viable alternatives for increasing crop productivity and improvement of the physical, chemical and biological conditions of soil. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 t / ha of chicken bed and four replications. The chicken bed had a positive influence on the length of the bunch of castor, the number of fruit per bunch, the average weight of bunch, the 100 grain weight and grain yield. The highest yield of castor was 1131 kg ha-1, obtained with 11,53 t ha-1 of cattle manure. Addition of 11,53 t ha-1 of cattle manure increased the grain yield of castor at 580 kg ha-1, equivalent to 51,28% more.

  4. Mycofix ameliorative effect on Newcastle disease antibody production in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Gargees

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to elucidate the alleviation effects of Mycofix plus 3.0 on Newcastle antibody formation during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Three levels of Mycofix (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.25% and aflatoxin (2.5ppm, 3.5ppm, and 5ppm were used. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 18 days of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Haemagglutination inhibition tests were employed for determination Newcastle antibody titers at 28 days. The results showed that, Mycofix , and only at its high level of addition (0.25% was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of aflatoxin at the rates 2.5ppm and 3.5 ppm levels of inclusion on antibody production but not at the high level of 5ppm on antibody production, comparing with titers in control groups.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi-Fard M; Yousefi S; Dirandeh E; Rezaei M

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage). Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet) to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the e...

  6. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Genes Aid in Defense against Chicken Innate Immunity, Fecal Shedding, and Egg Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    McKelvey, Jessica A.; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua; ZHANG, SHUPING

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens...

  7. Production and Characterization of Organic Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatrophacurcas) Seed Cake and Chicken Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Maylen G. Eroa

    2015-01-01

    The processing of Jatrophacurcas (tubang-bakod) to produce biodiesel entails wastes in the form of seedcake which can be converted into valuable product that can help nurture and improve soil properties. The College of Industrial Technology and the Chemical Engineering Department of Batangas State University (BatstateU) conducted an experimental study which includes the composting of the combination of Jatropha Seed-Cake(JSC) and Chicken Manure(CM) , formulating ratios of JSC and CM andcharac...

  8. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  9. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on residual nitrate and nitrite in some meat and chicken products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish the residual nitrate and nitrite and concentrations of six heavy metals in meat products samples that purchased from retail outlets in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. The possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy for reducing residual nitrate and nitrite was studied. The results showed that most of samples under investigation above the maximum permissible limit of nitrate in Egypt. Gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy reduced the levels of nitrate and nitrite proportionally to applied doses. The irradiation dose of 7 KGy was more effective for reducing the level of residual nitrate and nitrite. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using the inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) in non-irradiated samples. The results showed that the concentration of Pb in meat products was ranged between 0.643-0.828, 0.548, 0.598-0.844, 0.574-0.877, 0.324-0.568 and 0.156-0.432 mg/kg (wet weight basis) in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and minced beef meat, respectively, but the values of Hg ranged between 0.0965-0.839, 0.121, 0.147-0.218, 0.114-0.258, 0.087-0.143 and 0.057-0.124 mg/kg in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. The content of iron ranged between 0.336, 0.362-4.284, 0.364-0.611, 0.264-0.336 and 0.276-0.314 mg/kg in chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. However, the results indicated that, the most of meat products under investigation had high concentrations from toxic metals of Pb and Hg than the permissible limits that recommended by FAO/WHO of person daily. Therefore, the consumption of high amount of these commodities dose not pose a health risk for the consumer

  11. Fast Screening of Chicken Egg Lysozyme in White Wine Products by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-quan; JIANG Jie; LI Ming; ZHAO Zhan-feng; FU Jun

    2012-01-01

    Fast detection of trace lysozyme,one of the most important food allergens in white wine samples,was achieved by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment in this study.The multiply-charged ions of m/z 1587 were chosen for the quantitative detection of lysozyme in white wine,showing linear dynamic signal responses in a range of 5-75 μg/mL with a linearity coefficient of 0.999 and an acceptable relative standard deviation(RSD)of 8.0%-15.0% for directly measuring lysozyme in the complex food samples.The limit of detection for lysozyme in white wine sample was calculated to be 5 μg/mL,which was lower than the amounts that can provoke allergic reactions(oral test with 3 mg or labial test with 1 mg/mL).A single sample analysis was completed within 1 min.The data demonstrate that extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a useful tool for fast screening lysozyme in the complex matrix,showing promising application in the rapid detection of food allergen.

  12. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results: During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  13. Bakery products from irradiated and non-irradiated eggs - analytical problems associated with the detection of irradiation in processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spring and early summer 1992, a number of irradiated egg products were illegally imported into Germay. To prove the irradiation of these egg products, mainly combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied. With this present study we wanted to answer the question if we were also able to detect the use of irradiated eggs in processed foods. The processed food we chose to produce and to investigate was a tart layer. For this product, dilution effects are of minor importance as no extra fat was added. Thus, the layers' fat almost exclusively came from the eggs. To study the influence of emulsifiers, we produced batters both with and without adding an emulsifer. The unsaturted hydrocarbons C14:1, C16:3, C16:2, C17:2, and C17:1 served as markers for an irradiation. In the non-irradiated egg samples and in the tart layers produced from them, these compounds could not be detected (or in some cases only in small amounts). They were, however, detectable in all irradiated samples. DCB could be found in all irradiated egg samples and in the tart layers that were baked from irradiated eggs. It was not present in non-irradiated eggs and in tart layers produced from them. (orig./Vhe)

  14. On the influence of storage duration on rheological properties of liquid egg products and response of eggs to impact loading - Japanese quail eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, May (2015), s. 86-94. ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg quality * japanese quail * haugh units * storage duration * non-Newtonian fluid * non-destructive impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.771, year: 2014

  15. Salmonella and campylobacter in organic egg production - with special reference to the Finnish situation

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    In Finland, an ongoing (2003-2005) research project on organic egg production, animal welfare and food safety is examining campylobacter and salmonella contamination of approximately 20 organic layer farms. Adequate biosecurity levels, lowering the number of potential zoonotic infection sources in the vicinity of hen houses and vaccination of hens against S. Enteritidis are available tools to decrease contamination of organic laying hens by campylobacters or salmonella.

  16. Identification of Bioaerosols Released from an Egg Production Facility in the Southeast United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Li, Qianfeng; Byfield, Grace E.

    2013-01-01

    This field study investigated biological characteristics of aerosols emitted from a commercial egg production farm (layer operation). Bioaerosol samples were taken on this farm at five sampling locations covering emission source (inside a layer barn) and four ambient surrounding stations at four wind directions. All-glass impingers (AGI) were used for the field sampling. AGI fluid samples were plated in duplicate on Trypticase Soy Agar for growth of bacteria and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for gr...

  17. End products of glutamine oxidation in MC-29 virus-induced chicken hepatoma mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, T

    1989-10-01

    Products of glutamine metabolism were examined in the MC-29 virus-induced chicken hepatoma mitochondria incubated in vitro. Glutamine oxidation proceeded in the tumor mitochondria exclusively via a pathway involving glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase. Malate stimulated aspartate production from glutamine, while pyruvate exerted suppressive effect on aspartate production with little alanine formation. The mitochondria of this hepatoma are unique in that the metabolic pattern and response to malate and pyruvate are essentially inconsistent with those reported in normal cells as well as those proposed by Moreadith and Lehninger in various tumor cells. PMID:2571353

  18. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs. PMID:27296601

  19. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Narat, Mojca; BIČEK, Ajda; Vadnjal, Robert; Benčina, Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY) shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of...

  20. Comparison of parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels in two chicken lines during sustained infection with Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Jungersen, Gregers; Fink, Dorte R; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2013-01-16

    Increasingly large numbers of poultry are held in production systems with access to outdoor areas. In these systems intestinal helminths are found with flock prevalences of up to 100%. Helminth infections influence chicken health negatively, which is why the following investigation has been performed. In the present experiment, 20 chickens of two inbred chicken lines containing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, B14 and R5, were inoculated with 500 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs. The A. galli-specific IgG titres of serum samples and the excretion of A. galli eggs in chicken faeces were measured for a period of 81 weeks. The level of excreted A. galli eggs measured as eggs per gram chicken faeces (EPG) varied greatly between chickens in each line. Significant differences were found between the two lines and with the R5 chickens reaching the highest levels. Likewise, the A. galli-specific IgG titres in serum differed significantly between the two lines, and an inverse relationship between infection level (EPG) and antibody titres was found. Although this inverse relationship suggests that humoral immunity may be involved in protection against A. galli infection, the high antibody titres did not prevent continued infection. PMID:22981407

  1. Limitation of egg production in Calanus finmarchicus in the field: A stoichiometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Pond, David W.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2009-11-01

    The egg production of marine copepods correlates with a range of variables, including the availability of organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 20:5( n-3) (EPA) and 22:6( n-3) (DHA). However, an understanding of which substrates limit egg production in the natural environment has yet to be reached. The quantities of C, N, EPA and DHA ingested, derived from parental biomass, and invested in eggs by female Calanus finmarchicus during a 5-day incubation experiment were examined using stoichiometric theory to determine which substrate was limiting. The majority of each substrate was derived from parental biomass, and therefore the existing stoichiometric theory is developed to include this route of supply. The females were essentially devoid of lipid reserves, as evidenced by the lack of the storage fatty acids 20:1( n-9) and 22:1( n-11), and carbon limitation was predicted under most of the scenarios examined. Nitrogen limitation was only apparent when carbon and nitrogen utilisation efficiencies were assumed to be high (0.5) and low (0.4) respectively. PUFAs were assumed to be utilised with high efficiency (0.9), and were never predicted to limit production. This work highlights the need for a more detailed understanding of the maintenance requirements that marine copepods have for C, N, EPA, and DHA and hence the efficiencies with these substrates can be utilised for growth.

  2. The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Jefferson-Moore, K Y; Einstein, M E; Cheng, H W; Rubin, D A

    2013-02-01

    Enrichment of pullet cages with perches has not been studied. Our objective was to determine if access to metal perches during all or part of the life cycle of caged White Leghorns affected egg traits, foot health, and feather condition. Treatment 1 represented control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had perches only during the egg laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Comparisons between chickens that always had perches with controls that never had perches showed similar performance relative to egg production, cracked eggs, egg weight, shell weight, % shell, and shell thickness. More dirty eggs occurred in laying cages with perches. Feed usage increased resulting in poorer feed efficiency in hens with perch exposure during the pullet phase with no effect during egg laying. Perches did not affect hyperkeratosis of toes and feet. The back claw at 71 wk of age broke less if hens had prior experience with perches during the pullet phase. In contrast, during egg laying, the back claw at 71 wk of age broke more due to the presence of perches in laying cages. Perches in laying cages resulted in shorter trimmed claws and improved back feather scores, but caused poorer breast and tail feather scores. In conclusion, enriching conventional cages with perches during the entire life cycle resulted in similar hen performance compared with controls. Fewer broken back claws but poorer feed efficiency occurred because of prior experience with perches as pullets. Perch presence during egg laying improved back feather scores with more trimmed nails but caused more dirty eggs, broken back claws, and poorer breast and tail feather scores. Although perches allow chickens to express their natural perching instinct, it was not without causing welfare problems. PMID

  3. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  4. Role of irradiation in processing and marketing of chicken and other meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has a big poultry industry. Irradiation decontamination of chickens will be beneficial for the refrigeration industry as they will be able to market better quality products which have more market demand than frozen poultry. The Brazilian Government approved 7 kGy for irradiation of poultry. Use of irradiation in refrigerated chicken cuts and mechanically deboned meat will lower the risk of contamination and thereby increase the profit of industries. Irradiation could also be used in Brazil in conditioning red meat. Public acceptance of irradiated food in Brazil is hampered by incidences which contaminated food. A consumer education programme by both national and international agencies should be developed and directed towards the average consumer for his understanding and acceptance of this technology. (author). 12 refs

  5. Comparative evaluation of three egg production systems: Housing characteristics and management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D M; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    This paper is an integral part of the special publication series that arose from the multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES). The CSES project involves 3 housing systems for egg production at the same research farm site in the Midwest, USA, namely, a conventional cage (CC) house, an aviary (AV) house, and an enriched colony (EC) house. The CC house (141.4 m L×26.6 m W×6.1 m H) had a nominal capacity of 200,000 hens (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), and the cages were arranged in 10 rows, 8 tiers per cage row, with a perforated aisle walkway at 4-tier height. The AV house (154.2 m L×21.3 m W×3.0 m H) and the EC house (154.2 m L×13.7 m W×4.0 m H) each had a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The AV house had 6 rows of aviary colonies, and the EC house had 5 rows of 4-tier enriched colonies containing perches, nestbox, and scratch pads (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen). The overarching goal of the CSES project, as stated in the opening article of this series, was to comprehensively evaluate the 3 egg production systems from the standpoints of animal behavior and well-being, environmental impact, egg safety and quality, food affordability, and worker health. So that all the area-specific papers would not have to repeat a detailed description of the production systems and the management practices, this paper is written to provide such a description and to be used as a common reference for the companion papers. PMID:25737566

  6. Identification on commercialized products of AFLP markers able to discriminate slow- from fast-growing chicken strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumière, Olivier; Dubois, Marc; Grégoire, Dimitrie; Théwis, André; Berben, Gilbert

    2003-02-26

    The European chicken meat market is characterized by numerous quality marks: "Label de Qualité Wallon" in Belgium, "Label Rouge" in France, denominations of geographical origin, organic agriculture, etc. Most of those certified productions have specifications requiring the use of slow-growing chicken strains. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique has been used to search molecular markers able to discriminate slow-growing chicken strains from fast-growing ones and to authenticate certified products. Two pairs of restriction enzymes (EcoRI/MseI and EcoRI/TaqI) and 121 selective primer combinations were tested on individual DNA samples from chicken products essentially in carcass form that were ascribed as belonging to either slow- or fast-growing strains. Within the resulting fingerprints, two fragments were identified as type-strains specific markers. One primer combination gives a band (333 bp) that is specific for slow-growing chickens, and another primer pair generates a band (372 bp) that was found to be characteristic of fast-growing chickens. The two markers were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The effectiveness and the specificity of the two interesting determinants were assessed on individuals of two well-known strains (ISA 657 and Cobb 500) and on commercialized products coming from various origins. PMID:12590443

  7. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items. PMID:22820940

  8. Chicken-egg Extracts Have the Key Roles in Maintaining and Enhancing the Cell Activity%鸡卵细胞提取液有维持和增强细胞活性的关键作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮光萍; 王金祥; 庞荣清; 姚翔; 阮光洪; 朱光旭; 朱向情; 蔡学敏; 何洁

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the identification of an extract with the ability to maintain and enhance the survival and differentiation of cells which will be useful in cellular biology research.Four types of egg extracts were prepared.The spleen cells from male mice were permeabilized with the extracts and cultured respectively,and then transfused into female mice.The GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood of female mice and Y chromosome in bone marrow cells were detected to compare the different abilities of spleen cells to survive and differentiate in vivo.Surviving GFP-positive spleen cells were detected in the female mice of chicken-egg-white and whole-egg extracts group.At 120 days after transplantation,the percentage of cells containing a Y chromosome in the bone marrow positively correlated with the percentage of GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood.After permeabilization by chicken-egg-white or whole-egg extracts,spleen cells demonstrate significantly enhanced survivability.The results show the vital role of chicken-egg-white extracts in maintaining and enhancing the survival of spleen cells.Therefore,the chicken-egg-white extracts may be of use in future stem cells study.%该文鉴定了一种提取物具有维持和增强细胞存活与分化的能力,这将在细胞生物学研究中得到应用.制备四种卵细胞提取物,雄鼠的脾细胞被提取物渗透并培养,然后输注给雌鼠.在移植后雌鼠外周血中GFP阳性细胞和骨髓细胞中的Y染色体被检测,对比脾细胞在体内存活与分化的不同能力.移植蛋白和全蛋提取液处理的脾细胞的雌鼠外周血检测到GFP阳性细胞,在移植后120 d,雌鼠骨髓中检测到的Y染色体阳性率与外周血中的GFP阳性细胞率呈正比.用蛋白和全蛋提取液渗透脾细胞后,脾细胞在雌鼠体内存活能力强于其他提取液.结果表明,鸡蛋白提取液有维持并增强脾细胞存活的作用.因此蛋白提取物可在将来用于干细胞功能的维持.

  9. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22302480

  10. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.;

    2006-01-01

    . Whereas egg production was significantly correlated with particulate organic nitrogen in the diet, and independent of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), hatching increased with increasing DHA and EPA concentration. Growth and juvenile...

  11. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    Threshold concentration, retention efficiency and egg-production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were examined using the algal species Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso, Dunalietta tertiolecta Butcher, Rhodomonas baltica Karsten, Ditylum brightwellii Grunow and Thalassiosira weissflogii...

  12. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  13. Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous chicken production in sub Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry sub sector is a privileged entry point for promoting gender equality. Gender inequalities in poultry and livestock activities are now more and more acknowledged by governments, scientists, and farmers in sub Saharan Africa. This is on the background that gender inequality has translated into loss of opportunities or potential gains on agricultural production and food security. This has been exacerbated by the fact that the progress in empowering women in agriculture and reducing gender inequality has been slow despite this realization. The paper presents an overview of the development of the indigenous chickens sector in sub Saharan Africa and its implication on addressing gender equality. The assumption is that despite the multitude of socio-economic constraints faced by women in agriculture they are capable of raising indigenous chickens for the welfare of their households, hence promoting indigenous chickens  can give women a chance to control more income, reducing gender inequality. Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment is critical to the success of these development goals.

  14. Preparation of a Chicken scFv to Analyze Gentamicin Residue in Animal Derived Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; He, Jinxin; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Enqi; Li, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    Chicken is an ideal model for simplified recombinant antibody library generation. It has been rarely been reported to apply chicken single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) in immunoassays for the detection of antibiotic and chemical contaminants in animal food products. In this study, the scFvs (S-1 and S-5) were isolated from a phage display library derived from a hyperimmunized chicken. The checker board titration revealed that the optimum concentrations of S-1 and S-5 were 0.78 μg/mL and 0.44 μg/mL respectively, to obtain OD450 around 1.0 at 5 μg/mL of Gent-OVA coating concentration. Both S-1 and S-5 exhibited negligible cross reactivity with kanamycin and amikacin. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S-1 and S-5 were 12.418 ng/mL and 14.674 ng/mL respectively. In the indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA), the limits of detection for S-1 and S-5 were 0.147 ng/mL and 0.219 ng/mL respectively. The mean recovery for Gent ranged from 60.91% to 118.09% with no more than 10.35% relative standard deviation (RSD) between the intra-assay and the inter-assay. These results indicate the chicken scFv based ic-ELISA method is suitable for the detection of Gent residue in animal derived edible tissues and milk. PMID:26980703

  15. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality. PMID:27110988

  16. 通江花鸡蛋品质及营养成分分析%The analysis of the quality and nutrient components of Tongjiang striped chicken'eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫天龙; 古霞; 邓维泽; 吴俊章; 黄胜斌; 林俊帆; 万鑫; 李明元

    2015-01-01

    为鉴别通江花鸡蛋品质,分析了其营养成分.测定其蛋重、蛋形指数、蛋壳厚度、哈氏单位、蛋黄比、蛋清比、蛋黄色泽、蛋黄质构、全蛋蛋白质、糖类、脂肪、胆固醇、VA以及K、Na、Ca、M g、Zn、P、Se微量元素的含量.结果表明:通江花鸡蛋体型小、质量轻、蛋壳较薄,但哈氏单位和蛋黄比优于饲料鸡蛋;通江花鸡蛋蛋黄色泽比饲料鸡蛋黄颜色深,总色差是饲料鸡蛋的1.17倍;通江花鸡蛋蛋黄质构指标除胶黏性以外,其余质构指标均优于饲料鸡蛋;通江花鸡蛋VA含量与饲料鸡蛋相比无明显差异,但脂肪、糖类含量较高,通江花鸡蛋胆固醇含量显著低于饲料鸡蛋;通江花鸡蛋富含K、P、Se微量元素,分别是饲料鸡蛋的1.44倍、3.82倍和1.26倍.%The nutrient components of the Tongjiang striped chicken' eggs were analyzed in order to identify their quality.The weights,indexes of the shapes,thickness of the shell,Haugh unite,the egg york to the total ratio,the egg white to the total ratio,the color of the yorks,their textures,protein composition,carbohydrates,fat,cholesterol,vitamin A,potassium,sodium,calcium,magnesium,zinc,phosphorus and selenium trace elements were tested.The results showed that Haugh unite and the egg york to the total ratio of Tongjiang striped chicken' s eggs were better than that of the feed ones.Tongjiang eggs' size are smaller,weight are lighter and shell,but color is darker,the total color difference is 1.17 times than that of the feed eggs.Their yolk texture indicators are also better than the feed ones except plastic viscosity.The contents of the fat and carbohydrate are higher than the feed ones' Meanwhile,cholesterol content were significantly lower than the feed ones' while no significant difference in content of vitamin A.The contents of their potassium,phosphorus and selenium are 1.44,3.82,1.26 times more than the feed ones' respectively.In short,the Tongjiang striped

  17. Diet influence on egg production of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Egg production in the copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated using different densities of the microalgae Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis galbana. Male and female were kept under controlled conditions (salinity 30, 20°C, photoperiod 12L:12D, acclimated to the experimental conditions and left over a period of 24 h to allow copulation. Algal densities tested were equivalent in biovolume and corresponded to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60.10³ cells.mL-1 of T weissflogii. Ten acclimated female were separated, transferred to glass bottles and exposed for further 24 h to the corresponding experimental medium. After this period, the eggs were fixed and counted. Copepod egg production reached a threshold value when T weissflogii, C. muelleri and I. galbana were supplied at 10.10³, 140.10³ and 640.10³ cells.mL-1, respectively. Mean egg production corresponded to 28.0 ± 0.5, 20.1 ± 1.0 and 22.0 ± 3.5 eggs.female-1 .day-1, respectively. Copepods fed T weissflogii showed the highest mean egg production while those fed I. galbana reached a maximum egg production when the algae were supplied at a density two- to fourfold higher, considering the biovolume of T weissflogii and C. muelleri. These differences are explained considering the different sizes of the microalgae used to feed the copepods.A produção de ovos do copépode Acartia tonsa foi avaliada utilizando diferentes densidades das microalgas Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri e Isochrysis galbana. Machos e fêmeas foram colocados sob condições controladas (salinidade 30, 20°C, fotoperíodo 12L:12D, aclimatados às condições experimentais e mantidos juntos por 24 h para permitir a copula. As densidades de algas foram equivalentes em biovolume e corresponderam a 0, 2,5, 5, 10, 20, 40 e 60,10³ células.mL-1 de T. weissflogii. Dez fêmeas aclimatadas foram separadas, transferidas para frascos de vidro e expostas por mais 24 h ao meio experimental

  18. Performance of free-range chickens reared in production modules enriched with shade net and perches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJB Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment in a free-range chicken production system on live performance as a function of microclimate, physiological parameters, and performance parameters. Four production modules were divided into four pens with 10 birds each, totaling 60 birds. The following treatments were applied: access to a paddock (TEST, access to a paddock with perches (PER, access to a paddock with artificial shade (SHA, and access to the paddock with perches and artificial shade (PESH. The PESH production module presented the best globe temperature (Tbg,ºC and enthalpy (h, kJ/kg, and thereby, the best thermal environmental conditions, which ensured the longest permanence time of the birds in the paddock. The SHA and PESH modules promoted the lowest respiratory rate and shank and comb temperatures. Live performance was influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment (modules SHA and PESH, with the highest live weight (LW and weight gain (WG and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR and metabolizable energy intake (MEI. Parts yield, such as giblets, were not influenced by production modules, except for PESH, which promoted higher offal weight. In general, chickens reared in enriched production modules presented greatest performance and comfort results and were considered close to optimal rearing conditions.

  19. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  20. Factors from production to packaging that affect the microbiology of commercial shell egg processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  2. Biological control of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on finished stored products using egg and larval parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2006-08-01

    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma deion Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for preventing infestations of P. interpunctella in coarse-ground cornmeal as well as the influence of packaging on parasitoid effectiveness. Treatments included one or both parasitoids and either cornmeal infested with P. interpunctella eggs or eggs deposited on the surface of plastic bags containing cornmeal. H. hebetor had a significant impact on the number of live P. interpunctella, suppressing populations by approximately 71% in both unbagged and bagged cornmeal. In contrast, T. deion did not suppress P. interpunctella in unbagged cornmeal. However, when released on bagged cornmeal, T. deion significantly increased the level of pest suppression (87%) over bagging alone (15%). When H. hebetor was added to bagged cornmeal, there was a significant reduction of live P. interpunctella compared with the control (70.6%), with a further reduction observed when T. deion was added (96.7%). These findings suggest that, in most situations, a combined release of both T. deion and H. hebetor would have the greatest impact; because even though packaging may protect most of the stored products, there are usually areas in the storage landscape where poor sanitation is present. PMID:16937658

  3. Pre- and post-hatch trophic egg production in the subsocial burrower bug, Canthophorus niveimarginatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Lisa; Baba, Narumi; Inadomi, Koichi; Yanagi, Takao; Hironaka, Mantaro; Nomakuchi, Shintaro

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, three terrestrial bugs, Adomerus triguttulus and Sehirus cinctus (Cydnidae) and the closely related Parastrachia japonensis (Parastrachiidae), have been the focus of several fascinating studies because of the remarkable, extensive parental care they were found to display. This care includes egg and nymph guarding, production of trophic eggs, unfertilized, low cost eggs that are used as food by newly hatched nymphs, and progressive provisioning of the host seed. In this study, we have investigated yet a third related Asian cydnid, Canthophorus niveimarginatus, with regard to the possible occurrence of some or all of these complex traits in order to assess how widespread these maternal investment patterns are in this group of insects and to better understand the implications of their manifestations from an evolutionary context. Manipulative experiments were carried out in the lab to determine whether females provision nests. Observational and egg removal studies were carried out to determine whether trophic eggs are produced, and, if they are, their possible impact on nymphal success. The findings revealed that C. niveimarginatus does, in fact, progressively provision young, and this species also displays all of the other behaviors associated with extended parental care in subsocial insects. Moreover, unlike the other two related species, which place trophic eggs on the surface of the original egg mass, C. niveimarginatus produces both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs. Nymphs deprived of access to post-hatch trophic eggs had significantly lower body weight and survival rate than those that fed on them. To our knowledge, this is the first time the production of both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs has been demonstrated in insects outside the Hymenoptera. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the provisioning behavior and patterns of trophic egg production in C. niveimarginatus. When and how trophic eggs are produced and

  4. The Contribution of Scavenging Indigenous Chicken to the Socio-Economic Welfare of the Rural Households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most than 90% of farmers in Western Kenya keep chicken which are mainly indigenous breeds. The most common production system is extensive free-range production. chickens are ranked second to cattle in the livestock industry of which but since they readily fetch cash they play a role as a source of security to most households. Apart from this chicken have a special place in the social and cultural practices of the people of this region and it is difficult to attach monetary value to these practices. Local breeds are believed to be resistance to diseases, cheap to maintain, increase rapidly after calamities and are a resource of available to even the poorest families. The main production constraints are disease, lack of feed, predation and bad weather. The purpose of this trial was to increase consumption and enhance family income through sales of eggs and chicken meat. To achieve these local communities were trained on improved management technologies. Evaluation of the trial showed the technologies could greatly enhance production, translating into higher consumption and sales of chickens and chicken products, thus substantially benefiting the farmers. Trial results showed that the cost of input in chicken production is far below the value of output as most chickens scavenge for feed. Simple financial analyses have shown that with minimal inputs, a farmer could get between Ksh. 3600 and Ksh. 4100 per single hen in one year

  5. Suppression of chicken J chain production by in ovo bursectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1990-05-01

    The influence of in ovo bursectomy on the levels of J and mu chains in the sera of embryonic and hatched chicks was studied by the dot blotting immunoassay. The results indicated a decrease in the level of J chains during the embryonic stage after treatment with testosterone compared with normal chicks. Testosterone treatment caused a decrease in J-chain levels after hatching which was more marked in reduced-alkylated than in non-reduced sera. In contrast, testosterone caused no significant change in serum levels of mu chains, either in ovo or after hatching. Our findings further present the paradox that although removal of the bursa of Fabricius by testosterone treatment did not impair mu-chain synthesis, B-cell differentiation was suppressed. These observations indicate that in ovo bursectomy selectively inactivates B-cell differentiation as indicated by the induction of immunodeficiency, and results in the failure of J-chain production. PMID:2112285

  6. The effect of concurrent infections with Pasteurella multocida and Ascaridia galli on free range chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, C.; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M.; Muhairwa, A. P.; Petersen, K.M.; Poulsen, J.S.; Jensen, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida and Ascaridia galli are observed with high prevalences in free range chickens in Denmark, but the impact is unknown. A study was carried out to examine the interaction between A. galli and P. multocida in chickens and the impact on production. Five groups, each with 20 18-week-old Lohmann Brown chickens were infected. Group I was orally infected with 1000 +/- 50 embryonated A. galli eggs. Group 2 received 10(4) cfu p. multocida intratracheally. Group 3 was infected with ...

  7. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production, growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens The main objective of the

  8. INFLUENCE OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE "TETRA +" ON PRODUCTIVITY OF COCKS AND LAYING HENS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaryan R. V.; Fabritskaya A. A.; Borodihin A. S.; Miroshnichenko P. V.

    2015-01-01

    The results of the work experience carried out in the poultry breeding farm of Limited Liability Company «Incubator-poultry plant Pervomaiskaja» on the effect of the multifunctional feed additive «Tetra+» on productivity of males and laying hens in the production of broiler chickens. It is found that males experimental group receiving the feed additive in the diet «Tetra+» have better blood serum biochemical indices in comparison with the control group cockerels. This indicates that the feed ...

  9. Influence of probiotic preparation YEASTURE-W on the productivity and meat quality of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Racevičiūtė-Stupelienė A.; Šašytė V.; Gružauskas R.; Šimkus A.

    2007-01-01

    Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. The objective of investigation was to research the effect of probiotic preparation YEASTURE-W for growth performance, meat and carcass quality of broiler chicks. The experiment was performed with 120 Hybro-PN broiler chickens 1 56-day-old, divided into 2 groups of 60 birds each. The both groups were fed crumbled feed mixtures ad libitum. The feed mixture of the experimental group was supplemented wi...

  10. The Effect of Calcium Source in Laying Hen Diet on Egg and Tibia Bone Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twenty, 37-week-old Lohmann strain layers were used in the current study to evaluate the effect of using ground, sterilized chicken eggshell (ES) as calcium (Ca) source in their diets on the productive performance, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca and inorganic P concentrations and bone mineralization. Feed and water ad libitum were provided and hens were kept under 16:8 hrs light:dark cycle. Birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (GP), 1, was a control group fed a layer diet containing finely ground limestone as the Ca source. 2 was fed a layer diet that contained a combination of 50% limestone and 50% ground eggshell (50% ES) as the Ca source, whereas group 3 received a layer diet containing 100% ground eggshell (100% ES) as the Ca source in the diet. After 2 wk of acclimation, the birds were fed the experimental diets for 6 wk, initial and final body weights (BW) and feed intake was recorded. Eggs production was expressed as a percentage of hen-day egg production, egg weight and the internal egg quality were measured. Serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level were determined. Finally, tibia weight, length and its contents of Ca, P concentrations were measured. Results of this study indicated that, there was no significant effect of dietary treatment on BW and feed consumption. Replacing limestone in the current study diet with ground, sterilized eggshell had no any significant effect on egg production, egg weight, eggshell quality and tibia characteristics among between groups. Finally, there were no significant effect for treatment on blood hematocrit, total serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level. It is concluded that hatchery waste, as chicken egg shells, can be used as the Ca source in layer diets without an adverse effect on BW, feed consumption, egg weight, egg production, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca concentration and bone characteristics

  11. 9 CFR 145.73 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Primary Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.73 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and chicks produced...

  12. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Nickolova; Dimo PENKOV

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT) on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum t...

  13. An Experimental Study on Production of Egg Yolk Antibody(IgY) against Bee Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Tae-Jun; Lee, Seung-bae; Gwon, Gi-Rok

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out for production of neutral antibody to bee venom(anti-phospholipase A2 IgY). Hen layings were injected repeatedly with bee venom and phospholipase A2 with Freund's adjuvant. Specific antibody in egg yolk from immunized hen laying was separated, and purified, also immunological characteristics of anti-phospholipase A2 IgY was invested. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Phospholipase A2 was showed single band at molecular weight 17,000 in SDS-PAGE and b...

  14. Biosecurity on a multiple-age egg production complex: a 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, David A

    2011-03-01

    A multiple-age egg production farm was conceived, designed, constructed, and managed with the goal of blocking the introduction of preventable poultry diseases and infestations. Fifteen years after conception and 13 years after housing the first hens, the 4 million-hen farm remains free of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis, and Ornithonyssus sylviarum. Annual savings in vaccine use exceed the estimated annual costs of the biosecurity program. The cumulative design, construction, and operation of this farm are a successful demonstration of practical, effective biosecurity on a commercial poultry farm. PMID:21500651

  15. 太行鸡与矮脚麻鸡蛋品质比较研究%Comparative Study between Taihang Chicken and Short-leg-linen Chicken's Egg Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学静; 魏忠华; 杨树玲; 李祥龙; 李杰峰

    2012-01-01

      Random taking 100 eggs of the 214 day-old introducing breed (Short-leg-linen chichen) and local breed (Taihang chichen) to determine the egg's weight, egg-shaped index, specific gravity, yolk colour, Haugh u-nit , yolk ratio, eggshell thickness, shell strength, flesh and blood spot ratio. The results show that the two breeds' egg quality without significant difference (P>0.05) about the weight , specific gravity, yolk colour, shell thick-ness;But the Haugh unit and the egg yolk rate are very significant difference (P0.05);哈氏单位、蛋黄比率差异极显著(P<0.01);蛋形指数、蛋壳强度差异显著(P<0.05).

  16. The effect of iodine in production of broiler chickens and selected quality indicators of breast muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Semivanová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different effects on the human health it is necessary to avoid excessive or insufficient consumption of iodine. Iodine deficiency weakens the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causes hypothyroidism and can lead to various developmental and functional disturbances known as the disorders from iodine deficiency. The latest literary knowledge about the use of iodine in the broiler chickens identifies the concentration of iodine 5 mg per kg feed as safe for a given group of the animals. Working Group on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed of  Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed notes that the maximum authorized limit of iodine in the feed of the broiler chickens 10 mg per kg does not represent a health risk. The aim of our research was an observation and assessment of the effect of feed mixtures with iodized oil on production quality of the line hybrid chickens Cobb 500 and selected indicators of breast muscle. For comparison, a control group consists of the chickens, which were fed the feed mixtures without iodized oil. Dietary iodine in the form of potassium iodide was applied to sunflower oil. The mixture was heated at 70 °C with continuous stirring until dissolution of potassium iodide. The content of iodine in iodine suplement was 0.04  mg per g per 1 kg of feed mixture of starter, growth and the finisher was used 5 g of iodine supplement. The oil mixture was mixed into kibbled grain of corn and carefully homogenized with other components of  the feed mixtures. To meet the aim of research, we realized an experiment, where body weight of the chickens was observed at the end of the experiment, the breast muscle weight and chemical analysis was made from selected indicators of breast muscle. A body weight of broiler chickens at the beginning and the end of the experiment and a breast muscle weight were observed by weighing on the Kern ECB 20K20 type scale with an accuracy of d = 0

  17. Effect of probucol on reproductive performance, egg yolk cholesterol content, and lipid metabolism in the laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, E C; Elliot, J F; Smith, T L

    1982-06-01

    Egg production type chickens were given the drug Probucol in their diets to determine its effect on egg production characteristics, liver lipid metabolism, egg yolk lipid synthesis, and egg yolk cholesterol concentration. In none of the three trials conducted did Probucol feeding affect egg production or body weight. The drug reduced total liver lipogenesis as measured by incorporation of 14C-acetate by surviving liver slices. Relative incorporation of 14C-acetate into cholesterol by liver was increased by the drug. However, in ovo incorporation of 14C-acetate in total yolk lipids remains unchanged and relative incorporation into yolk cholesterol is reduced. As a result, egg yolk cholesterol content is reduced by 5% with the .10% dietary level of drug administration. PMID:7111129

  18. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  19. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 40C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author)

  20. Determining the presence of chicken and turkey meat in selected meat products using realtime PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Mašlej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The one of the most convenient method for the identification of animal species in raw and processed meat products is the examination of DNA sequences. Real-Time PCR are particularly suitable because even small fragments of DNA formed during heat processing of the meat can be amplified and identified. TaqMan Real-Time PCR is a rapid, convenient and sensitive assay for meat identification. For chicken and turkey meat identification we were using species-specific primers and TaqMan probe designed on the mitochondrial cytochrome b. The intensity of the fluorescence signal has risen at a variety of different samples. We analysed sixteen the samples of turkey meat products and we found the incidence of chicken at nine samples in the range of the detection range of the reaction0.1 to 100%. Sample 8 fluorescence intensity exceeded the detection threshold in the 22.11 cycle (Cp = 22.11; Sample 6, (Cp = 23.19; Sample 1 in 27.08 cycle (Cp = 27.08; Sample 7 in 31,7 cycle (Cp = 31.7 and sample 5 in 32.32 cycle (Cp = 32.32. All Cp values for these samples fluorescence intensity exceeded the detection threshold in earlier cycles as sample the 100% turkey DNA. It follows that in the samples no. 8, 6, 1, 5, and 7 is in the range of chicken DNA detection range of the reaction, from 0.1 to 100%. Sample 11 in the cycle 27,08 (Cp = 27.08; Sample 10 in the cycle 27.8 (Cp = 27.8; sample 16 in 28.03 cycle (Cp = 28.03 and sample 13 in the cycle of 29.18 (Cp = 29.18. In recognition of the results of the monitoring of the content of chicken meat in meat products it is appropriate to further verification and testing detection kits used to work for possible use in practice since it has been found to be sufficient sensitivity and specificity to 30 cycle reaction.

  1. Research advance of the nutritional ingredients change of embryonated chicken eggs during its incubating%鸡胚蛋在孵化期间营养成分变化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范亮; 张彧; 姜铁民; 陈历俊

    2012-01-01

    Embryonated chicken eggs are the fertilized eggs which have not been hatched. Hen egg hatches into chick after 21 days incubating. The embryonated egg contains nearly all kinds of element to forming a life. During the hatching period, there are significant changes of the nutritional ingredients in embryonated eggs due to the various kinds of the enzymes involved in the reaction. In recent years, many studies were carried on the nutritional ingredients changes of embryonated eggs during its hatching, both at home and abroad. The article reviews the changes of the embryonated eggs during its incubating, including protein content and their transfer, the fat and amino acids content, some kinds of vitamins content, the metallic ions content and some kinds of functional component, such as immunoglobulin and tau-rine and so on.%鸡胚蛋是受精鸡蛋孵化至一定天数后,还未破壳,可食用的鸡蛋.鸡胚蛋在温暖条件下21天即可孵化出小鸡,这意味着鸡胚蛋中含有构成生命体的所有成分.而在孵化过程中,通过多种酶的作用,鸡胚蛋内的营养成分发生了很大变化.近年来国内外对不同孵化期间的鸡胚蛋的营养成分变化情况也有一定的研究,本文对鸡胚蛋在孵化期间的营养成分变化情况进行了综述,包括蛋白质的含量以及转移情况,脂肪以及氨基酸等含量的变化,维生素含量的变化,金属离子含量以及其他一些功能性成分的变化情况等,如免疫球蛋白,牛磺酸含量等.

  2. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. PMID:24864286

  3. INTERIOR EGG QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a high quality product, it is difficult for an industry to survive. This is no different for the shell egg processor. Many factors can influence shell egg interior quality. These influences occur during egg production and processing. Physiological stress, nutritional stress, heat stress,...

  4. The Correlation study on the production performance and blood biochemical parameters of Big bone chicken%大骨鸡血液生化指标与生产性能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 郭丹; 门德才

    2014-01-01

    本研究利用3个血液酶活性标记对庄河大骨鸡的血液生化指标多态性进行研究,并与大骨鸡的产肉性能和产蛋性能进行相关性分析,筛选出用于大骨鸡产肉性能的优势遗传标记2个,产蛋性能的优势遗传标记1个,产蛋产肉兼用的优势遗传标记1个。%In this study, the polymorphism of blood biochemical indexes was investigated by the activities of three blood enzyme in the Zhuanghe bone chicken, and the correlation analysis be-tween meat and egg production performances were conducted in order to screen for two advantageous genetic markers of meat production and one advantageous genetic marker of egg production, one ad-vantageous genetic marker of both meat and egg production marker.

  5. Egg production in a coastal seabird, the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, declines during the last century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K Blight

    Full Text Available Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y(-1 from 1902 (108 y, equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008-2010 7 d later than in previous studies (1959-1986. This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50-100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas.

  6. Direct and mediated impacts of product and process characteristics on consumers’ choice of organic vs. conventional chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia; Thøgersen, John

    2012-01-01

    in a fractional factorial conjoint design, creating nine profiles of whole chickens. 384 respondents rated the nine different chickens in terms of taste expectations and willingness to buy. Since the nine records for each respondent are not independent, we used linear mixed modelling for the mediation analysis...... expectations. In other words, the process characteristics partly function as cues to (eating) quality. Using a traditional metric conjoint approach based on an additive model, four product characteristics (production method, price, size and information about farmer and rearing conditions) were varied...

  7. Direct and mediated impacts of product and process characteristics on consumers’ choice of organic vs. conventional chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia; Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    in a fractional factorial conjoint design, creating nine profiles of whole chickens. 384 Respondents rated the nine different chickens in terms of taste expectations and willingness to buy. Since the nine records for each respondent are not independent, we used linear mixed modelling for the mediation analysis...... expectations. In other words, the process characteristics partly function as cues to (eating) quality. Using a traditional metric conjoint approach based on an additive model, four product characteristics (production method, price, size and information about farmer and rearing conditions) were varied...

  8. THE EFFECT OF BROILER BREEDER AGES ON THE QUALITIVE AND QUANTITIVE PROPERTIES OF THE EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabodin Gharahveysi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler breeder age is one of the most important factors that affects on egg properties. However by increasing the age of broiler breeder flock, the quality of eggs and consequently the quality of their chick products would be changed. In order to study the effect of broiler breeder flock age on the various aspects of chick products, 300 fertilizable eggs were selected randomly, from 3 broiler breeder farms. Selected eggs were collected from broilers that were 30 (young, 36 (peak, 43(after peak, 53 (old, 60 (very old and 82 (molted weeks old. Collected eggs were stored during 3 to 4 days in the ambient temperature. Qualitive and quantitive aspects of eggs including egg weight, albumen height yolk, height thickness of egg shell, yolk color, Albumen and yolk PH and Hugh unit were studied. Trait Analysis was done by ANOVA procedure of SAS statistical software. To compare the means, Duncan test was used. The effects of age and breeder farms on the egg weight, yolk color, yolk and albumen PH, yolk and albumen height, shell egg thickness and Hugh unit were significant (p<0.05. The lowest difference was seen between the age of 53, 60 and 82 week old (p<0.05. Albumen PH and alkaline is increased by increase of age, but yolk PH is the variance. Influence of age on the traits including yolk and albumen height and Hugh unit was decreased and the color of yolk was faded by increasing age. According to obtained results from these research performances of ages of 53, 60 and 82 weeks are close together. We could conclude that older broiler breeder flocks are produce the better qualitive and quantitive properties of egg products. Since most poultry enough information about the quality of breeder chickens and the best age to have chickens, using the results of this study can be answered many questions.

  9. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  10. Density-dependent effects on the weight of female Ascaris lumbricoides infections of humans and its impact on patterns of egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Anderson Roy M; Hall Andrew; Walker Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ascaris lumbricoides exhibits density-dependent egg production, a process which has a marked impact on both the transmission dynamics and the stability of the parasite population. Evidence suggests that the egg production of female Ascaris is also associated with the size of the worm. If worm size is mediated by density-dependent processes then the size of female worms may have a causal impact upon patterns of Ascaris egg production. Results We analyse data collected from ...

  11. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (pfacilities to optimize yield and quality while maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards. PMID:26954206

  12. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.;

    2002-01-01

    (0.4 mg m(-3)). Excluding this high production rate from statistical analysis, the remaining egg-production rates were found to be positively correlated with phytoplankton biomass, as well as with parameters representing healthy phytoplankton condition, food quality and diatom-type fatty acids...

  13. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Performance and Egg Quality of Luxi Game Chickens%饲粮粗蛋白质水平对鲁西斗鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠军; 杨维仁; 杨在宾; 高翔; 张相伦

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮不同粗蛋白质水平对26 ~ 41周龄的鲁西斗鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响.试验选用26周龄(1.952±0.288) kg健康的鲁西斗鸡200只,随机分为4组,每组5个重复,每个重复10只.试验采取单因素试验设计,4个饲粮粗蛋白质水平依次为:14.0%、15.5%、17.0%和18.5%,各组均限饲,且投料量一致.试验期为16周.结果表明:在鲁西斗鸡产蛋期(26 ~ 41周龄),饲粮粗蛋白质水平对平均蛋重没有显著影响(P>0.05).在试验前期(26~29周龄),饲粮粗蛋白质水平对平均周产蛋量、产蛋率和料蛋比均无显著影响(P>0.05);在试验中期(30 ~37周龄),30 ~33周龄17.0%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组平均周产蛋量显著高于其他各组(除30 ~31周龄15.5%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组外)(P<0.05),30 ~ 31周龄和36 ~ 37周龄产蛋率显著高于14.0%组和18.5%组(P<0.05),32 ~ 35周龄产蛋率显著高于15.5%组(P<0.05),但是各组间30 ~ 37周龄料蛋比差异不显著(P>0.05);在试验末期(38 ~ 41周龄),18.5%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组平均周产蛋量显著高于其他各组(P<0.05),产蛋率显著高于14.0%组和15.5%组(P<0.05),料蛋比显著低于15.5%组(P<0.05).此外,33周龄时,随着饲粮粗蛋白质水平提高,蛋黄颜色有下降趋势(P=0.09);41周龄时,17.0%和18.5%饲粮粗蛋白质水平组蛋白高度和哈氏单位显著高于14.0%组和15.5%组(P<0.05).综合以上结果,鲁西斗鸡产蛋期适宜的饲粮粗蛋白质水平:前期(26 ~29周龄)为14.0%;中期(30 ~ 37周龄)为17.0%;后期(38 ~41周龄)为18.5%.%A single factor design was used to a 16-week experiment to study the effects of dietary crude protein level on performance and egg quality of Luxi game chickens aged 26 to 41 weeks. Two hundred 26-week-old Luxi game chickens with an average body weight of (1. 952 ± 0. 288) kg were randomly distributed into four groups with

  14. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    Grun. Feeding and egg-production in A. tonsa was shown to be influenced by the size, quantity and quality of the food particles. The small I. galbana (4.8 μm) were inefficiently retained by A. tonsa and maximum ingestion rates on this species were first obtained at algal concentrations s> 1 μg C · ml−1....... However, the highest maximum rate of egg-production was obtained when feeding on this algal species with gross efficiencies of 22 and 38% in terms of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Egg-production in A. tonsa ceased entirely within 4 days of feeding on a sole diet of D. tertiolecta. D. tertiolecta is...

  15. Residues of plant protection products in grey partridge eggs in French cereal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, Elisabeth; Devillers, James; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of the eggs of farmland birds by currently used plant protection products (PPPs) is poorly documented despite a potential to adversely impact their breeding performance. In this context, 139 eggs of 52 grey partridge Perdix perdix clutches, collected on 12 intensively cultivated farmlands in France in 2010-2011, were analysed. Given the great diversity of PPPs applied on agricultural fields, we used exploratory GC/MS-MS and LC/MS-MS screenings measuring ca. 500 compounds. The limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg, a statutory reference. A total of 15 different compounds were detected in 24 clutches. Nine of them have been used by farmers to protect crops against fungi (difenoconazole, tebuconazole, cyproconazole, fenpropidin and prochloraz), insects (lambda-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam/clothianidin) and weeds (bromoxynil and diflufenican). Some old PPPs were also detected (fipronil(+sulfone), HCH(α,β,δ isomers), diphenylamine, heptachlor(+epoxyde), DDT(Σisomers)), as well as PCBs(153, 180). Concentrations ranged between characteristics are discussed with regard to the scientific literature. PMID:26841780

  16. Parallel Selection Revealed by Population Sequencing in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qanbari, Saber; Seidel, Michael; Strom, Tim-Mathias; Mayer, Klaus F X; Preisinger, Ruedi; Simianer, Henner

    2015-12-01

    Human-driven selection during domestication and subsequent breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern chicken. The elucidation of these signatures of selection is of interest from the perspective of evolutionary biology, and for identifying genes relevant to domestication and improvement that ultimately may help to further genetically improve this economically important animal. We used whole genome sequence data from 50 hens of commercial white (WL) and brown (BL) egg-laying chicken along with pool sequences of three meat-type chicken to perform a systematic screening of past selection in modern chicken. Evidence of positive selection was investigated in two steps. First, we explored evidence of parallel fixation in regions with overlapping elevated allele frequencies in replicated populations of layers and broilers, suggestive of selection during domestication or preimprovement ages. We confirmed parallel fixation in BCDO2 and TSHR genes and found four candidates including AGTR2, a gene heavily involved in "Ascites" in commercial birds. Next, we explored differentiated loci between layers and broilers suggestive of selection during improvement in chicken. This analysis revealed evidence of parallel differentiation in genes relevant to appearance and production traits exemplified with the candidate gene OPG, implicated in Osteoporosis, a disorder related to overconsumption of calcium in egg-laying hens. Our results illustrate the potential for population genetic techniques to identify genomic regions relevant to the phenotypes of importance to breeders. PMID:26568375

  17. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. PMID:22352766

  18. Development, characterization and optimization of a new suspension chicken-induced pluripotent cell line for the production of Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ismaila; Zhu, Ziying; Lu, Yangqing; Hutcheson, Jessica M; Stice, Steven L; West, Franklin D; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Fadly, Aly M; Zavala, Guillermo; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, substrates for production of viral poultry vaccines have been embryonated eggs or adherent primary cell cultures. The difficulties and cost involved in scaling up these substrates in cases of increased demand have been a limitation for vaccine production. Here, we assess the ability of a newly developed chicken-induced pluripotent cell line, BA3, to support replication and growth of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain. The characteristics and growth profile of the cells were also investigated. BA3 cells could grow in suspension in different media to a high density of up to 7.0 × 10(6) cells/mL and showed rapid proliferation with doubling time of 21 h. Upon infection, a high virus titer of 1.02 × 10(8) EID50/mL was obtained at 24 h post infection using a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5. In addition, the cell line was shown to be free of endogenous and exogenous Avian Leukosis viruses, Reticuloendotheliosis virus, Fowl Adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, and several Mycoplasma species. In conclusion, BA3 cell line is potentially an excellent candidate for vaccine production due to its highly desirable industrially friendly characteristics of growing to high cell density and capability of growth in serum free medium. PMID:26586283

  19. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.; Plourde, S.; Castellani, C.; Licandro, P.; Pierson, J.; Jónasdóttir, S. H.; Johnson, C.; Broms, C.; Debes, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Gaard, E.; Gislason, A.; Heath, M. R.; Niehoff, B.; Nielsen, T. G.; Pepin, P.; Stenevik, E. K.; Chust, G.

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a new, pan-North-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of eight representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000-2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index. Then we present a compilation of data on C. finmarchicus, including observations of abundance, demography, egg production and female size, with accompanying data on temperature and chlorophyll. This is a contribution by Canadian, European and US scientists and their institutions: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.820732, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.824423, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828393 (please also see Melle et al., 2013; Castellani and Licandro, 2013; Jónasdóttir et al., 2014).

  20. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  1. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  2. Optimization of the process of egg omelet production with fillings with extended storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sukmanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optimization of the egg omelets (EO production using high pressure (HP will allow to produce a minimum cost product during manufacturing and also to obtain a product with high consumer properties. Materialsand methods. The concerned product is -EO -a mixture of liquid egg with grated or chopped cheese, xanthan gum, water or milk and spices. The EO manufacturing process consisted of packing the mixture in an airtight container with heating and processing in the high pressure installation. The EO suitability for long-term storage was evaluated by the "water activity" term. The EO quality was evaluated by an expert. There was used the undetermined Lagrange multipliers method to obtain the optimal process parameters. Results. As a result of the central composite rotatabel plan there was developed optimization model allowed to obtain the optimal EO HP processing parameters: pressure – 690 МPа, temperature –1220С, treatment duration –7×60s, 14g of water on 100 g of melange, 13 g of dry milk on 100 g of melange, xanthan gum content -0,75% of the total mixture mass, 25 g of cheese on 100 g of melange. These indicators allow to obtain the EO process parameters with the next indicators: water activity -0.704 and comprehensive quality Score - 0.98 that characterize the product as a product with high quality indicators stable over a long period of storage. The developed model analysis with using of Student's t test, Fisher dyspepsia and predicted optimization values calculation errors confirmed the reliability of the optimization parameters obtained values and the optimization model reliability. The calculations results for the given optimization parameters are presented as confidence intervals, confirming that their experimental values do not exceed the respective intervals and thus confirm the results authenticity . Conclusions. These results have practical significance and were adopted as the basis for the technical documentation

  3. Organic farming production. Effect of age on the productive yield and egg quality of hens of two commercial hybrid lines and two local breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Rizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hens of 2 hybrid lines (Hy Line Brown - HLB, Hy Line White - HLW and 2 local breeds (Robusta maculata – RM and Ermellinata of Rovigo – ER were reared following the organic production procedure and their egg yield and quality were studied at two different ages (30 and 42 weeks. The experimental period was between 26 and 42 weeks of age, starting in summer and lasting until autumn. Age significantly (P<0.01 affected the hen-day egg production and the daily egg mass of the HLB (84 vs. 94% and 44.5 vs. 59.4 g, of the HLW (81 vs. 89% and 42.4 vs. 54.7 g and of the RM hens (27 vs. 63% and 12.9 vs. 36.7 g, which was the least precocious. Age did not affect the daily egg production of the ER hens (which was maintained around 58%, although it was observed a slight (P<0.05 increase of the daily egg mass (28.6 vs. 32.1 g. Age increased (P<0.01 the egg weight, yolk colour, yolk percentage and yolk:albumen ratio and decreased the albumen percentage in all groups.

  4. ORGANIC EGG PRODUCTION IN FINLAND – DESCRIPTIVE FARM AND HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Virtala, Anna-Maija; Holma, Ulla; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hyyrynen, Tuula; Hovi, Malla; Kahiluoto, Helena; Rossow, Laila; Valros, Anna

    2005-01-01

    A total of 20 organic layer flocks (in excess of 80 % of all Finnish organic egg producers that sell eggs to consumers through egg packaging companies or food shops) were visited in 2003 and 2004. Information about the farms was collected through faecal samples, mite traps and by interviewing the producer, using a semi-structured interview guide. Additionally, 38 dead hens from 12 farms were examined pathologically and for parasites through post mortem. The descriptive results are presented.

  5. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  6. Conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas respecto al huevo de gallina en familias de comunidades urbana-rural, Costa Rica Knowledge, opinions and practices related to chicken eggs in families of urban-rural communities, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Peña Vázquez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Indagar sobre los conocimientos, opiniones y prácticas de la población respecto al consumo de huevo de gallina, con el objetivo de poder orientar los mensajes que se dirigen a la población en general, para mejorar el uso del mismo en los hogares. Materiales y método: Estudio descriptivo que aplica técnicas cualitativas y se apoya en variables cuantitativas. La población está compuesta por familias que residen en los distritos Central de Alajuela o Piedades de Santa Ana. Se empleó una muestra, seleccionada a conveniencia, 23 familias de Alajuela Centro y 29 de Piedades de Santa Ana. Además se trabajó con el personal de salud que labora en los Equipos Básicos de Atención en Salud. Resultados: Con respecto a conocimientos, las participantes conocen que el huevo es fuente de proteínas y vitaminas. Prefieren los huevos caseros y de cáscara de color oscuro; sin embargo consumen más los huevos industriales. Las razones de consumir huevo son la costumbre, buen sabor, versatilidad, rapidez y facilidad para prepararlo, además de un precio accesible. A nivel nutricional comparan el huevo con el aguacate y con alimentos pertenecientes al grupo de las carnes. Respecto a las prácticas, el huevo se consume en todos los tiempos de comida y principalmente en frituras. Discusión: no existen diferencias marcadas entre los conocimientos, prácticas y opiniones, entre población urbana y rural estudiada. Los conocimientos relacionados con el huevo tanto en las comunidades y el personal de salud son generales y difieren entre sí, dejando entrever una falta de información en ambos gruposObjective: To inquire into the knowledge, views and practices of the population regarding the consumption of chicken eggs, in order to target messages that go to the general population, to improve the use of the same household. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study applies techniques based on qualitative and quantitative variables. The population

  7. What comes first, origin or production method? An investigation into the relative importance of different attributes in the demand for eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lopez-Galan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses consumer preferences for different eggs attributes to assess the importance placed by consumers on the origin and method of production when shopping. The data comes from an experiment conducted in Spain during 2009. An Error Component Random Parameter Logit model is used to estimate the effect of different eggs characteristics on consumers’ utility and derive their willingness to pay. Results suggest that consumers positively value the free-range and organic method of production and the local and regional origin and that they are willing to pay an additional € 0.85 for each package of six free-range or organic eggs, € 0.77 for locally produced and € 0.27 for regional produced eggs. Hence, the least valued eggs for consumers are those produced in cages and outside the region. Relative to this product, the highest willingness to pay corresponds to free-range or organic eggs followed by locally produced eggs and finally, by the regional eggs. Thus, we can conclude that Spanish consumers give more importance when shopping for eggs to the method of production than to the origin of production.

  8. Feeding and Mating are required for Ovarian Development and Egg Production in the Predaceous Minute Pirate Bug Orius pumilio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female minute pirate bugs, Orius pumilio (Champion) require food and mating as adults to achieve maximum egg production. Last instar nymphs, isolated individually in single wells of 96-well microtiter plates, yielded low mortalities and assured virginity. Using morphological characters of these nymp...

  9. Biodiversity and springtime patterns of egg production and development for parasites of the Chisana Caribou herd, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanne Hoar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biodiversity and springtime patterns of parasite egg/oocyst and larval production from feces and parasite development in the environment for the Chisana caribou herd in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada from 29 March to 14 June 2006. Fecal samples from 50 adult cows that were housed in a temporary enclosure within the herd’s natural range at Boundary Lake, Yukon Territory were collected and analyzed during 5 sampling periods. A minimum of 6 parasite genera were recovered: eggs of Trichostrongylidae species (most likely Ostertagia gruehneri and Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, Marshallagia sp., Anoplocephalidae cestodes, and Skrjabinema sp.; oocysts of Eimeria spp.; and dorsal-spined first-stage protostrongylid larvae, including Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae spp. eggs in fresh fecals was at or near 100% throughout the sampling period, however, the median intensity increased significantly from 8 to 34 eggs per gram (epg at the peak of calving and then decreased to 12 epg 2 weeks post-calving (P = 2.83e-07. Three plots of feces collected from these animals were established outside of the enclosure on 4 May 2006 and monitored every 10 days to investigate patterns of parasite development under natural conditions. The total number of Trichostrongylidae spp. (eggs + larvae in fecal plots did not change over time, but as the number of larvae increased, egg counts decreased. The presence of other parasite species in the fecal plots remained constant over time. This study is the first to document the parasite diversity for the Chisana caribou herd and to exam¬ine the development and survival of eggs and larvae in feces throughout the spring and early summer. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Parasitters artssammensetning og forløp av eggproduksjon og parasittutvikling om våren hos Chisanavillreinen i Yukon, Canada I en periode fra 29. mars til 14. juni 2006 tok vi prøver fra reinmøkk og under

  10. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, D.; Bisgaard, M.; Pedersen, Karl;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility and...... distributed throughout the full period were shown to belong to one profile type. Isolates representing different PFGE profiles were all assigned to ST 319 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The case isolates did not show a higher ability to form biofilm on a plastic surface than noncase isolates...

  11. 慢病毒法生产转基因鸡的初步研究%Production of Transgenic Chickens with Lentivirus Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔奎青; 刘庆友; 赵一广; 王晓丽; 钟俊洁; 熊建明; 李爱友; 黄钦华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore optimal method for transgenic chickens production with lentivirus. [Method] Lentiviral vector was constructed with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and fertilized ova at early stages were inoculated after virus packaging. In addition, effects of injection and virus liter on survival rate of embryos were detected and GFP expressions of inoculated embryos were observed. [Result] The hatching rates of embryo were 87% , 72% and 66.7% with tilers of lentivirus at 105, 106 and 102 IU/ml, respectively. Transgenic positive rate was 45.5% through PCR with genome of chick blood as template. Expression of GFP genes in different tissues differed significantly through frozen section technology, for example, expression in immune system was the highest and expression was not proved in genital syatem and muscular tissue. [Conclusion] The research primarily selected optimal lentivirus tiler, laying basis for development of bio-reactor (egg&chicken) and the new transgenic disease-resistant chicken.%[目的]探索利用慢病毒生产转基因鸡的适宜方法.[方法]以增强型绿色荧光蛋白为报告基因构建慢病毒载体,包装病毒后感染鸡早期受精卵,并检测不同注射操作和不同接种滴度对鸡胚存活率的影响,同时对接种病毒鸡胚的GFP表达情况进行检测.[结果]采用105、106和107IU/ml的慢病毒滴度,鸡胚孵化率分别为87%、72%和66.7%.以雏鸡血液基因组为模板PCR鉴定转基因阳性率为45.5%;冰冻切片技术发现GFP基因在鸡体内不同组织的表达强度差异显著,免疫系统内表达最强,生殖系统和肌肉组织中GFP基因无表达.[结论]试验初步筛选出较适宜的慢病毒感染滴度,该结果为研制蛋鸡生物反应器和转基因鸡抗病新品系奠定了基础.

  12. Bio-transformation of agri-food wastes by newly isolated Neurospora crassa and Lactobacillus plantarum for egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Li, J; Deng, Z

    2016-03-01

    Using bio-transferred feedstuff was a cost-effective approach to improve egg quality and production; particularly, the nutritive diet came from agri-food wastes. In this study, optimization of fermentation conditions and co-cultivation of Neurospora crassa with Lactobacillus plantarum was performed in a simple bioreactor. The optimized fermentation of beer lees substrates through N. crassa led to the hydrolysis rates of crude fiber increasing to 43.27%. Compared to that of using N. crassa alone, the combination of N. crassa and L. plantarum enhanced the content of amino acids (13,120 to 18,032 mg/100 g) on oil-tea seed cake substrates particularly. When hens were fed 10% fermented oil-tea seedcake substrate, the ratio of feed to egg decreased from 3.1 to 2.6, egg production ratio increased from 65.71 to 80.10%, and color of vitelline (Roche) increased from 8.20 to 10.20. Fifteen kinds of carotenoids were identified by HPLC in fermented oil-tea seed cake substrates. The results of this study highlighted that the mixed-fermentation by N. crassa and L. plantarum may be an effective way to convert agri-food wastes into high-valued biomass products, which could have a positive effect on hens and their eggs. PMID:26740129

  13. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  14. Strain and Sex Effects on Productive and Slaughter Performance of Local Egyptian and Canadian Chicken Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Taha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of strain and sex on productive performance and slaughter traits of chickens. A total of 1951 one day old chicks of three Canadian dual purpose strains (Shaver A, B and C and two Egyptian strains (Salam and Mandarah were used. Productive performance measured from one day old to 12 weeks of age and slaughter traits were recorded for cocks at 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that strain effect was clear for Shaver C strain for body weight, weight gain, feed consumption. In addition Shaver C had better feed conversion, dressing, fleshing, liver, glycogen, tenderness percentages but recorded the highest percentages for abdominal and total fat content as well as lowest testicular weight of cocks. Shaver B showed higher percentages for blood loss, feather, bones, gizzard and spleen percentages but Shaver A showed the highest percentages for pH content, ashes, color and water holding capacity. Sex effect showed superiority of males over females for body weight allover study period, weight gain during 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks and feed consumption during 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of age, while sex effect was not clear for feed conversion. Shaver C strain had the best averages for most productive and slaughter traits.

  15. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea; Royo, Felix; Hau, Jann

    one oral dose with BSA+RV. The eggs of the chickens in this group had a significantly higher immunospecific anti BSA IgY-concentration than did any of the eggs from the orally immunized chickens. One of the immunization regimes (immunizations in weeks 1, 7 and 18) clearly included a booster effect of...

  16. Combining hens for egg production and trees for wood chips in an agroforestry system: lessons learnt after 3 years

    OpenAIRE

    Spangenberg, G.; Hein, S.; Schneider, J

    2014-01-01

    A 7.1 ha agroforestry field experiment located in south-western Germany demonstrates, how to combine short rotation coppicing for fuel wood production with poultry keeping with the production of eggs. This combined system offers additional ecosystem services and gives multifarious benefits. The agroforestry system has been established since 2009 by an organic farmer (certified) in close cooperation with the University of Applied Forest Sciences Rottenburg. While changing from indoor to out...

  17. The effect of dry caper (capparis spinosa) fruit on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary inclusion of dry Caper (Capparis spinosa) fruit (DCF) on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens between 20 and 32 weeks of age. Four groups of commercial hens (ATAK-S) were fed with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15 g DCF/kg. The results showed that final body weight, feed intake, shape index (SI) and morning hen - day egg yield were influenced by dietary supplementation of DCF (P0.05) during the entire experiment. The lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values for egg shell color were similar (P>0.05) in the DCL supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The yellowness (b*), Hue angle (H), chroma (C*) and E* values were lower (P<0.05) in 15 g DFC/kg group when compared with the control. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics amount of DCF were 43.75+-0.680 mmol trolox/kg, 60.03+-3.710 mmol TEAC/kg and 3.16+-0.060 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg, respectively. Based on the results from the current study, the dietary supplementation with dry DCF had adverse effects on productivity performance traits and egg quality. (author)

  18. Mutations in and Expression of the Tumor Suppressor Gene p53 in Egg-Type Chickens Infected With Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Yulong, G; Liting, Q; Shuai, Y; Delong, L; Yubao, L; Lili, J; Sidang, L; Xiaomei, W

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic effects of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), we examined mutations in and the expression of p53 in the myelocytomas distributed in the liver, spleen, trachea, and bone marrow, as well as in fibrosarcomas in the abdominal cavity and hemangiomas in skin from chickens that were naturally or experimentally infected with ALV-J. Two types of mutations in the p53 gene were detected in myelocytomas of both the experimentally infected and the naturally infected chickens and included point mutations and deletions. Two of the point mutations have not been reported previously. Partial complementary DNA clones with a 122-bp deletion in the p53 gene ORF and a 15-bp deletion in the C-terminus were identified in the myelocytomas. In addition, moderate expression of the mutant p53 protein was detected in the myelocytomas that were distributed in the liver, trachea, spleen, and bone marrow. Mutant p53 protein was not detected in the subcutaneous hemangiomas or in the abdominal fibrosarcomas associated with natural and experimental ALV-J infection, respectively. These results identify mutations associated with abnormal expression of p53 in ALV-J-associated myelocytomas, suggesting a role in tumorigenesis. PMID:25445321

  19. THE EFFECT OF REDUCTION CONCENTRATIONS OF THE BROILER CHICKENS PER UNIT AREA ON THE FINAL LIVE WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the present study was a mathematical and statistical assessment for the effect of concentration of broiler chickens per unit area to the final live weight and production economics. Cobb 500 chickens were fattening for 42 days in a hall on deep litter. During the two experiments the chickens were divided to two groups according to concentration per unit area and it was about 30 and 25 kg/m2. The experiments had been complied with recommended  nutritional  requirements  for  breeding  and  final fattening type of chickens Cobb500. The average final weight of broiler chickens in the first experiment were 2.14 and 2.17 kg for concentrations of 29.41 and 25.76 kg/m2 respectively, and for the second experiment  were 2.01 and 2.02 kg for concentrations of 29.33 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively. According to statistical analysis (P≥0.05, the average final live weight of broiler chickens was not affected by concentrations.  The calculated production total live weight of broiler chickens across the halls were 48526.5, 48 394.5, 42504.0 and 39435.0 kg at a concentrations of 29.41, 29.33, 25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively.  By reducing the concentration of birds in the hall from 29.41 to  29.33 kg/m2 and from 25.76 to 23.9 kg/m2   the total production of broiler chickens was decreased by 6022.5 and  8959.5 kg live weight respectively. The concentration of birds per unit area of ​​25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 lead to lower the  price of the product of broiler chickens by 4745.73 and 7060.09 € respectively, compared with  the price for the product of the concentrations of 29.41and  29.33 kg/m2 respectively.doi:10.5219/198

  20. Effects of copepod density and water exchange on the egg production of Acartia tonsa Dana (Copepoda: Calanoida) feeding on Rhodomonas baltica

    OpenAIRE

    Salveson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to investigate the effect of different copepod densities and the water exchange rate day-1 on the egg production of Acartia tonsa feeding on Rhodomonas baltica. It was a main task to find the best conditions for a maximum egg production in a large scale production system. The egg production under 3 different copepod densities (5, 8-10 and 20-53 ind/ml) and with water exchange rates of 100 and 500 % day-1 were tested. In ad...

  1. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  2. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. PMID:25193258

  3. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  4. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shijie; Zheng, Jiangxia; Duan, Zhongyi; Yang, Ning; Xu, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into ...

  5. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  6. Feed restriction ameliorates metabolic dysregulation and improves reproductive performance of meat-type country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-En; Liu, Zu-Chen; Chang, Chai-Ju; Huang, Yu-Feng; Lai, Chien-Yang; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-12-30

    Restricted feed intake improves egg production in Cornish×Plymouth Rock (broiler) hens. Red-feather (RF) and Black-feather (BF) chickens are 2 local strains of non-broiler meat-type chickens whose egg production has declined with continued selection for meat yield, and which are unstudied regarding restricted feeding and egg-laying improvement. Sixteen week old RF and BF pullets were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 85% AL intake (R). At 35wk and 50wk R-hens showed improved egg production and less abnormal ovarian morphology than AL-hens. Obesity, hepatic steatosis, lipotoxic change to plasma lipids, and systemic inflammation induced by AL feeding in RF and BF hens were similar to those observed previously in AL-broiler hens. Egg production was negatively correlated to body weight, fractional abdominal fat weight and plasma NEFA concentrations in AL hens (Phen hierarchical follicles accumulated ceramide and increased interleukin-1β production (Phens highly susceptible to reproductive impairment from lipid dysregulation and pro-inflammatory signaling rather than impaired resource allocation per se. PMID:25458320

  7. Egg Production and Physical Quality in Cortunix cortunix japonica Fed Diet Containing Piperine as Phytogenic Feed Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic feed additive on quail performances and egg quality. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications and used ten quails with one week of age in each replication. The piperine was added to the diets at concentrations of 0 (T0, 15 (T1, 30 (T2, 45 (T3, and 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 for 8 consecutive weeks. The results showed that addition of 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 of piperine significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption, egg production, egg mass, income over feed cost (IOFC, and increased water consumption as compared to the other treatments. The addition of 15-60 mg piperine/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 reduced eggshell weight and increased egg yolk color score. The conclusion of this experiment was that the addition of piperine at 15-45 mg/kg body weight could be used as phytogenic feed additive to improve performance, IOFC, haugh unit, and yolk color.

  8. Estimates of genetic parameters for monthly egg production traits in a commercial broiler female line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gerami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, genetic parameters for monthly records of egg production, collected from weeks 24 to 55 on 16,830 hens during nine generations from a pedigreed commercial broiler female line, were estimated with single-trait, multiple-trait and repeated records animal models, using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. With and without age at sexual maturity as a covariate, two models were fitted to the data for each analysis. From the weekly productions, eight monthly records on a 28-day basis were created. The estimate of heritability from single-trait analysis for the first month’s record was relatively high (0.428, decreased to 0.150 and 0.092 in the second and third months, respectively, and then, with minor fluctuations, remained constant. Age at sexual maturity had a substantial influence only on heritability of the first month (0.192 and, to some extent, of the second month (0.103. Estimates of heritability and repeatability decreased from 0.067 and 0.379 to 0.029 and 0.251, respectively, owing to age at sexual maturity. Genetic correlations were generally positive, being relatively high to very high between adjacent monthly records, ranging from 0.725 (between the first and second month to 0.986 (between the fourth and fifth month. These estimates between monthly records decreased as the time interval of the ages increased. The effect of age at sexual maturity on reduction of heritability of the first month’s record and of its genetic correlations with all other monthly records suggests that it is essentially necessary to be included in the model or that the analysis is carried out without the first month’s record.

  9. Economic analysis of interventions to improve village chicken production in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Sunn, K; Meers, J

    2013-07-01

    equipment used under improved chick management were not markedly associated with profitability. Net Present Values and Benefit-Cost Ratios discounted over a 10-year period were also similar to the deterministic model when mean values obtained through stochastic modelling were used. In summary, the study showed that ND vaccination and improved chick management can improve the viability and profitability of village chicken production in Myanmar. PMID:23484803

  10. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM, collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks with 100 litres of culture medium and an initial biomass concentration of 0.5 g/L. The culture media were prepared to test the effect of unsupplemented DCM, DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U, and/or 40 mg/L of sodium bicarbonate (DCM+U+B or DCM+B. The best cellular growth and highest protein production were observed for S. platensis in the biomass harvested from the culture medium containing DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U.

  11. Effect of diazepam on some physiological and productive traits of Cobb hybrid broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of diazepam in drinking water on some productive and physiological traits of hybrid (Cobb500 broiler chickens. Forty birds (male and female were used at age of three weeks to determine the suitable concentrations of diazepam per milliliter of drinking water which can be practically employed to calm down the birds , without producing too much sedation. Two levels of diazepam were chosen (0.02 and 0.04 mg/ml from the four levels tested (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 mg/ml. At four weeks of age, 90 birds (45 males and45 females were chosen, relatively homogenous in body weights, and divided into three groups. The first group (the control was given drinking water free of diazepam, the second and third groups were given 0.02 and 0.04 mg of diazepam / ml of water, respectively. Data indicated that there was an increase in the average body weights for the groups treated with diazepam at age of five, seven and eight weeks .Also an increase in the amount of feed consumed ,an improvement of feed efficiency ,and an increase in dressing percentage for groups treated with diazepam. No significant differences were found between any of the treated groups for the diazepam and the control groups, in the levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides.

  12. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  13. Quality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma; Milet, Asma; Moula, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P

  14. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  15. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product. PMID:24334043

  16. Egg production and welfare of laying hens kept in different housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and free range).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Dikmen, B; İpek, A; Şahan, Ü; Petek, M; Sözcü, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare egg production performance and welfare traits of laying hens kept in conventional cage (CC), enriched cage (EC), and free range (FR). Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480 with 160 per housing type) were studied across a production cycle from placement at 17 wk until depopulation at 66 wk. The hens were randomly allocated into cages or pens of housing system groups; within each system there were four replicates with 40 hens in each pen or cage. The hen day egg production (P = 0.037), feed intake (FI) (P hens were higher in the FR system but similar in the CC and EC systems. The highest mortality ratio was found in EC system hens (P = 0.020). The best feather score was found in FR system hens (P hens (P = 0.038). On the other hand, the worse bumble foot and footpad lesions were found in FR system hens (P hens compared with in CC and EC system hens (P hens (P = 0.006) but the blood phosphorus ( P: ) level was higher in FR system hens (P = 0.013). The tonic immobility, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and Ca values of hens were found to be similar in all systems (P > 0.05). The hens in the FR system had additional space for optimum comfort and better feather and bone traits, but the dirty egg ratio, feed consumption, and foot lesions were higher than in CC and EC systems. PMID:26994200

  17. Avian Adenoviruses Infections with Special Attention to Inclusion Body Hepatitis/ Hydropericardium Syndrome and Egg Drop Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first avian adenovirus (AAV associated with clinical disease was isolated from an outbreak of respiratory disease in quail in 1950 (Olson, 1950. Since that time, AAVs have been found in all types and breeds of chickens and from a variety of other avian species. The infections may be asymptomatic or associated with several clinical and pathological conditions. Vertical transmission via the egg is the most common way of transmission. Also horizontal transmission through faeces, contaminated egg trays, crates and trucks play a role in the infection route. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies in healthy poultry, and viruses have been isolated from normal birds. Avian adenoviruses in chickens are the etiological agents of 2 diseases known as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH and hydropericardium syndrome (HP. In some cases each condition is observed separately, however, recently the 2 conditions have frequently been observed as a single entity; therefore, the name hepatitis hydropericardium has been widely used to describe the pathologic condition. The syndrome is an acute disease of young chickens associated with anemia, haemorrhagic disorders, hydropericardium and high mortality. Egg-Drop-Syndrome (EDS is caused also by an adenovirus. The disease is characterised by a severe drop in egg production as well as the production of shell-less, thin-shelled, discoloured or misshapen eggs in apparently healthy birds. Ducks and geese are the natural host of the EDS virus. It was first described in chickens in the 1970s and spread to several countries world wide. The birds usually do not show any other signs of disease, and mortality is not expected. There is no specific treatment of the AAV infections. Active immunization by vaccination using an inactivated is wide spread.

  18. Time-dependent postirradiation oxidative chemical changes in dehydrated egg products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced oxidative chemical changes in whole egg and egg yolk powder were followed in time after irradiation as a function of dose, dose rate, and storage atmosphere. In evacuated samples of whole egg powder the decay of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) was pseudo-first order (kappa = 0.088 day-1), while carotenoids did not decay at all. In the presence of air both lipid hydroperoxides and carotenoids decayed during postirradiation storage. The decay of LOOH could be treated by dispersive kinetics with the measure of dispersion, alpha = 0.51 +/- 0.05, independent of dose, and the effective lifetime tau inversely related to dose. The decay of carotenoids could also be treated by dispersive kinetics, with the values of alpha decreasing with increasing dose. The effective lifetimes of carotenoids did not depend on dose in samples irradiated in vacuum. In samples irradiated and stored in air the effective lifetimes decreased with dose, faster in egg yolk than in whole egg powder. The complex nature of postirradiation kinetics in solid food systems is discussed

  19. The degradation of oxytetracycline during thermal treatments of chicken and pig meat and the toxic effects of degradation products of oxytetracycline on rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, VanHue; Nguyen, VanToan; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-01-01

    The formation oxytetracycline (OTC) degradation products in chicken and pork under two different methods of cooking were studied. Samples of chicken and pig muscles previously dosed with OTC residues were subjected to boiling or microwave treatment, and the residues were extracted in a mixture of citrate buffer-MeOH (75:25 v/v), and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection using a XBridgeTM C18 reverse-phase chromatographic column. Thermal treatm...

  20. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mullu, N.D.; Waaij, van der, E.H.; Dessie, T.; van Arendonk,

    2010-01-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a part...

  1. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m3 fed-1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1. Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m3 fed-1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m3 fed-1 and 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m3 fed-1 plus 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1, for both seasons

  2. Blood serum and BSA, but neither red blood cells nor hemoglobin can support vitellogenesis and egg production in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use modified insects to reduce vector populations and transmission of pathogens, such as sterile insect technique or population replacement. A major problem for vector mosquito mass rearing is the requirement of vertebrate blood for egg production since it poses significant costs as well as potential health hazards. Also, regulations for human and animal use as blood source can pose a significant obstacle. A completely artificial diet that supports egg production in vector mosquitoes can solve this problem. In this study, we compared different blood fractions, serum and red blood cells, as dietary protein sources for mosquito egg production. We also tested artificial diets made from commercially available blood proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA and hemoglobin. We found that Ae. aegypti performed vitellogenesis and produced eggs when given whole bovine blood, serum, or an artificial diet containing BSA. Conversely, egg production was impaired after feeding of the red blood cell fraction or an artificial diet containing only hemoglobin. We also found that egg viability of serum-fed mosquitoes were comparable to that of whole blood and an iron supplemented BSA meal produced more viable eggs than a meal containing BSA alone. Our results indicate that serum proteins, not hemoglobin, may replace vertebrate blood in artificial diets for mass mosquito rearing.

  3. Blood serum and BSA, but neither red blood cells nor hemoglobin can support vitellogenesis and egg production in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kristina K; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use modified insects to reduce vector populations and transmission of pathogens, such as sterile insect technique or population replacement. A major problem for vector mosquito mass rearing is the requirement of vertebrate blood for egg production since it poses significant costs as well as potential health hazards. Also, regulations for human and animal use as blood source can pose a significant obstacle. A completely artificial diet that supports egg production in vector mosquitoes can solve this problem. In this study, we compared different blood fractions, serum and red blood cells, as dietary protein sources for mosquito egg production. We also tested artificial diets made from commercially available blood proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hemoglobin). We found that Ae. aegypti performed vitellogenesis and produced eggs when given whole bovine blood, serum, or an artificial diet containing BSA. Conversely, egg production was impaired after feeding of the red blood cell fraction or an artificial diet containing only hemoglobin. We also found that egg viability of serum-fed mosquitoes were comparable to that of whole blood and an iron supplemented BSA meal produced more viable eggs than a meal containing BSA alone. Our results indicate that serum proteins, not hemoglobin, may replace vertebrate blood in artificial diets for mass mosquito rearing. PMID:26020000

  4. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  5. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  6. EFFECT OF ZINC SOURCE AND SUPPLEMENTATION LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE INDICES IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. JULEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of zinc provided from concentrated chelated glasses and inorganic substance (ZnO on nutritive and bioproductive indices in broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 120 broiler chickens divided into four experimental groups (CL, EL1, EL2 and EL3, with 30 broiler chickens in each experimental lot. The used hybrid was Ross 308. Zinc was provided by concentrated phosphatic glass with zinc (G 300 at following levels: at CL, 20 mg Zn, at EL1, 10 mg Zn, at EL2 40 mg Zn. At EL3 20 mg Zn was provided by inorganic substance (Zn O. Zinc assurance by G 300, at 20 mg/kg combined feed, determined superior bioproductive indices comparative with zinc assurance by Zn O at the same level.

  7. Microbial characterization and influence on copepod (Acartia tonsa) nauplii and egg production in water treatment systems with and without membrane filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Hung, Anh

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is a pelagic calanoid copepod with a diverse distribution, a wide tolerance of temperature and salinities, has short generation time, can produce resting eggs, and has been considered as an excellent feed for marine fish larvae. The current study included two experiments: nauplii production (NP) and egg production (EP). In the NP experiment, the nauplii copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were reared for 14 days in a flow-through aquaculture system (FTAS), a conventional recirculating aq...

  8. Microbial characterization and influence on copepod (Acartia tonsa) nauplii and egg production in water treatment systems with and without membrane filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Hung, Anh

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is a pelagic calanoid copepod with a diverse distribution, a wide tolerance of temperature and salinities, has short generation time, can produce resting eggs, and has been considered as an excellent feed for marine fish larvae. The current study included two experiments: nauplii production (NP) and egg production (EP). In the NP experiment, the nauplii copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were reared for 14 days in a flow-through aquaculture system (FTAS), a conventional recirculating aq...

  9. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras; REMEDIOS D. CATAMIN; Delia A. Paragados; AILEEN C. DE LA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefu...

  10. Effects of the host and parasitoid densities on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis on lepidopterous (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing host and parasitoid densities of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. For host density,percentage parasitism and adult longevity was the highest at 20 eggs whereas emergence was the highest from 10 eggs of S. cereallela while of C. cephalonica percentage parasitism and emergence was the highest at 10 eggs. For parasitoid density, parasitism was the highest at 5 pairs of T. chilonis. Percentage of emergence and longevity remained similar among all the 5 treatments. It is concluded that S. cereallela eggs more suitable as compare to C. cephalonica eggs for mass and quality rearing of parasitoid, T. chilonis.

  11. Uses of mechanically separated chicken meat for production from protein hydrolysates different proteolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Silvia Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrolyzed protein, derived from animal and vegetable sources, in specific formulations, is an area of growing interest. The aim of this study was to develop different powder hydrolysates with high protein value, from the enzymatic hydrolysis of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, a byproduct of the poultry industry, which can be a low-cost source for the production of these hydrolysates. The raw material used was frozen poultry mechanically deboned meat (MDM purchased from an abattoir in southern Brazil, before use it was thawed under refrigeration and homogenized in a processor by 2 minutes. Three commercial enzymes were used, Papain, Protamex® and Flavourzyme®. The hydrolysis occurred in a thermostatized bath with temperature, time and pH controlled. Proximal composition of the raw material and lyophilized hydrolysates, control analysis such as hydrolysis degree of hydrolysis, protein, total solids, ash and amino acid characterization of the hydrolysates were performed. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey’s averages test. The hydrolyzed obtained from the papain enzyme showed the best behavior, followed by Protamex and Flavourzyme. The hydrolysates from papain enzyme had higher protein content, soluble solids and lower ash content compared to other hydrolysates. The amino acid composition showed that the hydrolyzate from papain has a closer composition to what is recommended by the control organs. It was concluded that the protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken had high protein content characterizing them as a promising raw material in the formulation of special diets.

  12. Influence of Pullorosis Fowl Typhoid on the Production Performance of Chicken%鸡白痢鸡伤寒对种鸡生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时倩; 潘玲; 周杰

    2011-01-01

    鸡白痢鸡伤寒是一种经蛋垂直传播且具有严重危害性的传染病.为在种鸡群中进行血清学检查,检出并淘汰阳性鸡以确保无白痢的健康种鸡群,达到种群净化的目的,本研究应用全血平板凝集试验对江苏太仓广东温氏家禽有限公司某种鸡场的5133羽新兴黄鸡进行了检测.检测结果:鸡白痢鸡伤寒的抗体阳性检出率为2.7%.在相同的饲养环境下通过为时40 d试验,对阳性鸡群与阴性鸡群的产蛋率,受精率及孵化率进行比较观察,结果表明:鸡白痢鸡伤寒抗体呈阳性鸡群的上述生产性能在不同程度上低于抗体呈阴性鸡群.鸡白痢疾鸡伤寒阳性带菌鸡群的产蛋率、受精率、孵化率分别低于鸡白痢阴性鸡群为8.1%~21.8%、0.87%~1.6%、10.6%~1 1.4%.%The Pullorosis fowl typhoid is a severe contagious disease, which spreads out perpendicularly via eggs. To eliminate the positive individuals and purify heath group, in this research we carried out serological detection in chicken. We applied the whole blood agglutination plate to assess the 5133 samples of 'Xinxinghuang' chicken in the Taicang of Guangdong Wen's Poultry Ltd. The result showed that the positive samples of the Pullorosis fowl typhoid is 2.7%. Under the same condition, we compared positive groups with negative groups in the laying rate, fertilization and hatching rate and found that production capability of positive groups was lower than the negative groups in the different degree with the ranges of 8.1-21.8% (laying rate), 0.87%-1.6% (fertilization), 10.60%-11.43% (hatching rate), respectively.

  13. Vision Technology for Automated Characterization of Parasite Eggs in a Medicinal Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    larvae inside the eggs based on morphology and darkfield scattering. The novel application of this technology is described in a patent application. The assessed concentration and embryonation percentage is used in the preparation of medicinal doses for the patients. The instrument has been evaluated...

  14. Effects of dietary persimmon peel and its ethanol extract on the production performance and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T; Zheng, L; Shin, Y K; An, B K; Kang, C W

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (phens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (pperformance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

  15. Germplasm Character of Guizhou Sizhou Chicken%贵州思州鸡种质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福平; 吴朝令; 杨洪茂; 张依裕; 李辉; 林家栋; 陈眷华

    2012-01-01

    To enrich Guizhou chicken breeds resource and provide basis for the conservation, breeding and utilization of Sizhou chicken,the appearance characteristics, blood physiological and biochemical index, body measurements index, slaughtering performance, egg quality of Sizhou chicken were discussed. The results show that the blood physiological and biochemical indexes of Sizhou male chicken and hens are significantly different, the Guizhou Sizhou chicken are of small size, beautiful color, early sexual maturity, good slaughter performance and egg quality, higher leg muscle rate, which is suitable for high quality chicken production.%为丰富贵州省地方鸡种资源库,为贵州思州鸡鸡种的保护、选育和开发利用提供基础依据,对贵州思州鸡外貌特征、血液生理生化指标、体尺指标、屠宰性能、蛋品质等进行了初步研究.结果表明,贵州思州鸡公母鸡血液生化生理指标差异较大,具有体型娇小,毛色美观,性成熟早,屠宰性能良好,腿肌率较高、蛋品质优良的特点,适合优质鸡生产.

  16. Males are here to stay: fertilization enhances viable egg production by clonal queens of the little fire ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Misato O.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of reproduction strategies is affected by both phylogenetic and physiological constraints. Although clonality may benefit females, it may not be selected if a male contribution is necessary to start egg laying and embryo development. In little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, sexual populations employ a typical Hymenopteran system of reproduction. In clonal populations, however, queens and males are produced with only maternal and paternal genomes, respectively, whereas sterile workers are produced sexually. Although this system requires both sexes for worker production, previous work has shown that workers may also be produced clonally by the queens. If so, why are males maintained in this species? Our data suggest that fertilization is necessary to increase the hatching rate of eggs. Although clonal queens can indeed produce both workers and queens without mating, the hatching rate is far below the level necessary to maintain functional colonies. On the other hand, virgin queens from populations exhibiting the original Hymenopteran reproduction system also show low hatching rates, but produce only haploid male eggs. Reasons for the existence of W. auropunctata males have been disputed. However, our data suggest that physiological constraints, such as the requirement for insemination, must be considered in regard to evolution of reproduction systems, in addition to ecological data and theoretical considerations of fitness.

  17. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied. PMID:26976899

  18. The Effect of Hydrolyzed Render Meal, Enzyme Treated Swine Skin Meal, and Cattle Skin Meal on Egg Production Performance, Eggshell Quality, Egg Quality, and Blood Characteristics in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. M.; Cho, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    The trial was conducted to investigate effect of hydrolyzed render meal and skin derived protein meal on the egg production performance, eggshell quality, egg quality and blood characteristics in laying hens. A total of 280 44 week (wk) old (Hy-Line brown) laying hens were used in this 6- wk trial. Birds were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, 1) BD, basal diet; 2) HRM, basal diet with 2% hydrolyzed render meal; 3) SSM, basal diet with 2% swine skin meal; 4) CHM, basal diet with 2% cattl...

  19. Inheritance of Important Economic Traits in Chickens under Short Term Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Bahmanimehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is study the inheritance of economic traits in an Iranian Native chickens population by estimating genetic parameters (heritability, genetic, phenotypic and environment correlations under short-term selection in breeding programs. Identification of genes determining the expression of economically important traits of plants and animals is a main research focus in agricultural genomics. Most of these traits are characterized by a wide variability of the expression of genes at certain loci called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL. Characterization of the chromosomal regions carrying QTL can be applied in marker-assisted Selection (MAS to improve breeding efficiency. Molecular linkage maps in combination with Powerful statistical methods facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits, and the chicken is ideally suited for this task due to a relatively short life cycle and large number of progeny. Native chickens are important in some rural areas. They usually produce meat and eggs without extra feed, only picking food. Improving their economical traits, such production efficiency would save these genetic resources. The genetic parameters for various traits of economic importance were studied in an Iranian Native chickens population under short term selection for egg production and body weight for over 2 years. The parameters studied were body weight at day old (BW1 , 8 weeks (BW8 and body weight at 12 weeks (BW12, the weight of first egg (EGGW1 and egg weight at 30 weeks of age (EGGW30 also the average number of stock eggs per day (EGG/DAY. They showed mostly moderate to high heritability estimates. All these values were 0.56 to 0.44, 0.51 0.2, 0.56 and 0.15, respectively. Higher heritability estimate were obtained for body weight traits. There were positive genetic correlation between weight traits and egg weight traits. Higher estimate was obtained for BW1 and EGGW30 (0.64. However, negative genetic correlation between body

  20. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus) in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    GS da Silva; DM Romera; LEC Fonseca; MV Meireles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect loss...

  1. The past, present and future genetic improvement of indigenous chicken of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Lihare, G O;

    2014-01-01

    breeds with the local indigenous chicken. This scheme was complimented with farmer training on good management practices and vaccination for disease control. The scheme was partially successful with improved performance in the crossbreds that declined with subsequent generations. Failure of the programme......Genetic improvement of farm animals encompasses both mating and selection for desired traits and indigenous chicken genetic resources are no exception. In Kenya, previous attempts to genetically improve indigenous chicken involved cross-breeding scheme by utilizing cockerels and pullets of exotic...... production traits, determined heritability estimate on growth. Current and ongoing research is focused on molecular characterization, selection for improved immune response, carcass quality, eggs production, growth and adaptation traits. The research is also concerned with conservation of these genetic...

  2. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Egg Allergy Diagnosis Treatment Getting the Flu Vaccine Food Labels: What ...

  3. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized th...

  4. Biochemical and developmental characterization of carbonic anhydrase II from chicken erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orito Kensuke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA of the chicken has attracted attention for a long time because it has an important role in the eggshell formation. The developmental profile of CA-II isozyme levels in chicken erythrocytes has not been determined or reported. Furthermore, the relations with CA-II in erythrocyte and egg production are not discussed. In the present study, we isolated CA-II from erythrocytes of chickens and determined age-related changes of CA-II levels in erythrocytes. Methods Chicken CA-II was purified by a combination of column chromatography. The levels of CA-II in the hemolysate of the chicken were determined using the ELISA system in blood samples from 279 female chickens, ages 1 to 93 weeks, 69 male chickens, ages 3 to 59 weeks and 52 weeks female Araucana-chickens. Results The mean concentration of CA-II in hemolysate from 1-week-old female was 50.8 ± 11.9 mg/g of Hb. The mean levels of CA-II in 25-week-old (188.1 ± 82.6 mg/g of Hb, 31-week-old (193.6 ± 69.7 mg/g of Hb and 49-week-old (203.8 ± 123.5 mg/g of Hb female-chickens showed the highest level of CA-II. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chickens significantly decreased at 63 week (139.0 ± 19.3 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chicken did not change from week 63 until week 93.The mean level of CA-II in hemolysate of 3-week-old male WL-chickens was 78.3 ± 20.7 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in male WL-chickens did not show changes in the week 3 to week 59 timeframe. The mean level of CA-II in 53-week-old female Araucana-chickens was 23.4 ± 1.78 mg/g of Hb. These levels of CA-II were about 11% of those of 49-week-old female WL-chickens. Simple linear regression analysis showed significant associations between the level of CA-II and egg laying rate from 16 week-old at 63 week-old WL-chicken (p Conclusions Developmental changes and sexual differences of CA-II concentration in WL-chicken erythrocytes were observed. The concentration of CA-II in

  5. Polymorphism of avian leukosis virus subgroup E loci showing selective footprints in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiguo; Qu, Hao; Li, Chunyu; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Jie; Yang, Chunfen; Shu, Dingming

    2014-12-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) is a family of endogenous retroviruses in the chicken genome. To investigate the genetic consequences of chicken domestication, we analyzed 18 ALVE loci in red jungle fowls, layers, broilers, and Chinese indigenous chickens. None of the ALVE loci tested were found in red jungle fowls, but 12 were present in domestic chickens. ALVE1 and ALVE16 are found in regions of the genome that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting egg production traits. ALVE1 was fixed and ALVE16 was detected only in layers. By contrast, ALVE-b1, ALVE-b5, ALVE-b6, and ALVE-b8 integrated into regions of the genome that harbor QTL affecting meat production traits. Carrier frequencies of these four ALVE loci were high in broilers and low in Chinese local chickens; the loci were not found in the layers. This study demonstrated that insertionally polymorphic ALVE loci can illustrate the selective footprints in the chicken genome. PMID:25007752

  6. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  7. The toxic effects of combined aflatoxins and zearalenone in naturally contaminated diets on laying performance, egg quality and mycotoxins residues in eggs of layers and the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Fan, Yu; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-04-01

    The toxic effect of aflatoxins (AF) and zearalenone (ZEA) and their combination on laying performance, egg quality and toxins residues in eggs, as well as the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product (BDP) for ameliorating these effects in layers were evaluated. Layers were submitted to a two phase experiment. The first phase was an intoxication period (18-23 wk) with birds fed 7 (3 × 2 + 1) diets (3 treatments with mycotoxins: AF (123.0 μg/kg), ZEA (260.2 μg/kg), or AF + ZEA (123.0 + 260.2 μg/kg); 2 treatments with or without BDP (1000 g/t); and a control group contained no toxins nor BDP). The next phase was a recovery period (24-29 wk) in which birds were fed a toxin-free diet. In the intoxication period, AF and AF + ZEA groups exhibited lower egg production, feed intake and shell thickness, and higher AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 residues as compared with the control group. In addition, AF and ZEA exerted synergistic effects on egg production and feed intake. Moreover, AF alone or combined with ZEA had a continuous toxic effect on laying performance in the recovery phase. Addition of BDP offset these negative effects, showing that BDP has a protective effect on layers fed contaminated diets. PMID:26891816

  8. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  9. Biogas Production from Citrus Wastes and Chicken Feather: Pretreatment and Codigestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, Gergely

    2012-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and economically feasible waste management technology, which lowers the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), decreases the soil and water pollution, and reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. The present thesis investigates the anaerobic digestion of waste from food-processing industries, including citrus wastes (CWs) from juice processing and chicken feather from poultry slaughterhouses. Juice processing industries generate 15-25 million tons of citrus wastes every year. Utilization of CWs is not yet resolved, since drying or incineration processes are costly, due to the high moisture content; and biological processes are hindered by its peel oil content, primarily the D-limonene. Anaerobic digestion of untreated CWs consequently results in process failure because of the inhibiting effect of the produced and accumulated VFAs. The current thesis involves the development of a steam explosion pretreatment step. The methane yield increased by 426 % to 0.537 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS by employing the steam explosion treatment at 150 deg C for 20 min, which opened up the compact structure of the CWs and removed 94 % of the D-limonene. The developed process enables a production of 104 m{sup 3} methane and 8.4 L limonene from one ton of fresh CWs. Poultry slaughterhouses generate a significant amount of feather every year. Feathers are basically composed of keratin, an extremely strong and resistible structural protein. Methane yield from feather is low, around 0.18 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, which corresponds to only one third of the theoretical yield. In the present study, chemical, enzymatic and biological pretreatment methods were investigated to improve the biogas yield of feather waste. Chemical pretreatment with Ca(OH){sub 2} under relatively mild conditions (0.1 g Ca(OH){sub 2}/g TS{sub feather}, 100 deg C, 30 min) improved the methane yield to 0.40 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, corresponding to 80 % of the theoretical yield. However, prior to digestion, the

  10. Production of Hygienical Oral Vinegar Egg Liquid%醋蛋保健口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎斌; 黄国平; 韩晋辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The re,arch aimed to improve the flavor of vinegar egg liquid. [ Method] With vinegar egg and honey as main materials,hygienical oral vinegar egg liquid was produced with adding Chinese medicinal herb extract. The selection of stabilizer and correctant ,the formula of the oral liquid were discussed. [ Result ] The optimal stabilizer was β-cyclodextrin and its dosage was 0. 1%. The best correctant was aspartame and its dosage was 0. 3 g/ml. By orthogonal test and sensory evaluation,the best formula of the this oral liquid was determined as: 25% enzymolysis solution of vinegar egg, 10% honey, 1% Chinese medicinal herb extract and 0. 3 g/ml aspartame. [ Conclusion ] The product improves the vinegar egg' s flavor and has abundant nutrition for the good function of health care.%[目的]改善醋蛋液口味.[方法]以醋蛋、蜂蜜为主要原料.加入中草药提取液,研制具有保健功能的醋蛋保健口服液,并对稳定剂和矫味剂的选择、口服液的配方等进行探讨.[结果]β-环糊精为最佳稳定剂,添加量为0.1%.阿斯巴甜为最佳矫味剂,添加量为0.3g/ml.通过正交试验和感官评定,确定了该保健口服液的最佳配方为:醋蛋酶解液25%、蜂蜜10%、中草药提取液1%、阿斯巴甜0.3g/ml.[结论]该产品改善了醋蛋风味,营养丰富且具有保健养生功效.

  11. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors

  12. Skin prick testing with extensively heated milk or egg products helps predict the outcome of an oral food challenge: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj Zein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow’s milk and hen’s egg are the most frequently encountered food allergens in the pediatric population. Skin prick testing (SPT with commercial extracts followed by an oral food challenge (OFC are routinely performed in the diagnostic investigation of these children. Recent evidence suggests that milk-allergic and/or egg-allergic individuals can often tolerate extensively heated (EH forms of these foods. This study evaluated the predictive value of a negative SPT with EH milk or egg in determining whether a child would tolerate an OFC to the EH food product. Methods Charts from a single allergy clinic were reviewed for any patient with a negative SPT to EH milk or egg, prepared in the form of a muffin. Data collected included age, sex, symptoms of food allergy, co-morbidities and the success of the OFC to the muffin. Results Fifty-eight patients had negative SPTs to the EH milk or egg in a muffin and underwent OFC to the appropriate EH food in the outpatient clinic. Fifty-five of these patients tolerated the OFC. The negative predictive value for the SPT with the EH food product was 94.8%. Conclusions SPT with EH milk or egg products was predictive of a successful OFC to the same food. Larger prospective studies are required to substantiate these findings.

  13. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken interleukin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, L.; Hamblin, A; Kaiser, P

    2001-01-01

    Using genetic immunisation of mice, we produced antibodies against chicken interleukin-2 (ChIL-2), the first produced against a non-mammalian interleukin. After a final injection with a recombinant ChIL-2 protein, two stable hybridoma cell lines were established which secreted monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against this cytokine. Specific binding of the two MAbs to recombinant ChIL-2 produced by Escherichia coli and COS-7 cells was demonstrated in an indirect ELISA, Western blotting and dot blo...

  14. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF SOLAR OPERATOR INCUBATOR FOR EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh W. Zungare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project was to design a solar poultry egg incubator using locally available material in order to improve its thermal performance. Egg incubators enable large production of chicken. Cost of this production is getting out of hand lately due to the energy crisis being experienced globally. In order to surmount this challenge and even encourage the rural farmer to go into chicken production, it is necessary to look at other ways of generating energy for egg incubation. Hence, solar energy is chosen because it is free, abundant and clean and can be tapped anywhere in the country. A sample analysis of solar radiation in Nagpur was done for the 10th January of 2013 in order to obtain solar incidence radiation on the collector surface. This solar incidence radiation was then found to be 837.641(W/m2. Thermal efficiency of the solar collector design was determined as 13%. Solar collector plate was also inclined at 170 in order to facilitate natural convection, but it can also be used with forced convection with a fan blower according to the need. The poultry incubator also consists of an incubating unit where 50 eggs are placed to hatch, and has a built-in heat storage facility that supplies heat to the incubating chamber during the period of the day that there is no solar energy. Fins were also incorporated into the design of solar collector in order to improve the heat retention capacity of the collector. finally, then overall costing of the solar poultry incubator was calculated as Rs 12,000 inclusive of the materials prices as well as the labor costs.

  15. Lactobacillus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bee products application using FISH and RTQ PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee products on the lactobacilli colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 400 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen in feed mixture with the addition of 450 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of lactobacilli in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and FISH method were investigated. Counts of lactobacilli on MRS agar were monitored. To check the reliability of traditional methods of cultivation samples were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacillus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected after hybridization of fluorescently labeled probe with bacterial cells. Counts of CFU of lactobacilli were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the third experimental group where was 450 mg of pollen added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using Real-time PCR method, we identified the species range of the genera Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Lactobacillus were L. crispatus, L. salivarius and L. acidophilus.

  16. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples 

  17. Occurrence of Listeria species in meat, chicken products and human stools in Assiut city, Egypt with PCR use for rapid identification of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Abd El-Malek

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to check the presence of Listeria spp. in some meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut (Egypt. A total of 100 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, luncheon, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken breast fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. In addition, 28 stool cultures examined for Listeria spp. from hospitalized children resident in Assiut Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 100 meat samples examined, Listeria spp. were detected in 8 (32% of minced frozen beef, 8 (32% of luncheon, 13 (52% of frozen chicken leg and 14 (56% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed, respectively. Regarding the examined 28 stool cultures from hospitalized children with underlying disease in Assiut Univ. hospital, 2 (7.14% were found positive for Listeria spp. For identification of L. monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, two primers were selected to detect 217-pb fragment ofthe prfA (transcriptional activator of the virulence factor gene for L. monocytogenes. 13 selected Listeria isolates displayed beta-haemolysis on sheep blood agar and positive CAMP test were further identified using PCR. PCR results showed that L. monocytogenes were confirmed in one of minced imported frozen meat examined, two of luncheon samples and two of frozen chicken legs with the total incidence of 5 isolates (5% from the total 100 examined food samples. This suggests the presence of a significant public health hazard linked to the consumption of these meat and chicken products sold in Assiut city contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The public health significance of these pathogens as well as recommended sanitary measures was discussed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 353-359

  18. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  20. Fiber knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a coiled coil is a candidate subunit vaccine against egg-drop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakuni, Tetsuya; Andoh, Kiyohiko; Sakamoto, Ryu-Ichi; Tamaki, Yukihiro; Miyata, Takeshi; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Yamazaki, Ken-Ichi; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Egg-drop syndrome (EDS) virus is an avian adenovirus that causes a sudden drop in egg production and in the quality of the eggs when it infects chickens, leading to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Inactivated EDS vaccines produced in embryonated duck eggs or cell culture systems are available for the prophylaxis of EDS. However, recombinant subunit vaccines that are efficacious and inexpensive are a desirable alternative. In this study, we engineered chimeric fusion proteins in which the trimeric fiber knob domain lacking the triple β-spiral motif in the fiber shaft region was genetically fused to trimeric coiled coils, such as those of the engineered form of the GCN4 leucine zipper peptide or chicken cartilage matrix protein (CMP). The fusion proteins were expressed predominantly as soluble trimeric proteins in Escherichia coli at levels of 15-80mg/L of bacterial culture. The single immunization of chickens with the purified fusion proteins, at a dose equivalent to 10μg of the knob moiety, elicited serum antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activities, similar to those induced by an inactivated EDS vaccine. A dose-response analysis indicated that a single immunization with as little as 1μg of the knob moiety of the CMP-knob fusion protein was as effective as the inactivated vaccine in inducing antibodies with HI activity. The immunization of laying hens had no apparent adverse effects on egg production and effectively prevented clinical symptoms of EDS when the chickens were challenged with pathogenic EDS virus. This study demonstrates that the knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a trimeric coiled coil is a promising candidate subunit vaccine for the prophylaxis of EDS in chickens. PMID:27105561

  1. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFL...

  2. Effects of Fermentation Product Containing Phytase on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Phosphorous Apparent Metabolism of Laying Hens Fed Different Levels of Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; DONG Xiao-fang; TONG Jian-ming; XU Shang-zhong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermentation product containing phytase (FPP) that was fermented using waste vinegar residue (WVR) as substrate from Aspergillus ifcuum NTG-23 on productive performance, egg quality, and phosphorus apparent metabolism of laying hens. First, 375 22-wk-old Jinghong hens were allocated into 5 treatments (5 replicates of 15 hens each) in an 8-wk experiment for evaluating the parameters of productive performance, egg quality, serum, and tibia. Experimental diets contained 4%FPP and 96%corn-soybean diet. The levels of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) were 1.34, 1.01, 0.67, 0.34 and 0%. Next, thirty 31-wk-old Jinghong hens were fed 5 types of diets for evaluating phosphorous apparent metabolism rate. Egg productive rate, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, Haugh unit, egg albumen height, serum calcium, tibia ash, tibia ash calcium and tibia breaking strength were not different signiifcantly among 5 treatments. The signiifcant difference of average daily feed intake was not appeared when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.67%;the eggshell hardness, eggshell thickness and serum phosphorus were not reduced signiifcantly until the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.34%. The yolk color was improved when the laying hens fed deifcient DCP corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 22.14%reduction in excreta phosphorus was observed when the laying hens fed low phosphorus (0.67%DCP) corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 30%elevation of phosphorus apparent metabolism rate was obtained when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was decreased from 1.34 to 1.01%. The reducing cost of layer diet was totalized about 120 CNY 1 000 kg-1 diet when the content of DCP was 0.67%in corn-soybean-FPP diet. These results indicated that FPP could be applied in laying hen as a potential, cost-effective and rational application of WVR.

  3. Egg proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevalier, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Nau, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Hen egg was categorised by Baldwin in 1986 as a polyfunctional ingredient, as it can simultaneously realise several technological functions in the same formulated foodstuff. Its emulsifying, foaming, gelling, thickening, colouring and aromatic properties make it still today a universal basic ingredient for the domestic kitchen and the food processing industry. Whereas egg yolk is well recognised for its emulsifying properties, egg white (or albumen) is a reference in terms o...

  4. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  5. 9 CFR 145.83 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Primary Meat-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.83 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and chicks produced...

  6. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  7. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  8. Egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40 were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  10. Effect of low dose gamma-radiation upon Newcastle disease virus antibody level in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific antibody response against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs exposed to low dose gamma-radiation was studied. Materials and methods: Two groups of eggs of commercial meat chicken lines were irradiated with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation, respectively. The same number of eggs unexposed to gamma-radiation served as controls. After hatching the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation was not vaccinated while the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation was vaccinated on the 14 day. Specific serum anti-Newcastle disease virus antibodies were quantified by the hemagglutination inhibition assay with 4 HA units of Newcastle disease virus La Sota strain. Result: Specific antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation and vaccinated on the 14th day significantly increased on the 28th day. Specific antibody titre against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation and non-vaccinated was significantly higher on the 1st and 14th day. Conclusion: Acute irradiation of heavy breeding chicken eggs with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation could have a stimulative effect on humoral immunity in chickens.

  11. Vaccine induced protection from egg production losses in commercial turkey breeder hens following experimental challenge with a triple reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) infection in turkey breeder hens can cause decreases in both egg production and quality which results in significant production losses. Recently, an H3N2 subtype of avian influenza triple reassortant containing human, swine, and avian gene segments was isolated from turkey bree...

  12. Production, crystallization and X-ray characterization of chemically glycosylated hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of glycosylation post-purification has been demonstrated by introducing glucose into the model protein lysozyme via a novel reaction that is compatible with biological samples. The crystallization of glycoproteins is one of the challenges to be confronted by the crystallographic community in the frame of what is known as glycobiology. The state of the art for the crystallization of glycoproteins is not promising and removal of the carbohydrate chains is generally suggested since they are flexible and a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, the feasibility of introducing glucose into the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme via a post-purification glycosylation reaction that may turn any protein into a model glycoprotein whose carbohydrate fraction can be manipulated is demonstrated

  13. Effect of Supplemental Roughage on Behavior, Physiological Stress Response, and Egg Production Parameters of Farmed Partridges (Perdix perdix)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jørgen B.; Hansen, Bente Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of roughages (maize silage, rucola salad, or wheat sprouts) would reduce behavioral and physiological signs of stress and increase egg production. A total of 160 adult partridge breeder birds were housed in...... < 0.05). Birds on the western side of the shed spent more time eating (3.9 vs. 1.24%, P < 0.01). Aggression and dustbathing were rarely seen, and feather pecking was never observed. The basal level of corticosterone (SD) was, on average, 11.4 (6.0) ng/mL of plasma and was not affected by treatments...... during the egg-laying period because this seems to cause behavioral and physiological stress responses and impaired egg production. In general, partridge breeders in the production system investigated here did not show overt signs of maladaptive behavior or physiological stress when fed pelleted...

  14. The isolated chicken eye test as a suitable in vitro method for determining the eye irritation potential of household cleaning products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Prinsen, M.K.; McNamee, P.M.; Roggeband, R.

    2009-01-01

    Eye irritation is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of consumer products and their ingredients. Several in vitro methods have been developed and are used by different industry sectors to assess eye irritation. One such in vitro method in use for some time already is the isolated chicken

  15. Hydrogen peroxide production from glycerol metabolism is dispensable for virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the tracheas of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, S M; Boccaccio, M; Pflaum, K; Liao, X; Geary, S J

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a by-product of glycerol metabolism in mycoplasmas and has been shown to cause cytotoxicity for cocultured eukaryotic cells. There appears to be selective pressure for mycoplasmas to retain the genes needed for glycerol metabolism. This has generated interest and speculation as to their function during infection. However, the actual effects of glycerol metabolism and H2O2 production on virulence in vivo have never been assessed in any Mycoplasma species. To this end, we determined that the wild-type (WT) R(low) strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is capable of producing H2O2 when grown in glycerol and is cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells in culture. Transposon mutants with mutations in the genes present in the glycerol transport and utilization pathway, namely, glpO, glpK, and glpF, were identified. All mutants assessed were incapable of producing H2O2 and were not cytotoxic when grown in glycerol. We also determined that vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 produce little to no H2O2 when grown in glycerol, while the naturally attenuated F strain does produce H2O2. Chickens were infected with one of two glpO mutants, a glpK mutant, R(low), or growth medium, and tracheal mucosal thickness and lesion scores were assessed. Interestingly, all glp mutants were reproducibly virulent in the respiratory tracts of the chickens. Thus, there appears to be no link between glycerol metabolism/H2O2 production/cytotoxicity and virulence for this Mycoplasma species in its natural host. However, it is possible that glycerol metabolism is required by M. gallisepticum in a niche that we have yet to study. PMID:25156740

  16. Production of Autoinducer 2 in Salmonella enterica Serovar Thompson Contributes to Its Fitness in Chickens but Not on Cilantro Leaf Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, M. T.; Miller, W. G.; Bates, A. H.; Mandrell, R E

    2005-01-01

    Food-borne illness caused by Salmonella enterica has been linked traditionally to poultry products but is associated increasingly with fresh fruits and vegetables. We have investigated the role of the production of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) in the ability of S. enterica serovar Thompson to colonize the chicken intestine and the cilantro phyllosphere. A mutant of S. enterica serovar Thompson that is defective in AI-2 production was constructed by insertional mutagenesis of luxS. The population size...

  17. Effect of an herbal essential oil mixture on growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Alçiçek, A; Cabuk, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Catli, A U

    2009-11-01

    The effects of supplementing a basal diet with 2 levels of an essential oil mixture and an antibiotic on the growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of broiler breeders were examined in this study. Nine hundred sixty female and 128 male breeders at an age of 1 d old were randomly allocated to 16 replicates (i.e., 4 replicates of 4 dietary treatments) in a floor pen trial. Two levels of an essential oil mixture (EOM; i.e., 24 and 48 mg of EOM/kg of diet) and an antibiotic (i.e., l0 mg of avilamycin/kg of diet) were added to the basal starter, grower, and laying diets from 0 to 45 wk of age. Daily feed allocations were adjusted to produce a target BW and egg production rate of the breeders throughout the experimental period. The BW of the males and females were determined at 12, 21, and 45 wk of age. Livability during the growing and laying period was not affected by the dietary treatments. The fertility and hatchability of total eggs set were positively affected by the supplementation of the EOM in the diet (P < 0.01). The hen-day egg production, hatching egg weight, settable egg ratio, hatching of fertile eggs, extra large egg rate, and proportion of chick weight to egg weight were not affected significantly. The higher level of EOM (48 mg/kg) added to the diet led to the hatching of the heaviest chickens; the lower level of EOM (24 mg/kg) and antibiotic treatments led to the hatching of the intermediate weight chickens, followed by the control treatment (P < 0.01). Hens given the lower level of EOM in their diets produced a higher number of settable eggs and chicks as compared with those of other treatments, whereas hens fed the control diet yielded the lowest total settable eggs and chicks throughout the experimental laying period (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that supplementing diets with EOM improved fertility, the hatchability of total eggs set, total settable eggs, total chicks, and the chick weight of broiler breeders. PMID

  18. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  19. Development of SNP assays to determine genetic resistance to ALV-A in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus. Six subgroups of ALV, namely, A, B, C, D, E, and J were found in chickens. ALV subgroup A causes tumors primarily in egg-layer type of chickens; ALV is controlled by eradication schemes. ALV-A infection of chicken is mediated by a cellular host ...

  20. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatji, Dikeledi P; Tsotetsi, Anna M; Van Marle-Koster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39) and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48) provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%), Heterakis gallinarum (15.56%) and Capillaria spp. (4.00%); tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10%) and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00%) and Eimeria spp. (29.46%). Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90%) samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49%) from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. PMID:27247063

  1. Quality attributes and consumer acceptance of new ready-to-eat frozen restructured chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marcio Aurelio; Villanueva, Nilda Doris Montes; Gonçalves, José Ricardo; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new restructured product, cooked and frozen ready-to-eat product that was prepared with boneless chicken meat (breast and drumstick) and mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM). Non-meat ingredients, such as transglutaminase (TG) and egg albumin powder, were tested to obtain a better strength of adhesion between the meat particles. Five formulations for restructured chicken were developed as follows: T1 (1 % transglutaminase), T2 (1 % transglutaminase and 15 % MSCM), T3 (1 % egg albumin powder), T4 (1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM) and T5 (1 % transglutaminase, 1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM). The results of the experiment showed a greater luminosity (L*) in the treatments with TG (T1) and albumin (T3). The treatments without MSCM (T1 and T3) presented significantly lower mean values for redness (a*) when compared to treatments with MSCM (T2, T4 and T5) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the treatments (p ≥ 0.05) when analyzing the percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol content. Consumer testing showed a high acceptance of the restructured products in all evaluated attributes. Similarly, with regard to the purchase intention, consumers mostly expressed that they would probably or certainly buy the products, for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5. Moreover, the meat cuts with no commercial value, can transform into new ready-to-eat products that have a high probability of success in the market. PMID:25892785

  2. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  3. The effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in village chicken in Bamenda area of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in Ndop and Santa zones of the Bamenda area in the Republic of Cameroon on the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in backyard poultry. The results of the study showed that there was an increase in egg production and weight gain in the vaccinated birds which received feed supplement as compared to the non-vaccinated and without feed supplements. The mortality pattern did not reflect the effect of feed supplementation suggesting that other factors may be responsible for mortality. An economic analysis of the impact of the two interventions on backyard poultry production was carried out using the partial farm budget analysis. It was evident from the results that feed supplementation was beneficial to rural poultry performance and that the inclusion of a vaccination programme against Newcastle disease made the intervention even more beneficial. (author)

  4. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiem Nguyen, Quy; Dieu Nguyen, Duy; Kien Nguyen, Van; Thinh Nguyen, Khac; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Tien Phung, Duc

    2015-09-01

    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53-2.60 kg/hen and 50.86-51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks.

  5. Sialidase production and genetic diversity in Clostridium perfringens type A isolated from chicken with necrotic enteritis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanco, Luis A; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2015-03-01

    The sialidase activity and genetic diversity of 22 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from chickens with necrotic enteritis were determined. Sialidase activity was detected in 86.4 % of the strains. All C. perfringens showed a high value of similarity (>96 %), and they were grouped into seven clusters clearly separated from the other reference bacterial strains. From these clusters four patterns were defined in accordance with their phenotypic (sialidase production and antibiotic resistance profile) and genotypic (presence of nanI and nanJ genes) characteristics. Our results showed heterogeneity among strains, but they were genotypically similar, and it is suggested further studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis. PMID:25373329

  6. The gas forming potential of dry chicken dung in biogas production; Das Gasbildungspotenzial von Huehnertrockenkot bei der Biogasgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissbach, Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    In order to utilize substrates for biogas production efficiently, the knowledge of their gas forming potential is crucial. Until now, sufficiently precise data has been lacking for poultry excrements without bedding. These excrements are usually referred to as dry chicken dung (DCD). It has not been determined as to whether differences exist in quality between different batches and which laboratory analyses are meaningful to cover them. The aim of this study was, therefore, to address the differences in composition of DCD. Based on data from digestibility measurements in sheep, the content of fermentable organic matter (FOM) was calculated. Additionally, the potential gas yield per kg FOM of DCD was determined, and recommendations were made regarding quality assurance of DCD. (orig.)

  7. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition. PMID:27474956

  8. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    te Pas Marinus FW; Hulsegge Ina; Schokker Dirkjan; Smits Mari A; Fife Mark; Zoorob Rima; Endale Marie-Laure; Rebel Johanna MJ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways...

  9. Consequences of concurrent Ascaridia galli and Escherichia coli infections in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Permin A; Christensen JP; Bisgaard M

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine the consequences of concurrent infections with Ascaridia galli and Escherichia coli in chickens raised for table egg production. Characteristic pathological lesions including airsacculitis, peritonitis and/or polyserositis were seen in all groups infected with E. coli. Furthermore, a trend for increased mortality rates was observed in groups infected with both organisms which, however, could not be confirmed statistically. The mean worm burden wa...

  10. Prevalence and pathology of oviduct impaction in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivasan; G. A. Balasubramaniam; T. R. Gopala Krishna Murthy; Balachandran, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The avian oviduct is a tubular organ responsible for fertilization, secretion of the components surrounding the yolk and transport of egg in the reproductive tract. Disorders of oviduct may have a great bearing on production potential and incur a heavy loss. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathological changes of impacted oviduct in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India for a period of four years from 2006 to 2009. Materials and Methods...

  11. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails Caracterização genética da idade ao primeiro ovo, da produção e do peso dos ovos em linhagens de codornas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marubayashi Hidalgo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg, were, respectively, for yellow line, 0.31, 0.84 and 0.53; for blue line, 0.14, 0.82 and 0.60; for red line, 0.70, 0.96 and 0.75; and for meat line, 0.73, 0.96 and 0.72. Genetic correlation between egg weight and egg production in 189 days, egg weight and day at first egg and egg production in 189 days and day at first egg were for yellow line, 0.58, -0.77 and -0.90; for blue line, 0.09, -0.01 and -0.95; for red line, 0.09, 0.03 and -0.76 and for meat line, -0.18, 0.19 and -0.91, respectively. Based on the probabilities of posterior parameter distribution overlap, the lines are divided in two different groups: one group with the yellow and blue lines and another with the red and meat lines.O objetivo neste estudo foi obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para as características peso do ovo, produção de ovos em 189 dias de postura e dia do primeiro ovo em codornas de três linhagens de postura e uma de corte. Os dados foram analisados por meio de procedimentos bayesianos usando amostragem de Gibbs. As estimativas de herdabilidade para peso do ovo, produção de ovos em 189 dias de postura e dia do primeiro ovo foram, respectivamente, para a linhagem amarela, 0,31; 0,84 e 0,53; azul, 0,14; 0,82 e 0,60; vermelha, 0,70; 0,96 e 0,75; e de corte, 0,73; 0,96 e 0,72. As correlações genéticas entre peso do ovo e produção de ovos em 189 dias de postura, peso do ovo e dia do primeiro ovo e, produção de ovos em 189 dias de postura e dia do primeiro ovo foram, para amarela, 0,58; -0,77; e -0,90; azul, 0,09; -0,01; e -0,95; vermelha, 0,09; 0,03; e -0,76; e de corte, -0,18; 0,19 e -0,91. A partir das

  13. HRD & Quality: The Chicken or the Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferketish, B. Jean; Hayden, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management is not a fad. Human resource development must be aligned with the culture of continuous improvement to make it work. Changes may be necessary in hiring, promotion, and performance appraisal. (SK)

  14. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Some Biochemical Indicators in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionising radiation before incubation on concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was the control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for the both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of all three parameters was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The concentration of total protein was significantly decreased in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3, 7 and 30 and increased only on day 5. The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma was increased in the same chickens on days 1 and 30. The concentration of the cholesterol was decreased in the same chickens on day 7, and increased on day 10. Obtained results indicate that low-dose of gamma radiation has effects on some metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (author)

  15. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-07-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  16. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  17. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  18. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  19. Easy life of males? Indirect evidence that growth is easier than egg production in mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards (Varanus indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Frýdlová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In male-larger species of animals, males typically continue to grow after the age of female sexual maturation has been reached. Consequently, a switch of energy allocation occurs as the female investment from growth is shifted into egg production. We focus on the transitional period when both sexes heavily invest into anabolic processes; males invest in the development of body tissues while females predominantly invest in egg production. In captive mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards, we found that relative food intakes as well as quantitative estimates of anabolic processes (relative growth and egg production rates are fairly comparable between the sexes. In spite of this biochemical clinical values and body condition indices revealed sex differences suggesting costs of reproduction in females. These results clearly illustrate that growth and egg production still substantially differ in associated physiological costs. This may be attributed to qualitative requirements (nutrients, minerals, etc. of these processes. Our results correspond well with the higher susceptibility and mortality rates of females than males in many lizard species in captivity.

  20. 9 CFR 145.23 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 0579-0007) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 145.23, see the List of CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Multiplier Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products §...