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Sample records for chicken egg albumen

  1. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

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    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  2. O-polysaccharide is important for Salmonella Pullorum survival in egg albumen, and virulence and colonization in chicken embryos.

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    Guo, Rongxian; Li, Zhuoyang; Jiao, Yang; Geng, Shizhong; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Li, Qiuchun; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-10-01

    The pathogen Salmonella Pullorum is the causative agent of persistent systemic infection of poultry, leading to economic losses in developing countries due to morbidity, mortality and reduction in egg production. These infections may result in vertical transmission to eggs or progeny. Limited information is available regarding the mechanisms involved in the survival of Salmonella Pullorum in egg albumen and developing chicken embryos. Hence, we investigated the role of O-polysaccharide in the contamination of eggs and the colonization of chicken embryos. Compared with the wild-type strain, the isogenic waaL mutant exhibited an O-antigen-deficient rough phenotype, and increased sensitivity to egg albumen and chicken serum, as well as reduced adherence to DF-1 cells. Infection with Salmonella Pullorum lacking O-polysaccharide resulted in significantly reduced embryo lethality and bacterial colonization. These results suggest that O-polysaccharide is essential for Salmonella Pullorum colonization in eggs, both post-lay and developing embryos. The chicken embryo infection model could be used to characterize the interaction between Salmonella Pullorum and developing embryos, and it will also contribute to the development of more rational vaccines to protect laying hens and embryos.

  3. QTL mapping of egg albumen quality in egg layers.

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    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Arango, Jesus; Tabell, Jonna; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Vilkki, Johanna

    2013-08-16

    A fresh, good quality egg has a firm and gelatinous albumen that anchors the yolk and restricts growth of microbiological pathogens. As the egg ages, the gel-like structure collapses, resulting in thin and runny albumen. Occasionally thin albumen is found in a fresh egg, giving the impression of a low quality product. A mapping population consisting of 1599 F2 hens from a cross between White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up, to identify loci controlling albumen quality. The phenotype for albumen quality was evaluated by albumen height and in Haugh units (HU) measured on three consecutive eggs from each F2 hen at the age of 40 weeks. For the fine-mapping analysis, albumen height and HU were used simultaneously to eliminate contribution of the egg size to the phenotype. Linkage analysis in a small population of seven half-sib families (668 F2) with 162 microsatellite markers spread across 27 chromosomes revealed two genome-wide significant regions with additive effects for HU on chromosomes 7 and Z. In addition, two putative genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified on chromosomes 4 and 26. The QTL effects ranged from 2 to 4% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide significant QTL regions on chromosomes 7 and Z were selected for fine-mapping in the full set composed of 16 half-sib families. In addition, their existence was confirmed by an association analysis in an independent commercial Hy-Line pure line. We identified four chicken genomic regions that affect albumen quality. Our results also suggest that genes that affect albumen quality act both directly and indirectly through several different mechanisms. For instance, the QTL regions on both fine-mapped chromosomes 7 and Z overlapped with a previously reported QTL for eggshell quality, indicating that eggshell membranes may play a role in albumen quality.

  4. Developing a puncture-free in ovo chicken transfection strategy based on bypassing albumen nucleases.

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    Amini, Hamid-Reza; Pakdel, Abbas; Shahr-Babak, Hossein Moradi; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2017-03-15

    Chicken is a dual-purpose animal important from both agricultural and medical aspects. Even though significant improvements have been made in chicken transgenesis technologies, chicken genome manipulation has not been widely used in developmental biology. This study was aimed to evaluate chicken egg white nuclease properties and thereof plausibility of devising an in vivo transfection technology without causing physical damage to the embryo. First, the nuclease activity of egg albumen was assessed. The egg white nucleases were strongly active in degrading DNA and RNA. The egg white DNase activity was comparable to commercially available DNase-I. Nuclease activities were also assessed after heating, proteinase K, or EDTA treatment. Unlike proteinase K, both heating and EDTA were noticeably effective for the nuclease inactivation. Simultaneous application of lipoplex form of DNA (1 μg pDB2: 3 μl Lipofectamine2000) and EDTA showed a synergistic effect in protection against egg white nucleases. Finally, we injected the lipoplexes with or without EDTA close to the embryo at day0, but outside the embryonic epiblast. Implementation of a scrutinized PCR assay indicated that transfection took place only when EDTA was complemented to the lipoplexes. The transfection rate of day4 embryos and the hatched chicks were 54.5 and 30.0%, respectively. EGFP expression was detected in two out of three transgenic chicks. In conclusion, this study provided a detail analysis of chicken egg albumen nuclease properties and suggested the feasibility of developing a puncture-free handmade technology for transfection of the chicken embryo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

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    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  6. Egg Albumen as a Fast and Strong Medical Adhesive Glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaige; Liu, Yuqing; Bu, Shousan; Wu, Tianyi; Chang, Qiang; Singh, Gurankit; Cao, Xiaojian; Deng, Chuang; Li, Bingyun; Luo, Gaoxing; Xing, Malcolm

    2017-10-01

    Sutures penetrate tissues to close wounds. This process leads to inflammatory responses, prolongs healing time, and increases operation complexity. It becomes even worse when sutures are applied to stress-sensitive and fragile tissues. By bonding tissues via forming covalent bonds, some medical adhesives are not convenient to be used by surgeons and have side effects to the tissues. Here egg albumen adhesive (EAA) is reported with ultrahigh adhesive strength to bond various types of materials and can be easily used without any chemical and physical modifications. Compared with several commercial medical glues, EAA exhibits stronger adhesive property on porcine skin, glass, polydimethylsiloxane. The EAA also shows exceptional underwater adhesive strength. Finally, wound closure using EAA on poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous sheet and general sutures is investigated and compared in a rat wound model. EAA also does not show strong long-term inflammatory response, suggesting that EAA has potential as a medical glue, considering its abundant source, simple fabrication process, inherent nontoxicity, and low cost. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hydrogen-peroxide-modified egg albumen for transparent and flexible resistive switching memory

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    Zhou, Guangdong; Yao, Yanqing; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xiude; Han, Juanjuan; Wang, Gang; Rao, Xi; Li, Ping; Liu, Qian; Song, Qunliang

    2017-10-01

    Egg albumen is modified by hydrogen peroxide with concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% at room temperature. Compared with devices without modification, a memory cell of Ag/10% H2O2-egg albumen/indium tin oxide exhibits obviously enhanced resistive switching memory behavior with a resistance ratio of 104, self-healing switching endurance for 900 cycles and a prolonged retention time for a 104 s @ 200 mV reading voltage after being bent 103 times. The breakage of massive protein chains occurs followed by the recombination of new protein chain networks due to the oxidation of amidogen and the synthesis of disulfide during the hydrogen peroxide modifying egg albumen. Ions such as Fe3+, Na+, K+, which are surrounded by protein chains, are exposed to the outside of protein chains to generate a series of traps during the egg albumen degeneration process. According to the fitting results of the double logarithm I-V curves and the current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) images of the ON and OFF states, the charge transfer from one trap center to its neighboring trap center is responsible for the resistive switching memory phenomena. The results of our work indicate that hydrogen- peroxide-modified egg albumen could open up a new avenue of biomaterial application in nanoelectronic systems.

  8. The peri-albumen layer: a novel structure in the envelopes of an avian egg.

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    Sultana, F; Yokoe, A; Ito, Y; Mao, K M; Yoshizaki, N

    2003-07-01

    The present paper describes a novel structure, termed the peri-albumen layer, in the egg-envelopes of the quail Coturnix japonica. It reacts with Alcian blue and exists between the egg white and the shell membrane. Ultrastructurally, it is of fine granular structure and forms a fenestrate sheet, the width of which is 190 nm or less. Isolated materials of the peri-albumen layer include an Alcian-blue-positive polysaccharide of 260 kDa, and three glycoproteins of 160, 108 and 52 kDa. The layer is supplied to an egg when it passes through the magnum-isthmus junction, the normalized length of which is 0.62-0.63 of the oviduct. The mucosa of the junction consists exclusively of a luminal epithelium. It is apparently distinct from the mucosa of the magnum and the isthmus, which consist of a luminal epithelium and tubular glands. The luminal epithelium of the magnum-isthmus junction stains prominently with Alcian blue and consists of alternately distributed ciliated cells and granular cells. Immunohistochemistry with an antiserum raised against the materials of the peri-albumen layer revealed the staining of the peri-albumen layer of the egg, and secretory cells of the luminal epithelium at the magnum-isthmus junction. It was concluded that the materials of the peri-albumen layer are produced by secretory cells at the magnum-isthmus junction of the oviduct.

  9. Modified atmosphere packaging of hen table eggs: effects on functional properties of albumen.

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    Rocculi, P; Cocci, E; Sirri, F; Cevoli, C; Romani, S; Rosa, M Dalla

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare technological properties (gel hardness, foam drainage, and meringue crispness) of albumen of nonpacked table eggs (control) with those of eggs packed in high-barrier plastic pouches with 3 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions (air, 100% N(2), and 100% CO(2)) during 28 d of storage at 25°C. The values of gel hardness for the control sample showed an increasing trend, demonstrating the highest values throughout the experiment duration compared with the other samples. This behavior was probably attributable to the pH increase detected only for this sample during storage (from 8.82 ± 0.06 for fresh egg to 9.96 ± 0.06 at the end of the experiment). Air and N(2) samples showed constant and similar hardness values during storage. The hardness of coagulated albumen showed a strict correlation with raw albumen pH (r(2) = 0.929; P atmosphere could ameliorate the quality characteristics of albumen-based food products. Commercially, CO(2) MAP could provide an albumen-based ingredient tailored to maximize the characteristics needed in the final product (e.g., fresh shell eggs special for meringue preparation) that could give an added value to the product.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.

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    Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

    2003-11-05

    Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved.

  11. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

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    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  12. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

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    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  13. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

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    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  14. The Influence of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Albumen Qualitative Parameters and Microbiological Indicators of Table Eggs Content

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    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are intensive fragrant, oily liquid substances contained in different parts of the plant. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oils or pollen on egg albumen physical parameters and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with oregano essential oil and pollen extract supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with oregano essential oil addition in a dose 0.25 g/kg, the feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the dose at 0.4 g/kg. The results suggest that a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.The paper abstract will be written with Times New Roman 10 pt., justify. It will contain maximum 200 words. A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s and year(s. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first

  15. Cataract Vision Mimicked By Means Of Protein Denaturation In Egg Albumen

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    Mandracchia, Biagio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing or reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. Moreover, for the doctors it can be very difficult to explain and give comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. We built and tested an optic device that uses egg albumen to mimic the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts and that is able to visualize how the cataract impairs vision. At best of our knowledge, it is the first experimental system developed at this aim. This can be a valuable tool, which can be of help in education for students in medical sciences as well as to provid...

  16. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of chickens which reaches a mature egg ... Subsequent rates of decline tend to be parallel and so selection for early albumen quality is effective in improving late albumen quality. The difficulty is that, in many markets, the producer is not directly penalized ... maximum total yield - an intermediate is best. If egg income.

  17. Production of Nigella sativa Beverage Powder under Foam Mat Drying Using Egg Albumen as a Foaming Agent

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    Norhazirah Affandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content of roasted Nigella sativa, and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Foams were prepared from Nigella sativa solution by adding different concentrations of egg albumen (2.5%, 8.75%, and 15% w/w and methyl cellulose (0, 0.5% and 1% w/w, using whipping times of 2, 5, and 8 min. The drying temperature was set at 50–70 °C, with a foam thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The optimum recorded conditions for the foaming process were 15% of egg albumen concentration, 0.69% of methyl cellulose concentration, and a whipping time of 8 min. Thus, the optimum conditions for the drying process were 60 °C, with 2 mm of foam thickness. The results showed that there were significant differences in DPPH inhibition, the total phenolic content, and mineral content, whereas no significant differences were recorded in the water solubility index between the roasted Nigella sativa and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder.

  18. Uptake of radiolabeled 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl into Japanese quail egg compartments and embryo following air cell and albumen injection.

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    Dean, Karen M; Baltos, Leah D; Marcell, Allegra M; Bohannon, Meredith E B; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    The avian embryo is an excellent model for testing adverse developmental effects of environmental chemicals as well as uptake and movement of xenobiotics within the egg compartments. Before incubation at embryonic day 0, 14 C 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl ( 14 C PCB 77) was injected into Japanese quail eggs either onto the air cell or into the albumen. All egg components were collected on embryonic day 1, 5, or 10, and concentrations of 14 C PCB 77 were measured in various egg components (shell, membrane, yolk, albumen, and embryo). The results showed measurable 14 C PCB 77 in all egg components, with changing concentrations in each egg component over the course of embryonic development. Specifically, concentrations in the shell content decreased between embryonic days 1 and 10, increased in albumen from embryonic days 1 to 5 and then decreased at embryonic day 10, and increased in both yolk and embryo from embryonic days 1 to 10. Vehicle and injection site both influenced 14 C PCB 77 allantoic fluid concentrations, with little effect on other egg components except for the inner shell membrane. The fatty acid vehicle injected into the albumen yielded the highest 14 C PCB 77 recovery. These findings demonstrate dynamic movement of toxicants throughout the egg components during avian embryonic development and a steady increase of relatively low levels of 14 C PCB 77 in the embryo compared with the yolk, albumen, and shell, suggesting that embryonic uptake (i.e., exposure) mirrors utilization of egg components for nutrition and growth during development. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:126-135. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Egg Qualities and Performance Characteristics of Laying Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters measured included daily feed intake, initial and final body weights, hen – day production, mortality rate, feed conversion ratio, feed cost per dozen eggs, egg weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, yolk weight, haugh unit, yolk length and yolk index. Housing system has significant effects (p <0.05) on the ...

  20. Internal Traits of Eggs and Their Relationship to Shank Feathering in Chicken Using Principal Component Analysis

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    Shaker AS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggs represent an important source of protein to the growing human population and also supply repositories of unique genes that could be used worldwide. The inheritance of shank feathering trait is dominant upon non-feathering shank trait in chicken which is based on two factors: pti-1L and pti-1B that are located on Chromosomes 13, 15, and 24. Using 185 fertile eggs collected from two genetic lines (shank feathering and non-feathering shank of White Kurdish chicken, we found that egg weight highly (P < 0.01 correlated with yolk weight (r2=0.520, 0.704, respectively, albumen weight (r2=0.918, 0.835, and shell weight (r2=0.626, 0.225. The first two principal components explained the greatest variance in both the White with shank feathering (85.6% of total variance and non-feathering shank (76.5%. Therefore, differences in the component traits of the eggs between the two genetic lines may be influenced by the same gene actions as shank feathering trait. According to these results, the two genetic lines of Kurdish chicken yield significant differences in the internal traits of eggs.

  1. Egg serpins: The chicken and/or the egg dilemma.

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    Dombre, Clara; Guyot, Nicolas; Moreau, Thierry; Monget, Philippe; Da Silva, Mylène; Gautron, Joël; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg. Twelve other serpins have been identified in the newly produced egg, some of them having a specific distribution in the respective egg structures (eggshell, egg white, vitelline membrane and egg yolk). The physiological role of these egg serpins remain largely unexplored, but there is increasing evidence in literature or by homologies with their mammalian counterparts, that some of them participate in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and/or angiogenesis associated with folliculogenesis and development of extraembryonic structures, eggshell biomineralization, egg defense and nutrition of the embryo. A better knowledge of the phylogenetic evolution of these 15 serpins in other oviparous species, on their egg distribution, on their regulation during embryonic development (activation/degradation/transfer) and on their functional specificity, is needed to better appreciate their role and their bird-specificity. These review shed light on the multiple possibilities that offer the avian egg model to study the role of serpins in reproduction and developmental biology. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

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    Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-12-31

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ``a posteriori`` the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author).

  3. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

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    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  4. Genetic analysis of egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken

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    Rudra Nath Chatterjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the genetic parameters and to assess the inheritance pattern of egg quality traits in White Leghorns. Materials and Methods: Data on 480 eggs produced by 40 week old pullets of 4 genetic groups were used for studying egg quality traits. Heritabilities and correlations were estimated by full sib correlation method using Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood (LSMLMW computer program. Results: The egg weight, haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness ranged from 50.01 ± 0.48 to 53.89 ± 0.43 g, 65.38 ± 0.92 to 80.98 ± 1.01, 0.341 ± 0.003 to 0.353 ± 0.003, 0.056 ± 0.002 to 0.087 ± 0.002, 14.16 ± 0.13 to 15.58 ± 0.12 g, 30.92 ± 0.39 to 33.18 ± 0.39 g, 4.32 ± 0.05 to 5.12 ± 0.05 g and 0.336 ± 0.003 to 0.376 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. Heritability estimates for egg weight, yolk index, albumen index and albumen weight ranged from low to medium while those of haugh unit, yolk weight, shell weight and shell thickness ranged from low to high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg weight with other egg quality traits except shell quality traits were mostly positive and moderate to high. High positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between haugh unit and other traits were observed. Genetic correlation of yolk weight with albumen weight was positive while that with shell quality traits was mostly negative. Shell weight was positively correlated with shell thickness. Conclusion: Significant genetic group differences were observed for various egg quality traits studied. The heritability estimates for different egg quality traits were low to moderate. The association among egg quality traits was positive in general. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 263-266

  5. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

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    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chicken and duck eggs, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flocks under study are located in the suburbs of Nairobi province and Machakos district. They belonged to smallholder farmers. Twenty seven clutches of eggs given to indigenous chickens to seat on, and 10 clutches of eggs given to ducks to seat on were investigated for six months. The number of eggs in each clutch ...

  7. Storage of Hatching Eggs : Effects of storage and early incubation conditions on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chicken quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: egg storage, embryonic development, albumen quality, hatchability, chick quality It is well known that an increase in the storage duration increases incubation duration and decreases hatchability and chick quality. The negative effects of prolonged egg storage (> 7 days) may be

  8. Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2017-01-01

    Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil....... Unembryonated eggs were mixed with soil, placed in sealed nylon bags and buried at 7 cm depth in pasture plots April (spring, n = 72) and December 2014 (winter, n = 72). Eight randomly selected bags per season were used to estimate pre-burial egg recovery [0 week post-burial (wpb)]. Eight random bags were...... removed at 5, 12, 23, 38, 52, 71 wpb per season and additionally at 104 wpb for spring burial. The content of each bag was analysed for numbers and development stages of eggs. Eggs buried in spring were fully embryonated within 12 wpb. In contrast, eggs buried in winter were developing between 23 and 38...

  9. Evaluation of external and internal traits of eggs from three poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 147 freshly laid eggs of domestic chicken, duck and guinea fowl were collected from reputable poultry farms. Seven fresh egg samples for each species were measured within 2 hours at day 0 of being laid. Each egg was weighed and broken, and the height of the albumen and egg yolk was measured. Forty-two ...

  10. Antimicrobial lysozyme-chitosan coatings affect functional properties and shelf life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuceer, Muhammed; Caner, Cengiz

    2014-01-15

    The interior quality, shell impact strength and functional characteristics of eggs coated with chitosan and lysozyme-chitosan combinations were evaluated for enhancing egg freshness during storage. A 10% (w/w) lysozyme solution was incorporated into 1% (w/w) chitosan film-forming solution at ratios of 0, 10, 20 and 60% (w/w). Storage time and coating had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, weight loss, albumen pH, dry matter, relative whipping capacity (RWC) and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH and weight loss and lower albumen viscosity. All coated eggshells showed greater puncture strength than uncoated eggshells, resulting in extended shelf life. The 20 and 60% lysozyme-chitosan coatings were more effective in maintaining the internal quality of eggs (e.g. pH, dry matter and RWC). Attributes such as pH, dry matter and RWC were better after the 20% lysozyme-chitosan treatment than after the other treatments. The 10, 20 and 60% lysozyme-chitosan coatings, considered active packaging, showed promising attributes. They could be a viable alternative to existing techniques for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during long-term storage. Chitosan coatings also improved shell strength. This study also confirms that measurements of albumen quality (pH, dry matter, viscosity and RWC) are excellent indicators of egg freshness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Egg production curve of Rhode Island Red chickens | Oni | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on the monthly egg production of a strain of Rhode Island chickens (500 breeder hens) were used to test the goodness of fit of six mathematical models, viz; Exponential, Parabolic exponential, Wood's Gamma type and modified Gamma type by McNally, Inverse polynomial and Linear regression. Egg production was ...

  12. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of turning frequency of chicken eggs on hatchability in hurricane lantern incubator. There were four treatments in which eggs were not turned in treatment one (control), those in treatment two were turned once daily (morning), treatment three turned twice daily ...

  13. Pharmacokinetics and egg residues after oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Bergman, Joan B; White, Molly S; Gordon, Kristen I; Gerhardt, Lillian E; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in domestic hens and duration and quantity of drug residues in their eggs following PO administration of a single dose (1 mg of meloxicam/kg). ANIMALS 8 healthy adult White Leghorn hens. PROCEDURES Hens were administered 1 mg of meloxicam/kg PO once. A blood sample was collected immediately before and at intervals up to 48 hours after drug administration. The hens' eggs were collected for 3 weeks after drug administration. Samples of the hens' plasma, egg whites (albumen), and egg yolks were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS The half-life, maximum concentration, and time to maximum concentration of meloxicam in plasma samples were 2.8 hours, 7.21 μg/mL, and 2 hours, respectively. Following meloxicam administration, the drug was not detected after 4 days in egg whites and after 8 days in egg yolks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that meloxicam administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg PO in chickens appears to maintain plasma concentrations equivalent to those reported to be therapeutic for humans for 12 hours. The egg residue data may be used to aid establishment of appropriate drug withdrawal time recommendations.

  14. Express quality control of chicken eggs by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Arbuzova, Evgeniia A.

    2017-06-01

    The urgency of the task of analyzing the foodstuffs quality is determined by the strategy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the rational nutrition of the world population. This applies to products, such as chicken eggs. In particular, it is necessary to control the chicken eggs quality at the farm production prior to incubation in order to eliminate the possible hereditary diseases, as well as high embryonic mortality and a sharp decrease in the quality of the bred young. Up to this day, in the market there are no objective instruments of contactless express quality control as analytical equipment that allow the high-precision quality examination of the chicken eggs, which is determined by the color parameters of the eggshell (color uniformity) and yolk of eggs, and by the presence in the eggshell of various defects (cracks, growths, wrinkles, dirty). All mentioned features are usually evaluated only visually (subjectively) with the help of normalized color standards and ovoscopes. Therefore, this work is devoted to the investigation of the application opportunities of contactless express control method with the help of technical vision to implement the chicken eggs' quality analysis. As a result of the studies, a prototype with the appropriate software was proposed. Experimental studies of this equipment on a representative sample of eggs from chickens of different breeds have been carried out (the total number of analyzed samples exceeds 300 pieces). The correctness of the color analysis was verified by spectrophotometric studies of the surface of the eggshell.

  15. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...

  16. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs.

  18. Chicken Nuggets Quality Affected by the Egg White Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the binding agent which could be used in the production of chicken nuggets is egg white. The different frying temperature and time will result in different physical, chemical and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of addition egg white to the nuggets' quality. This research consisted of one level of experiment was designed in Fully Randomized Design. The  experiment result showed that the best product was produced by adding 10 % egg white. This product had hardness value of 30.10 N, Cutting stress: of 5.13 N, elasticity of 0.333 s/g, and the organoleptic score for texture and taste were 6.50 and 6.44 respectively.   Keywords: Chicken nuggets, egg white

  19. Fuzzy modeling to predict chicken egg hatchability in commercial hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzi, N J; Scala, N L; Macari, M; Furlan, R L; Meyer, A D; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Kroetz Neto, F L; Souza, F A

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown that hatching rate depends, among other factors, on the main physical characteristics of the eggs. The physical parameters used in our work were egg weight, eggshell thickness, egg sphericity, and yolk per albumen ratio. The relationships of these parameters in the incubation process were modeled by Fuzzy logic. The rules of the Fuzzy modeling were based on the analysis of the physical characteristics of the hatching eggs and the respective hatching rate using a commercial hatchery by applying a trapezoidal membership function into the modeling process. The implementations were performed in software. Aiming to compare the Fuzzy with a statistical modeling, the same data obtained in the commercial hatchery were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The estimated parameters of multiple linear regressions were based on a backward selection procedure. The results showed that the determination coefficient and the mean square error were higher using the Fuzzy method when compared with the statistical modeling. Furthermore, the predicted hatchability rates by Fuzzy Logic agreed with hatching rates obtained in the commercial hatchery.

  20. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the egg white and yolk antibodies coexisted in 35 (58.3%) patients. Conclusion: Sensitization against hen's egg was higher compared to the chicken meat. Egg white sensitization higher than the egg yolk particularly in Saudi children with food related allergic disorders. Key words: Allergy, atopic dermatitis, chicken ...

  1. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Khan, Javed A.; Khan, Wasi; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine.

  2. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  3. Performance and egg quality traits of egg-type chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the performance of egg type chickens fed diets where Cottonseed cake (CSC) replaced Soybean cake (SBC) in five experimental rations such that 0% (control), 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of CSC replaced SBC. The design of the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD). Chemical analysis ...

  4. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Atopic dermatitis was the most common (55%) clinical condition. Out of the total 60 patients harboring hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies high levels of egg white, yolk and chicken meat specific IgEs were detected in 58 (96.6%), 37 (61.6%) and 6 (10%) patients respectively. Both the egg white and ...

  5. Omega-3 chicken egg detection system using a mobile-based image processing segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Oky Dwi; Kurniawan Teguh, M.; Cintya Amalia, P.

    2017-02-01

    An Omega-3 chicken egg is a chicken egg produced through food engineering technology. It is produced by hen fed with high omega-3 fatty acids. So, it has fifteen times nutrient content of omega-3 higher than Leghorn's. Visually, its shell has the same shape and colour as Leghorn's. Each egg can be distinguished by breaking the egg's shell and testing the egg yolk's nutrient content in a laboratory. But, those methods were proven not effective and efficient. Observing this problem, the purpose of this research is to make an application to detect the type of omega-3 chicken egg by using a mobile-based computer vision. This application was built in OpenCV computer vision library to support Android Operating System. This experiment required some chicken egg images taken using an egg candling box. We used 60 omega-3 chicken and Leghorn eggs as samples. Then, using an Android smartphone, image acquisition of the egg was obtained. After that, we applied several steps using image processing methods such as Grab Cut, convert RGB image to eight bit grayscale, median filter, P-Tile segmentation, and morphology technique in this research. The next steps were feature extraction which was used to extract feature values via mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis from each image. Finally, using digital image measurement, some chicken egg images were classified. The result showed that omega-3 chicken egg and Leghorn egg had different values. This system is able to provide accurate reading around of 91%.

  6. Temporal bone dissection practice using a chicken egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez García, José Manuel; Araujo Da Costa, Ana Sofía; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Hamdan Zavarce, Miriam Ileana

    2014-07-01

    Temporal bone drilling practice constitutes an essential stage in training for the surgical approach to this complex anatomic structure. To facilitate adaptation and surgical skills in otologic surgery, we recall the easy cost-effective practice of drilling a chicken egg. The resident in training must master the use of the surgical microscope, the burr, and fine drilling instruments used in dissection. Animal models, plastic temporal bones, prototyped temporal bones, and virtual reality temporal bones have all been used. This article describes a method of training residents' otologic skills by drilling a chicken egg. We used basic support materials found in a typical temporal bone dissection laboratory, with a surgical microscope, a desk, and a drilling system. Practice includes drilling and dissection of the eggshell, preserving the natural eggshell membrane. Learning temporal bone drilling on an egg, using basic materials, allows the surgeon to simulate surgery on a physical model using the same instrumentation that is used in surgery, obviating the need for laboratory conditions required for cadaveric dissection. Simulation is emerging as a mandatory component of surgical training. The egg is an excellent cost-effective model for drilling and dissection training and helps in improving surgical skills, enables learning of fine motor skills, and allows repeated practice. Although this method of training does help one control a drill and manual instrumentation, it does not help with temporal bone anatomy knowledge.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the chicken egg vitelline membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karlheinz

    2008-06-01

    The avian vitelline membrane (VM) is a multilayered proteinaceous structure separating egg white from yolk. The innermost layer of the VM, deposited onto the oocyte plasma membrane in the ovary, corresponds to the mammalian zona pellucida (ZP). The outer layer is produced in the infundibulum, the first section of the oviduct. Using high-throughput, high-end LC-MS(n) 137 proteins were identified, only 13 of which were known previously to be components of the VM. Depending on the washing protocol, two largely overlapping, but not identical, sets of identified proteins were produced from water-washed and salt-washed VMs. Most of the components of the VM were known previously from other egg compartments, such as, for instance, the egg white proteins lysozyme C, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and ovomucin. Specific components of the VM not identified previously in other egg compartments included eight ZP proteins, oviductin protease, and two ATPases. The vitelline outer membrane protein (VMO) VMO II was identified as beta-defensin-11. The list of VM proteins presented in this report is by far the most comprehensive dataset available at present and complements proteomic analyses of chicken egg compartments published previously.

  8. Contactless in ovo sex determination of chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli Roberta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We resume the research for contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken, which has the final aim to provide an alternative to day-old cockerels culling in the layer industry. In ovo Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy of blood of eggs incubated until day 3.5 enables correct sexing rates over 90% barely affecting the hatching rate. Full automatization of the processes to guarantee high sexing speed and fulfill industrial demands is required to allow transferring the technology inside the hatcheries in the next future.

  9. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is little doubt that chromosomal translocations can contribute to cancer, there is an active "chicken and the egg" discussion about the role translocations and other chromosomal abnormalities play—do they actually cause cancer or merely occur because of other changes within the cancer cell.  

  10. Lead in New York City Community Garden Chicken Eggs: Influential Factors and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A.; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48% of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (plead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50% of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (lead concentrations >120 mg/kg, and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers. PMID:24287691

  11. Effect of length of lay of Nigeria indigenous chickens on their egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and thirty eggs collected from the second to the seventh month of production, from a flock of the Nigeria indigenous (NI) chickens, were analysed to determine the effect of the length of lay on egg composition and shell quality. The weights of the whole egg and its components as well as shell thickness were ...

  12. Effect of flock Size on Dioxin Levels in eggs from Chickens kept Outside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    To decrease dioxin uptake by the general population the European Union (EU) has set limits to the dioxin content of many foodstuffs including eggs. Eggs from free foraging chickens are known to have a higher dioxin content compared with confined laying hens, and the question is whether these eggs

  13. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Van Den H.; Sosef, M.P.; Lourens, A.; Harn, Van J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design

  14. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were

  15. Determination of cholesterol levels in eggs of local and hybrid chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cholesterol was then quantified by spectrophotometry using a UV-double beam spectrophotometer. It was found that the hybrid egg had the least value of cholesterol hence is safer for consumption based on the cholesterol content. Keywords: cholesterol, egg, hybrid chicken, egg yoke. Journal of Pharmaceutical and ...

  16. Lead in New York City community garden chicken eggs: influential factors and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-08-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48 % of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p 50 % of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (120 mg/kg and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers.

  17. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  18. Survival and infectivity of chicken ascarid eggs in soil after exposure to an egg-degrading microfungus

    OpenAIRE

    Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Meyling, Nicolai V.; Rui, Wang; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Thapa, Sundar

    2017-01-01

    The microfungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been shown to kill high numbers of chicken ascarid (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) eggs in vitro but it is not known if surviving eggs may be infective. Unembryonated ascarid eggs (predominantly A. galli) were therefore isolated from faeces and added to sterilised (S) or non-sterilised (N) soil in Petri dishes that were either treated with P. chlamydosporia (F) or left untreated (C) during incubation at 22°C for 35 days. Egg recovery was estima...

  19. High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma Treatment Of Refrigerated Chicken Eggs For Control Of Salmonella Enteritidis On External Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The global market for eggs is projected to reach 1.154 trillion by the year 2015. The number one risk to consumers from chicken eggs is contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). FDA estimates each year 142,000 illnesses in the U.S. are caused by SE contamination in chicken eggs. The first objective of this research study was to evaluate a novel High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma (HVACP) technology in reducing externally inoculated SE on refrigerated chicken eggs. Raw, chicken eggs att...

  20. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolated from most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections has been difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y as a potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. The specificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extracted from egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum after injections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum. Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to the target antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must be done on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  1. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  2. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Emily J., E-mail: Emily.Grace@newcastle.edu.au; MacFarlane, Geoff R.

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300 mg lead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1 mg lead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs. - Highlights: • We measured metal contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops in NSW Australia. • The levels of As, Cd, Cu and Zn were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs • The HIL for Pb in soil and the health standard for Pb in produce was exceeded in 7 of the 26 sites. • The level of Pb in home-grown eggs was higher than in commercial eggs. • As soil Pb increased, concentrations of Pb in eggs increased. No relationship was detected for Pb in feed.

  3. EU Interlaboratory comparison study food VII : Detection of Salmonella in whole liquid chicken egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VLD; I&V

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, it was shown that all 36 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) in the European Union were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in whole liquid chicken egg. One NRL reported positive results for two blank whole liquid egg samples, a possible explanation may be

  4. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat an...

  5. Investigating eggs hatchability in indigenous chicken system with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... animal behaviour (indigenous chicken hens genetic potential) and environment (regions) all have some influence on the performance of indigenous chicken flocks. This study also provides empirical evidence that farmer participatory research is a development concept that has great potential in supporting innovation and ...

  6. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... electric table-type incubator to ensure minimal egg weight loss. Different types of poultry egg incubators have been recommended for small-scale hatchery operations. Irtwange (2003) designed and constructed a passive solar powdered poultry eggs incubator to provide free energy from the sun. Because ...

  7. Quality of eggs produced by laying chickens fed lowgossypol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated an increase in egg production with increasing levels of CSM in the diet up to 10 per cent level of inclusion. The addition of CSM to the diets had no significant effects on egg weight, Haugh unit values (HUV), yolk index, and yolk colour scores. However, egg yolk colour tended to improve with increasing ...

  8. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a causal relationship could not be demonstrated. We conclude that nematode egg excretion through chicken feces in both natural and experimental infections shows repeatable diurnal fluctuations, which may indicate adaptive strategies by nematodes and eventually favor parasite spread. Since analytic sensitivity of fecal egg counts suffers from low egg concentrations in feces, samples taken during the daytime have a higher diagnostic value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2015-02-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  12. Genetic evaluation of egg production curve in Thai native chickens by random regression and spline models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookprom, S; Boonkum, W; Kunhareang, S; Siripanya, S; Duangjinda, M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate appropriate random regression models with various covariance functions, for the genetic evaluation of test-day egg production. Data included 7,884 monthly egg production records from 657 Thai native chickens (Pradu Hang Dam) that were obtained during the first to sixth generation and were born during 2007 to 2014 at the Research and Development Network Center for Animal Breeding (Native Chickens), Khon Kaen University. Average annual and monthly egg productions were 117 ± 41 and 10.20 ± 6.40 eggs, respectively. Nine random regression models were analyzed using the Wilmink function (WM), Koops and Grossman function (KG), Legendre polynomials functions with second, third, and fourth orders (LG2, LG3, LG4), and spline functions with 4, 5, 6, and 8 knots (SP4, SP5, SP6, and SP8). All covariance functions were nested within the same additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects, and the variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML). In model comparisons, mean square error (MSE) and the coefficient of detemination (R2) calculated the goodness of fit; and the correlation between observed and predicted values [Formula: see text] was used to calculate the cross-validated predictive abilities. We found that the covariance functions of SP5, SP6, and SP8 proved appropriate for the genetic evaluation of the egg production curves for Thai native chickens. The estimated heritability of monthly egg production ranged from 0.07 to 0.39, and the highest heritability was found during the first to third months of egg production. In conclusion, the spline functions within monthly egg production can be applied to breeding programs for the improvement of both egg number and persistence of egg production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Estimation of the rate of egg contamination from Salmonella-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M E; Martelli, F; McLaren, I; Davies, R H

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent causes for human gastroenteritis and is by far the predominant Salmonella serovar among human cases, followed by Salmonella Typhimurium. Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens are thought to be the main source of human infection with S. Enteritidis throughout the world. Although previous studies have looked at the proportion of infected eggs from infected flocks, there is still uncertainty over the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated eggs. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated egg shells and egg contents. Data were collected from two studies, consisting of 15 and 20 flocks, respectively. Faecal and environmental sampling and testing of ovaries/caeca from laying hens were carried out in parallel with (i) for the first study, testing 300 individual eggs, contents and shells together and (ii) for the second study, testing 4000 eggs in pools of six, with shells and contents tested separately. Bayesian methods were used to estimate the within-flock prevalence of infection from the faecal and hen post-mortem data, and this was related to the proportion of positive eggs. Results indicated a linear relationship between the rate of contamination of egg contents and the prevalence of infected chickens, but a nonlinear (quadratic) relationship between infection prevalence and the rate of egg shell contamination, with egg shell contamination occurring at a much higher rate than that of egg contents. There was also a significant difference in the rate of egg contamination between serovars, with S. Enteritidis causing a higher rate of contamination of egg contents and a lower rate of contamination of egg shells compared to non-S. Enteritidis serovars. These results will be useful for risk assessments of human exposure to Salmonella-contaminated eggs. © 2013 Crown copyright. This article is published with the

  14. Appraisal of Village Chickens Potential in Egg Production | Bebora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameter of egg-production capacity was estimated by the pliability of bones, especially the pubic bone spread and the space between the pubic bone and ... This observation indicates that, with a little extra effort in management and genetic selection, these village birds have a potential of increasing their egg yields.

  15. The chicken embryo and its micro environment during egg storage and early incubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2008-01-01

    When egg storage periods are prolonged (>7 days), hatchability and chick quality declines. The reason for this decline has been investigated, but is still not completely understood. At oviposition the developmental stage of the chicken embryo varies and so do the total number of viable cells.

  16. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  17. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  18. Salmonella in chicken meat, eggs and humans; Adelaide, South Australia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily; Raupach, Jane; Lagala, Fil; Cameron, Scott

    2011-04-29

    Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these have led to subsequent decreases in notification rates in humans. A descriptive case-series of human Salmonella infections notified in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was conducted in 2008. Human Salmonella serotypes identified were then compared to serotypes identified from a retail chicken and egg survey conducted over the same time period in Adelaide. Ninety-four human cases of salmonellosis were included in the study. Thirty-one serotypes were identified and 61.7% of these were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the week prior to illness, 62.8% of participants reported eating chicken and 47.9% reported eating eggs. Salmonella was identified in 38.8% of retail chicken samples; S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium phage type 135a were most commonly identified. No egg contents were found to contain Salmonella, but the pathogen was isolated on 3.5% of egg external surface samples. Eleven serotypes were common to both chicken and human samples, two serotypes were common to eggs and humans, and one serotype (S. Infantis) was common to all three sources. Serotypes of Salmonella isolated from chicken and egg samples included serotypes that were also isolated from humans, in cases included in this study, and in outbreaks previously investigated within Australia. Poultry meat and eggs are potential sources of introducing a defined range of human pathogens into South Australian kitchens. Ongoing systematic surveillance of animals and their food products, at farm and retail level for Salmonella could provide more definitive evidence of links between food sources and human infections; and also

  19. Brewer's Grain from Cameroon Brewery in Breeder Chicken Rations : Effect on Productive and Reproductive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeni, MJ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of brewer's dried grain (BDG on the productive and reproductive traits in breeder chickens, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of ISA commercial breed were subjected to dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % levels of BDG. Feed and water were provided ad libitum over the 5-months experimental period. Reproductive and productive traits such as egg production, egg weight, albumen height, shell weight, semen quantity fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were measured. Results indicated that when BDG was fed at the 30 % level in the ration, the hen-day egg production (50.6 % was significantly (P of inclusion. There was a significant (P 0.05 was noticed between treatments for ratio of shell weight to egg weight, albumen height, semen quantity and fertility. The results suggest that although the 30 % level of BDG can be tolerated, the 20 %, level of BDG inclusion is more appropriate for breeder birds.

  20. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, E P

    2009-03-01

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder or a nonsupplemented control diet and orally challenged at d 7 posthatch with 5.0 x 10(3) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. Body weight gain between d 0 and 10 and fecal oocyst shedding between d 5 and 10 postinfection were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Chickens given 10 or 20% hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder showed significantly increased BW gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with control birds fed the nonsupplemented diet. In another trial, lower IgY concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.05%) were used to treat birds with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts of E. acervulina. Total oocyst shedding was significantly (P chickens fed the 0.02 and 0.05% hyperimmune IgY supplemented-diets compared with animals fed the nonsupplemented diet. Similarly, chickens fed 0.5% of hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder diet and challenged with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts exhibited reduced oocyst shedding compared with the control birds given 0.5% of IgY from nonimmunized hen eggs, although BW gain was not affected. We conclude that passive immunization of chickens with anti-coccidia IgY antibodies provide protective immunity against coccidiosis challenge infection.

  1. Influence of storage on the position of the germinal disc in the fertilized unincubated chicken egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, A; Meister, S; Bergmann, R; Koch, E

    2011-10-01

    The breeding of male layer chickens is currently considered to be highly uneconomical. In Germany alone, 40 to 50 million newly hatched male chickens were killed annually immediately after hatching. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method for sexing chickens early in the embryonic development, preferably before incubation. The genotypic sex of an egg can be determined using information found in the germinal disc, so knowledge of the exact position of the germinal disc is essential for further sexing, or for other actions such as the in ovo injection of agents. Previous studies have shown that the germinal disc is located somewhere on top of the yolk. However, no studies have yet been performed that investigate the influence of time spent in horizontal storage on the position of the germinal disc. Magnetic resonance imaging was chosen to determine this influence on the position of the germinal disc. It was found that eggs placed horizontally for long periods of time before scanning had significant changes in the positions of their germinal discs compared with those of eggs scanned minutes after positioning. The position of the germinal disc in eggs, minutes after horizontal positioning, deviated 14.7 ± 0.6 mm from the maximum vertical plane of the egg (zero position) in the z-direction; eggs scanned after 96 h of horizontal positioning showed a deviation of only 4.9 ± 1.6 mm. The x-axis also exhibited changes in the position of the germinal disc over time. Immediately after horizontal positioning, the eggs showed a deviation of 0.4 ± 0.4 mm in the x-direction, whereas the deviation after 96 h was 2.9 ± 0.5 mm. These results show that horizontal positioning of the egg hours before the measurement is necessary.

  2. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS EGGS WITH NORMAL AND VITREOUS EGGSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reis Vilela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal and external quality of eggs classified as eggs with normal eggshell and eggs with vitreous eggshell, produced by hens at three different ages. Forty-five eggs of each eggshell type, normal and vitreous, were sampled at the ages of 30, 50, and 70 weeks. The weight of the egg, in both types of eggshell, increased with the advancing age of the hen. Higher concentration of calcium was found in eggs with normal eggshells comparing to eggs with vitreous eggshells. The eggshell type did not affect phosphorus percentage. The mineral deposition of the eggshell was constant. The skin thickness increased irrespective of the shell along the reproductive life of the chicken and decreased when the bird became older. The percentage of albumen increased, while the percentage of albumen protein and pH decreased throughout the ages. Percentage of egg yolk, humidity, and pH decreased with increase of age of the laying hen, whereas crude protein and lipid increased. Eggs with vitreous eggshell showed eggshell with lower quality compared to those with normal eggshell, without, however, compromising the internal quality of albumen and yolk. Keywords: egg quality; eggshell types; physical analysis.

  3. Lesser known indigenous vegetables as potential natural egg colourant in laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Bolu Steven; Adedeji, Aderibigbe Simeon; Abiodun, Elegbeleye

    2014-01-01

    A six-week study involving two hundred and fifty (250) Harco Black layer birds at point of lay was conducted to investigate the effects of potential natural colorant on performance and Egg quality traits. The birds were assigned to five (5) dietary treatments, each containing supplements either of control, Baobab Leaf (BL), Waterleaf (WL), Red Pepper (RP), Canthaxanthin (CTX) at 40 g/kg feed and 50 mg/kg feed of natural and commercial colorants, respectively. Performance records shows that there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in feed intake across the supplements of Red pepper, Water leaf, Canthaxanthin and control diet, however, birds fed Baobab leaf treatment had a significantly lower (p  0.05) by the dietary treatments, although laying hens fed Baobab leaf supplement had lowest mean HDP of 48.80%, while birds fed Red pepper and Water leaf supplement had an average value of 52.79%. There was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of colorants on egg external traits, compared with the control; birds fed Canthaxanthin treatment had higher mean egg weight (51.79 g), egg length (4.55 g), egg breadth (3.29 g); Red pepper treatment had highest mean shell thickness (0.29 g), however these differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Yolk height, Albumen height, Yolk index, and Haugh unit were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) across treatments. Yolk width was lowest (p  0.05) different from the control (2.73 cm). Yolk colour score was significantly highest (p not good substitutes for canthaxanthin as a yolk colourant.

  4. Neospora caninum infection in birds: experimental infections in chicken and embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, P I; Mineo, T W P; Carrasco, A O T; Godoy, G S; Pinto, A A; Machado, R Z

    2007-12-01

    Neospora caninum causes economical impact in cattle-raising farms since it is implicated as the major cause of bovine abortions. Although infection by the parasite has been widely described in mammals, the role of birds in its life-cycle is still obscure. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the infection by N. caninum in different chicken models. Experimental infections were conducted in 7-day-old chicks, laying hens and embryonated eggs, where samples were analysed for parasite burden, IgG antibodies and lesions promoted. Chickens demonstrated an asymptomatic infection, although with seroconversion and systemic replication of the parasite. In laying hens, no signs of vertical transmission were observed. However, embryonated eggs inoculated by the allantoic cavity route demonstrated susceptibility to infection, with mortality rates around 50% independent of the inoculum dose. Additionally, dogs became infected after ingestion of different amounts of inoculated eggs, producing either oocysts or specific IgG antibodies. The results herein presented demonstrate that chickens may be intermediate hosts of N. caninum and that embryonated eggs could be a useful model to study the parasite's biology.

  5. A model for individual egg production in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Koops, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Our primary objective was to improve on an existing model for the individual weekly egg production curve by modeling the curve as a sum of logistic functions: one for the increasing phase of production and a sum for the decreasing phases. To illustrate the model, we used four data sets from two

  6. Potential Natural Egg Colourant in Laying Chickens | Bolu | Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six-week study involving two hundred and fifty (250) Harco Black layer birds at point of lay was carried out to investigate the effects of potential natural colorant on performance and egg quality traits. The birds were assigned to five (5) dietary treatments, each containing supplements either of control, Baobab Leaf (BL), ...

  7. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance.

  8. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S. Cabo; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M. L.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages ( n=150) were found to not be significantly different ( pHACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. Dvalue varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the Dvalue of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  9. Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control group with no FPLE; 30ml FPLE/litre of drinking water; 60ml FPLE; 90ml FPLE and 120ml/litre FPLE respectively at 3 day intervals. Feed was given ad libitum. Eggs were collected at 2 week interval to determine external and internal egg qualities.

  10. Unravelling proteome changes of chicken egg whites under carbon dioxide modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jia, Fei; Luo, Changyao; Yu, Qianqian; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2018-01-15

    Unfertilized chicken eggs within 24h of laying were chosen and stored at 25°C and 45% humidity for 0, 20, and 40days. The experimental group (EG) was the carbon dioxide-modified atmosphere packaging (CDMAP) group, whereas the control group (CG) contained eggs without special handling. Egg freshness indexes were measured. The proteome of the egg whites was determined by LC-MS/MS using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 87 proteins were detected. The results indicated that CDMAP can control the change in protein abundance. Using a correlation analysis between the protein abundance and freshness indexes of the EG, Beta-hexosaminidase, Trypsin inhibitor ClTI-1 and Apolipoprotein D were determined to be potential predictors of egg freshness. In comparing the proteomes of the EG and CG, it was concluded that CDMAP could affect the proteins related to egg vitelline membranes, eggshell matrix and metabolic intensity to maintain egg freshness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In-depth analysis of the chicken egg white proteome using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos

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    Mann Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hen's egg white has been the subject of intensive chemical, biochemical and food technological research for many decades, because of its importance in human nutrition, its importance as a source of easily accessible model proteins, and its potential use in biotechnological processes. Recently the arsenal of tools used to study the protein components of egg white has been complemented by mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies. Application of these fast and sensitive methods has already enabled the identification of a large number of new egg white proteins. Recent technological advances may be expected to further expand the egg white protein inventory. Results Using a dual pressure linear ion trap Orbitrap instrument, the LTQ Orbitrap Velos, in conjunction with data analysis in the MaxQuant software package, we identified 158 proteins in chicken egg white with two or more sequence unique peptides. This group of proteins identified with very high confidence included 79 proteins identified in egg white for the first time. In addition, 44 proteins were identified tentatively. Conclusions Our results, apart from identifying many new egg white components, indicate that current mass spectrometry technology is sufficiently advanced to permit direct identification of minor components of proteomes dominated by a few major proteins without resorting to indirect techniques, such as chromatographic depletion or peptide library binding, which change the composition of the proteome.

  12. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

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    Hanyu Wu

    Full Text Available Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies.

  13. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S.C. E-mail: sandracv@itn.mces.pt; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  14. Investigation of novel superparamagnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Mohd; Asghar, Khushnuma; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Das, D.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, multifunctional Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen (NZF@Alb) and doxorubicin-loaded Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen (NZF@Alb-Dox) core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by a green and simple method using inexpensive chicken egg albumen and have been characterized for different physiochemical properties. The structural, morphological, thermal, and magnetic properties of the prepared nanoparticles have been investigated by an x-ray diffractometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. Superparamagnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (NZF NPs) with the mean size ˜20 nm were coated with albumen matrix by an ultrasonication process. Inverse fast Fourier transform-assisted HRTEM micrographs and FTIR analysis revealed the coating of amorphous albumen on crystalline NZF NPs. NZF@Alb and NZF@Alb-Dox NPs have the mean size (D50) of ˜100 nm, good stability, and magnetic controllability. Magnetic measurements (field (H)-dependent magnetization (M)) show all samples to be super-paramagnetic in nature. Biocompatibilities of the NZF and NZF@Alb NPs were confirmed by in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against RAW 264.7 cells. NZF@Alb NPs have been found to be more biocompatible than bare NZF. In Vitro Dox release behavior from NZF@Alb-Dox NPs has been studied at pH 7.4 and 5, and a sustained and pH-dependent drug release profile were observed. In vitro cytotoxicity or anticancer activity of the blank NZF@Alb NPs, free Dox, and NZF@Alb-Dox NPs against HeLa cells (cancer cell line) were also examined by MTT assay. The obtained results suggest that this scalable egg-albumen-based magnetic nanoformulation is suitable for targeted drug delivery applications. Thus, the present study could be extremely useful for the advancement of albumin-based nanocarrier design and

  15. Emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Potsdam as a major serovar in waterfowl hatcheries and chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yao-Chi; Yu, Chang-you; Lin, Jiang-Liang; Lai, Jyh-mirn; Chen, Shu-Wun; Tu, Pei-Chun; Chu, Chishih

    2011-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a common food-borne illness in humans caused by Salmonella-contaminated poultry and their products. In hatcheries, 110 Salmonella isolates were identified, mostly from first enrichment, and few from delayed enrichment. The Salmonella prevalence in goose and duck hatcheries was higher when measured by four multiplex PCR methods than by traditional culture (73.8% vs. 44.35%, P Potsdam of serogroup C1 and other isolates were Salmonella Montevideo of C1 and Salmonella Albany of C2. Plasmid and pulsed field gel electrophoresis genetic analysis revealed that isolates from duck hatcheries were more diverse than those from goose hatcheries. In Salmonella Potsdam, host species-specific genotypes were observed in geese for genotypes 3, 4, and 5 and in ducks for genotypes 7, 8, and 9, suggesting that Salmonella Potsdam may evolve into goose- and duck-specific isolates. An examination of 1121 eggs found that only Salmonella Potsdam was identified in 1.8% (7/591) of eggs from chickens fed on the ground, not housed in cages, and in egg content (6/7) as well as eggshell membrane (1/7). In conclusion, Salmonella Potsdam may be a major Salmonella infection in waterfowl and chicken eggs.

  16. The Effect of Disinfection of Hatching Eggs on Hatchability of Oravka Chickens

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    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this the work was evaluated effect of disinfection of Oravka hatching eggs by formalin gas (20 g KMnO4+ 30 g formaldehyde of 40 % concentration to 1 m3 of a space and ozone (0.450 ppm in time 12 hours on fertility,hatchability, spontaneity of chickens hatching and embryonal mortality during incubation. The hatching was realisedin Bios Midi incubator at a standard technology process of the hatching. We recorded a positive effect of disinfectionof ozone on hatchability from fertilised eggs (91.79% compared with disinfection of formalin (91.10% A totallyembryonal mortality of chickens had not record any difference between two methods of disinfection but we recordedpositive effect of ozone on embryonic mortality of chicks to 7 day of incubation and from 15 to 21 day of incubation.We searched more spontaneous chicks hatching from hatching eggs disinfected by ozone in 510 hours of incubation.It is possible to recommend disinfection of hatching eggs by ozone, as an alternative way of disinfection of hatchingeggs usable in hatching practice, on the base of obtained experimental results. This way of disinfection hatching eggsis more ecological not only from the point of environment, but also of the healthy of employees of the hatchery.

  17. Dietary selenium increases vitamin E contents of egg yolk and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrivan, M; Marounek, M; Dlouhá, G; Sevcíková, S

    2008-07-01

    1. The influence of different forms of dietary selenium (Se) on vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and Se contents of egg yolk and chicken meat was investigated. 2. Eggs were collected from laying hens subjected to 4 different dietary treatments after 24 weeks of age. Treatments compared the effects of inorganic Se supplementation (selenite) to those of organic (Se-enriched yeast, Se-enriched alga Chlorella) supplements. In a second experiment the effect of the above organic dietary Se supplementation on the alpha-tocopherol contents of meat from broiler chickens was evaluated. 3. Dietary Se supplementation increased the alpha-tocopherol content of egg yolks from 297 mg/kg dry matter in treatment without supplementation to 311 mg/kg when selenium was supplemented as selenite, and to 370-375 mg/kg when organic supplements were used. The Se and alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh meat in broilers were significantly increased by organic dietary Se supplementation. 4. The inclusion of organic dietary Se sources in the diets of laying hens and broilers would enhance the nutritional value (vitamin E and Se contents) of products (eggs and meat) for human consumption.

  18. Genetic Variation through Polymorphism of Blood and Egg White Protein in Three Kinds of Kedu Chickens at Laying Period

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    LD Mahfudz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Genetic variation of five blood protein loci and three egg white protein loci in three kinds of Kedu chicken, namely the black skin and black feather (BB, black skin and white feather (BW and white skin and white feather (WW were investigated using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. The result showed that five blood loci (pre-albumin, albumin, post-transferin, transferin and hemoglobin and three egg white loci (lysozim, ovalbumin and conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three kinds of Kedu chicken. BW has average higher heterozygosity than BB and WW. The result was shown in blood and egg white protein polymorphism. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein in the genetic variation. The average of heterozygosity of Kedu chicken of high production and low production was not different. Genetic distance among three populations of Kedu chicken showed that Kedu chicken BW was closer to WW than to BB. Key Words: Kedu chicken, protein polymorphism, blood, egg white, genetic variation

  19. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

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    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  1. Neutralization of the pharmacological effects of Cobra and Krait venoms by chicken egg yolk antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

    2008-08-01

    Five-month-old white leghorn chickens were immunized with 50 microg of Common Cobra (Naja naja) and 30 microg of Krait venoms (Bungarus caeruleus) to generate antivenom antibodies against the venom antigen. Chickens received booster doses of increasing concentrations of venom at 14 days time intervals to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. The antivenom from immunized chicken egg yolk was extracted by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ammonium sulphate precipitation method which was further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. A high molecular weight protein of 180 kDa was detected by electrophoretic analysis which shows the purity of antivenom generated in chicken. Antibodies generated were specific and sensitive to the venom antigen. Various pharmacological activities of Cobra and Krait venoms were carried out by both in-vivo and in-vitro methods. The neutralization of lethality, hemorrhagic, edema, PLA(2) and procoagulant activity was evaluated in assays involving pre-incubation of venom and antivenom prior to testing. The antivenom was effective in neutralizing the toxic and enzymatic activities of venom. The LD(50) of venom for 18 g of mice was found to be 10 microg for Cobra and 3 microg for Krait venoms. The median effective dose (ED(50)) of anti-Cobra venom was 4.48 mg/5LD(50) and 1.0 ml neutralized 0.127 mg of Cobra venom and the median effective dose (ED(50)) of anti-Krait venom was 3.18 mg/5LD(50) and 1.0 ml neutralized 0.051 mg of Krait venom. The results indicate that antivenom generated in chicken could be used for therapeutic purposes in case of snakebite envenomation.

  2. Effect of Beeswax, Gelatin and Aloe vera Gel Coatings on Physical Properties and Shelf Life of Chicken Eggs Stored at 30°C

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Iroshan Mudannayaka; Dissanayakage Surakshi Wimangika Rajapaksha; Kodithuwakku Arachchilage Heshan Taraka Kodithuwakku

    2016-01-01

    Present study was to determine the effect of beeswax, gelatin and Aloe vera gel coatings on internal quality and shelf life of chicken eggs compared to uncoated and mineral oil coated eggs. Four hundred and seventy five brown shell eggs were obtained from 32 weeks old Lohmann classic brown layers and all the eggs were randomly divided into five groups as ninety five eggs per group. Mineral oil, beeswax, Aloe vera gel and gelatin coatings were applied on eggs as four treatments and...

  3. Glycosylated chicken ZP2 accumulates in the egg coat of immature oocytes and remains localized to the germinal disc region of mature eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Shunsuke; Kohno, Yoshinori; Iwata, Yuki; Arai, Mayumi; Okumura, Hiroki; Oshima, Kenzi; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an egg coat, which is a specific extracellular egg matrix consisting of several glycoproteins with a conserved zona pellucida (ZP) domain. Two mammalian egg coat subunits, ZP2 and ZP3, have been suggested to act as sperm receptors. In bird eggs, however, ZP2 has never been identified in the egg coat of mature oocytes and ovulated eggs. Here we report that chicken ZP2 is expressed in immature small follicles and remains as an egg-coat component locally in the germinal disc region of mature eggs. RT-PCR analysis indicated marked expression of the ZP2 and ZP4 genes in the granulosa cells of immature white follicles, whereas the ZP3 and ZPD genes showed marked expression in the cells of maturing yellow follicles. ZP2 was identified in the egg coat isolated from immature follicles as a heavily N-glycosylated glycoprotein of ∼200 kDa, which was enzymatically converted to a 70-kDa deglycosylated form. Immunoblotting and immunohistological analyses showed that ZP2 was localized around the germinal disc region of mature follicles. ZP2 was accumulated in the egg coat of immature white follicles at the earlier stages of oocyte development and became a minor component in the egg coat of maturing yellow follicles, except for the germinal disc region. Localization of ZP2 in the germinal disc region of mature eggs, where sperm bind to the egg coat at high density, suggests some role for ZP2 in the preferential binding and penetration of sperm in the germinal disc region of bird eggs. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of dna extraction methods of the Salmonella sp. bacterium in artificially infected chickens eggs

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    Ana Cristina dos Reis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira A.C.dosR. & dos Santos B.M. [Evaluation of dna extraction methods of the Salmonella sp. bacterium in artificially infected chickens eggs.] Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA de Salmonella sp. em ovos de galinhas contaminados artificialmente. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:115-119, 2015. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Campus Universitário, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: bmsantos@ufv.br The present study evaluated the efficiency of different protocols for the genomic DNA extraction of Salmonella bacteria in chicken eggs free of specific pathogens – SPF. Seventy-five eggs were used and divided into five groups with fifteen eggs each. Three of the five groups of eggs were inoculated with enteric Salmonella cultures. One of the five groups was inoculated with Escherichia coli bacterium culture. And another group of eggs was the negative control that received saline solution 0.85% infertile. The eggs were incubated on a temperature that varied from 20 to 25°C during 24, 48 and 72 hours. Five yolks of each group were collected every 24 hours. These yolks were homogenized and centrifuged during 10 minutes. The supernatant was rejected. After the discard, PBS ph 7.2 was added and centrifuged again. The sediment obtained of each group was used for the extraction of bacterial genomic DNA. Silica particles and a commercial kit were utilized as the extraction methods. The extracted DNA was kept on a temperature of 20°C until the evaluation through PCR. The primers utilized were related with the invA gene and they were the following: 5’ GTA AAA TTA TCG CCA CGT TCG GGC AA 3’ and 5’ TCA TCG CAC CGT CAA AGG AAC C 3’. The amplification products were visualized in transilluminator with ultraviolet light. The obtained results through the bacterial DNA extractions demonstrated that the extraction method utilizing silica particles was

  5. A Proposed Solution for the Chicken-Egg Dilemma in Pricing Currency Options

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    Ariful Hoque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The implied volatility (IV estimation process suffers from an obvious chicken-egg dilemma: obtaining an unbiased IV requires the options to be priced correctly and calculating an accurate option price (OP requires an unbiased IV. We address this critical issue in two steps. First, the Granger causality test is employed, whichconfirms the chicken-and-egg problem in the IV computing process. Secondly, the concept of “moneyness volatility (MV” is introduced as an alternative to IV. MV is modelled based on an option’s moneyness (OM during the life of the option’s contract. The F-test, Granger-Newbold test and Diebold-Mariano test results consistently show that MV outperforms IV in estimating the exchange rate volatility for pricing options. Further, these series of tests across six major currency options substantiate the validity as well as the reliability of the results. We posit that MV offers a unique solution for pricing currency options accurately.

  6. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  7. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

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    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  8. Simultaneous purification of biotin-binding proteins-I and -II from chicken egg yolk and their characterization.

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, N; Adiga, P R

    1995-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk biotin-binding protein-I (BBP-I) has been purified to homogeneity along with the tetrameric BBP-II by a common protocol. The purification includes delipidation of egg yolk by butanol extraction, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, treatment with guanidinium chloride and biotin-aminohexyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The identity of purified BBP-I was ascertained by its physicochemical properties as well as by its immunological cross-reactivity and precursor-product relationsh...

  9. The genetic effects of the dopamine D1 receptor gene on chicken egg production and broodiness traits

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    Zeng Hua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elevation of egg production and the inhibition of incubation behavior are the aims of modern poultry production. Prolactin (PRL gene is confirmed to be critical for the onset and maintenance of these reproductive behaviors in birds. Through PRL, dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1 was also involved in the regulation of chicken reproductive behavior. However, the genetic effects of this gene on chicken egg production and broodiness have not been studied extensively. The objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic effects of the DRD1 gene on chicken egg production and broodiness traits. Results In this study, the chicken DRD1 gene was screened for the polymorphisms by cloning and sequencing and 29 variations were identified in 3,342 bp length of this gene. Seven single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs among these variations, including a non-synonymous mutation (A+505G, Ser169Gly, were located in the coding region and were chosen to analyze their association with chicken egg production and broodiness traits in 644 Ningdu Sanhuang individuals. Two SNPs, G+123A and C+1107T, were significantly associated with chicken broody frequency (P DRD1 mRNA was observed and the expression difference was compared between broodiness and non-broodiness chickens. The DRD1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat of non-broodiness chicken, and then in heart, kidney, oviduct, glandular stomach, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat, the level of non-broodiness was 26 to 28 times higher than that of broodiness. In pituitary, it was 5-fold higher. In heart, oviduct, and kidney, a 2-3 times decrease from non-broodiness to broodiness was displayed. In glandular stomach and hypothalamus, the level seen in non-broodiness and broodiness was almost the same. Conclusion The polymorphisms of the DRD1 gene and their haplotypes were associated with chicken broody frequency and some egg production

  10. Teratogenicity of Australian Simbu serogroup and some other Bunyaviridae viruses: the embryonated chicken egg as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D A; Parsonson, I M; Della-Porta, A J; Jarrett, R G

    1984-01-01

    The use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for assessing the teratogenic potential of animal viruses was investigated with 12 members of the Bunyaviridae family. Infection of 4-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the yolk sac with 10 of the viruses resulted in deaths or congenital deformities that were similar to those observed in Akabane virus infections of fetal ruminants and included arthrogryposis, scoliosis, mandible defects, and retarded development. Statistical analysis showed that the viruses fell into three main groupings, namely, those that caused both death and deformities (Akabane, Aino, Tinaroo, and Belmont viruses), those that mainly caused death (Peaton, Thimiri, and Facey's Paddock viruses), and those that required very high doses to cause either death or deformities (Douglas and CSIR0296 viruses). In addition, two viruses (Kowanyama and Mapputta viruses) caused neither death nor deformities. A difference in the pathogenic potential between two Akabane isolates (B8935 and CSIR016) in the embryonated chicken egg model was found to correlate with differences previously observed in experimentally infected sheep; Akabane CSIR016 was the more pathogenic. It is concluded that the embryonated chicken egg model should also be of value in assessing the teratogenic potential of other Bunyaviridae and attenuated vaccine viruses, although it does not assess the ability of the virus to cross the placenta.

  11. Is aboriginal food less allergenic? Comparing IgE-reactivity of eggs from modern and ancient chicken breeds in a cohort of allergic children.

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    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. METHODOLOGY: Egg allergic children (n = 25 were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1-5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3-5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family.

  12. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  13. Abundance and generalisation in mutualistic networks: solving the chicken-and-egg dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Hugo; Vázquez, Diego P; Lan, Boon Leong

    2016-01-01

    A frequent observation in plant-animal mutualistic networks is that abundant species tend to be more generalised, interacting with a broader range of interaction partners than rare species. Uncovering the causal relationship between abundance and generalisation has been hindered by a chicken-and-egg dilemma: is generalisation a by-product of being abundant, or does high abundance result from generalisation? Here, we analyse a database of plant-pollinator and plant-seed disperser networks, and provide strong evidence that the causal link between abundance and generalisation is uni-directional. Specifically, species appear to be generalists because they are more abundant, but the converse, that is that species become more abundant because they are generalists, is not supported by our analysis. Furthermore, null model analyses suggest that abundant species interact with many other species simply because they are more likely to encounter potential interaction partners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Detection of ricin by using gold nanoclusters functionalized with chicken egg white proteins as sensing probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaprakash, Karuppuchamy; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2017-06-15

    Ricin produced from the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a well-known toxin. The toxin comprises A and B chains. Ricin A chain can cause toxicity by inhibiting protein synthesis, and ricin B can bind to the galactose ligand on the cell membrane of host cells. Inhalation or ingestion of ricin may even lead to death. Therefore, rapid and convenient sensing methods for detecting ricin in suspicious samples must be developed. In this study, we generated protein encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@ew) with bright photoluminescence by using chicken egg white proteins as starting materials to react with aqueous tetrachloroaurate. The generated nanoclusters, which were mainly composed of chicken ovalbumin-encapsulated AuNCs, can recognize ricin B because of the presence of Galβ(1→4)GlcNAc ligands on chicken ovalbumin. The generated conjugates of AuNCs@ew and ricin B were heavy and readily settled down under centrifugation (13,000rpm, 60min). Thus, bright spots resulting from the conjugates at the bottom of the sample vials were easily visualized by the naked eye under ultraviolet light illumination. The limit of detection (LOD) was ~4.6µM. The LOD was reduced to ~400nM when fluorescence spectroscopy was used as the detection tool, while the LOD can be further improved to ~7.8nM when using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry as the detection method. We also demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed approach to selectively detect ricin B chain in complex samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production and evaluation of chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni colonization-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adwani, Salma R; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. Chickens are considered a reservoir host of C. jejuni, and epidemiological studies have shown that contaminated chicken meat is a primary source of human infection. The objective of this study was to produce chicken egg-yolk-derived antibody (IgY) against the five C. jejuni colonization-associated proteins or CAPs (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, and CmeC). Recombinant C. jejuni CAPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and were purified by affinity chromatography. Specific-pathogen-free laying hens were hyperimmunized with each recombinant CAP to induce production of α-CAP-specific IgY. Egg yolks were collected from immunized and nonimmunized hens and were lyophilized to obtain egg-yolk powder (EYP) with or without α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY. IgY was purified from EYP, and the antibody response in serum and egg yolk was tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY levels were significantly (pjejuni CAP-specific IgY reacted with the C. jejuni cells and recombinant CAPs as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot assays, respectively. We also show that α-CadF, α-MOMP, and α-CmeC IgY significantly reduced adherence of C. jejuni to the chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cells, suggesting that these α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY may be useful as a passive immunotherapeutic to reduce C. jejuni colonization in chickens.

  17. Comparing Growth and Carcass Traits of Slow Growing Chicken Parents with Pure Egg Type Parents and Commercial Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Musa; Yamak, Umut Sami; BOZ, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    In this study, growth and carcass traits of slow growing parents werecompared with commercial broilers and pure parents. Two egg type parents and a commercial meat parent were used incrossings. Male-female mixed 144 chickens pergenotype were reared on litter in a house divided into 1.5 x 1.5 m pens. Live weight, carcass weight, carcass part ratios,abdominal fat and edible inner organ weights were determined in four dam andthree sire line chickens. Colour as measured by L*, a*,b* values and pH...

  18. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, J L; Elbers, A R W; van der Goot, J A; Bontje, D; Koch, G; de Wit, J J; Stegeman, J A

    2012-12-01

    Even though low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv) affect the poultry industry of several countries in the world, information about their transmission characteristics in poultry is sparse. Outbreak reports of LPAIv in layer chickens have described drops in egg production that appear to be correlated with the virus transmission dynamics. The objective of this study was to use egg production data from LPAIv infected layer flocks to quantify the within-flock transmission parameters of the virus. Egg production data from two commercial layer chicken flocks which were infected with an H7N3 LPAIv were used for this study. In addition, an isolate of the H7N3 LPAIv causing these outbreaks was used in a transmission experiment. The field and experimental estimates showed that this is a virus with high transmission characteristics. Furthermore, with the field method, the day of introduction of the virus into the flock was estimated. The method here presented uses compartmental models that assume homogeneous mixing. This method is, therefore, best suited to study transmission in commercial flocks with a litter (floor-reared) housing system. It would also perform better, when used to study transmission retrospectively, after the outbreak has finished and there is egg production data from recovered chickens. This method cannot be used when a flock was affected with a LPAIv with low transmission characteristics (R(0)transmission parameters of LPAIv infections in layer chicken flocks could be quantified using the egg production data from affected flocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  20. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Hulst, M.M.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Smits, M.A.; Vries, de B.; Weites, I.; Groothuis, T.G.; Woelders, H.

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  1. Polymorphism of Microsatellite markers and ‎Their Association with Egg Production Traits in ‎Iraqi Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Luay AL-jaryan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on local Iraqi chickens and two strains of commercial laying hens (ISA Brawn and Ross Hen as control. To estimate genetic Diversity using microsatellites and their association with egg production traits, three microsatellites markers, located on 1, 5 and E5C10 chromosomes were used in pesent study. A total of 100 varieties of three chicken populations were genotyped for three microsatellite markers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to evaluate the genetic Diversity (GD among populations using Nei Index similarity mean.  The present study show that local chicken populations were more diverse than control populations. Genetic Diversity among populations was obtained using Nei Index similarity mean. The present results indicate that the Highest GD among local chickens (0.82 and the lowest GD (0.4 and when comper local chickens with control strains found that the highest GD was (0.76 when comper with ISA Brawn, and (0.702 when comper the study population with Ross Hen strain and the lowest GD was (0.673 when comper with ISA Brawn strain, (0.661 when comper the study population with Ross Hen  strain, that’s mean the Three microsatellite genetic markers applied in the present study success to reveal high degree of similarity among the three population used here. The genetic distance revealed that local chickens are mostly related to ISA Brawn strain more than Ross Hen strain

  2. Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly other bacteria on housefly eggs, help curtail the growth of fungal resource competitors and (2) that such fungi indeed adversely affect the development of housefly larvae. Bacteria washed from housefly eggs significantly reduced the growth of fungi in chicken manure. Nineteen bacterial strains and ten fungal strains were isolated from housefly eggs or chicken manure, respectively. Co-culturing each of all the possible bacterium-fungus pairs revealed that the bacteria as a group, but no single bacterium, significantly suppressed the growth of all fungal strains tested. The bacteria's adverse effect on fungi is due to resource nutrient depletion and/or the release of antifungal chemicals. Well-established fungi in resources significantly reduced the number of larval offspring that completed development to adult flies.

  3. The effect of different cage tiers and age on egg performance, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admOUjg

    2014-10-04

    Oct 4, 2014 ... with an electronic balance at the same time every day to calculate hen-day egg production (HDEP) and henhouse ... short diameters of albumen, and diameter of yolk with a digital calliper (± 0.001 mm). ..... Albumen quality of eggs from five commercial strains of white leghorn hens during one year of lay.

  4. Production, purification and characterization of antibodies to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D raised in chicken egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, R M; Kint, J A; Devos, M P; Van Brussel, K A; De Leenheer, A P

    1987-11-30

    For this sensitive RIA for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, we used antibodies to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-3-hemisuccinate conjugated to bovine serum albumin, raised in eggs by immunization of chickens. We describe an efficient method for purification of IgG from egg yolk. We characterized these antibodies with immunoelectrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. These antibodies show a high affinity for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 but cross react with other vitamin D metabolites as well. Extraction and liquid chromatography are necessary to isolate the 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from human serum or plasma before determination by RIA. The sensitivity of the assay is estimated at 5 pg/tube.

  5. Simultaneous purification of biotin-binding proteins-I and -II from chicken egg yolk and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, N; Adiga, P R

    1995-06-01

    Chicken egg yolk biotin-binding protein-I (BBP-I) has been purified to homogeneity along with the tetrameric BBP-II by a common protocol. The purification includes delipidation of egg yolk by butanol extraction, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, treatment with guanidinium chloride and biotin-aminohexyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The identity of purified BBP-I was ascertained by its physicochemical properties as well as by its immunological cross-reactivity and precursor-product relationship with BBP-II.

  6. Lead poisoning mortality in wild passeriformes and its detection in free-range chicken eggs in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NRS Martins

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of passerines native of Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, in August 2006 and the examination of sentinel free-range chicken eggs in August 2007 in an area surrounding a car battery lead smelter plant is described. The high levels of lead, as detected in the passerines (4.80-12.74 mg/kg at the onset of mortality and at the follow-up sampling of the free-range chicken eggs (25.02-35.21 mg/kg in shells, 0.41-1.36 mg/kg in yolks and 0.40-0.75 mg/kg in the albumins, used as environmental sentinels, indicated the continuing lead pollution.

  7. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  8. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  9. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  10. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  11. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella enteritidis in chicken blood or egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, B; Baumgartner, A; Bommeli, W

    1993-06-01

    Tracing of flock infection remains one of the most serious unsolved problems of controlling salmonellosis in poultry. In order to overcome this problem, a serological test kit for the detection of antibody to Salmonella enteritidis (1, 9, 12:[f], g, m, [p]:[1, 7]) in chicken flocks was developed. In this study, samples of antisera and the yolk of eggs from different chicken flocks were tested with the ELISA kit, and the resulting flock profiles were compared. The test system clearly allowed a differentiation between flocks which were positive and flocks which were negative for S. enteritidis. Sera from stocks infected with S. typhimurium (1, 4, (5), 12:i:1, 2) or S. heidelberg (1, 4, (5), 12:r, 1, 2) were also analysed in order to determine the relative cross-reactivity in the test. No false-positive results could be shown in the case of S. heidelberg; cross-reactions with antibodies against S. typhimurium were found in 2.5% to 10% of the samples from a particular flock. The test kit could also be used for the analysis of egg yolk samples without time-consuming purification procedures. Specific antibodies were detected in high dilutions of positive egg yolks, thus enabling a rapid screening for S. enteritidis-positive chicken flocks.

  13. Holograms with egg albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salinas, P.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    Two components of the egg as the albumen and their proteins are used for holographic recorded applying lithography technique. This matrix was composed by albumen-glucose and by protein-glucose. The results obtained for the parameter diffraction efficiency with our matrix albumen-glucose was it from 44.1% and for the matrix protein-glucose were two maximums of diffraction efficiency, reached about the mixture ovoalbumin-glucose (6.2*10 -1%) and avidin-glucose (4.7*10 -1%).

  14. M1 and M2 Macrophages: The Chicken and the Egg of Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is to describe a critical advance in understanding how immune responses work. Macrophages are required for all animal life: ‘Inhibit’ type macrophages in all animals (called M1) can rapidly kill pathogens, and are thus the primary host defense, and ‘Heal’ type macrophages (M2) routinely repair and maintain tissue integrity. Macrophages perform these activities in all animals without T cells, and also in T cell-deficient vertebrates. Although adaptive immunity can amplify macrophage polarization, the long-held notion that macrophages need to be ‘activated’ or ‘alternatively activated’ by T cells is incorrect; indeed, immunology has had it backward. M1/M2-type macrophages necessarily direct T cells toward Th1- or Th2-like activities, respectively. That such macrophage-innate activities are the central directing element in immune responses is a dramatic change in understanding how immune systems operate. Most important, this revelation is opening up whole new approaches to immunotherapy. For example, many modern diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis, may not display ‘foreign’ antigens. However, there are clear imbalances in M1/M2-type responses. Correcting such innate imbalances can result in better health. Macrophages are the chicken and the egg of immunity. PMID:25138714

  15. The chicken or the egg? Investigating the transformational impact of learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet F. Buchan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the transformational impact of introducing significant new learning technology in an Australian university over the time period 2007–2009. The exploration of this transformation is grounded in a social–ecological systems approach to the management of technology enhanced learning environments in the face of constant change. The transformational impact is described using the Adaptive Cycle Framework. The single case study had a whole-of-institution systems focus. Data collection targeted a variety of stakeholders involved in the use of, support for users of, implementation and maintenance of learning technology. A variety of data collection methods were used including interviews, document collection and a reflective journal. The research shows that learning technology has significant transformational potential at both individual and at institutional levels. However, this study has unearthed a ‘chicken or the egg' conundrum. Although learning technology is an important part of the future of educational institutions, the adaptability of the organisation and capacity to predict, plan for and support ongoing changes in learning technology is an important part of realising the transformational potential and effectiveness of learning technology.

  16. Bacteriolytic Activity Of Human Interleukin-2, Chicken Egg Lysozyme In The Presence Of Potential Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, P. A.; Matolygina, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, E. D.; Atroshenko, D. L.; Savin, S. S.; Belogurova, N. G.; Smirnov, S. A.; Tishkov, V. I.; Levashov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and chicken egg lysozyme in the presence of various substances has been studied. Glycine and lysine do not affect the activity of interleukin-2 but increase that of lysozyme, showing a bell-shape concentration dependence peaking at 1.5 mM glycine and 18 mM lysine. Arginine and glutamate activate both interleukin-2 and lysozyme with a concentration dependence of the saturation type. Aromatic amino acids have almost no effect on the activity of both interleukin-2 and lysozyme. Aromatic amines, tryptamine, and tyramine activate interleukin-2 but inhibit lysozyme. Peptide antibiotics affect interleukin and lysozyme similarly and exhibit maximum activity in the micromolar range of antibiotics. Taurine has no effect on the activity of interleukin-2 and lysozyme. Mildronate showed no influence on lysozyme, but it activated interleukin-2 with the activity maximum at 3 mM. EDTA activates both interleukin-2 and lysozyme at concentrations above 0.15 mM. PMID:28740730

  17. Genome-wide characterization of genetic variants and putative regions under selection in meat and egg-type chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiero, Clarissa; Moreira, Gabriel Costa Monteiro; Gheyas, Almas Ara; Godoy, Thaís Fernanda; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mariani, Pilar Drummond Sampaio Corrêa; Paduan, Marcela; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2018-01-25

    Meat and egg-type chickens have been selected for several generations for different traits. Artificial and natural selection for different phenotypes can change frequency of genetic variants, leaving particular genomic footprints throghtout the genome. Thus, the aims of this study were to sequence 28 chickens from two Brazilian lines (meat and white egg-type) and use this information to characterize genome-wide genetic variations, identify putative regions under selection using Fst method, and find putative pathways under selection. A total of 13.93 million SNPs and 1.36 million INDELs were identified, with more variants detected from the broiler (meat-type) line. Although most were located in non-coding regions, we identified 7255 intolerant non-synonymous SNPs, 512 stopgain/loss SNPs, 1381 frameshift and 1094 non-frameshift INDELs that may alter protein functions. Genes harboring intolerant non-synonymous SNPs affected metabolic pathways related mainly to reproduction and endocrine systems in the white-egg layer line, and lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases in the broiler line. Fst analysis in sliding windows, using SNPs and INDELs separately, identified over 300 putative regions of selection overlapping with more than 250 genes. For the first time in chicken, INDEL variants were considered for selection signature analysis, showing high level of correlation in results between SNP and INDEL data. The putative regions of selection signatures revealed interesting candidate genes and pathways related to important phenotypic traits in chicken, such as lipid metabolism, growth, reproduction, and cardiac development. In this study, Fst method was applied to identify high confidence putative regions under selection, providing novel insights into selection footprints that can help elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying different phenotypic traits relevant to meat and egg-type chicken lines. In addition, we generated a large catalog of line-specific and common

  18. Pyrethroids in chicken eggs from commercial farms and home production in Rio de Janeiro: Estimated daily intake and diastereomeric selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Cláudio E T; Lestayo, Julliana; Guida, Yago S; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio E; Torres, João Paulo M; Meire, Rodrigo O; Malm, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    In this study, pyrethroids were determined in chicken eggs from commercial farm (n = 60) and home egg production (n = 30). These pyrethroids were investigated: bifenthrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, including most diastereomers. Quantification was done using GC-MS in a negative chemical ionization mode. Pyrethroids residues were found in 79% of the analyzed samples. Cypermethrin presented the highest occurrence, being quantified in 62 samples (69%) in concentrations (lipid weight - l w.) varying between 0.29 and 6408 ng g-1, followed by phenothrin (24%), 21-3910 ng g-1, permethrin (14%), 2.96-328 ng g-1, and bifenthrin (11%), 3.77-16.7 ng g-1. Cyfluthrin and fenvalerate were not detected. Home-produced eggs had a higher occurrence of pyrethroids (97%), with a greater predominance of phenothrin. In commercial production, 70% of the samples presented pyrethroid residues (predominantly cypermethrin). This is the first report about the presence of pyrethroids in home-produced eggs and the first description of a selectivity pattern with the predominance of cis diastereomers in chicken eggs. In general, estimated daily intake does not present a risk to human consumption, according to Brazilian and international standards (FAO/WHO). However, one third of the samples (30 eggs) had concentrations above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The maximum cypermethrin concentration was 66 times the MRL, while the maximum phenothrin concentration was 11 times the limit. Further studies about transfer dynamics, bioaccumulation and metabolic degradation of stereoisomers are required, as well as determining if this selectivity pattern in food can increase consumer's health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalita,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

  20. Dynamics of pulsed holmium:YAG laser photocoagulation of albumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefer, T.J. [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States). E-mail: jpfefer at helix.mgh.harvard.edu; Chan, K.F.; Hammer, D.X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Welch, A.J. [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The pulsed holmium:YAG laser ({lambda} = 2.12 {mu}m, {tau}{sub p} = 250 {mu}s) has been investigated as a method for inducing localized coagulation for medical procedures, yet the dynamics of this process are not well understood. In this study, photocoagulation of albumen (egg white) was analysed experimentally and results compared with optical-thermal simulations to investigate a rate process approach to thermal damage and the role of heat conduction and dynamic changes in absorption. The coagulation threshold was determined using probit analysis, and coagulum dynamics were documented with fast flash photography. The nonlinear computational model, which included a Beer's law optical component, a finite difference heat transfer component and an Arrhenius equation-based damage calculation, was verified against data from the literature. Moderate discrepancies between simulation results and our experimental data probably resulted from the use of a laser beam with an irregular spatial profile. This profile produced a lower than expected coagulation threshold and an irregular damage distribution within a millisecond after laser onset. After 1 ms, heat conduction led to smoothing of the coagulum. Simulations indicated that dynamic changes in absorption led to a reduction in surface temperatures. The Arrhenius equation was shown to be effective for simulating transient albumen coagulation during pulsed holmium:YAG laser irradiation. Greater understanding of pulsed laser-tissue interactions may lead to improved treatment outcome and optimization of laser parameters for a variety of medical procedures. (author)

  1. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, A; MacDougall, L; Aramini, J; Gaulin, C; Ahmed, R; Isaacs, S

    2005-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted from 1 January to 31 May 2003 to identify risk factors for S . Heidelberg infection in Canada. Controls were pair-matched by age group and telephone exchange to 95 cases. Exposures in the 7 days before illness/interview were assessed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. Consumption of home-prepared chicken nuggets and/or strips [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.8], and undercooked eggs (mOR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-75.5) increased the risk of illness. Exposure to a farm setting lowered the risk (mOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03-1.00). The population-attributable fraction associated with chicken nuggets/strips was 34% and with undercooked eggs was 16%. One-third of study participants did not perceive, handle or prepare chicken nuggets and strips as high-risk products, although the majority of the products on the Canadian market are raw. These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education.

  2. Identification of TENP as the Gene Encoding Chicken Egg White Ovoglobulin G2 and Demonstration of Its High Genetic Variability in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Ovoglobulin G2 (G2 has long been known as a major protein constituent of chicken egg white. However, little is known about the biochemical properties and biological functions of G2 because the gene encoding G2 has not been identified. Therefore, the identification of the gene encoding G2 and an analysis of its genetic variability is an important step toward the goal of understanding the biological functions of the G2 protein and its utility in poultry production. To identify and characterize the gene encoding G2, we separated G2 from egg white using electrophoresis on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Two polymorphic forms of G2 protein (G2A and G2B, with different mobilities (fast and slow respectively, were detected by staining. The protein band corresponding to G2B was electro-eluted from the native gel, re-electrophoresed under denaturing conditions and its N-terminal sequence was determined by Edman degradation following transfer onto a membrane. Sequencing of the 47 kDa G2B band revealed it to be identical to TENP (transiently expressed in neural precursors, also known as BPI fold-containing family B, member 2 (BPIFB2, a protein with strong homology to a bacterial permeability-increasing protein family (BPI in mammals. Full-length chicken TENP cDNA sequences were determined for 78 individuals across 29 chicken breeds, lines, and populations, and consequently eleven non-synonymous substitutions were detected in the coding region. Of the eleven non-synonymous substitutions, A329G leading to Arg110Gln was completely associated with the noted differential electrophoretic mobility of G2. Specifically G2B, with a slower mobility is encoded by A329 (Arg110, whereas G2A, with a faster mobility, is encoded by G329 (Gln110. The sequence data, derived from the coding region, also revealed that the gene encoding G2 demonstrates significant genetic variability across different chicken breeds/lines/populations. These variants, and how they correlate

  3. Identification of TENP as the Gene Encoding Chicken Egg White Ovoglobulin G2 and Demonstration of Its High Genetic Variability in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Keiji; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Ibrahim, Hisham R; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Maeda, Yoshizane; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Ovoglobulin G2 (G2) has long been known as a major protein constituent of chicken egg white. However, little is known about the biochemical properties and biological functions of G2 because the gene encoding G2 has not been identified. Therefore, the identification of the gene encoding G2 and an analysis of its genetic variability is an important step toward the goal of understanding the biological functions of the G2 protein and its utility in poultry production. To identify and characterize the gene encoding G2, we separated G2 from egg white using electrophoresis on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Two polymorphic forms of G2 protein (G2A and G2B), with different mobilities (fast and slow respectively), were detected by staining. The protein band corresponding to G2B was electro-eluted from the native gel, re-electrophoresed under denaturing conditions and its N-terminal sequence was determined by Edman degradation following transfer onto a membrane. Sequencing of the 47 kDa G2B band revealed it to be identical to TENP (transiently expressed in neural precursors), also known as BPI fold-containing family B, member 2 (BPIFB2), a protein with strong homology to a bacterial permeability-increasing protein family (BPI) in mammals. Full-length chicken TENP cDNA sequences were determined for 78 individuals across 29 chicken breeds, lines, and populations, and consequently eleven non-synonymous substitutions were detected in the coding region. Of the eleven non-synonymous substitutions, A329G leading to Arg110Gln was completely associated with the noted differential electrophoretic mobility of G2. Specifically G2B, with a slower mobility is encoded by A329 (Arg110), whereas G2A, with a faster mobility, is encoded by G329 (Gln110). The sequence data, derived from the coding region, also revealed that the gene encoding G2 demonstrates significant genetic variability across different chicken breeds/lines/populations. These variants, and how they correlate with egg

  4. Morphological and biochemical changes of isolated chicken egg-envelope during sperm penetration: degradation of the 97-kilodalton glycoprotein is involved in sperm-driven hole formation on the egg-envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y; Cho, R; Iwata, Y; Nishimura, K; Kato, T; Aoki, N; Kitajima, K; Matsuda, T

    2001-03-01

    The chicken egg-envelope is made of two major glycoprotein components, which are designated as gp97 and gp42 (after their molecular masses). To elucidate how these two components are involved in macromolecular organization of the chicken egg-envelope, the isolated egg-envelope was characterized by immunochemical and biochemical methods. The gp97 was suggested to be a homologue of mouse ZPB based on the similarities of N-terminal and internal sequences. Immunoblotting using anti-gp97 monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with or without mercaptoethanol treatment revealed that gp97 formed a homodimer through disulfide bonds, whereas gp42 did not. Under indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the anti-gp97 antibody visualized indistinct, small spots on the egg-envelope, whereas the anti-gp42 antibody showed a meshwork of blurry, fibrous structures. The hole formation on the egg-envelope by in vitro sperm penetration was completely inhibited by two anti-gp97 monoclonal antibodies. Interestingly, the anti-gp97 monoclonal antibodies blocked the proteolysis not only of gp97 but also of gp42 during incubation of the egg-envelope with either sperm or the crude chicken acrosin. Taken together, these results indicate that gp97 may play pivotal roles not only in constitution of the macromolecular organization of the egg-envelope but also in triggering hydrolysis of the egg-envelope during sperm penetration.

  5. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  6. Survival and infectivity of chicken ascarid eggs in soil after exposure to an egg-degrading microfungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Meyling, Nicolai V.

    to sterilised (S) or non-sterilised (N) soil in Petri dishes that were either treated with P. chlamydosporia (F) or left untreated (C) during incubation at 22°C for 35 days. Egg recovery was estimated before (day 0) and after (day 35) treatment. Thereafter, each of four groups of parasite-free egg-laying hens...... was exposed to the soil from one of the four treatments in the feed over 12 days. The hens were necropsied day 42 post first exposure. The number of surviving eggs was most substantially reduced in SF soil and SF hens had statistically lower worm burdens (both parasites) compared to SC, NC and NF hens....... However, adult A. galli were primarily found in SF hens while the other groups mainly harboured immature A. galli. Accordingly, SF hens also had the highest ascarid faecal egg counts and lowest serum A. galli IgY titre. Overall, A. galli recovery increased with increasing exposure, but contrastingly...

  7. In-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces layer-chicken egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Baskaran, Sangeetha A; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Schreiber, David T; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States, causing gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated eggs. Chickens are the reservoir host of S. Enteritidis. In layer hens, S. Enteritidis colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, leading to egg contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation with trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) plant compound obtained from cinnamon, in reducing S. Enteritidis cecal colonization and systemic spread in layers. Additionally, the effect of TC on S. Enteritidis virulence factors critical for macrophage survival and oviduct colonization was investigated in vitro. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by a triangle test. Supplementation of TC in feed for 66 days at 1 or 1.5% (vol/wt) for 40- or 25-week-old layer chickens decreased the amounts of S. Enteritidis on eggshell and in yolk (Pfeed intake, body weight, or egg production in birds or in consumer acceptability of eggs were observed (P>0.05). In vitro cell culture assays revealed that TC reduced S. Enteritidis adhesion to and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells and reduced S. Enteritidis survival in chicken macrophages (Pfeed additive to reduce egg-borne transmission of S. Enteritidis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Evaluation of anti-norovirus IgY from egg yolk of chickens immunized with norovirus P particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying-Chun; Wang, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Xia, Ming; Wu, Xian-Bo; Jiang, Xi; Nie, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis affecting millions of people worldwide. Understanding of NoV remains limited due to the lack of a cell culture system and small animal models. Currently, there are no effective vaccines or antivirals against NoVs. In this study, an approach for large-scale production of anti-NoV antibodies for use as a potential treatment for NoV disease using passive immunization was evaluated. NoV-specific immunoglobulins (IgYs) were produced by immunizing chickens with NoV P particles. The birds continuously produced high titers of antibodies in their eggs for at least 3months, in which NoV-specific antibody levels reached 4.7-9.2mg/egg yolk. The egg yolk antibodies strongly reacted with NoV P particles by both ELISA and Western blot and blocked NoV virus-like particle (VLP) and P particle binding to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors with a BT(50) of about 1:800. The blocking activity of the chicken IgY remained after an incubation at 70°C for 30min or treatments at pH 4-9 for 3h. These data suggested that chicken IgY could be a practical strategy for large-scale production of anti-NoV antibodies for potential use as passive immunization against NoV infection, as well as for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Information needs, sources, and decision-making by hatching egg and broiler chicken producers: A qualitative study in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Russell, Margaret; Inglis, Tom; Mitevski, Darko; Hall, David

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and use of information from hatching egg and broiler chicken producers, their constraints, and unmet information needs can help define future research agendas. This report presents the results from a qualitative study using interviews of 11 hatching egg producers and 12 broiler producers in Alberta, Canada. Patterns were reported and described using thematic analysis. Producers recognized that there were numerous sources of information available to them for managing disease in their flocks. Complex disease issues such as early mortality were discussed, but many producers did not believe they had any influence over the outcomes and did not see a benefit from additional information to improve outcomes. Producers described their experience, trust in the information source, and the usefulness of the information for decision-making as necessary for information uptake.

  10. The use of chicken egg shell as an alternative source of calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing oyster shell fraction in the diet of growing-finishing cockerel chickens partially or wholly with eggshell. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) 8 weeks old Harco cockerel chicken of mean weight 515.78 ± 3. 8g were used for the feeding trial that lasted for ten ...

  11. Laying performance and egg qualities characteristics of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were also significantly higher values for the internal and external egg quality traits (egg weight, egg width, yolk index, Haugh unit, albumen height, albumen %, and yolk width) in T1, T2 and T3 compare to T4(10.00, 2.11, 0.17, 75.42, 1.55, 49.01and 37.3,). Key words: Egg quality, Japanese quail, laying characteristics, ...

  12. Effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on physicochemical and functional properties of chicken egg during room-temperature storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xianxe [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Aera; Kim, Dong Hun [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Duk [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mooha [Division of Food and Animal Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    The effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on quality and storage stability of shell egg was investigated. Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on eggshell was not detected by irradiation of 2.0 kGy at day 0 and/or chitosan coating (1%, pH 5.0) after 3 days of storage. One-day-old fresh chicken egg was chitosan coated and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy by gamma ray. The egg samples were stored at room temperature for 14 days and the effects of the combination treatment on internal physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. The Haugh unit of egg was decreased by irradiation even at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation increased the lipid oxidation in egg yolk at 2 kGy but the egg with chitosan coating reduced the level of lipid oxidation. Irradiation increased the foaming ability of egg white and decreased viscosity of egg yolk and white. Results suggested that combination of irradiation and chitosan coating can improve safety of shell egg but irradiation treatment may reduce the egg quality for direct consumption. However, an improved functional property for further processing and efficient separation of egg white and yolk can be expected for egg processing industry using irradiation.

  13. Optimization of incubation temperature in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H9N2 vaccinal subtype of avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sedigh-Eteghad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are little information about growth properties of low pathogenic (LP avian influenza virus (AIV in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs at different incubation temperatures. Knowledge of this information increases the quantity and quality of antigen in vaccine production process. For this purpose, 10-5 dilution of AIV (A/Chicken/Iran/99/H9N2 was inoculated (Intra-allantoic into 400, 11-day old specific pathogen free (SPF ECEs in the 0.1 mL per ECE rate and incubated in 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37.5, 38, 39 ̊C for 72 hr in 65% humidity. Early death embryos in first 24 hr were removed. Amnio-allantoic fluid was withdrawn into the measuring cylinder, and tested for hemagglutination (HA activity and egg infective dose 50 (EID50. The utilizable ECEs and amnio-allantoic fluid volume was significantly increased in 35 ̊C, (p < 0.05. Significant difference in HA and EID50 titers, were seen only in 39 ̊C group. Therefore, 35°C is an optimum temperature for incubation of inoculated ECEs.

  14. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424 mg/ml. Spearman-Karber value of potency of anti tetanus IgY are 35 IU/ml. ?This research concluded that Chickens was capable of produced of anti tetanus in eggs yolk with value of potency are 35 IU/ml.

  15. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho; Régis Siqueira de Castro Teixeira; Elisângela de Souza Lopes; Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque; Suzan Vitória Girão Lima; Ruben Vasconcelos Horn; Roberta Cristina da Rocha-e-Silva; William Maciel Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab) and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza....

  16. Effects of dietary form of selenium on its distribution in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čobanová, Klaudia; Petrovič, Vladimír; Mellen, Martin; Arpášova, Henrieta; Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Faix, Štefan

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the selenium distribution in eggs from hens fed diets supplemented with Se from sodium selenite (SS) or selenium-enriched yeast (SY). One-day-old female chickens of Hy-Line Brown breed were randomly divided into four groups according to dietary treatments and, for the subsequent 9 months, were fed diets which differed only in the form or amount of Se supplemented. During the whole experiment, group 1 (control) was fed basal diet (BD) with only background Se level of 0.13 mg/kg dry matter (DM). Diets for groups 2 and 3 consisted of BD supplemented with an Se dose of 0.4 mg/kg DM either in the form of SS or SY, respectively. Group 4 was fed BD supplemented with 0.9 mg Se/kg DM from SY. After 9 months of dietary treatments, the Se levels in egg yolk and albumen from hens fed unsupplemented diet were almost identical whereas eggs from hens given diet supplemented with SS showed significantly higher Se deposition in yolk than in albumen (P doses 0.4 or 0.9 mg/kg DM from SY resulted in significantly higher Se concentration in albumen than in yolk (both P selenium deposition in eggs from hens given feed enriched with SY than from birds fed diet with equivalent SS dose. Regardless of dose and source, the selenium supplementation to feeds for groups 2, 3 and 4 resulted in significantly increased α-tocopherol concentration in egg yolk compared to control group 1 (P selenium sources.

  17. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... shell membranes missing and with egg meat adhering to or in contact with the outside of the shell. (3... membranes. (4) Liquid egg recovered from shell egg containers and leaker trays. (5) Open leakers made in the...

  18. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  19. Survival of chicken ascarid eggs exposed to different soil types and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    soils. We next isolated and examined if particular egg-degrading fungi occurred in the non-sterilised soil that had exhibited the most extreme ovicidal activity (99%). The fungal isolates belonged to two genera (Metarhizium and Acremonium) with reported egg-degrading properties but when tested in vitro...... in agar assay, none of the three tested isolates of native fungi degraded >34% eggs, suggesting that these fungi may not individually have caused the reduction in egg survival in the non-sterilised soil. In conclusion, a range of natural soils showed inherent properties related to biotic factors...... to degrade nematode eggs. The biocontrol efficacy of both P. chlamydosporia Biotype 10 and M. brunneum KVL04-57 was very good in sterilised soil but currently limited in non-sterilised soil, potentially due to competition with natural soil biota in fungal establishment. Further research may determine...

  20. Susceptibility of chickens, quail, and pigeons to an H7N9 human influenza virus and subsequent egg-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    H7N9 human influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (Anhui2013) showed low pathogenicity in chickens, quail, and pigeons, with quail being the most susceptible among the species tested. IVPIE1-1, which was recovered from a dead chicken after intravenous inoculation of Anhui 2013, had broader tissue tropism in chickens than did the original inoculum, as well as amino acid substitutions in the polymerase acidic gene and neuraminidase gene segments, but its pathogenicity was not enhanced. Viruses obtained after passage of Anhui 2013 in 10- and 14-day-old embryonated eggs showed rapid accumulation of amino acid substitutions at the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin protein. Two strains obtained through egg passage, 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13, replicated better in intranasally infected chickens than did the original Anhui 2013 strain, yet the new isolates showed low pathogenicity in chickens despite their amino acid substitutions. The increased virus replication in chickens of 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13 was not correlated with temperature-sensitive replication, given that virus replication was suppressed at increased temperatures. The existence of highly susceptible hosts, such as quail, which permit asymptomatic infection, facilitates increased mutation of the virus through amino acid substitution at the receptor-binding site, and this might be one of the mechanisms underlying the prolonged circulation of H7N9 influenza virus.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntaş, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  3. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

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    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  4. Application of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the control of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyu; Jin, Liji; Zhen, Yuhong; Lu, Yanan; Li, Shuying; You, Jiansong; Wang, Linhui

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has attracted considerable attention as a means of controlling infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages compared with mammalian IgG including cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases and speculates on the future of IgY technology. Included are a review of the potential application of IgY for the treatment of livestock diseases such as mastitis and diarrhea, poultry diseases such as Salmonella, Campylobacteriosis, infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease, as well as aquatic diseases like shrimp white spot syndrome virus, Yersina ruckeri and Edwardsiella tarda. Some potential obstacles to the adoption of IgY technology are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    OpenAIRE

    Saerang, JLP; Manalu, W; Soesanto, IRH; Mardiastuti, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width) of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg ...

  6. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  7. Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

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    M. Ahammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC, barn (BR and aviary (AV. The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800 pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week. There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1 average HDEP (% of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2 were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g; feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5 and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g and BR (127 g tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV.

  8. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Kachana, Sompong

    2009-10-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B(12) on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64-72 weeks). Four levels of folate (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin B(12) (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design study. No significant physiological interaction between folate and vitamin B(12) was evident under our experimental conditions. There was no effect of vitamins supplementation on egg production or feed intake. Supplementation with folate significantly elevated serum (p egg yolk vitamin B(12) levels. Supplementation with folate or vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect triglyceride or total phospholipid levels in serum or egg yolk although a positive relationship was observed between dietary folate supplementation and total serum phospholipid (r(2) = 0.68, p eggs. An increase in serum total phospholipids due to dietary supplementation with folate may provide physiological benefits to hens, although we did not observe any strong effects of these vitamins on lipid composition.

  9. Exploring the chicken egg white proteome with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea; Guerrier, Luc; Boschetti, Egisto; Mendieta, Martha Elena; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2008-08-01

    The use of two types of peptide ligand libraries (PLL), containing hexapeptides terminating either with a primary amine or modified with a terminal carboxyl group, allowed the discovery and identification of a large number of previously unreported egg white proteins. Whereas the most comprehensive list up to date ( Mann, K. , Proteomics 2007, 7, 3558- 3568 ) tabulated 78 unique gene products, our findings have almost doubled that value to 148 unique protein species. From the initial nontreated egg, it was possible to find 41 protein species; the difference (107 proteins) was generated as a result of the use of PLLs from which a similar number of species (112 and 109, respectively) was evidenced. Of those, 35 proteins were the specific catch of the amino-terminus PLL, while 33 were uniquely captured by the carboxy-terminus PLL. While a number of these low-abundance proteins might have a biological role in maintaining the integrity of the egg white and protecting the yolk, others might be derived from decaying epithelial cells lining the oviduct and/or represent remnants of products from the magnum and eggshell membrane components secreted by the isthmus, which might ultimately be incorporated, even if in trace amounts, into the egg white. The list of egg white components here reported is by far the most comprehensive at present and could serve as a starting point for isolation and functional characterization of proteins possibly having novel pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  10. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

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    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  11. Identification of distinctive interdomain interactions among ZP-N, ZP-C and other domains of zona pellucida glycoproteins underlying association of chicken egg-coat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki; Sato, Takahiro; Sakuma, Rio; Fukushima, Hideaki; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Ujita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate egg coat, including mammalian zona pellucida, is an oocyte-specific extracellular matrix comprising two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. The egg coat plays important roles in fertilization, especially in species-specific interactions with sperm to induce the sperm acrosome reaction and to form the block to polyspermy. It is suggested that the physiological functions of the egg coat are mediated and/or regulated coordinately by peptide and carbohydrate moieties of the ZP glycoproteins that are spatially arranged in the egg coat, whereas a comprehensive understanding of the architecture of vertebrate egg-coat matrix remains elusive. Here, we deduced the orientations and/or distributions of chicken ZP glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP3 and ZPD, in the egg-coat matrix by confocal immunofluorescent microscopy, and in the ZP1-ZP3 complexes generated in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We further confirmed interdomain interactions of the ZP glycoproteins by far-Western blot analyses of the egg-coat proteins and pull-down assays of ZP1 in the serum, using recombinant domains of ZP glycoproteins as probes. Our results suggest that the ZP1 and ZP3 bind through their ZP-C domains to form the ZP1-ZP3 complexes and fibrils, which are assembled into bundles through interactions between the repeat domains of ZP1 to form the ZP1-ZP3 matrix, and that the ZPD molecules self-associate and bind to the ZP1-ZP3 matrix through its ZP-N and ZP-C domains to form the egg-coat matrix. Based on these results, we propose a tentative model for the architecture of the chicken egg-coat matrix that might be applicable to other vertebrate ones.

  12. Effects of declawing and cage shape on productivity, feathering, and fearfulness of egg-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanskike, K P; Adams, A W

    1983-04-01

    Declawing day-old egg-type chicks did not significantly (P less than .05) alter 20-week body weight. However, declawed hens tended to mature earlier and lay more eggs than the intact hens. Hens housed in shallow cages tended to be better feathered than those housed in deep cages. Neither declawing nor cage shape had a significant effect on the time required for birds to return to feeding after exposure to a noise stimulus, which was used as an indicator of fearfulness.

  13. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLP Saerang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg were measured by used vernier caliper, egg shell thickness by tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Length and width of egg used were measured by Vernier caliper, and egg shell thickness by a tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Physical characteristic have been identified eggs weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, weight albumen, weight yolk, egg shell thickness, and shell weight increased by 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6.07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0.02 inch, 19.55 g, respectively. The result of analysis indicated that maleo eggs have completed amino acids and fatty acids, that is essensial amino acids, non essensial amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Physical characteristic egg that comprised of egg weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, egg shell thickness, and shell weight were 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6,07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0:02-inch, 19:55 g, respectively. Maleo egg contained complete amino acids and fatty acids, including essential amino acids, non essential amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. (Animal Production 12(1: 34-38 (2010Key Words: Maleo bird, maleo

  14. Detection of antibiotics in chicken eggs obtained from supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Okihashi, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuo; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Uchida, Kotaro; Hoang Ngoc Do, Mai; Thi Bui, Long; Nguyen, Thinh Duc; Phan, Ha Bich; Dang Thien Bui, Huong; Nguyen, Phuc Do; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-06-03

    The residual levels of antibiotics in Vietnamese eggs were monitored from 2014 to 2015. A total of 111 egg packages, distributed by 11 different companies, were collected from supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City and the levels of 28 antibiotics were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method. Sixteen samples tested positive for antibiotics; a total of eight compounds (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, tilmicosin and trimethoprim) were detected. Enrofloxacin was detected in eight samples, with two samples exhibiting concentrations exceeding 1,000 µg kg -1 . Tilmicosin was detected in three samples at a range of 49-568 µg kg -1 . We observed that two of the 11 companies frequently sold antibiotic-contaminated eggs (detection rates of 56 and 60%), suggesting that a number of companies do not regulate the use of antibiotics in egg-laying hens. Our findings indicate that livestock farmers require instruction regarding antibiotic use and that continual antibiotic monitoring is essential in Vietnam.

  15. Purification and characterization of antioxidant peptides from enzymatically hydrolyzed chicken egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Bandara, Nandika; Wu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Egg white is considered as a rich source of high quality proteins with various bioactive peptide fractions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins can be used to release bioactive fractions and different enzymes have different abilities in releasing such bioactive fractions depending on the enzyme's site of activity on a protein. In this study, several proteases were examined for their ability to release antioxidant peptides from hen egg white and protease P was selected based on the antioxidant activity and the digestion yield of the crude protein hydrolysate. A combination of several purification steps including ultrafiltration with low molecular weight cut-off membranes, cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to purify 'protease P egg white hydrolysate'. Sixteen antioxidant peptides, which were derived from ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and cystatin were isolated from the most active fractions. Amino acid sequences of those peptides were determined using LC-MS/MS. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of selected short chain peptides were determined using synthetic peptides. Two peptides AEERYP and DEDTQAMP (Ala-Glu-Glu-Arg-Tyr-Pro and Asp-Glu-Asp-Thr-Gln-Ala-Met-Pro) showed the highest ORAC values. The results from this study indicate that egg white is rich in antioxidant peptides which can be used as a potential source for preparing bioactive ingredients using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by purification techniques. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3 [Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rahayu HS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs were control and 63 eggs was omega-3 suplemented were collected from 64 Merawang chicken for eleven weeks. Feeding were arranged isonitrogenous (15.8% and isocaloric (2650 kkal/kg, and fed ad libitum. Omega-3 feeding was produced from fermentation of soybean waste (ampas tahu and mold (Rhizopus oligosporus, then mixed with sea fish oil waste (1:1, w/w. The result showed that no significant effect of the treatment on physical characteristic parameter. Omega-3 eggs significantly (P<0.05 increased the ratio of width and length of eggs. The score of yolk was increased in omega-3 eggs which indicated increase of omega-3 fatty acids and Æ’Ã’ caroten contents. The total lipid and cholesterol contents were lower (P<0.05 in omega-3 eggs, however, omega-3 fatty acids component (linolenat, EPA and DHA increased 10 and 6 times than control. Organoleptic test of colour, flavor, texture and taste of white portion, yolk portion and whole eggs were generally accepted by the panelis, both in the control and omega-3 eggs.

  17. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  18. [Determination of amantadine and rimantadine residues in egg and chicken samples by dispersive solid phase extraction purification-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Fan, Jianlin; Liu, Xingyong; Chen, Xinglian; Li, Yangang; Liu, Hongcheng

    2015-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of residual amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens by dispersive solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Egg and chicken samples were extracted with ammonia water-acetonitrile (2:98, v/v). The extraction solution was dried to 1 mL under nitrogen, and then purified by dispersive solid phase extraction method with C18 and NH2 sorbents. After purification, the extraction solution was filtered through a filter. The target compounds were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a ZORBAX C18 column using a mixture of 1 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in positive mode. The good linearities were obtained for amantadine and rimantadine at a concentration range of 0.15-10.0 μg/L. The limits of detection for amantadine and rimantadine were all 0.05 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.20 μg/kg. The recoveries of amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens at three spiked levels (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/kg) age of 89%-108% with the relative standard deviations of 5.0%-8.6%. The results demonstrated that the method is suitable for the determination of amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens.

  19. Escherichia coli isolates from commercial chicken meat and eggs cause sepsis, meningitis and urinary tract infection in rodent models of human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellata, M; Johnson, J R; Curtiss, R

    2018-02-01

    The zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli from chicken-source food products is important to define for public health purposes. Previously, genotypic and phenotypic screening of E. coli isolates from commercial chicken meat and shell eggs identified some E. coli strains that by molecular criteria resembled human-source extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Here, to clarify the zoonotic risk of such chicken-source E. coli, we compared selected E. coli isolates from chicken meat and eggs, stratified by molecularly defined ExPEC status, to human-source ExPEC and to laboratory E. coli for virulence in rodent models of sepsis, meningitis and UTI, and evaluated whether specific bacterial characteristics predict experimental virulence. Multiple chicken-source E. coli resembled human-source ExPEC in their ability to cause one or multiple different ExPEC-associated infections. Swimming ability corresponded with urovirulence, K1 capsule corresponded with ability to cause neonatal meningitis, and biofilm formation in urine corresponded with ability to cause sepsis. In contrast, molecularly defined ExPEC status and individual genotypic traits were uncorrelated with ability to cause sepsis, and neither complement sensitivity nor growth in human urine corresponded with virulence in any infection model. These findings establish that chicken-derived food products contain E. coli strains that, in rodent models of multiple human-associated ExPEC infections, are able to cause disease comparably to human-source E. coli clinical isolates, which suggests that they may pose a significant food safety threat. Further study is needed to define the level of risk they pose to human health, which if appreciable would justify efforts to monitor for and reduce or eliminate them. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of different energy to protein ratios in starter diet with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance of village chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted using 144 day-old chicks of Arabian strain village chicken to determine the effect of dietary protein and energy ratios in starter diets with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance in closed confinement system. Dehydrated food waste was the main energy source, superworms and unfertilized eggs were the main protein sources. Six experimental diets were formulated to have 3 energy to protein ratios (134, 150 and 164 with 150 energy to protein ratio as the control.. Every ratio had two different protein sources with the same inclusion level. Each treatment had 2 replicates with 12 birds each in a complete randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum from 0 - 42 d. Proximate analysis of the main ingredients in the diet showed dehydrated food waste had 4,500.54 kcal/kg of gross energy and 25.18% of crude protein while superworms and unfertilized eggs had crude protein of 46.54 and 46.33%, respectively. The study showed that a single diet of energy:protein ratio of 134 kcal ME/kg protein supported optimum growth rate of Arabian strain village chicken from 1 to 42 d of rearing. Feed conversion ratio improved with increasing dietary energy level. These findings have implications on ration formulation for village chickens in Malaysia.

  1. Utilizing three monoclonal antibodies in the development of an immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaquinoxaline residues in egg and chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yancheng; Ngom, Babacar; Le, Tao; Jin, Xiue; Wang, Liping; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Xiliang; Bi, Dingren

    2010-09-15

    A rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on competitive format was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine (SM(2)), sulfadiazine (SDZ), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in chicken breast muscle and egg samples. For this purpose, three monoclonal antibodies raised against those three sulfonamides were conjugated to colloidal gold particles and applied to the conjugate pads of the test strip. The competitors of the sulfonamides (SM(2)/SDZ/SQX-bovine serum albumin conjugates) were immobilized onto a nitrocellulose membrane at three detection zones to form T(1), T(2), and T(3), respectively. With this method, the cutoff values for the three test lines were achieved at 80 μg/kg, which is lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established for sulfonamides. The recoveries in negative samples spiked at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg ranged from 75% to 82% for egg samples and from 78% to 81% for chicken samples. The method was compared with the HPLC method by testing 180 eggs and chicken breast samples from local markets, and an agreement rate of 99.7% was obtained between the two methods.

  2. Passive protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against experimental Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Hong; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) has attracted much attention as a means for controlling infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. This study evaluated the protective effect of IgY against Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. IgY was isolated from egg yolks laid by hens initially immunized with formalin-inactivated V. anguillarum. Lower mortality of ayu was observed in groups treated with anti-V. anguillarum IgY (aVIgY), compared with those treated with saline or with nonspecific IgY (nspIgY). All fish in saline-treated groups died within seven days after bacterial inoculation. The bacterial load in blood, liver, and spleen was significantly lower in fish treated with aVIgY than in fish treated with nspIgY. aVIgY treatment significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (PaTNF-α), interleukin-1β (PaIL-1β), transforming growth factor-β (PaTGF-β), and leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (PaLECT2) transcript levels in the head kidney, spleen, and liver of ayu challenged by V. anguillarum, compared with nspIgY treatment. The phagocytic activity of macrophages for V. anguillarum in the presence of specific IgY was significantly higher than that seen for nonspecific IgY. These results suggest that passive immunization by oral intubation with pathogen-specific IgY may provide a valuable treatment for V. anguillarum infection in ayu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative study of the synthesis of CdO nanoplatelets by an albumen-assisted isothermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, T., E-mail: prakash_nano@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Karumathampatti, Coimbatore 641 659, Tamil Nadu (India); Neri, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Ranjith Kumar, E. [Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya Swami Shivananda Higher Secondary School, Coimbatore 641 020, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • CdO nanoplatelets prepared by the presence of albumen as a bio-template agent. • Albumen strongly aided the formation of the pure cadmium phase. • This way to synthesize CdO nanoplatelets very promising for optical application. - Abstract: In this paper, the synthesis of CdO nanoplatelets by the isothermal evaporation method in the presence of egg white (albumen) as a bio-template agent is reported for the first time. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of products obtained after drying at 130 °C and annealing at 300 °C have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and compared with corresponding samples obtained in the absence of template. The characterization techniques evidenced remarkable differences between the two sample typologies. Specifically, crystalline CdO in the cubic phase was obtained only in the presence of albumen. The samples were further analyzed by electrical conductivity measurement, ultraviolet spectral studies (UV) and photoluminescence (PL) to ascertain their possible use for optical and electrical applications.

  4. Fine mapping and structural analysis of immunodominant IgE allergenic epitopes in chicken egg ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Yoshinori; Rupa, Prithy

    2003-10-01

    Ovalbumin is a major allergen in hen egg white that causes IgE-mediated food allergic reactions in children. In this study, the immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes of ovalbumin were mapped using arrays of overlapping peptides synthesized on activated cellulose membranes. Pooled human sera from 18 patients with egg allergy were used to probe the membrane. Five distinct regions were found to contain dominant allergic IgE epitopes, these being L38T49, D95A102, E191V200, V243E248 and G251N260. The critical amino acids involved in IgE antibody binding were also determined. These epitopes were composed primarily of hydrophobic amino acids, followed by polar and charged residues and being comprised of beta-sheet and beta-turn structures. One epitope, D95A102, consisted of a single alpha-helix. These results provide useful information on the functional role of amino acid residues to evaluate the structure-function relationships and structural properties of allergic epitopes in ovalbumin. They also provide a strategic approach for engineering ovalbumin to reduce its allergenicity.

  5. Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jenn-Fa; Chang, Chih-Wei; Tailiu, Jui-jane; Yu, Chun-Keung; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chen, Lih-Ren; Tai, Chein

    2010-11-29

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks of immunized hens. Results indicate that the titer of IgY specific against EV71 increased from the third week after the first immunization. The content of total IgY was 190 ± 26 mg/yolk, with an average concentration of specific IgY of 6.34 ± 3.38 mg/yolk in the eggs from 3 to 18 wk after immunization. The results of the neutralization effect of specific IgY in EV71-challenged mice demonstrate that the EV71-specific IgY, either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, was able to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality in EV71 infected mice pups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of an embryonated chicken egg model to assess the vector competence of Australian Culicoides midges for bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DER Saag, M R; Ward, M P; Kirkland, P D

    2017-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of globally important arboviruses that affect livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this study, a model using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was utilized to undertake vector competence studies of Australian Culicoides spp. for 13 laboratory-adapted or wild-type virus strains of BTV. A total of 7393 Culicoides brevitarsis were reared from bovine dung, and 3364 Culicoides were induced to feed from ECEs infected with different strains of BTV. Of those, 911 (27%) survived the putative extrinsic incubation period of 9-12 days. In some trials, virus was also transmitted onward to uninfected ECEs, completing the transmission cycle. This model does not rely on the use of colonized midges and has the capacity to assess the vector competence of field-collected insects with strains of virus that have not previously been passaged in laboratory culture systems. There is also potential for this model to be used in investigations of the competence of Culicoides spp. for other arboviruses. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS)

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Suartha; I Wayan Teguh Wibawan; Retno Damayanti Soejoedono; Bibiana W. Lay

    2007-01-01

    The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424...

  8. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M.; Hardebeck, H.; Krampitz, G.

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of chicken egg vitelline membrane hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dillon; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Khey, Kevin; Sunwoo, Hoon H

    2017-09-01

    Vitelline membrane (VM) is a multilayered structure that surrounds the egg yolk serving to separate the yolk and the white. Due to its poor solubility in aqueous-based media, VM proteins and their biological properties have not been fully defined. In the current study, VM was hydrolyzed using different enzymes under the optimum hydrolysis conditions. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated in chemical and cellular models. Flavourzyme- and trypsin-treated samples showed the highest radical scavenging and ferric ion reducing effect (31% and 20 μM of Trolox equivalents/mg, respectively). In cellular studies, all VM hydrolysates were cyto-compatible and inhibited nitric oxide production by RAW264.7 macrophage cells significantly. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells was suppressed by flavourzyme-treated VM. These results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of VM is a promising approach to produce peptides with several bioactivities (free radical scavenging, metal chelation, and anti-inflammatory) as valuable ingredients for cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M; Silva, Murilo V; Ferreira, Flávia B; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G; Mota, Caroline M; Faria, Matheus S; Silva Filho, Hercílio H; Silva, Deise A O; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P; Mineo, José R; Mineo, Tiago W P

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  11. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.R. Morris. Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, University of Reading, England. In this article the contribution which geneticists can make to egg quality i.e. eggmass, shell thickness, and albumen height is examined. Factors which the poultryman can manipulate on the farm such as the choice of a lighting system ...

  12. Synergistic contributions of asparagine 46 and aspartate 52 to the catalytic mechanism of chicken egg white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Ichiro; Kirsch, J.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-02-13

    The X-ray structure of a chicken egg white lysozyme (ChEWL) complex with a peptidoglycan-derived inhibitor suggests that interactions of Asn46 and Asp52 with the D-subsite N-acetylmuramic acid due help to distort that pyranose ring into the reactive half-chair conformation and that a hydrogen bond is formed between Asn46 and Asp52. These hypotheses were investigated through the D52A, N46A, and D52A/N46A mutants of ChEWL. The Michaelis constants of the D52A and D52A/N46A ChEWL complexes with Micrococcus luteus cells are 3- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than the wild-type K{sub M}; the corresponding k{sub cat} values are 25- and 50-fold lower, respectively, than the wild-type k{sub cat}. These results support the proposal of Strynadka and James. The velocities of reactions catalyzed by the N46A and D52A mutants are approximately equal to each other for all classes of substrate, suggesting that the respective roles of Asn46 and Asp52 in transition state stabilization do not vary. The mutation of either Asn46 or Asp52 to Ala apparently disrupts the interactions of the other (nonmutated) residue with the substrate, supporting the crystallographic evidence of a hydrogen-bond interaction between the two residues. The mutations do not change the values of the dissociation constants of complexes with (carboxymethyl)chitin complexes, suggesting that ground state complexes of ChEWL with chitin-derived substrates differ in conformation from complexes with bacterial peptidoglycans. 23 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Is aspartate 52 essential for catalysis by chicken egg white lysozyme? The role of natural substrate-assisted hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Ichiro; Kirsch, J.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-02-13

    The chicken and goose egg white lysozymes (ChEWL and GoEWL) are homologues, but differ in substrate specificity. ChEWL catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds of bacterial peptidoglycans and chitin-derived substrates, while GoEWL is specific for bacterial peptidoglycans. The active-site aspartate 52 residue of ChEWL, which is postulated to stabilize the oxocarbenium ion intermediate, has no counterpart in GoEWL. The substrate specificity of the D52A ChEWL mutant was compared with those of wild-type ChEWL and GoEWL. D52A ChEWL retains approximately 4% of the wild-type catalytic activity in reactions with three different bacterial cell suspensions. Asp52 therefore is not essential to the catalytic mechanism, accounting for only a 2 kcal/mol decrease in AG. The function of Asp52 in D52A ChEWL- and GoEWL-catalyzed cleavage of (carboxymethyl)chitin may be partially fulfilled by an appropriately positioned carboxyl group on the substrate (substrate-assisted catalysis). D52A ChEWL and GoEWL, unlike wild-type ChEWL, exhibit biphasic kinetics in the clearing of Micrococcus luteus cell suspensions, suggesting preferences for subsets of the linkages in the M. luteus peptidoglycan. These subsets do not exist in the peptidoglycans of Escherichia coli or Sarcina lutea, since neither D52A ChEWL nor GoEWL exhibits initial bursts in reactions with suspensions of these bacteria. We propose that substrate-assisted catalysis occurs in reactions of D52A ChEWL and GoEWL with M. luteus peptidoglycans, with the glycine carboxyl group of uncross-linked peptides attached to N-acetylmuramic acid partially substituting the function of the missing Asp52. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  15. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  16. Genetic Analyses of Egg Quality in Khorasan Razavi Native Fowl Using the Bayesian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirkhah Z

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters influencing egg quality in Khorasan Razavi native fowl. (CoVariance components were estimated by the Bayesian statistical method via Gibbs sampling in GIBBS3F90 software. 1000 eggs (28-29 weeks old were collected from 775 hens of the ninth generation of Khorasan-Razavi Province native fowl breeding center. External (egg weight,specific gravity, long length, short length, shape index, shell strength, shell weight, shell thickness and internal (yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk weight, yolk index, albumen diameter, albumen height, albumen weight, albumen index, Haugh unit egg quality traits were measured. Six univariate animal models were used for estimation of genetic parameters and the best model for each trait was determined by deviance information criterion (DIC. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits were estimated using bivariate animal model. Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.10 (egg width to 0.39 (yolk index. For all traits except albumen diameter and albumen index, the inclusion of maternal effects in the model resulted in considerable reduction in direct heritability. Genetic correlations of egg weight with shell strength and shell thickness were negative. In conclusion, due to genetic correlations among external and internal egg quality traits, selection based on egg weight and shell thickness may improve external and internal egg quality traits. Also, including maternal effects in the form of genetic or permanent environment in the statistical model resulted in more accurate estimates for most traits.

  17. Effects of feed supplementation with specific hen egg yolk antibody (immunoglobin Y) on Salmonella species cecal colonization and growth performances of challenged broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalghoumi, R; Marcq, C; Théwis, A; Portetelle, D; Beckers, Y

    2009-10-01

    Anti-Salmonella spp. egg yolk antibodies (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were tested to determine if their inclusion in feed decreased Salmonella spp. cecal colonization in experimentally infected broiler chickens. Egg yolk powder (EYP) was obtained by freeze-drying egg yolks containing anti-Salmonella spp. Immunoglobin Y was included in feed at 5 levels of concentration (0 to 5%). Feeds were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake from d 1 to 28. Three days after initiation of feed treatments (d 4), chickens were co-challenged with equal numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium (2x10(6) cfu/bird). Cecal samples were recovered weekly over the experimental period (d 7 to 28) to enumerate Salmonella spp. The effect of anti-Salmonella spp. IgY feed supplementation on growth performance of infected chickens was also evaluated during the same period. In comparison with the positive control treatment (PC), treatments involving EYP (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5), whether containing anti-Salmonella spp. IgY or not, significantly improved (PSalmonella because in-feed incorporation of EYP had no significant effect on cecal colonization by Salmonella. Furthermore, the comparison of the 5 anti-Salmonella spp. IgY concentration levels in feed did not reveal any anti-Salmonella spp. IgY concentration effect on growth performance and Salmonella cecal colonization. These results suggest that anti-Salmonella spp. IgY would undergo denaturation and degradation after their passage through the animal gastrointestinal tract and reveal that components of EYP other than specific antibodies have a beneficial effect on growth performance.

  18. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.

  19. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  20. Egg production dynamics and fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum residing in different caecal environments of chickens induced by fibre-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Gürbüz; Abel, Hansjörg; Savaş, Türker; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-10-15

    In modern husbandry systems, feed rations for laying hens may contain high levels of dietary fibre, which may only be fermented intestinally. Depending on fermentation properties, the type of dietary fibre may influence the intra-caecal environment constituting the predilection site of Heterakis gallinarum. We investigated egg production dynamics and fecundity of H. gallinarum residing in different caecal environments induced through different types of dietary fibre. Growing layers were fed a standard (CON) or an insoluble- (I-) or soluble- (S-) non-starch polysaccharides-(NSP) supplemented diet for the first 11 weeks (wk) of life in a twice-replicated experiment. At 3 wk of age, the birds were infected with 200 embryonated eggs of H. gallinarum. Starting from 3 wk post-infection (p.i.), individual daily total excreta were collected. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was determined (N = 2240), and the number of eggs per day (EPD) were estimated. The birds were necropsied 8 wk p.i. and the worm burdens were quantified. The nematode began to lay eggs as early as 23 d.p.i. and thereafter laid on average 436 eggs/d. I-NSP- and S-SNP-supplemented diets expedited the onset of patency by approximately 5 days, and increased total egg excretion by 110% and 185%, respectively, due to higher worm counts. The latter diet (S-SNP) additionally increased total egg excretion by 94% due to enhanced fecundity. Longitudinally collected data showed that fecundity of the nematode (EPD/female) was relatively stable starting from the second week of the patent phase. Results suggest that NSP-induced enlargement of caeca favoured establishment of the nematode while effects of an intensified microbial fermentation through S-NSP were crucial for an enhancement in the worm fecundity. Based on the long-term data obtained from daily collections of total excreta in experimentally H. gallinarum-infected chickens, it is concluded that a diet enriched with pea bran as source of insoluble

  1. Characterization of Chicken MMP13 Expression and Genetic Effect on Egg Production Traits of Its Promoter Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Yuan

    2016-05-01

    /G–1356-T–1079 genotype (P < 0.05, and exhibited significantly lower transcriptional activity (P < 0.01. Collectively, chicken MMP13 plays an important role in ovarian follicle growth and regression, and polymorphisms in its promoter region could be used as molecular markers for improving the trait “age at first laying” in chicken breeding.

  2. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    . Experiments were performed on Ross 308 chicken embryos from 160 fertilised eggs. Experimental solutions of silver nanoparticles (Ag), hydroxyproline solution (Hyp) and a complex of silver nanoparticles with hydroxyproline (AgHyp) were injected into albumen, and embryos were incubated until day 20...... microscopy was performed. Our results clearly indicate that Hyp, Ag and AgHyp administered in ovo to chicken embryos did not harm embryos. Comparing to the control group, Hyp, Ag and the AgHyp complex significantly upregulated expression of the FGF-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Hyp, Ag and......, in particular, the complex of AgHyp significantly increased blood vessel size, cartilage collagen fibre lattice size and bundle thickness. The general conclusion from this study is that AgHyp treatment may help to build a stronger and longer lasting form of collagen fibres....

  3. QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS ON THE CROATIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Grčević Grčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical quality indicators of table eggs available on the Croatian market. The research was carried out on eggs produced by two manufacturers, marked as A and B, on the 7th and 28th day of egg storing. According to the Regulations on egg quality (OJ 115/06, Art. 9, eggs are classified as class A or fresh eggs and class B or eggs for industrial processing. Referring to the weight of the eggs, the eggs of class A are divided into four grades: XL, L, M and S. Our research focused on the M weight grade eggs, because they are the most represented ones in our conditions. The following external indicators of egg quality were analyzed: shape index (%, egg weight (g, shell weight (g, shell strength (kg/cm2 and thickness (mm. Furthermore, the following indicators of inner egg quality were tested: weight of albumen and yolk (g, yolk colour, Haugh units (HU, albumen height (mm, pH of albumen and pH of yolk. Results of our research provided the following conclusions: based on evaluation of energy and protein value, eggs of the manufacturer B had better nutritive value than eggs of the manufacturer A. The results of research into quality of eggs on the 7th day of storage proved that there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 between the A and B egg manufacturer if referring to the egg weight, shape index, shell thickness, shell weight and strength, as well as albumen weight. After the 28th day of egg storage, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 determined for albumen height, HU, pH values of albumen and yolk, and yolk colour (P=0.003. Based on the analysis of nutritive values and physical and chemical properties of eggs during storage, it was confirmed that eggs produced by the manufacturer B were of better quality than eggs of the manufacturer A. Eggs of both manufacturers met the requirements defined by the Croatian Regulations on egg quality.

  4. Unfolding-refolding behaviour of chicken egg white ovomucoid and its correlation with the three domain structure of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Agarwal, S K; Khan, M Y

    1991-02-15

    The urea and heat-induced unfolding-refolding behaviours of chicken egg white ovomucoid and its four fragments representing domains I, II + III, I + II and III were systematically investigated in 0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) by difference spectral measurements. The effect of temperature on ovomucoid and its fragments was also studied in 0.05 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) and in presence of 2 M urea at pH 7.0. Intrinsic viscosity data showed that ovomucoid and its different fragments did not lose any significant amount of their structure under mild acidic conditions (pH 4.6). Difference spectral results showed extensive disruption of the native structure by urea or temperature. Isothermal transitions showed single-step for domain I, domain I + II and domain III, and two-step having one stable intermediate, for ovomucoid and its fragment representing domain II + III. However, the presence of intermediate was not detected when the transitions were studied with temperature at pH 7.0. Strikingly, the single-step thermal transitions of ovomucoid and its fragment representing domain II + III, became two-step when measured either at pH 5.0 or in presence of 2 M urea at pH 7.0. Analysis of the equilibrium data on urea and heat denaturation showed that the second transition observed with ovomucoid or domain II + III represent the unfolding of domain III. The kinetic results of ovomucoid and its fragments indicate that the protein unfolds with three kinetic phases. A comparison of three rate constants for the unfolding of intact ovomucoid with that of its various fragments revealed that domain I, II and III of the protein correspond to the three kinetic phases having rate constants 0.456, 0.120 and 0.054 min-1, respectively. These data have led us to conclude: (i) the unusual stability of ovomucoid towards various denaturants, including temperature, is due to its domain III, (ii) initiation of the folding of the ovomucoid molecule starts from its NH2-terminal

  5. In vitro reactivity and growth inhibition of EPEC serotype O111 and STEC serotypes O111 and O157 by homologous and heterologous chicken egg yolk antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, José Araujo; De Franco, Milene Tino; Zapata-Quintanilla, Lucy; Carbonare, Solange Barros

    2008-04-01

    IgY is a chicken egg yolk antibody which has been used for treatment and prophylaxis of gastrointestinal infections. Our aim was to verify if IgY obtained from chickens immunized with EPEC O111, STEC O111 and STEC O157 is able to show in vitro reactivity and biological activity towards the three bacteria. IgY was obtained from eggs laid before and after immunization with each bacterium. The preparations of IgY anti-EPEC O111 and anti-STEC O111 shared high reactivity detected by ELISA and growth inhibition ability towards both bacteria EPEC O111 and STEC O111. Nevertheless, the preparation of IgY anti-STEC O157 showed high reactivity and growth inhibitory effect only towards the homologous strain. Our results showing in vitro biological activity of IgY reinforce its use as an alternative for the treatment or prophylaxis of E. coli infections and encourage the development of in vivo studies for a possible future human therapeutic use.

  6. How the discovery of ribozymes cast RNA in the roles of both chicken and egg in origin-of-life theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Neeraja

    2012-12-01

    Scientific theories about the origin-of-life theories have historically been characterized by the chicken-and-egg problem of which essential aspect of life was the first to appear, replication or self-sustenance. By the 1950s the question was cast in molecular terms and DNA and proteins had come to represent the carriers of the two functions. Meanwhile, RNA, the other nucleic acid, had played a capricious role in origin theories. Because it contained building blocks very similar to DNA, biologists recognized early that RNA could store information in its linear sequences. With the discovery in the 1980s that RNA molecules were capable of biological catalysis, a function hitherto ascribed to proteins alone, RNA took on the role of the single entity that could act as both chicken and egg. Within a few years of the discovery of these catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) scientists had formulated an RNA World hypothesis that posited an early phase in the evolution of life where all key functions were performed by RNA molecules. This paper traces the history the role of RNA in origin-of-life theories with a focus on how the discovery of ribozymes influenced the discourse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chicken Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics". Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics".

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of the two most common ascarids in chickens using plasma or egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Gürbüz; Hennies, Mark; Sohnrey, Birgit; Rahimian, Shayan; Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Stehr, Manuel; Gauly, Matthias

    2017-04-18

    Classical faecal egg counts (FEC) provide less reliable diagnostic information for nematode infections in chickens. We developed an ELISA based on Ascaridia galli antigens and tested two hypotheses, as follows: (i) IgY antibodies developed against A. galli will also be useful to identify Heterakis gallinarum infections, and (ii) circulating antibodies stored in egg yolks are as good as plasma samples, so a non-invasive diagnosis is possible. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA system with FEC, using both plasma and egg yolks from experimentally infected hens. In addition, naturally infected animals were evaluated to validate the assay. The assay quantified large differences (P  0.90 for both nematodes using either plasma or egg yolks. Sensitivity of the assay was 94 and 93% with plasma and egg yolk samples, respectively, whereas FEC yielded in a sensitivity of 84% in A. galli experiment. Total test accuracy of the assay with plasma samples (AUC = 0.99) tended to be higher (P = 0.0630) than FEC (AUC = 0.92) for A. galli, while the assay with either sample matrix performed similar to FEC (AUC ≥ 0.91) for H. gallinarum. Among the three tests, the FECs correlated better with A. galli burden than the ELISA. Although 90% of naturally infected hens were correctly identified by the ELISA, 45% of the infected hens tested negative with FEC, indicating the validity of the higher test accuracy of the ELISA. Antigens of A. galli can be used successfully to identify H. gallinarum-infected animals, indicating that chickens develop cross-reactive antibodies against the two closely related species. Egg yolks are as informative as plasma samples, so that animal welfare-friendly sampling is possible. Although the assay with plasma samples reveals qualitative information of higher quality than FECs on the infection status of naturally infected birds, the latter is still a better tool to assess the intensity of A

  9. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  10. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  11. Managing Colllinearity in Modeling the Effect of Age in the Prediction of Egg Components of Laying Hens Using Stepwise and Ridge Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    TM Shafey; ES Hussein; AH Mahmoud; MA Abouheif; HA Al-Batshan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The relationships between egg measurements [egg weight (EGWT), egg width (EGWD), egg shape index (EGSI), egg volume (EGV) and egg density (EGD)], and egg components [eggshell (SWT), yolk (YWT) and albumen (AWT)] were investigated in laying hens with 32, 45, and 59 weeks of age with an objective of managing multicollinearity (MC), using stepwise regression (SR) and ridge regression (RR) analyses. There were significant correlations among egg traits that led to MC problems in all eggs....

  12. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... free of flies, insects, and rodents. (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and...

  13. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  14. Presence of nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines in the eggs of Intensively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A spectrophotometric method was used to assay for nitrosamines and their precursors in eggs (n=5 from each farm), entailing separate analysis of each egg yolk and albumen. The three compounds measured, were detected in all the samples. The nitrates and nitrites levels were significantly higher in the yolk than in the ...

  15. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...

  16. Control of active B and L cathepsins in tissues of colorectal cancer using cystatins isolated from chicken egg proteins: in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rudno-Rudzinska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of cysteine peptidases (cathepsins B and L was estimated in homogenates of tissues sampled during surgery from 60 patients operated due to colorectal tumors. The results were compared to those obtained using tissues in which histopathology disclosed no tumorous cells, obtained from 20 patients of the same group, treated as a control. Activity of the enzymes was inhibited using cysteine peptidase inhibitors isolated from chicken egg proteins. Application of the inhibitors was found to inhibit activity of the enzymes which play a key role in tumor development. It is suggested that in future the inhibitors may provide a component of new generation drugs in the so-called inhibitor therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 670–676

  17. The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Byoung-Ki; Jeon, Jin-Young; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jin-Man; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens...

  18. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  19. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  20. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  1. Enteric Pathogen Bacteria in Non-Broiler Chicken Egg Shells from Traditional Market and Supermarket, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Arumugam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 1.5 million of children dying annually due to diarrhea. Contaminated food is one of the sources of the diarrhea incidence (food borne diseases. Eggs are one of the least expensive forms of protein which is affordable by the community and is easily to find in either traditional or modern market/supermarkets.The objective of this study was to identify enteropathogenic bacteria contamination on non-broiler (ayam kampung egg shell and to compare the findings between eggs sold in traditional and modern markets. Methods: This was a descriptive study performed at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. A total of 40 eggs were used, 20 from two traditional markets and 20 from two modern markets. The eggs were swabbed using saline, dipped in tryptic soy broth and streaked on Mac Conkey agar. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables. Results: Out of 40 samples, there were 19 positive cultures found from the traditional market and 16 from the modern market. There were 30 pink colonies indicating that they were lactose fermented, 5 transparent colonies indicated non-lactose fermentation, 4 showed no colony growth, and 1 grew an unidentified colony. The most found bacteria were Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in both market. Conclusions: Eggs shells from traditional and modern markets are contaminated with Enteropathogenic microbes.

  2. Egg marketing in national supermarkets: specialty eggs--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Bell, D D; Carey, J B; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J

    2001-04-01

    Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Poultry Specialists in California (CA), Connecticut, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Texas conducted a survey of egg quality and price and compared 246 dozen specialty eggs with 390 dozen conventional white shell eggs during the summer of 1996. Age of the eggs based on carton dating indicated specialty eggs were older (16.5 d) than white eggs (11.7 d). Average egg weights for specialty compared to white were 60.2 and 59.6 g, respectively. Interior egg quality evaluations including albumen height, Haugh units (HU), and percentage HU 5.0 mm, 67.5, and 10.6%, respectively) compared to specialty eggs (4.7 mm, 63.8, and 16.3%). Although the percentage of cracked eggs was similar between specialty and white eggs (5.4 and 5.7%), the percentage of leakers was threefold higher for the specialty eggs (1.0 vs. 0.3%). Egg price was substantially higher for the specialty eggs, averaging $2.18/dozen with a range from 0.88 to $4.38, compared to white eggs, averaging $1.23/dozen and ranging from 0.39 to $2.35.

  3. Assessing Consumer Emotional Responses in the Presence and Absence of Critical Quality Attributes: A Case Study with Chicken Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardy, Wisdom; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-07-01

    Effects of attribute presence and absence on the emotional profile and consumer acceptability of products with varying qualities were assessed using eggs as an example. An online survey (n = 320) was used to evaluate emotional responses and acceptability to 5 types of egg quality attributes: intrinsic, aesthetic, extrinsic, expediency, and wholesome/safety, for both present and absent conditions. Attribute absence rather than presence evoked greater consumer discriminating emotions associated with eggs. Mean emotion intensity elicited by the presence of all quality attributes ranged from 1.67 (intrinsic; guilty) to 4.05 (wholesome; good) versus 2.01 (wholesome; satisfied) to 3.29 (wholesome; disgusted) when absent. Key positive emotions elicited by presence of attributes were active, calm, good, interested, happy, safe, and satisfied; while dominant negative emotions elicited by absence of attributes included disgusted and worried. Wholesome quality (constituted by egg freshness, "packing/best-before-date" and absence of visible cracks) exhibited the highest liking (7.65) and emotion intensities, while the emotional responses to both the presence and absence of intrinsic quality (constituted by nutrient-fortified egg, organic egg, and USDA-certified farm egg) were similar, reflecting their dynamic effects on emotions. Emotions and acceptability were more correlated for attribute absence than presence; and good, happy, and satisfied emotions were strongly related to egg acceptability (r ≥ 0.6). Egg product/packaging design can be oriented toward emphasizing wholesome and expedient attributes, since they enhance good, safe, and satisfied emotions, while minimizing disgust, worry, and boredom. The use of emotional responses and hedonic testing regarding attribute presence and absence would allow for improved selection of attributes critical to consumer acceptance of products. Assessing effects of attribute presence compared with absence on food-evoked emotions may

  4. The performance of Nagrak and Kampung chicken kept intensively in Cibadak Sukabumi, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Gozali Nataamijaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the performance of Nagrak and Kampung chicken under intensive management system was conducted in Cibadak District of Sukabumi West Java. As many as 200 hens of Nagrak and Kampung, each were placed in individual cages. The birds were given 90 g of diet daily, the diet was the mixture of layer commercial diet and ricebran at equal ratio, drinking water was given ad libitum. Artificial insemination was conducted every three days using semen collected from 20 cockerels of each local bird. Disease control was done by vaccination against Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease. Sulfamix and antibiotics were given whenever needed. Eggs were collected twice a day, weighed and stored to be incubated or to be analyzed for their characteristics. Parameters observed were physical appearance, hen-day egg production, egg quality, egg fertility and hatchability, body weight, feed conversion and mortality. Results showed that Nagrak chicken physical appearance was different from that of Kampung chicken, yet their hen-day production were not significantly different (26.93 ± 14.10% vs 27.04 ± 16.20%. The egg characteristics of these birds (Nagrak vs Kampung were as follows: egg weight (36.29 ± 6.50 g vs 35.55 ± 5.42 g; yolk weight (16.61 ± 1.34 g vs 16.22 ± 2.11 g; albumen weight (17.31 ± 2.64 g vs 16.87 ± 1.35 g; shell weight 37 ± 0.81 g vs 2.46 ± 0.54 g; yolk color (9.62 ± 1.81 g vs 9.67 ± 1.70 g; haugh unit (83.60 ± 5.41 vs 83.45 ± 6.10; shell thickness (24.0 ± 0.83 µm vs 24.4 ± 0.67 µm, however no significant difference was found. Neither the egg fertility, hatchability nor mortality rate of the birds was significantly different. At 12 weeks old the average body weight of male Nagrak chicken (1260.04 ± 57.33 g was much higher (P<0.01 than that of male Kampung chicken (750.68 ± 60.11 g while the average body weight of female Nagrak chicken (980.37 ± 48.11 g was much higher (P<0.01 than that of female Kampung chicken (656

  5. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  6. Two eggs, two different constraints: a potential explanation for the puzzling intraclutch egg size dimorphism in Eudyptes penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Dehnhard, Nina; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic stability are major components of the adaptive evolution of organisms to environmental variation. The invariant two-egg clutch size of Eudyptes penguins has recently been proposed to be a unique example of a maladaptive phenotypic stability, while their egg mass is a plastic trait. We tested whether this phenotypic plasticity during reproduction might result from constraints imposed by migration (migratory carry-over effect) and breeding (due to the depletion of female body reserves). For the first time, we examined whether these constraints differ between eggs within clutches and between egg components (yolk and albumen). The interval between colony return and clutch initiation positively influenced the yolk mass, the albumen mass, and the subsequent total egg mass of first-laid eggs. This time interval had only a slight negative influence on the yolk mass of second-laid eggs and no influence on their albumen and subsequent total masses. For both eggs, female body mass at laying positively influenced albumen and total egg masses. Female investment into the entire clutch was not related to the time in the colony before laying but increased with female body mass. These novel results suggest that the unique intraclutch egg size dimorphism exhibited in Eudyptes penguins, with first-laid eggs being consistently smaller than second-laid eggs, might be due to a combination of constraints: a migratory carry-over effect on the first-laid egg and a body reserve depletion effect on the second-laid egg. Both these constraints might explain why the timing of reproduction, especially egg formation, is narrow in migratory capital breeders.

  7. Outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in large multi-age egg layer chicken flocks in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingred S. Preis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent (November 2010 outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT in a multi-age laying hen facility in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described. Previous ILT outbreak in laying hens was only notified in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2002. In the outbreak described here, the affected population was approximately eight million hens, with flock sizes ranging from 100,000 to 2,900,000 chickens. The average mortality ranged from 1 to 6%, and morbidity was around 90% (most of the twenty seven farms of the area were positive for ILT virus. Three multi-age laying farms from one company were selected for this report. Clinical signs included prostration, dyspnea, conjunctivitis, occasional swelling of the paranasal sinuses and bloody mucous nasal discharge. Severely affected chickens presented with dyspnea, gasping and became cyanotic before death. At necropsy, these chickens had fibrinous exudate blocking the larynx and the lumen of cranial part of the trachea. In addition, conjunctivitis with intense hyperemia, edema and sinuses with caseous exudate were present. On histopathology, there were marked necrosis and desquamation of respiratory ephitelium and conjunctiva with numerous syncytial cells formation and fibrinous exudate. Moderate to marked non suppurative (especially lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltration in the lamina propria also was observed. Sixteen out of 20 examined chickens, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the syncytial cells. The DNA extracted from larynx and trachea produced positive PCR results for ILT virus (ILTV DNA using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE samples. Amplicons from a small region of ICP4 gene were submitted to sequencing and showed 100% identity with ILTV EU104910.1 (USA strain, 99% with ILTV JN596963.1 (Australian strain and 91% with ILTV JN580316.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 CEO vaccine strain and JN580315.1 (Gallid herpesvirus 1 TCO vaccine strain.

  8. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  9. Cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol content of chicken egg yolk as affected by the cholecalciferol content of feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Lehikoinen, K; Kiiskinen, T; Piironen, V

    1999-10-01

    The predominant source of vitamin D is the synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin by the action of sunlight; however, due to the relative lack of sunlight, the intake of vitamin D from food is emphasized during winter, especially in the northern countries. Only a few foods (fish, eggs, wild mushrooms, meat, and milk) are natural sources of vitamin D. In addition, the content of vitamin D in foods is generally low, and some groups of people obtain amounts of vitamin D that are too small from their diet. The present study was designed to determine whether it is possible to increase the vitamin D content of egg yolk by giving hens feed containing elevated levels of cholecalciferol. Three cholecalciferol levels were tested: 26.6 (1064), 62.4 (2496), and 216 microgram (8640 IU)/kg feed. Egg yolk samples were taken after 0, 4, 5, and 6 weeks and were assayed for the presence of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol using an HPLC method. According to the present study, there was strong positive correlation between cholecalciferol content in poultry feed and cholecalciferol (r = 0. 995) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.941) content in egg yolk.

  10. New technologies on eggs manufacturing; Innovazione tecnologica nell`industria di lavorazione delle uova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M.; Serse, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Marcolini, P.; Erbisti, P. [Soc. Coop. Avicola Lessinia, Pigozzo, Verona (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    Objective of this paper is innovate the industrial manufacturing process, up grading the white egg commercial value according the following points: - improve the albumen rheological properties (whippability); - concentrate the white eggs without damaging the protein functional properties; - fractionate eggs white proteins to improve the useful application range in the pharmaceutical industry. The albumen chemical-physical properties and the protein separation technologies, based mainly on membrane techniques, are discussed. This paper represents a first technical overview on eggs manufacturing, carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and the Avicola Lessinia, with the objective to develop a new production process.

  11. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  12. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  13. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The

  14. Effect of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY against diarrhea in domesticated animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Diraviyam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. METHODS AND RESULTS: Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012. A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets--22; Mice--14; Poultry--7 and Calves--6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment--prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type--bacterial or viral. Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: The present systematic review (SR and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  15. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. Methods and Results Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. Conclusion The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  16. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  17. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijrink, I A M; van Duijvendijk, L A G; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-09-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may reduce negative effects of prolonged egg storage because it may prevent changes in the embryo and in egg characteristics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high CO(2) concentrations or a low O(2) concentration in the storage air on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. Eggs were stored for 14 d in 4 different storage air compositions: normal air (control; 20.9% O(2), 0.05% CO(2), 78.1% N(2)), 0.74% CO(2) treatment (20.8% O(2), 0.74% CO(2), 77.5% N(2)), 1.5% CO(2) treatment (20.6% O(2), 1.5% CO(2), 77.0% N(2))(,) or 3.0% O(2) treatment (3.0% O(2), 0.04% CO(2), 96.0% N(2)). The storage temperature was 16 degrees C and the RH was 75%. Results showed that the change in albumen pH and albumen height between oviposition and the end of storage was less in the 0.74 and 1.5% CO(2) treatments than in the control and 3.0% O(2) treatments (P storage air had a positive effect on albumen height and albumen pH, it is concluded that the storage air compositions, studied in the current study, do not affect embryonic development, hatchability, or chick quality when eggs are stored for 14 d at a storage temperature of 16 degrees C.

  18. Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) developed against fusion protein LTB-STa-STb neutralizes the toxicity of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J; Xu, Y; Li, H; Wang, L; Wu, F; Xu, F; Jin, L; Li, S; Li, X

    2014-08-01

    To obtain a recombinant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fusion enterotoxin protein LTB-STa-STb (Bab) that can express the immunogenicity of the haptens STa and STb and induce their corresponding neutralizing antibodies. The three important ETEC enterotoxin genes coding LTB, STa and STb were PCR-amplified, and the amplified products were fused to construct the trivalent enterotoxin expression vector pET30-Bab. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were used to verify the expression of the fusion protein Bab by E. coli BL21 carrying plasmid pET30-Bab. Laying hens immunized with Bab developed high egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) titres specific to LTB, STa and STb, and all were significantly higher than those in the control group (P chickens, and the resulting IgY had the capacity to neutralize the toxicity of ST. The recombinant Bab protein containing three important ETEC enterotoxins may serve as an effective and convenient polyvalent toxoid that can be used to produce multiple antitoxin IgYs to prevent colibacillosis caused by ETEC with various fimbriae in young animals. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Quality traits of eggs from autosexing Easter eggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lukanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.

  20. Variable colonization of chickens perorally inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and subsequent contamination of eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeni, J L; Doyle, M P

    1994-01-01

    Challenging 1-day-old White Leghorn chicks perorally with 2.6 x 10(1) to 2.6 x 10(5) Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria per chick resulted in cecal colonization at all levels. Two of six chicks inoculated with only 2.6 x 10(1) E. coli O157:H7 bacteria carried 10(3) to 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 bacteria per g of cecal tissue when sacrificed 3 months postinoculation. E. coli O157:H7 colonization persisted at least 10 to 11 months when chicks were administered 10(8) E. coli O157:H7 bacteria. Eggs fro...

  1. The effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim

    , Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras-Turkey ..... migration of minerals between the yolk and albumen of eggs from hens fed a diet supplemented with 0.5%. CLA when eggs were stored in 4 ºC for 10 weeks.

  2. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  3. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shape index and eggshell weight did not differ among treatments. Eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength were higher in hens fed with MBM as compared to control and OSM fed birds. Similar to the tendency in shell quality, MBM inclusion in the diet tended to enhance albumen height and Haugh unit.

  4. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Y R; Chacana, P A; Lucchesi, P M A; Rogé, A; Granobles Velandia, C V; Krüger, A; Parma, A E; Fernández-Miyakawa, M E

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx(2EDL933), stx(2vha), stx(2vhb), stx(2g), stx(1EDL933), and stx(1d) were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  5. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanil R Parma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2 are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx was developed using anti-Stx2 B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933 and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 400 ng /ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for 2 strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  6. Albumen Glue, New Material for Conjunctival Graft Surgery, an Animal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiwa, A.; Miraprahesti, R.; Sovani, I.; Enus, S.; Boediono, A.

    2017-02-01

    Attach conjunctival graft commonly used are suture technique and fibrin glue. This study was to investigate albumen glue as an alternative to suture technique in attaching conjunctival graft in rabbits. Aim of this study was to compare the conjunctival wound healing between albumen glue and suture technique in rabbit eye as a model. There was an experimental animal study included 32 eyes (16 rabbits) in PT. Bio Farma (Persero) and Histology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University from March 2014 to July 2104. The study consisted of albumen glue group and suture technique group. The examination included the comparison of conjunctival graft attachment and histologic examination by microscopically was done to obtain the wound gap, then analyze by Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the graft attachment was significantly better-using albumen glue (grade 4) compared to suture (grade 2-3) on day-1 after surgery (p=0,000). The wound gap was smaller using albumen glue (0-0,33 μm versus 5,33-14 μm ; p=0,0005) on 10 minutes after surgery and 0 μm versus 0,33-4 μm ; p=0,0005 on day-7 after surgery. In conclusion, the graft attachment using albumen glue was better and the wound gap was smaller using albumen glue than suture technique.

  7. Breeding value prediction for production traits in layer chickens using pedigree or genomic relationships in a reduced animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chicken breeding line. Methods The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records). The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Results Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight. PMID:21255418

  8. Breeding value prediction for production traits in layer chickens using pedigree or genomic relationships in a reduced animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chicken breeding line. Methods The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records. The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Results Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight.

  9. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aeration of the shell membranes of avian eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R S; Piiper, J

    1988-01-01

    The inner and outer shell membranes (ISM, OSM) of fertile hen's eggs become aerated during the first ten days of incubation. The volume of gas in the compound membrane increases from 0 to 65% by day 11 when practically all of the space between the fibers is gas filled. The amount of gas depends on a balance between the capillary tension produced by fluid menisci in the interstices between fibers and the colloid osmotic tension of the albumen. Capillary tension, measured directly with a pressure plate apparatus, and colloid osmotic pressure, measured with a new technique, are in virtual equilibrium during aeration. These tensions increase from 0.15 bar at laying to 2.25 bar on day 11 because of evaporation from the membranes and active removal of water from the albumen by the embryo. Water leaving the membranes by evaporation is only partly replaced from the albumen. Thus the water contents of the membranes and albumen decrease (ISM: 79 to 56%, OSM: 71 to 52%, albumen: 86 to 58%). As the membranes dry, gas enters the larger pores first. Physiological estimates of effective radius show smaller (x = 1.3 micrograms), bimodally distributed pores in the ISM and larger (x = 3.4 micrograms), unimodally distributed pores in the OSM.

  11. Relationship between egg weight, hatch weight and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...

  12. Egg traits, fertility, hatchability and chick survivability of Rhode Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating egg traits, hatchability, fertility, chick hatch weight, and chick survivability of commercial Rhode Island Red (RIR), local, and crossbred chickens. A total of 6752 local chicken eggs were collected to obtain breeding stock and to study egg traits. RIR breeding stock was obtained from raising 250 ...

  13. The effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim

    Egg yolk from Group B had higher levels of c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 CLA than the control group. The ratio of total saturated to unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) increased 2.4-fold in the eggs from CLA-fed hens. CLA eggs stored at 4 ºC had higher pH values in yolk and lower pH values in albumen compared to those from the ...

  14. Identification of distinctive interdomain interactions among ZP-N, ZP-C and other domains of zona pellucida glycoproteins underlying association of chicken egg-coat matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Hiroki; Sato, Takahiro; Sakuma, Rio; Fukushima, Hideaki; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Ujita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate egg coat, including mammalian zona pellucida, is an oocyte-specific extracellular matrix comprising two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. The egg coat plays important roles in fertilization, especially in species-specific interactions with sperm to induce the sperm acrosome reaction and to form the block to polyspermy. It is suggested that the physiological functions of the egg coat are mediated and/or regulated coordinately by peptide and carbohydrate moieties of the Z...

  15. Mimicking cataract-induced visual dysfunction by means of protein denaturation in egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.

  16. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...

  17. Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the localization and to compare methods for isolation of minute Ascaridia galli larvae in chicken intestine. Firstly, six 7-week-old layer pullets were orally infected with 2,000 embryonated A. galli eggs and necropsied either at 3, 5 or 7 days post infection...

  18. EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL! Of all the different kinds of foods, an egg is special for its combination of all essential food nutrients in one item. Chicken eggs have an average weight of (~50g) with two distinct parts that have distinct nutritional values: the yolk (17g); and white (33g).

  19. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  20. effects of various oil source on performance, egg quality, fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esmedd

    Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of eggs and blood lipids ... weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 ...... lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.

  1. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  2. OPTIMALISASI PEMBERIAN PUTIH TELUR AYAM RAS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMEKARAN KERUPUK IKAN BELUT (OPTIMIZATION OF RAS CHICKEN EGG WHITE GIVING TO INCREASE EFFLORESCENCE EEL FISH CRACKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Candra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari konsentrasi putih telur yang optimal untuk meningkatkan kemekaran kerupuk ikan belut dengan perlakuan A tanpa pemberian putoh telur, perlakuan B penambahan putih telur 25 ml, perlakuan C penambahan putih telur 50 ml dan perlakuan D penambahan putih telur 75 ml.  Semua perlakuan dilakukan ulangan tiga kali ulangan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap.  Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar protein, kadar air, kadar karbohidrat, uji kerenyahan, uji kemekaran dan uji sensoris.  Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan  pemberian putih telur mampu meningkatkan kandungan protein dan kemekaran dan kerenyahan kerupuk ikan belut serta memenuhi Standar Industri Indonesia. This study aims to find the optimal concentration of egg whites to increase efflorescence swamp eel crackers with treatment A without giving egg white, egg white treatment B adding 25 ml, treatment C the addition of 50 ml of egg white and egg white treatment D adding 75 ml. All treatments are performed replications with three replications completely randomized design. Parameters measured were protein content, moisture content, carbohydrate content, crispness test, efflorescence and sensory test. Based on the results of this study concluded giving egg whites to increase the protein content and efflorescence and crispy swamp eel crackers and meet industry standards of Indonesia.

  3. Effect of dietary 15N-CCC on 15N content of meat and eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Udo ter Meulen

    2Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Jambi University, Kampus Pinang Masak Mendalo Darat, Jambi ... and egg albumen were dependent on dietary 15N-CCC concentrations and differed significantly between tissues for ..... Biochemical behaviour in 2-chloroethyl trimethylammonium chloride in wheat and in.

  4. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  5. Effect of Some Egg Quality Traits on Hatching Results in Brown Pure Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the influence of eggshell thickness, albumen height, yolk height and haugh unit on hatching results. A total of 746 eggs, which were obtained and evaluated for egg quality parameters from 100 brown pure line hens of 42 weeks of age, were used. Eggs were collected from each hen for 12 days and individual incubation was carried out. Eggs were grouped based on quality parameters and evaluated accordingly. The findings suggested that hatchability, hatchability of fertile eggs, early, mid and late embryonic mortality did not differ in terms of haugh unit, albumen height, eggshell thickness and yolk height groups. However, early embryonic mortality was found different between the yolk height groups. No relationship was determined among albumen height, haugh unit, eggshell thickness and hatching results. There was no relation between yolk height and hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability, mid and late embryonic mortalities but was a positive correlation with early embryonic mortality. The results of the present study demonstrate that egg quality parameters studied here had no influence on hatching results except that early embryonic mortality increased with the yolk height.

  6. PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICALQUALITYOFOPAQUE, SANITIZED, AND CHILLED QUAIL EGGS EXPERIMENTALLY CONTAMINATED WITH Salmonella enteric SER. TYPHIMURIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Ribeiro Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of Japanese quail eggs artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. The eggs were sanitized and stored at different temperatures (between 5 and 25 ºC for 27 days. We used 768 eggs with opaque shells, typical pigments of the species, and average weight of 11 g. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (contamination x sanitation x cooling with six replications and one egg per experimental unit. The eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 x 105 colony forming unit (CFU of Salmonella. Typhimurium / mL and sanitized according to the treatments with a 5 ppm Cl solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and t test. Bacterial contamination has damaged the egg weight, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen, and pH of yolk and albumen, from 18 days of storage. The egg storage time and storage temperature affected the internal quality of quail eggs in all variables. The worst internal quality was observed in eggs stored at 25 ºC. The sanitation and cooling reduced the growth of Salmonella in contaminated eggs. Eggs in opaque shell, when not refrigerated, should be consumed within 18 days after laying. Keywords: opaque shell; quail eggs; Salmonella Typhimurium; sanitization; storage.

  7. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  8. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  9. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90% were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes. Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of

  10. Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  11. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    /kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced...... with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  12. The effect of the clove essential oil to the production and quality of lyaing hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum essential oil to the egg production parameters and egg quality of laying hens. A total of 40 Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 4 groups (n = 10. The laying hens were fed 20 weeks ad libitum. The control group was fed with complete feed mixtures without additives. The first group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.3 mg.kg-1 of clove essential oil. The second group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.6 mg.kg-1 of clove oil and the third group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 1 mg.kg-1 of clove oil. Egg production, egg weight (g, specific egg weight, albumen weight (g, albumen index, Haugh Units (HU, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (HLR were studied. The results show that the addition of clove oil, especially in the group of laying hens with the addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had no significantly different (P>0.05 to the egg production (the order of the groups: 90.3; 91.8; 91.3; 92.6 %. In egg weight were found no significant differences between groups. The addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced the albumen index and the addition of 0.6 mg.kg-1 and 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced Haugh units. In the control group was found not significant (P>0.05 different in yolk weight compared with other groups. In the other parameters of egg quality (albumen weight, yolk index, yolk colour with the addition of clove oil were found no significant differences between groups.

  13. Beak Amputation Effects on Performance and Egg Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of beak amputation on performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens. A total of 132 native layers (Yacon) chickens were obtained from a commercial hatchery for the study. There were four treatments in which upper and lower beaks were amputated at ...

  14. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  15. The use of serotype 1-and serotype 3-specific polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Marek's disease virus in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Nielsen, Ole L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2001-01-01

    and ovaries. The detection of MDV in feather tips appeared to be as sensitive as co-cultivation of buffy-coat cells, although an inhibiting factor was observed in extracts from feather tips of non-white chickens. This inhibition could be overcome in most extracts by applying a bovine serum albumen...

  16. Association of Beta2-Positive Clostridium perfringens Type A With Focal Duodenal Necrosis in Egg-Laying Chickens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, M; Barrios, M A; Stabler, L; Zavala, Guillermo; Shivaprasad, H L; Lee, M D; Villegas, A M; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-03-01

    Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is a poorly understood intestinal disease of egg layers, and has been associated with drops in egg production and decreased egg weights. The etiology of this disease is still unknown, but the condition has been associated with Clostridium colinum and Clostridium perfringens. In order to investigate the etiology, duodenal samples were taken from hens with FDN. The hens originated from table egg layer farms in three states. The samples were examined by histopathology, bacteriology, and immunohistochemistry. Macroscopically, all samples contained focal to multifocal, variably sized, reddened or brownish gray areas of mucosal erosion. Histopathology revealed mild to severe heterophilic and lymphoplasmacytic enteritis with loss of enterocytes at the villous tips, luminal fibrinonecrotic exudate, and variable numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria within the lesions in 16/30 samples. Clostridium perfringens was isolated by anaerobic bacteriology from 4/13 samples that had characteristic microscopic lesions of FDN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that all four isolates were Type A C. perfringens, positive for beta2 gene and negative for necrotic enteritis toxin B and enterotoxin genes. PCR for Clostridium colinum applied to DNA extracted from frozen intestinal samples yielded negative results in 14/14 duodenal samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 7C. perfringens, alpha and beta2 toxins stained a few to numerous long rod-shaped bacteria present in the lesions. IHC for alpha and beta2 toxins also stained enterocytes at the villous tips, inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, as well as degenerated and sloughed enterocytes present within the luminal exudate. These findings suggest that C. perfringens may play a role in the development of FDN. Experimental challenge studies with these isolates still need to be performed in order to reproduce the disease and fulfill Koch's postulates.

  17. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens. Three hundred and sixty indigenous Venda chicken eggs were collected for a period of a week and selection was done based on the weight of the eggs.

  18. Potential of Dried Egg Yolk as a Source of Immunoglobulins to Control Salmonella in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Marcq, Christopher; Portetelle, Daniel; Chalghoumi, RAJA; André THEWIS; Beckers, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) are considered as a promising tool of establishing passive immunity against enteric pathogens (e.g. Salmonella) in poultry (Kovacs-Nolan and Mine, 2005). In our previous works, in-feed incorporation of freeze-dried yolk powder (FYP) improved performances of Salmonella-infected broilers (Marcq et al., 2009). Nevertheless, no extra value could be attributed to the presence of specific IgY when a comparison was done between impact of hyperimmune or non immune FYP b...

  19. Effect of chicken egg anti-F4 antibodies on performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+-challenged piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Aluko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of spay-dried whole egg containing anti-F4 antibodies (SDWE against recombinantly produced F4 antigens in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ (ETEC-challenged piglets. Twenty-seven 21-d-old and individually housed piglets were randomly allotted to 3 treatments consisting of a wheat-soybean meal basal diet containing either 0 (control egg powder; CEP, 0.1% (SDWE1 or 0.4% (SDWE2 SDWE. After a 7-d adaptation period, blood samples were collected from all pigs, and pigs were weighed and orally challenged with an ETEC inoculum. Blood was sampled at 24 and 48 h post-challenge, and diarrhea incidences and scores were recorded. On d 14, all pigs were weighed and then euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for histomorphology measurement. During the pre-challenge period, pigs fed the SDWE showed a linear improvement (P < 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and gain to feed ratio (G:F, but there were no differences among treatments in growth performance during the post-challenge period. Diarrhea incidences and scores, fecal shedding of ETEC, plasma urea nitrogen content and intestinal histomorphology were similar among treatments. The results show that 0.4% SDWE supported greater piglet performance before challenge although such benefits were not evident during the post-challenge period at either 0.1% or 0.4% supplementation.

  20. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  1. Luminescence color as a characteristic for selection in poultry eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalova, Natalya B.; Vasiljeva, Ludmilia T.; Zamorskaja, Tatjana; Bychajev, Al.

    1996-12-01

    This work concerns luminescence of egg shell and chick down and livability and egg production of hens. It was established that the best layers showed orange color of egg shell luminescence at the beginning of the laying period. Yellow color of chick down luminescence indicates on the chicken's good development especially concerning its digestive and circulatory systems, and connects with its future high livability and egg production. So the use of the color of luminescence is advisable as an additional characteristic providing good possibility to forecast the development of a chicken, its resistance for stressors, its livability and egg production afterwards.

  2. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  3. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  4. Effect of probiotics and humic acid on egg production and internal quality parameters of laying hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the influence of probiotic preparation based on lactobacillus, probiotic preparation based on enterococci or humic acid on egg production and selected internal egg quality parameters of laying hens hybrid Lohman Brown Lite. For housing hens (n ​​= 60 three storey enriched battery cage was used in which hens were divided in groups (n = 15. In the control group of hens complete feed mixtures without any additions were fed. In the first experimental group complete feed mixture was enriched with probiotic lactobacilli based preparation in a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. In the second experimental group probiotic enterococci based preparation was added to the feed mixture at a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. The third experimental group was enriched with 0.5% concentration of humic acid. All groups were fed ad libitum. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily. Complete analysis of the table egg quality was used to evaluate quality parameters: yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index. The results show that supplementation of feed mixture with both kind probiotics as well as humic acid increased egg production (P>0.05 (values of average intensity of laying in the order of the groups: 90.5; 91.9; 91.6 and 92.3 %. The addition of probiotics also positively influenced egg weight (P>0.05. The qualitative parameters of egg internal content were with probiotics or humic acids addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. Doses of supplements used in this study did not significant negatively influenced monitored egg quality parameters. Based on these findings and the beneficial effects of substances on the poultry health confirmed by other authors we recommend use of these substances as supplements to the feed mixtures for laying hens.

  5. Effect of dietary organic selenium and zinc on the internal egg quality of quail eggs for different periods and under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Fernandez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal quality of eggs of Japanese quails fed diets supplemented with chelated selenium and zinc. The experiment was carried out for 120 days, and 144 birds were divided in random blocks into four treatments (control; 0.3 ppm Se; 60 ppm Zn and 0.3 ppm Se + 60 ppm Zn. Ten, 14, 18, and 22 weeks after the beginning of lay, eggs were collected and stored under two different temperatures (environmental temperature or refrigeration and for 10, 20, and 30 days. Eggs were analyzed for: Haugh units (HU, albumen height (AH, yolk index (YI, and albumen index (AI. Parameters were only statistically influenced by the interaction between dietary treatment and storage time. It was concluded that the addition of organic Se and Zn influenced internal egg quality when eggs were stored up to 20 days, independently of storage temperature, suggesting that the combined supplementation of organic Se and Zn improve internal egg quality and extend egg shelf life.

  6. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF PULLETS AND SPENT LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. YASMEEN, S. MAHMOOD1, M. HASSAN, N. AKHTAR AND M. YASEEN2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Production performance and egg quality characteristics of pullets and spent layers were compared in this study. Forty birds, each from the flocks of pullets (24 weeks old and spent layers (76 weeks old were selected as experimental birds. The birds from each age group were divided into five replicates, each comprising of eight birds. All the experimental birds were fed a commercial layer ration @ 110g/bird/day for 12 weeks. The data on egg production, feed consumption, egg weight and egg quality characteristics viz. shell thickness, shell weight, breaking strength, albumen diameter, albumen weight and yolk weight were recorded. The data thus collected were utilized for calculation of FCR, Haugh unit and yolk index values. The results revealed that pullets produced more eggs and utilized their feed more efficiently than spent layers. However, egg weight in spent layers was higher than in their counterparts. Pullets also produced eggs with thicker shell and higher Haugh unit values when compared to the spent layers. Feed consumption and yolk index values remained unaffected due to the age. Pullets also had better egg quality characteristics than those of spent layers.

  7. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  8. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most options. That's where you'll find vegan foods that are made without eggs or egg products. When preparing your own food, you can substitute one of these egg alternatives in your recipes. Each of these replaces one egg (these substitutes ...

  9. Gross morphology and ultrastructural study of albumen gland of the land snail Archachatina marginata ovum (Pfeiffer) (Pulmonata: Achatinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonmwan, Rosemary I

    2007-01-15

    The gross morphology of the albumen gland of the edible land snail Archachatina marginata ovum (Pfeiffer) was studied by measurement of the shell length of the snails and wet weight of albumen gland of specimens collected from wild. Additionally, the structure of the albumen gland was studied by light and electron microscopy. The gland is large during the breeding season and there is no correlation between its weigh and the shell length of the snail. The albumen gland is made up of tubules which consist of closely packed single layer of elongated columnar secretory cells arranged radially around a central lumen. The secretory cells have large nuclei, secretory granules and are densely packed with rough endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory cells of the albumen gland produce secretions which are massively stored in their cytoplasm. Two types of secretions were identified, small droplets and large globules. The large globule was so extensive that the diameter of the cell was greatly reduced. TEM shows that the secretory globules contain fine morular granules characteristic of glycogen in several cell types and probably beta-glycogen.

  10. Schistosoma mansoni: changes in the albumen gland of Biomphalaria glabrata snails selected for nonsusceptibility to the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, C; Ofori, K; Acholonu, S; Miller, A; Richards, C; Lewis, F; Knight, M

    1995-12-01

    The LAC-line strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata has very low susceptibility to the parasite Schistosoma mansoni and a very low reproductive potential. Upon examination of the reproductive tract of these snails, light and electron microscopy revealed obvious abnormalities in the albumen gland. Secretory cells that are normally cuboidal in susceptible NMRI (F0) snails were squamous in LAC-line snails. These LAC-line cells contained small secretory granules and negligible rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, compared to large granules and an extensive array of both organelles in F0 albumen gland cells. Comparative analyses of soluble protein extracts of F0 and LAC-line albumen glands showed several qualitative differences. Among the most prominent was an 18-kDa protein in F0 snails that was remarkably reduced in the soluble protein extracts of LAC-line snails. Also, metabolic incorporation of [35S]-methionine was impaired in LAC-line albumen glands. Whether these albumen gland changes are caused by decreased susceptibility to parasitism is yet to determined.

  11. Egg weight and egg shell thickness as affected by dietary calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded levels of dietary inclusions of oyster shell and bone meal were used as calcium sources to determine their influence on egg weight and egg thickness for laying chicken in cages, under tropical conditions. Birds were allocated at random to 8% oyster shell and 2% bone meal in treatment 1; 7% and 3% in treatment II; ...

  12. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  13. Characterization of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs) specific for the most prevalent capsular serotypes of mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Li-Ji; You, Jian-Song; Zhou, Ye; Li, Shu-Ying; Xu, Yong-Ping

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the potential of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs) for treating mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Specific IgY against type 5 (IgY-T5), type 8 (IgY-T8) and type 336 (IgY-T336) S. aureus strains were obtained by immunizing hens with whole cell vaccines and the IgY produced were then purified to around 80% purity using a water dilution method coupled with salting out and ultra-filtration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that the IgY specifically targeted the three homologous strains. A growth inhibition assay was performed in Columbia broth (non-encapsulated form) and phosphate-buffered saline (encapsulated form) for an 8h incubation. The results showed that IgY-T336 significantly inhibited (but only 1.5 log units; P<0.01) the growth of all three strains at 15 mg/ml in the Columbia broth. In contrast, the same concentrations of IgY-T5 and IgY-T8 did not show obvious bacteriostatic activity against the two homologous strains. In phosphate buffered saline, no inhibition of the two encapsulated strains was observed with IgY-T5, IgY-T8 and IgY-T336. However, IgY-T336 reduced live bacteria by 1.0 log unit against strain 336 compared with the control. An internalization test indicated that all of the specific IgY (at 5mg/ml) significantly (about 3.0 log units of the control; P<0.01) blocked the internalization of their homologous strains by bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) within 6h. These results suggested that research on the application of IgY as a treatment for mastitis caused by S. aureus should be focused on the internalization inhibition activity rather than on the growth inhibition activity of the IgY. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...

  15. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  16. The effects of different levels of L-carnitine and fat on performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. REZAEI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine is used as feed additive in poultry diets to increase yield and to improve feed efficiency. The major role of L-carnitine appears to be the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for ƒÀ oxidation. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of two levels of fat (10 and 30 g kg-1 DM and two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 250 mg kg-1 on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in a factorial arrangement (2~2 with completely randomized design with six replicates and four laying hens in each replicate. During the experiment feed intake, egg weight, egg production, feed conversion ratio, and some blood parameters (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, egg quality (albumen height, egg shell thickness, egg shell breaking strength, and cholesterol content of eggs were measured. Results of this experiment indicated that supplementation of L-carnitine in laying hens diets had not significant effect on performance, cholesterol content of eggs, but decreased the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL in blood serum and increased albumen height of eggs significantly (p

  17. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  18. Development of Local Chicken Production Based on Local Feed Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of local chicken production based on local feed ingredient is in line with the vision of Indonesian goverment to fulfill meat and egg national requirement based on local resources. There are two big problem which become stumblingblock in developing local chicken production. The first problem is the difficulty to get day old chick of local chicken. This problem can be solved by integrating breeder institutions belong to goverment with research institution and with local chicken producer association. The second problem is the low performance of local chicken. To improve local chicken performance, it can be done by improving the breed, feed and management. Several research results show that good performance of local chicken were obtained by inclusion of local feed ingredients in the ration. Therefore, development of local chicken production based an local feed resources can be applied.

  19. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) of baking powder for each egg. When you're cutting out eggs, you'll want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  20. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  1. Managing Colllinearity in Modeling the Effect of Age in the Prediction of Egg Components of Laying Hens Using Stepwise and Ridge Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM Shafey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The relationships between egg measurements [egg weight (EGWT, egg width (EGWD, egg shape index (EGSI, egg volume (EGV and egg density (EGD], and egg components [eggshell (SWT, yolk (YWT and albumen (AWT] were investigated in laying hens with 32, 45, and 59 weeks of age with an objective of managing multicollinearity (MC, using stepwise regression (SR and ridge regression (RR analyses. There were significant correlations among egg traits that led to MC problems in all eggs. Hen age influenced egg characteristics and the magnitude of the correlations among egg characteristics. Eggs produced at older age had significantly (p<0.01 higher EGWT, EGWD, EGV, YWT and AWT than those produced at younger age. The SR model alleviated MC problem in eggs produced at 32 weeks, with condition index greater than 30, and one predictor, EGWT had a model fit predicted egg components with R2 ranged from 60 to 99%. The SR model of eggs produced at 45 and 59 weeks indicated MC problem with variance inflation factors (VIF values greater than 10, and 4 predictors; EGWT, EGWD, EGV and EGD had a model fit that significantly predicted egg components with R2 % ranged from 76 to 99 %. The RR analysis provided lower VIF values than 10 and eliminated the MC problem for eggs produced at any age group. It is concluded that the RR analysis provided an ideal solution for managing the MC problem and successfully predicting egg components of laying hens from egg measurements.

  2. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K

    2001-01-01

    and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...

  3. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahuatte, Paola F; Lincango, M P; Heimpel, G E; Causton, C E

    2016-01-01

    .... downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d...

  4. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: an indication of polluted effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif; Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Ghafri, Sabha; Al-Amri, Issa; Alkindi, Abdulaziz

    2009-05-01

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  5. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal.

  6. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  7. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu

    2017-06-01

    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Predictive ability of egg production models | Oni | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The monthly egg production data of a strain of Rhode Island chickens were used to compare three mathematical models (the Parabolic exponential, Wood's Gamma and modified Gamma by McNally) on their ability to predict 52 week total egg production from part-production at 16, 20, and 24 weeks, on a hen-housed basis.

  9. Development of a novel whole egg pasteurisation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As a highly nutritious and inexpensive protein food, chicken eggs are accepted in most cultures. The safety of eggs has become an issue of global concern with the emergence of the pathogen Salmonella enteritidis as a major hazard associated...

  10. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Andri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42% were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control; T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil; T3: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder; T4: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder. Variable observed in this research were egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova based on Completely Randomized Design, if significant effect appear was then continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that there were no significant effect (P>0.05 of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight of local ducks. The conclusion of this research is that there was no effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks.

  11. Traceability of animal meals in Japanese quail eggs using the technique of 13C e 15N* stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen by the technique of carbon-13 (13C and nitrogen-15 (15N stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%. After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.

  12. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  13. Quality of organic eggs of hybrid and Italian breed hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, C; Marangon, A

    2012-09-01

    The quality of eggs laid by 2 hybrid and 2 Italian dual-purpose genotypes of hens reared under organic farming system was studied. Hens belonging to Hy-Line Brown (brown eggshell, HLB), Hy-Line White (white eggshell, HLW), Ermellinata di Rovigo (brown eggshell, E), and Robusta maculata (brown eggshell, R) genotypes were reared from 24 to 43 wk of age. The trial was carried out from July to December, with environmental temperature ranging from 25°C (±5°C, summer) to 13°C (±7°C, autumn). The HLB eggs were heavier (P HLB, HLW, R, and E (40.7, 38.3, 32.7, 34.1 g, respectively). The E and R yolk weights were similar (16.2 g) and higher (P HLB (15.8 vs. 15.5 g). The HLB showed the highest (P HLB yolk had the lowest (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids (33.8 vs. 34.9%), and R yolks showed the lowest (P < 0.01) monounsaturated fatty acids (36.3 vs. 38.0%) and the highest (P < 0.01) polyunsaturated fatty acids (28.7 vs. 27.4%) than the other groups. The HLW yolk showed the highest (P < 0.01) n-6/n-3 ratio (13.7) in comparison to the other 3 groups (12.8). During 21 d of storage (at 21°C and 62% RH), the E eggs showed the lowest (P < 0.01) quality (albumen height, 4.93 vs. 5.56 mm; Haugh units, 71 vs. 74). A sensory profile of boiled eggs showed differences (P < 0.05) in odor and flavor sensations and in certain yolk and albumen texture properties according to genotype. The quality of organic eggs from different genotypes differs in relation to the strain but also the interaction with the environmental conditions has to be considered.

  14. ACTION EGG PRODUCTION C.F. Saunders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    free enterprise. The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the options available and the actions necessary in structuring a viable and dynamic egg industry for the future. Structural Evolution. Earlier, chickens and other ... physiology, husbandry, business management, shorten- ing marketing channels and food ...

  15. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Evaluation of Muscodor cinnamomi as an egg biofumigant for the reduction of microorganisms on eggshell surfaces and its effect on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kaewyana, Chariya; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Kumla, Jaturong; Matsui, Kenji; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-03-06

    The presence of microorganisms on the eggshell surface is a factor of consideration in determining egg quality. These microorganisms can contribute to egg spoilage and can infect the egg. In this study, 18 morphotypes of microorganisms were isolated from eggshells. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses were used to identify these morphotypes into 7 species; Bacillus drentensis, Staphylococcus arlettae, Stap. cohnii, Stap. kloosii, Stap. saprophyticus, Stap. sciuri and Stap. xylosus. The potential of Muscodor cinnamomi to reduce the presence of microorganisms on eggshells by biological fumigation was investigated. The result showed that 16 strains of the tested microorganisms were inactivated after the exposure of the fungal volatile organic compounds. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. Our results indicated that a 24-h period of fumigation of 100g rye grain culture of M. cinnamomi was the minimum dose that could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms on the eggshell surface. Fumigated eggs from both box and cabinet fumigation trials showed significantly lower microbial numbers on the eggshell than non-fumigated eggs during the storage period of 14days. It was found that the values of the yolk index, albumen index and the Haugh unit of the eggs decreased during this storage time. However, those values of the fumigated eggs from both fumigation trials were found to be significantly higher than the non-fumigated eggs after the 24-h fumigation period and following storage for 5, 7 and 14days. However, the values of the albumen index were not found to have significantly increased over 5days of the box trial. This study is the first to report on mycofumigation activity for the purposes of reducing the presence of microorganisms on the surface of eggshells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertility and hatchability potentials of ShikaBrown® chickens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six hundred ShikaBrown® chickens fertile eggs were sourced, incubated and 21 weeks old ShikaBrown® layers were used for studying some external egg quality traits. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (SAS 9); Univariate was applied to test the effects of age and body weight on external egg quality ...

  18. Effect of dietary protein sources and storage temperatures on egg internal quality of stored shell eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality (Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk hardness and yolk springiness of eggs when stored at either 4 or 28°C for 28 d. A total of 288 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to 6 treatment groups (4 replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage temperatures (4 and 28°C as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 216 eggs was collected for egg internal quality determination. The results showed as follows: 1 lower egg quality was observed in the DRM group compared with the other groups when stored at 4 and 28°C for 28 d (P < 0.05, while there was no difference in egg internal quality among the other groups. 2 The CSP diet resulted in higher yolk hardness compared with the other diets when eggs were stored at 4°C for 28 d (P < 0.05. Lower Haugh unit was observed in the DRM and SBM-DRM groups compared with the other groups when eggs were stored for 28 d at 4°C (P < 0.05. 3 Yolk breakage occurred in the DRM group and eggs could not be analyzed for egg internal quality when stored at 28°C for 28 d. The overall results indicated that CSP or DRM as the sole dietary protein source for laying hens may adversely affect the internal quality of stored eggs as compared with the SBM diet, and half replacement of CSP combined with SBM may maintain similar egg quality to SBM diet alone for eggs stored under refrigerated conditions.

  19. Traits of eggshells and shell membranes of translucent eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-He; Li, Ya-Jie; Liu, Long; Liu, Jing-Shou; Bao, Man; Yang, Ning; Zhuo-Cheng, Hou; Ning, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Translucent eggshells negatively affect the appearance of eggs and decrease their economic value. Translocation and accumulation of water from the contents to the shells of eggs are frequent occurrences. Causes of translucent eggshell formation have been investigated, but the primary reason is uncertain. In previous studies, scientists have found that the thickness of the eggshell membrane was significantly different between translucent and opaque eggs. However, there are some conflicts among studies. We performed 2 experiments with 3 breeding flocks of chickens to target the reasons for egg translucence. In experiment 1, eggs of 1,024 Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers (DWL) were used. Approximately 1,600 eggs were collected over 2 consecutive days. They were stored for 3 days, and then 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs were selected for measurement of egg quality traits and weight loss over several weeks. In experiment 2, we used DWL and White Leghorn pure line (WLL) for assessment of eggshell ultrastructure and membrane traits. We chose 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs from 3,500 DWL eggs and 125 translucent and 125 opaque eggs from 5,028 WLL eggs. The results are as follows: (1) translucent eggs had greater eggshell strength and lower ultimate failure stress of shell membrane than opaque eggs in both DWL and WLL groups, (2) translucent eggs had thicker shells and thinner shell membranes than opaque eggs in DWL, (3) no significant differences were found in either gas pore or bubble pore traits between translucent and opaque eggs in either line, and (4) no significant differences were detected in internal egg quality or weight loss between translucent and opaque eggs in either line. In summary, the present study suggests that variations in both eggshells and shell membrane structures are implicated in the formation of translucent eggs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens' diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (P<0.05). A total of 15 proteins, accounting for 75% of egg white proteins with various biological functions of egg whites, were found to be reduced. This finding may relate to the decrease of albumen quality in the CSM100 group. Oviduct magnum morphology and hormone analysis indicated that a reduced level of plasma progesterone caused reduced growth of the tubular gland and epithelial cells in the magnum, further decreasing egg white protein synthesis in the magnum. These findings help demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of a CSM diet that cause adverse effects on albumen quality, while also showing that SBM should not be totally replaced with CSM in a hen diet.

  1. Effects of Storage Methods and Lenght of Storage on some Quality Parameters of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudusola, IO.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of Japanese quail eggs, as affected by storage method and length in 21days, were assessed using 140 eggs collected from 7-week old birds. Eggs were stored using refrigeration, oiling, black polythene bag or on a tray at room temperature (30 oc as a control. This study determines the best storage condition and optimum storage length storage for quail eggs. Egg quality parameters measured included egg weight, shell weight, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, haugh unit and egg weight loss. Effects on the chemical composition of eggs were determined with proximate analysis. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA with storage method and duration as the two main effects. There were progressive increases in weight losses with increased length of storage for all storage methods. Haugh units decreased progressively per storage method as length of storage increased (P< 0.05. Control and refrigeration methods do not differ significantly in all proximate composition except for protein. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 in length of storage for all proximate composition. Eggs maintained desired internal quality when stored for 4 days at room temperature. Refrigeration could be used for storage of eggs up to 7 days; where it is unavailable oiling could be used.

  2. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by

  3. Physicochemical and microscopic characterization of dehydrated ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of ostrich eggs are infertile and can be consumed by humans, however, its high volume and perishability indicate the need of appropriate technological processes. Thus, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition of in natura ostrich eggs, as well as physical, chemical and microscopic parameters of ostrich egg products after dehydration. The chemical composition of in natura ostrich and chicken eggs was determined. Ostrich egg whites, yolks and whole eggs were fermented and dried in mini spray-dryer. After dehydration, yield, composition and particle diameter of egg products collected in the cyclone and spray-dryer chamber were evaluated. In natura ostrich egg white and yolk showed higher protein (respectively 15.21% and 11.54% and fat (respectively 38.48% and 0.34% contents, when compared to chicken eggs. Samples collected from the cyclone showed a lower moisture content and better particle diameter uniformity. The ostrich egg products presented satisfactory yield, uniformity and nutritional value, demonstrating that the spray-dryer technique is another alternative for conservation and use of this food for human consumption.

  4. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  5. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  6. Glycerin from biodiesel in the feeding of red-egg layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielly Stefany Pinto Fontinele

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetable glycerin on performance and egg quality of red-egg layers in the second production cycle. A total of 252 Hy-Line Brown layers weighing 1.919 ± 0.095 kg, at 90 weeks, were used in a completely randomized design with six treatments and seven birds per replication. The experiment lasted 84 days. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no glycerin and five diets with increasing levels of vegetable glycerin (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%. The following variables were evaluated: feed intake (g/bird/day; egg production (%; egg weight (g; egg mass (g/bird/day; conversion per egg mass (kg kg and per dozen eggs (kg/dz; percentages of albumen, yolk, and shell; eggshell thickness (mm; and egg specific gravity. (Y = 67.69 + 54.23X, R2 = 0.78 and egg mass (Y = 44.84 + 42.87X, R2 = 0.66 improved linearly with the glycerin levels. A quadratic effect was observed (Y = 114.11 + 336.96 X – 3,169.6 X2, R2 = 0.52 on feed intake. In conclusion, glycerin can be used to partially replace corn in diets for layers in the second production cycle at inclusion levels of up to 10%.

  7. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Behaviorally Induced Camouflage: A New Mechanism of Avian Egg Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayani-Parás, Fernando; Kilner, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    When animals potentially occupy diverse microhabitats, how can camouflage be achieved? Here we combine descriptive and experimental methods to uncover a novel form of phenotypic plasticity in the camouflage of bird eggs that may be present in other avian taxa. Soil from the bare substrate adheres to the blue-footed booby's (Sula nebouxii's) pale eggs, which parents manipulate both under and on top of their webs. Analysis of digital images confirmed that dirtiness increases progressively during the first 16 days of the incubation period, making eggs more similar to the nest substrate. Observations of 3,668 single-egg clutches showed that the probability of egg loss declines progressively over the same time frame and then remains low for the rest of the 41-day incubation period. An experiment showed that when chicken eggs are soiled and exposed in artificial booby nests, they are less likely to be taken by Heermann's gulls (Larus heermanni) than clean eggs.

  9. Quality Changes of N-3 PUFAs Enriched and Conventional Eggs under Different Home Storage Conditions with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs are popular for their enrichment of PUFAs, but their freshness and quality are prone to decline with time, particularly if storage conditions are not well maintained. Home storage is the last but a neglected important tach in eggs supply chain, but few studies are available on the egg storage in the home stage. This study aimed to evaluate the internal quality change of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs by simulating eggs stored at consumers’ home in refrigeration and under room temperature. The egg quality indices (Haugh unit, yolk index, weight, and albumen pH were adopted and analyzed for both storage conditions. Wireless sensor network (WSN was used for real-time monitoring of the temperature and humidity during storage. The results showed that temperature, humidity and time of storage all have an influence on the freshness of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and there is no significant difference happened to n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs and conventional eggs. Refrigeration can decelerate the quality deterioration of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and consumers should be educated about how to maintain the internal quality of eggs during home storage.

  10. Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low Body Weight Lines of Crossbred normal Feather, Naked Neck and Frizzle Chicken. ... Shell thickness was not significantly different in both body weight lines, while yolk index ...

  11. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2017-10-06

    Windisch et al., 2008; Grashorn,. 2010). To serve ... antioxidant-enriched Moringa pods on production performance, immunity, and bioactive compounds of chicken eggs ..... (2014) reported that no change in the immune response of.

  12. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    OpenAIRE

    Isao Oishi; Kyoko Yoshii; Daichi Miyahara; Hiroshi Kagami; Takahiro Tagami

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, ...

  13. Detection of Salmonella spp. by Conventional Bacteriology and by Quantitative Polymerase-Chain Reaction in Commercial Egg Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMC Moraes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional bacteriology techniques and quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (qPCR were applied to the eggshell, albumen, and yolk of washed and unwashed commercial white and brown eggs, to detect Salmonella spp. Pooled samples of eggshells, albumen, and yolk of white and brown eggs were collected at the poultry house and at the egg-storage room. Salmonella spp. was detected by conventional bacteriology in 5.4% (21/387 of analyzed samples and in 16% (68/387 by qPCR. In the 114 unwashed white eggs samples of eggshell, albumen and yolk, the bacterium was identified in 2.6% of the eggs (3/114 by conventional bacteriology and in 13.2% (15/114 by qPCR. In the 90 samples of washed eggs, 6.7% (6/90 were contaminated as detected by conventional bacteriology and 10.0% (9/90 by qPCR. In the 81 samples of unwashed brown eggs, Salmonella spp. was detected in 6.1% of the eggs (5/81 by conventional bacteriology and 27.2% (22/81 by qPCR. In the 102 samples of brown washed eggs, 6.9% (7/102 where positive by conventional bacteriology and 35.3% (16/102 by qPCR. All samples detected as positive by conventional bacteriology were also positive by qPCR. Salmonella Agona represented 18.2% (4/22 of identified serovars, Salmonella enterica subs. enterica O: 4.5 18.2% (4/22, Salmonella Schwarzengrund 18.2% (4/22, Salmonella Cerro 13.6% (3/22, Salmonella Anatum 13.6% (3/22, Salmonella Enteritidis 9.1% (2/22, Salmonella Johannesburg 4.5% (1/22, and Salmonella Corvallis 4.5% (1/22. The qPCR method provided better detection of Salmonella spp. in commercial eggs than conventional bacteriology. The conventional egg washing and disinfection procedures are not efficient to eliminate Salmonella.

  14. Oxidative stability and sensory and functional properties of eggs from laying hens fed supranutritional doses of vitamins E and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Sirri, F; Tallarico, N; Minelli, G; Iaffaldano, N; Meluzzi, A

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of vitamins E and C supplemented separately and together, on the content of vitamin E in the yolk, on the lipid stability of fresh and stored eggs, and on their sensory and functional properties. Hy-Line Brown hens (n = 216) received a basal diet for 8 wk supplemented with 100 or 200 mg DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (E100 or E200, respectively)/kg, 500 or 1,000 mg ascorbic acid (C500 and C1000, respectively)/kg, or 100 mg DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate plus 500 mg ascorbic acid (E100+C500)/kg, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Fresh eggs and eggs stored 30,60, and 90 d at 4 C or stored 28 d at room temperature were analyzed for vitamin E content and TBA-reactive substances (TBARS). We also evaluated functional properties of fresh and cooked eggs and sensory properties of boiled and scrambled eggs. The yolk content of vitamin E depended on the level of dietary addition and decreased after 90 d of storage at 4 C or after 28 d at 25 C. Vitamin supplementation had no effect on fresh or refrigerated eggs, whereas 4 wk of storage at room temperature increased TBARS in the control and the group supplemented with the highest doses of vitamins. Ascorbic acid improved Haugh units and elasticity of albumen gels, whereas cohesiveness and hardness of yolk, albumen and whole-egg gels were not affected by dietary treatment. Panelists were not able to distinguish treated eggs from control eggs.

  15. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  16. Proteomic analysis of egg white heparin-binding proteins: towards the identification of natural antibacterial molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Nicolas; Labas, Valérie; Harichaux, Grégoire; Chessé, Magali; Poirier, Jean-Claude; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The chicken egg resists most environmental microbes suggesting that it potentially contains efficient antimicrobial molecules. Considering that some heparin-binding proteins in mammals are antibacterial, we investigated the presence and the antimicrobial activity of heparin-binding proteins from chicken egg white. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins recovered after heparin-affinity chromatography, revealed 20 proteins, including known antimicrobial proteins (avidin, lysozyme, TENP, ova...

  17. Salmonella prevalence in commercial raw shell eggs in Japan: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Tsujiyama, Y; Asai, T; Noda, Y; Katayama, S; Yamada, Y

    2011-07-01

    We examined 20 300 raw shell chicken eggs sold at retail stores in Japan for Salmonella outside and inside eggs. The eggs were purchased at 220 retail stores throughout Japan between August 2007 and January 2008. Of 2030 pooled egg samples (10 eggs/sample), Salmonella was isolated from five shell samples (0.25%), but not from any of egg-content samples. The serovars of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis (2), S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Cerro. The samples positive for Salmonella originated from five different egg grading and packaging (GP) centres. All the GP centres washed their egg shells according to government guidelines for hygienic practice in GP centres. Thus, practical control measures at GP centres need to be reviewed and implemented to diminish Salmonella prevalence of egg shells because Salmonella contamination on eggs is a potential hazard for foodborne salmonellosis in Japan.

  18. Turmeric root and annato seed in second-cycle layer diets: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Laganá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of annato (Bixa orellana L. and turmeric (Turmeric longa L. in layer feeds on live performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation and depigmentation time. A number of 144 layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments with six replicates of six birds each. In the basal diet, sorghum replaced 50% of corn, and was supplemented or not with natural pigments to composse the following treatments: Control (0% pigments, AS (2.0% annato, TR (2% turmeric and ASTR (1% annato and 1% turmeric. Egg weight (g, egg production (%, egg mass (%, feed intake (g, feed conversion ratio (kg/dz and kg/kg and mortality were evaluated. The following egg quality parameters were evaluated: specific gravity (SG; yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentages, and yolk color. The treatments did not influence layer performance or egg quality parameters, except for egg production and yolk color. The dietary inclusion of 1% turmeric root and 1% annato seed promoted higher egg production. Diets containing annato resulted in more saturated, more intense, and redder yolk color, with increasing pigment deposition after day 10, with maximum values obtained on day 28. Dried turmeric root did not promote good yolk pigmentation, resulting in higher presence of white in the yolk, which was stabilized on day 4. Three days after pigments were withdrawn from the feeds, yolk color faded in the treatments with annato inclusion.

  19. Population dynamics of Ascaridia galli following single infection in young chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nejsum, Peter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The population dynamics of Ascaridia galli was studied in 70 ISA Brown layer pullets, 42 of them were each experimentally infected with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs and 28 chickens were kept as uninfected controls. Six chickens from the infected group and 4 from the control group were ne...

  20. Production of chickens with marginal vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E; Sijtsma, S R; Peters, H P; Rombout, J H; van der Zijpp, A J

    1992-07-01

    Marginally vitamin A-deficient 1-d-old chickens capable of remaining healthy for at least 6 weeks were produced using a two-generation model. In this model, hens fed on diets with a limited vitamin A content were used to obtain 1-d-old chickens which were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Only hens with a narrow range of plasma retinol values (0.60-0.85 mumol/l) were satisfactory for this purpose. Above this range the 1-d-old chickens were not marginally vitamin A deficient. Below this range egg production and hatchability were affected to some extent depending on the degree of vitamin A deficiency. Even when egg production and hatchability remained at a high level in such birds, the 1-d-old chickens produced were not sufficiently strong to survive the first weeks of life. The advantages of the two-generation model for producing marginally vitamin A-deficient chickens are the increased uniformity and predictability of the chickens with respect to body-weight, general health and vitamin A status. However, it does take about 3 months to produce such chickens.

  1. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items.

  2. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to dry chicken eggs in order to determine the effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of dried eggs. The albumen, yolk and whole egg were dried separately at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60oC. The drying time for the samples ranged from 7hrs20mins to ...

  3. MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE DNA PARA A DETECÇÃO DE Salmonella EM OVOS DE GALINHAS, COM E SEM CASCA, ATRAVÉS DA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA PELA POLIMERASE DNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Salmonella DETECTION IN CHICKEN EGGS, INSHELL AND OUTSHELL, BY POLIMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Lovato Flôres

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico microbiológico de Salmonella sp em amostras de alimentos é demorado, com cinco diferentes etapas, levando cerca de 120 horas até o resultado final. A utilização da técnica da Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR pode diminuir esse período, porém sofre influência de substâncias presentes na amostra que afetam a reação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar dois métodos de extração de DNA, a extração por tratamento térmico e a pelo fenol-clorofórmio, em amostras de 100 ovos de galinhas domésticas artificialmente contaminados com uma cepa de Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium em fase estacionária. O material obtido com as extrações foi submetido à PCR, utilizando-se um par de iniciadores que amplificam um fragmento de 284pb do gene InvA de Salmonella sp. Comparando os métodos de extração, observou-se uma diferença na capacidade de detecção de 12% a favor do método do fenol-clorofórmio, quando a extração foi realizada a partir do ovo com casca. No momento em que a mesma metodologia foi usada apenas com a parte interna dos ovos, essa diferença subiu para 26% o que foi significativo (PThe Salmonella sp detection in feed samples is time consuming, it has five stages and requires 120 hours for final results. The use of polimerase chain reaction technique can reduce this time considerably, however it can be affected by substances from the sample. This study had the objective of comparing two methods of DNA extraction, by heating process and by phenol-chloroform in samples of 100 chicken eggs experimentally infected with a sample of Salmonella enterica sorovar typhimurium in stationary phase. After the two extraction methods a PCR was done using a pair of oligonucleotides that amplifies a fragment of 284pb in the InvA gene de Salmonella sp. Comparing the extraction methods it was noted a difference of 12% favorably to the phenol-chloroform method when the extraction was done from eggs with shell

  4. Development and optimization of a naphthoic acid-based ionic liquid as a "non-organic solvent microextraction" for the determination of tetracycline antibiotics in milk and chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Hui; Qu, Jingang; Wang, Huili; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-01-15

    In traditional ionic liquids (ILs)-based microextraction, ILs are often used as extraction and dispersive solvents; however, their functional effects are not fully utilized. Herein, we developed a novel ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium naphthoic acid salt ([C4MIM][NPA]) with strong acidity. It was used as a mixed dispersive solvent with conventional [C2MIM][BF4] in "functionalized ionic liquid-based non-organic solvent microextraction (FIL-NOSM)" for determination of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in milk and eggs. Utilization of [C4MIM][NPA] in FIL-NOSM method increased extraction recoveries (ERs) of TCs by more than 20% and eliminated the pH adjustment step because of its strong acidity. Under optimized conditions based on central composite design, the ERs of four TCs were 94.1-102.1%, and the limitsofdetection were 0.08-1.12μgkg(-1) in milk and egg samples. This proposed method provides high extraction efficiency, less pretreatment time and requires non-organic solvents for determination of trace TC concentrations in complex animal-based food matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of microbial contents of table eggs at retail outlets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbial contents of chicken eggs, sold at retail outlets in Sokoto metropolis. A total of 160 eggs were collected from 16 randomly selected retail outlets, in Sokoto metropolis, for microbial evaluation. Samples were cultured and isolated using nutrient and McConkey agar for ...

  6. Evaluation of microbial contents of table eggs at retail outlets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348035950593, E-mail: mdsal70@yahoo.com. Abstract. This study was carried out to evaluate the microbial contents of chicken eggs, sold at retail outlets in Sokoto metropolis. A total of 160 eggs were collected from 16 randomly selected retail outlets, in Sokoto metropolis, for.

  7. GENETIC SEX DETERMINATION IN HEAVY BREED CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENCSIK ALENA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used a non-invasive method to predetermine the sex of chicken embryosthat relies on the bio electromagnetic field generated by the embryonic cells. Tovalidate this method in poultry, on the basis of sexual dimorphism, the genetic sex of120 chicken eggs of heavy breed. One group consisted of 60 eggs with determinedgenetic sex ZZ (cock, abbr. M. The other group consisted of 60 eggs withdetermined genetic sex ZY (hen, abbr. F. After hatching, the chicks were identifiedand the genetic sex was checked repeatedly using the pendulum. The phenoypic sexof the birds was assessed after 60 days at the time the sexual dimorphism wasvisible. From the 60 eggs sexed and incubated for each group, a hatching rate of90%, for the group M and 91,66% for the group F was obtained. The genetic sex ofindividuals determined at the age of one day showed that all individuals of the groupM were cocks (ZZ and all individuals of the group F were hens (ZW. Thephenotypic sex determination performed 60 days later showed that of 54 individualsof the group M, 41 were cocks (77,36%. In the group F from 55 individuals 42 werehens (77,78%. The prediction rate for the group M (77,36% was relativlycomparable with that for the group F (77,78%. This method is non-invasive,relatively rapid, simple and inexpensive with application in effective breedingregimes of poultry production.

  8. Effect of pharmacological levels of dietary vanadium on the egg production, shell thickness and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens and coturnix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Y.S.; Kratzer, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    The addition of 100 ppm of vanadium to a ration for White Leghorn laying hens caused a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the egg shell thickness, but did not cause any significant change in the egg production, egg weight or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of 300 ppm of vanadium caused a severe depression in the egg production which was the only symptom of vanadium toxicity to be observed. The addition of 50, 100, 200 or 300 ppm vanadium to the ration of laying coturnix did not cause any significant change in egg production, egg weight or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of the same levels of vanadium to one-day old male coturnix chicks did not cause any significant growth depression or mortality. The authors suggest that coturnix may be more resistant to vanadium toxicity than chickens. 8 references, 5 tables.

  9. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.

  10. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...

  11. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... chickens: Effects of challenge dose on serum immunoglobulin G antibody response. Ishola, Olayinka Olabisi1* and Holt, Peter.S.2. 1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit, United States Department of ...

  12. Gastrointestinal parasitism in local and exotic breeds of chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 20 positive, 12 were nematodes, 3 cestodes and remaining 5 were mixed infections. Therefore, sustainable ways of controlling these parasites at a particular age and further studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in chicken need to be elucidated for improved intensive egg and poultry meat ...

  13. Inclusão de ovo desidratado em rações para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e de crescimento Inclusion of dried egg powder in pre-initial and growing diets of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisanie Neiva Magalhães Teixeira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para determinar o nível ótimo de inclusão de ovo desidratado (OD em raçõespara frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e de crescimento. Utilizou-se um lote de 1.152 pintos de corte machos, linhagem Cobb-500, com peso vivo inicial de 43,46 ± 0,23 g, alojados em boxes de 1,0 × 1,5 m. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% de ovo desidratado, cada um com 18 repetições de 16 aves. As dietas utlilizadas foram isoprotéicas e isocalóricas, com 21,9% PB e 2.950 kcal EMAn na fase de 1 a 7 dias e 20,9% PB e 3.000 kcal EMAn na fase de 8 a 21 dias de idade. O conteúdo dos ovos foi mantido em estufa a 55ºC durante 72 horas e apresentava resultado negativo para a presença de Salmonella spp. Os níveis de ovo desidratado nas rações tiveram efeito quadrático sobre o consumo de ração, o peso vivo, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. O melhor ganho de peso na fase pré-inicial foi obtido com a utilização de 0,53% de ovo desidratado na ração e, na fase inicial de crescimento, com o nível de 0,73%.The experiment was carried out to determine the optimum inclusion level of dried egg powder (DEGG in the pre-initial and growing rations of broilers. Male Cobb-500 chicks (n= 1,152 with initial live weight of 43.46 ± 0.23 g were housed in cages of 1,0 × 1,5 m. A completely randomized design with four rations 0, (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of DEGG, each one with 18 replications of 16 birds. Isoproteic and isoenergetic rations were used, with 21.9% CP and 2,950 kcal AMEn from 1 to 7 days old and 20.9% CP and 3,000 kcal AMEn from 8 to 21 days old. Egg contents were dried at 55ºC for 72 hours and were negative for Salmonella spp. Dried egg powder inclusion levels showed a quadratic effect on feed intake, live weight, weight gain and feed conversion. Weight gain was obtained with the use of 0.53% dried egg powder in the ration in the pre-starter and 0.73% in the initial growth

  14. The effect of phytobiotics, organic acids and humic acids on the utility and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of an influence of supplement of dietary herbal additive in combination with organic acids into feed mixture or drinking water of laying hens on performance parameters and egg quality. The Lohmann Brown Lite laying hens (n = 30 were divided into 3 groups (n = 10, and fed for 20 weeks ad libitum with complete feed mixtures (CFM. Hens in the control group received the complete feed mixture (CFM and drank drinking water without any supplements. In the first experimental group hens received CFM without supplements but phytobiotics (bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum in combination with the fumaric acid and citric acid at 60 mg per 1 liter of water were added to their drinking water. In the second experimental group was CFM enriched with humic acids in the concentration of 0.5%, and phytobiotcs with organic acids at the same dose as in the first experimental group were added to their drinking water. Monitored parameters: body weight (g, egg production (%, the weight of all produced eggs (g, egg albumen weight (g, egg albumen index, Haugh unit (HU, egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (° HLR, egg shell weight (g and egg shell strength (N.cm-2. The results showed no significant differences between the both experimental groups and the control group in the parameter body weight of hens (P>0.05. The highest average body weight was found in the hens from the second experimental group (values in the order of groups:  1792.22 ± 80.85; 1768.42 ±55.55; 1820.12 ±78.56 g±S.D.. We observed positive trend of increasing of egg production by adding of used supplements, especially in the second experimental group with the addition of humic acids, although with no statistically significant difference compared to the control group (P>0.05. The mean laying intensity in the order of groups: 90.42; 91.16; 91.56%. We observed statistically

  15. Effects of Feed Restriction on Production Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Koekoek Chickens in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Salih R; Tesfaye E; Tamir B; Singh H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of feed restriction on production performance as well as traits relating to egg and carcass yield in Potchefstroom Koekoek dual purpose chicken bred under Ethiopian conditions. A total of 240 one-day-old dual purpose Koekoek chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental pens, representing 4 feeding treatments to evaluate the performance of chicks on body weight and age at onset of laying eggs (AOLE), egg quality, and carcass parameters. ...

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with red yeast rice on laying performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of red yeast rice on production performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens, 288 laying hens (40-week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with 6 replications of 12 birds each. Hens were provided with diets containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice for 8- weeks. Results showed that dietary supplementation of red yeast rice had no effect (P>0.05 on laying performance over the entire feeding period. Albumen height (quadratic, cubic, P<0.05 and Haugh units (quadratic, P<0.05 were increased with gradient addition of red yeast rice. Moreover, albumen height and Haugh units were higher (P<0.05 in 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice groups, with an exception of albumen height in 1 g/kg group at day 28. Yolk cholesterol content was lower (P<0.05 in 5 g/kg red yeast rice-supplemented group at day 56. There were decreased (P<0.05 contents of serum cholesterol and triglyceride, but higher (P<0.05 concentration of serum calcium in the 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice-treated hens compared with the control group. Serum level of very-low-density lipoprotein was also reduced (P<0.05 in 5 g/kg red yeast rice-treated hens. The results suggest that red yeast rice could lower serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels and improve the egg quality in laying hens.

  17. Myopathy of slaughter chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Ingr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High-powered means of slaughter chickens production cause on certain individuals abnormal biochemical development of postmortal changes in their muscles. It consequently lead to interferences of sensory quality of the chicken meat. So called myopathies of the chicken breast meat occur in the low extent. It is typical variation in dark colouring of breast muscle. Veterinary supervision confiscates chickens embodying myopathy by reason of sensorical unacceptable dark muscle colour. Deepness of colour is evaluated by adspection of veterinary supervisors. It is tendency leading to find out objective parameters for evaluating this sensual chicken meat colour variation. Incidence of the chickens with myopathy has been evaluating for 3 years in big poultry slaughter, therewithal high-quality chickens and chickens with perspicuous myopathy have been taking out of slaughter-line. Electric conductivity values and pH values were measuring during 60 till 330 minutes post mortem in breast muscles. Aproximately 9 millions chicken was annually slaughtered and 13 thousands of them was confiscated out of the slaughter line by reason of myopathy. It amounts to 0.14 per cent of annually count of processed chickens. Myopatical chickens had significantly higher muscle pH values as compared with healthy ones. Healthy chicken muscles decreased on ultimative pH values aproximately past 3 hours post mortem. It means pH 6.03, and after 300 minutes decreased to pH 5.82. However, myopatical chickens values varied from pH 6.46 to pH 6.30. Concurrently measured values of electric conductivity significantly corellated with pH values. Whereto, it's predication of similarity chicken myopathies and dark, firm, dry (DFD pork or turkey meat. Beyond unacceptable dark meat colour have disadvantage in poor post mortem acidifying of the meat and in consequence of microbial proteolyse. Significantly correlation between pH and electric conductivity values foreshadows on identification

  18. Toxicity of the Alternaria metabolites alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altenuene, and tenuazonic acid in the chicken embryo assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G F; Chu, F S

    1983-01-01

    The effects in the chicken embryo assay of four Alternaria metabolites (alternariol [AOH], alternariol methyl ether [AME], altenuene [ALT], and tenuazonic acid [TA]) were investigated. Administered to 7-day-old chicken embryos by yolk sac injection, AOH, AME, and ALT caused no mortality or teratogenic effect at doses up to 1,000, 500, and 1,000 micrograms per egg, respectively. TA exhibited a calculated 50% lethal dose of 548 micrograms per egg, with no teratogenic effect observed at either l...

  19. Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel Hieronim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells.

  20. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  1. Transmisión de Salmonella enterica a través de huevos de gallina y su importancia en salud pública Transmission of Salmonella enterica through chicken eggs and their importance in public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Rincón Acero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La salmonelosis producida por especies de Salmonella sp. no tíficas, se manifiesta en humanos como una gastroenteritis o enterocolitis aguda de inicio repentino, cuyos síntomas aparecen de 6 a 48 horas después de la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminada. Salmonella se transmite principalmente por el consumo de productos avícolas contaminados o por contaminación cruzada a través de manipuladores de alimentos o utensilios de cocina. La presente revisión se fundamenta en la interacción de Salmonella con el sistema reproductivo de la gallina y trata importantes aspectos como las formas de trasmisión al huevo, la epidemiología y prevención de este evento. Lo anterior con el fin de destacar la importancia de este patógeno en la generación de enfermedades trasmitidas por alimentos y el impacto que tiene el control de puntos críticos en la cadena de producción de los huevos y la vigilancia epidemiológica como mecanismos de control. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 167-177Salmonellosis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella species manifests in human like an acute gastroenteritis or enterocolitis that suddenly happens, whose symptoms occur between 6 to 48 hours after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Salmonella is mainly transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry products, or crossed contamination by food handlers or kitchen utensils. This review is based on the interaction of Salmonella with the hen's reproductive system and presents important aspects such as the routes of transmission to the egg, epidemiology and prevention of this event. This in order to highlight the importance of this pathogen like source of foodborne diseases and the impact of the critical control points in the eggs production and epidemiological surveillance like control mechanisms. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 167-177

  2. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendri, Imen; Khannous, Lamia; Mallek, Zouhir; Traore, Al Ibrahim; Gharsallah, Néji; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2012-06-07

    The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a 'zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (pegg height and eggshell strength. While dietary zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg.

  3. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with red yeast rice on laying performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Sun; Yifei Wu; Xin Wang; Yong Liu; Xiaohong Yao; Jiangwu Tang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of red yeast rice on production performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens, 288 laying hens (40-week-old) were randomly assigned into four groups with 6 replications of 12 birds each. Hens were provided with diets containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice for 8- weeks. Results showed that dietary supplementation of red yeast rice had no effect (P>0.05) on laying performance over the entire feeding period. Albumen height (quadratic, cubic, P<...

  5. Validation of FoodChek™ - Salmonella for Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Eggs, Derivative Products, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Tremblay, Renaud; Martinez, Gabriela; Giuffre, Michael; Hammack, Thomas; Fernandez, Maria Cristina; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The FoodChek™ - Salmonella assay is an immunomagnetic lateral flow assay for the rapid detection (shorter than 24 h) of the most frequently isolated Salmonella (groups B-E) in eggs, egg-derivative products, and environmental surfaces. The FoodChek - Salmonella assay correctly identified 99.6% (239/240) of the samples tested in the matrix studied, and the statistical analysis of the method comparison study results demonstrated that it performs as well as U.S. culture-based reference methods. Ninety-nine percent of the 103 Salmonella strains tested belonging to serogroups B-E were detected during the inclusivity study. Concerning the exclusivity, 31 nontarget strains were tested. No cross-reactivity was observed in FoodChek - Salmonella assay enrichment conditions. In addition, the assay shows strong robustness, good stability, and consistency among lots. The present study proves that the assay is an effective tool for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in whole liquid eggs, liquid egg white (liquid egg albumen), shell eggs, dried whole eggs, dried egg yolks, and environmental surfaces as stainless steel, plastic, rubber, ceramic tiles, and sealed concrete.

  6. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, James C.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790-8556 (Japan); Chan, Simon K.F. [Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Hong Kong, (China); Lam, Michael H.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Martin, Michael [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-12-15

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles.

  7. Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauber Polese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.

  8. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  9. Comparative study on some immunological traits in two different genetic groups of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdel Rahman El-Safty

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out on one hundred and twenty chicks (60 Libyan native and 60 broiler chicks to evaluate and compare some productive and immunological characteristics. Materials and Methods: Weekly body weight (from day-old until 6 weeks of age, feed conversion ratio (from 3- 6 weeks of age, phagocytic ability index, count of both heterophils and lymphocytes and its ratio and blood profile were determined. Results: Body weight of Libyan native chickens was dramatically reduced as compared to broiler chickens throughout trial period. Feed conversion ratio of Libyan native chickens was pronounced deteriorated during studied period as compared to broiler ones. The phagocytic ability of Libyan native chickens was more efficient than those of broiler chickens counterparts. The Libyan native chickens were less stressful compared to broiler ones, because of significant decrease of H/L ratio trait in Libyan chickens. Conclusion: It was expected that the broiler chickens were superior in productive traits (body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to native chickens. On the other hand, the superiority in immunological parameters such as phagocytic activity and H/L ratio (as a stress measure was obtained by Libyan native chickens. Consequently, more attention must be considered for Libyan native chicken and using different crossing and selection methods to produce meat and egg native lines for improving its productive traits besides keeping and benefit its outstanding immunological abilities. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 645-650

  10. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  11. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P oil added, a higher (P krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  13. Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Qamashoui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05. A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05, being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations.

  14. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  15. Influence of temperature and humidity manipulation on chicken embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiva, Rute M; Menezes, António C; Peleteiro, Maria C

    2014-10-01

    Temperature and relative humidity (RH) are very important factors affecting embryo development, hatchability, and posthatch performance. This study aimed at characterizing embryonic metabolic and behavioural response to a harsh incubation environment generated by manipulations (elevations and drops) in these two key factors. This study was aimed at establishing patterns of metabolic and behavioural response, as well as mortality and the development of malformations, all of which can potentially be used in monitoring incubating operations and diagnosing problems with faulty equipment. Of all the parameters monitored throughout embryonic development the ones shown to be most affected were: albumen-weight to egg-weight ratio (AR); yolk-weight to egg-weight ratio (YR); embryo-weight to egg-weight ratio (ER); heart rate (HR); voluntary movements per minute (VMM); mortality rates; malformation prevalence and type. The most significant changes in the evolution of AR and YR throughout incubation involved delay and reduction in the amplitude of the expected drop in albumen and yolk levels, reflecting lower nutrient consumption by the embryo. ER tended to grow more slowly and remain lower than the established normal, especially in embryos challenged with temperature treatments. HR and VMM were considered to be strong indicators of embryonic stress, as all treatments applied resulted in elevated heart rate and decreased embryo movement. Mortality rates for both temperature-related treatments were higher during the first four days of incubation. Changes in relative humidity have produced less radical effects on mortality. Malformation rates were higher for embryos subjected to high incubation temperatures and were most prominently related to the abdominal wall, head, skull and limbs. Overall, manipulations in environmental (incubator) temperature during incubation produced more drastic changes in embryo development than humidity-related manipulations, especially where

  16. Characterization of local chicken production systems and their potential under different levels of management practice in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, A; Wollny, C B A; Gauly, M

    2007-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the local chickens and their production systems and to investigate the opportunities for improvement. The study was carried out in 18 villages in northern Jordan with the participation of 120 households. Data were collected by individual interviews and surveys supported with structured questionnaires. A scoring system was developed to study the effect of different levels of management on chicken performance. The main reasons for keep local chickens were egg production and generation of income. The main features of the production systems were improper housing and inadequate hygiene. Newcastle disease, predators, and parasites were the main causes of flock losses. Purchasing rate was controlled by the chickens' phenotype, sex and age, and by season of year. The average flock size was 41.6 (+/-32.9) chickens per household, with a hen:cock ratio of 6.4:1. The average effective population size was 15.35, which indicated a high rate of inbreeding (5.52%). The main selection criterion adopted by farmers was egg production. There were positive significant correlations (p<0.001) between management level and chickens' performance. Hatchability, survivability, flock size, number of clutches, egg weight and egg mass were the major parameters that improved significantly with improvement in management level. Local chickens fulfil significant functions in the livelihood of rural smallholders; however, many constraints affected the efficiency of the production systems. Solutions should start with improving the management practices and establishing an effective breeding system.

  17. Treatment of eggshell abnormalities and reduced egg production caused by Mycoplasma synoviae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Salvatore; Bilato, Dania; Gobbo, Federica; Granato, Anna; Terregino, Calogero; Iob, Luciano; Nicholas, Robin A J

    2010-06-01

    Eggshell abnormalities were seen in the apex of eggs in two of three flocks of multi-age, Hy-Line layer chickens housed on a farm in Northern Italy. Approximately 1.3% to 1.8% of eggs in one flock were affected, amounting to 300-400 eggs per day; the abnormalities resulted in a great deal of breakage and spoilage of healthy eggs. The mean weight of eggs was also reduced. Egg abnormalities in a second flock were less severe. Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in birds from both of the affected flocks by serologic, cultural, and molecular techniques, but not in a third, adjacent flock where no eggshell abnormalities were seen. Treatment with tylosin, administered in the drinking water for 5 days, resulted in an immediate improvement of eggshell quality and egg weight. There was no evidence of infectious bronchitis virus in the flocks.

  18. Comparison of parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels in two chicken lines during sustained infection with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Pleidrup, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly large numbers of poultry are held in production systems with access to outdoor areas. In these systems intestinal helminths are found with flock prevalences of up to 100%. Helminth infections influence chicken health negatively, which is why the following investigation has been...... in chicken faeces were measured for a period of 81 weeks.The level of excreted A. galli eggs measured as eggs per gram chicken faeces (EPG) varied greatly between chickens in each line. Significant differences were found between the two lines and with the R5 chickens reaching the highest levels. Likewise......, the A. galli-specific IgG titres in serum differed significantly between the two lines, and an inverse relationship between infection level (EPG) and antibody titres was found. Although this inverse relationship suggests that humoral immunity may be involved in protection against A. galli infection...

  19. Effects of crude protein levels on egg quality traits of brown layers raised in two production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Faria Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was the evaluation of egg quality of 30 to 45-week-old brown layers, raised in cages or on floor, supplemented with amino acids, using the ideal protein concept with levels of 14, 15, 16, and 18% crude protein. A total of 400 birds (Hy-sex Brown were used, distributed into two breeding systems (conventional cage or floor. The evaluated variables were the yolk relative weight, yolk height, albumen relative weight, albumen height, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, and eggshell weight. Treatments consisted of reduced levels of crude protein and were provided to both groups equally. We adopted a completely randomized design, in a factorial scheme, composed of two breeding systems and four levels of crude protein, totaling eight treatments. Five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit were used. The breeding system on floor was configured as an option in the breeding of brown layers, of Hy-sex Brown commercial lineage, in the period between the 30th and the 45th week of age, since it presents results equivalent to the ones obtained in the breeding system in cages, having the egg quality as parameter. The system of production on floor is configured as an option in the farming of brown layers, of the commercial lineage Hy-sex Brown.

  20. A study on eggshell pigmentation: biliverdin in blue-shelled chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, G Y; Liu, Z Z; Li, J Y; Yang, N

    2006-03-01

    Biliverdin is an important pigment in the eggshell of chickens and other avian species. Determination of the biosynthesis site for biliverdin is essential for understanding the biochemical process and genetic basis of eggshell pigmentation. Either blood or the shell gland could be the biosynthesis site of eggshell biliverdin. A segregation population with full-sib sisters genotyped Oo and oo, which laid blue-shelled eggs and light brown eggs, respectively, was constructed in a native Chinese chicken breed. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were used to determine the biliverdin concentration in eggshells, blood, bile, excreta, and shell gland of both groups of chickens. Biliverdin content was significantly different between egg shells of blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens (P < 0.01). Blood and bile were tested 3 to 4 h before oviposition, and excreta was tested randomly. Results showed no significant difference in biliverdin concentration in blood, bile, and excreta between the 2 groups. In the shell gland, the biliverdin contents for the blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens were 8.25 +/- 2.55 and 1.29 +/- 0.12 nmol/g, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that blood is not the biosynthesis site of the shell biliverdin. Biliverdin is most likely synthesized in the shell gland and then deposited onto the eggshell of chickens.

  1. Isolation of Brachyspira Pilocicoli from Gastrointestinal Tract of Commercial Chickens in Khuzestan, South West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Alavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachyspira pilosicoli is an intestinal spirochete which colonizes in cecum, colon and rectum of the birds. This infection in broiler and laying chicken may cause disorders such as: diarrhea, reduced egg production, pasty vents, fecal staining of egg shells, poor shell quality, pale egg yolks, increased feed consumption, slower growth and poor feed digestion. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify B. pilosicoli from broiler and laying chicken. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by using bacteriological examination and PCR in Khuzestan located in the South West of Iran. Totally 150 samples of broiler chicken feces and 100 samples of laying chicken feces were collected. The samples were cultured on blood agar containing three antibiotics (vancomycin 12.5μg/mL, spiramaycin 25μg/mL and spectinomycin 400 μg/mL.The colonies of intestinal spirochetes were studied by PCR. Results: Intestinal spirochetes were isolated in 21 out of 150 fecal samples of broiler chicken and in 9 out of 100 fecal samples of laying chicken. Species identification of isolates was done by PCR using 16SrRNA gene specific for B. pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli was isolated in 13 out of 21 positive broilers and in 4 out of 9 positive laying chickens. Conclusions: This study showed that B. pilosicoli exists in the broiler and laying chicken in the region. This intestinal pathogen may be considered as a major cause of production threats and economic losses in chicken farms in the region of study.

  2. Toxicity studies of six types of carbon nanoparticles in a chicken-embryo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurantowicz, Natalia; Sawosz, Ewa; Halik, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide. Experimental solutions at a concentration of 500 µg/mL were administrated into the egg albumin. Gross pathology and the rate of survival were examined after 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of incubation. After 20 days of incubation, blood samples were collected......In the present study, the toxicity of six different types of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) was investigated using a chicken-embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the following treatment groups: placebo, diamond NPs, graphite NPs, pristine graphene, small graphene oxide, large...

  3. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  4. Study of potential health effects of electromagnetic fields of telephony and Wi-Fi, using chicken embryo development as animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Lourens, A.; Stockhofe, N.; Engel, B.; Hulsegge, B.; Schokker, D.; Heijningen, van P.; Vossen, S.; Bekers, D.; Zwamborn, P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as used in modern wireless telecommunication in a well-controlled experimental environment using chicken embryo development as animal model. Chicken eggs were incubated under

  5. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  6. Atitudes de granjeiros, atacadistas, varejistas e consumidores em relação à qualidade sanitária do ovo de galinha in natura Attitudes of grangers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers toward the sanitary quality of in natura chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Martini RODRIGUES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das grandes preocupações atuais tem sido a questão da segurança do alimento, pois, apesar das inovações tecnológicas na fase de produção, armazenamento e distribuição, quadros de toxinfecção alimentar continuam ocorrendo e de forma crescente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a atitude dos consumidores, assim como de varejistas, atacadistas e produtores, em relação à qualidade sanitária do ovo de galinha in natura. Foram entrevistadas 152 consumidoras, 39 estabelecimentos varejistas (24 supermercados, 3 hipermercados, 6 feiras livres, 3 varejões municipais e 3 varejões particulares, 7 atacadistas e 7 granjeiros. Esta pesquisa mostrou que o tamanho do ovo, a procedência do produto e a cor da casca foram os aspectos sobre os quais mais de 50% das mulheres entrevistadas apresentaram conhecimentos equivocados. A refrigeração, que é um ponto importantíssimo para a qualidade sanitária desse alimento, também não foi avaliada corretamente por quase 50% das consumidoras. A procedência do produto, limpeza e integridade da casca, embalagem do ovo e tempo de comercialização, no caso dos atacadistas, foram fatores analisados corretamente por mais da metade dos entrevistados, contrapondo-se aos itens refrigeração e prazo de validade, apontados como de menor importância que os anteriores. No caso dos produtores, a refrigeração foi o único aspecto que não foi considerado corretamente. Esses resultados sugerem a necessidade de implementação de campanhas de cunho educativo.One of the greatest concerns at the moment is the question of food safety, since, despite great technological innovations in the production, storage and distribution phases, food poisoning cases continue to occur at an increasing rate. The objective of this work was to analyze the attitudes of consumers, retailers, wholesalers and producers toward the sanitary quality of in natura chicken eggs. In all, 152 women, 39 retail establishments (24

  7. Mercury in blood and eggs of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J

    2011-06-01

    Mercury concentrations were assessed in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony of Oaxaca, Mexico; 25 female turtles were sampled, a total of 250 eggs were collected during the season 2005-2006. Higher concentrations were found in yolk fraction, while in blood and albumen mean levels were below of 0.0010μg g(-1) dry wt. On the basis of one nesting season, the maternal transfer of Hg via eggs-laying was estimated in 2.0±1.1%. According to international norms, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Hg and corresponds to baseline levels of a nearly pristine environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship of PCDD/F concentrations in duck-egg farmers and consumption of ranched duck eggs in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Po-Chin; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2010-11-01

    The 2004 food market-basket survey in Taiwan found high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in duck eggs. A subsequent survey in Chang-Hua County, central Taiwan, found nine duck farms for egg production and duck eggs that were highly contaminated by PCDD/Fs in the secondary sampling and analysis during the years 2004 to 2005. Duck-egg farmers eat duck eggs rather than chicken eggs, and the aim of the current study was to evaluate how eating contaminated duck eggs affected serum PCDD/F accumulation and PCDD/F profiles in family members of duck-egg farmers. Forty-two family members of duck-egg farmers and 88 residents living nearby (control group) were recruited. Serum PCDD/F levels were significantly higher in duck-egg farmers than in the control group (28.1 vs 18.6 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [TEQ]/g lipid, WHO-TEQ). Significant differences in PCDD/F levels were found for most congeners, especially for 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorinated dibenzofurans. Elevated serum PCDD/F levels were positively associated with an increase in monthly duck-egg consumption after adjustments for fish consumption. The current result contradicted results of our previous study, which showed a positive association between fish intake and serum PCDD/F levels. The matter of cultivation in the contaminant area in Chang-Hua County should be considered more seriously. © 2010 SETAC

  9. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  10. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  11. Estimate the contribution of incubation parameters influence egg hatchability using multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H; Shebl, Mostafa K; Kosba, Mohamed A; El-Sabrout, Karim; Zaki, Nesma

    2016-08-01

    This research was conducted to determine the most affecting parameters on hatchability of indigenous and improved local chickens' eggs. Five parameters were studied (fertility, early and late embryonic mortalities, shape index, egg weight, and egg weight loss) on four strains, namely Fayoumi, Alexandria, Matrouh, and Montazah. Multiple linear regression was performed on the studied parameters to determine the most influencing one on hatchability. The results showed significant differences in commercial and scientific hatchability among strains. Alexandria strain has the highest significant commercial hatchability (80.70%). Regarding the studied strains, highly significant differences in hatching chick weight among strains were observed. Using multiple linear regression analysis, fertility made the greatest percent contribution (71.31%) to hatchability, and the lowest percent contributions were made by shape index and egg weight loss. A prediction of hatchability using multiple regression analysis could be a good tool to improve hatchability percentage in chickens.

  12. Study in ovo immunisation with flagellin and whole cell protein antigens of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In ovo immunisation of chickens with flagellin and whole cell protein antigens of Campylobacter jejuni was examined to determine Campylobacter infection. Four groups of embryonated chicken eggs (10 eggs per group were immunised in ovo at day 17 of incubation and booster was given at 7 days post-hatch. Group I was immunised in ovo and oral booster with whole cell protein of C. jejuni, group II was immunised in ovo and oral booster with C. jejuni flagellin protein, group III was immunised in ovo and intraperitoneal booster with whole cell, and group IV was treated as control. The humoral immune responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the mucosal immune responses were examined by a direct fluorescent histology antibody technique. Immunised chickens of Group I, II, and III shown to have higher antibody titers than those of control chickens (group IV. The titres of anti-campylobacter antibodies of all isotypes in serum, bile, and intestinal scrapping after challenge were not significantly different in all groups. In addition, when immunised chickens were orally challenged with a homologous strain of viable C. jejuni organism, the chickens remained infected throughout the experiment based on cloacal swabs and caecal contents. These findings indicated that although in ovo immunisation resulted in increasing of the mucosal and humoral immune responses in chickens, it is not strong enough to protect the Campylobacter colonisation in the intestinal tract.

  13. The transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin into eggs and chicks following exposure to hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Yamashita, Junko; Tomita, Takako [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan); Matsushita, Sachihiro; Ikeya, Moriji; Iwasawa, Toshiyuki [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins have been shown to exert reproductive and teratogenic effects in several strains of mice, rats, and chickens. We reported that in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at less than 7.5 ng/egg on day 0 did not influence hatchability, whereas more than 10 ng/egg completely inhibited hatching. We also reported that maternal exposure to TCDD in Barred Plymouth Rock hens induced a reversible inhibition of egg laying. The hatchability of the eggs from TCDD exposed hens was significantly decreased and eggshell thickness was thicker than that from control hens 1. These results suggested that the TCDD in maternally exposed hens was transferred into eggs and induced embryo toxicity. Transfer of TCDD in eggs has been reported previously in foraging chickens 2,3 and ring-necked pheasants 4,5. The TCDD concentration in chicken eggs related to environmental exposure, especially contact with soil. The measurement of dioxins in eggs is important for assessing environmental contamination by dioxins and for humans because chicken eggs are one of the most popular food for humans. Measurement of TCDD concentration is generally performed by GC/MS method which is expensive and requires special equipment. Recently, a simple method for TCDD assay using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 6 and CALUX bioassay 7 has been reported. The objectives of this study were, first, to determine the TCDD concentration in eggs by ELISA. Second, the transfer of maternally exposed TCDD into the egg, embryo and chicks was examined.

  14. An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Carina; Garrelick, Joel; Bowles, Ann

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that sonic booms caused a mass hatching failure of Sooty Terns in the Dry Tortugas in Florida by cracking the eggshells. This paper investigates this possibility analytically, complementing previous empirical studies. The sonic boom is represented as a plane-wave excitation with an N-wave time signature. Two models for the egg are employed. The first model, intended to provide insight, consists of a spherical shell, with the embryo represented as a rigid, concentric sphere and the albumen as an acoustic fluid filling the intervening volume. The substrate is modeled as a doubling of the incident pressure. The second, numerical model includes the egg-shape geometry and air sac. More importantly, the substrate is modeled as a rigid boundary of infinite extent with acoustic diffraction included. The peak shell stress, embryo acceleration, and reactive force are predicted as a function of the peak sonic boom overpressure and compared with damage criteria from the literature. The predicted peak sonic boom overpressure necessary for egg damage is much higher than documented sonic boom overpressures, even for extraordinary operational conditions. Therefore, as with previous empirical studies, it is concluded that it is unlikely that sonic boom overpressures damage avian eggs.

  15. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  16. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  17. Phytase and protease supplementation for laying hens in peak egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Serpa Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the combination of enzymes in commercial laying hens need to be more explored in literature. To determine if the type of protease affects performance, egg quality, nutrient intake, and morphometry of intestinal mucosa of laying hens in peak egg production and fed with phytase, 780 25-weeks Hy-Line W36 hens were assigned to a completely randomized design composed of five treatments/diets (one positive control, two negative controls, and negative controls plus protease A or B, with 12 replicates of 13 birds each. There was no effect of treatments (P > 0.05 on egg production, egg mass and feed conversion, even though the nutritional restriction imposed by the negative controls reduced egg weight (P = 0.02, albumen height (P < 0.01, and Haugh unit (P < 0.01. Although inclusion of proteases in negative controls did not cause the calculated intake of protein and amino acids to return to the same amount consumed by positive-control hens, egg quality parameters returned to positive control standards with protease A. Intestinal mucosa responded to treatment only at jejunum, where birds fed with protease B showed greater (P < 0.01 villus height and crypt depth than those treated with protease A. These findings suggest that different proteases and phytases interact distinctly and, in consequence, induce different responses on the birds. Moreover, the behavior of egg quality parameters after protease A inclusion in the diet indicates that the nutritional contribution of the combination of this protease with phytase is greater than the contribution of protease alone.

  18. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  19. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  20. The sick building syndrome: a chicken and egg situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Kolstad, Henrik; Ørbaek, Palle; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2006-06-01

    To examine the temporal relationship and specificity between self-reports on the indoor environment at work and symptoms that are traditionally connected with the sick building syndrome (SBS). This questionnaire study used a prospective full panel design as regards self-reports on exposure and outcome. At the baseline, the sample comprised 2,164 adults selected randomly from the general population. Of these 1,402, who were still working and living in the same place, completed a second questionnaire a year later. Health measures were symptoms that are traditionally connected with the SBS, as well as some "dummy" symptoms that hardly can be causally related to the indoor environment. The associations between self-reports on the indoor environment and these symptom groups were assessed both in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, the latter examining the normal direction that exposure leads to symptoms as well as the reverse order: that symptoms lead to perceived exposure. In cross-sectional analyses, the indoor environment factors were associated equally with SBS symptoms and with "dummy" symptoms. In longitudinal analyses, only few of the indoor environment factors predicted the development of any of the symptom groups. However, both the SBS symptoms and the "dummy" symptoms were risk factors for beginning to report exposures in the indoor environment. Symptoms predict future reports on exposures in the indoor environment indicating that it is difficult to determine what existed first: the outcome or the exposure. In addition, the perceived indoor environment is associated not only with the traditional SBS symptoms, but also with symptoms that cannot be physiologically linked to the indoor environment. These results suggest that there is a risk of reporting bias when assessing non-specific symptoms. Thus, many of the associations found in previous cross-sectional studies on SBS symptoms and indoor environment factors may possibly be explained by reporting bias.

  1. Pleiotropic vasoprotective effects of statins: The chicken or the egg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kirmizis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Kirmizis, Dimitrios ChatzidimitriouAristotle University, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors are the most commonly used lipid-lowering drugs. Their main lipid-lowering effect is achieved by an increase in the expression of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptors associated with inhibition of cholesterol synthesis through inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase – the first and rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. However, beyond cholesterol synthesis inhibition, inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase affects as well the synthesis of other molecules with significant roles in different, yet often intercalating, metabolic pathways. On this basis, and supported by an increasing series of advocating epidemiological and experimental data, an extended dialogue has been established over the last few years regarding the nonlipid or “pleiotropic” actions of statins.Keywords: statins, immunomodulatory, pleiotropic effects

  2. Abdominal fat and sleep apnea: the chicken or the egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, Giora; Shehadeh, Naim

    2008-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep. Associated features include loud snoring, fragmented sleep, repetitive hypoxemia/hypercapnia, daytime sleepiness, and cardiovascular complications. The prevalence of OSA is 2-3% and 4-5% in middle-aged women and men, respectively. The prevalence of OSA among obese patients exceeds 30%, reaching as high as 50-98% in the morbidly obese population. Obesity is probably the most important risk factor for the development of OSA. Some 60-90% of adults with OSA are overweight, and the relative risk of OSA in obesity (BMI >29 kg/m(2)) is >or=10. Numerous studies have shown the development or worsening of OSA with increasing weight, as opposed to substantial improvement with weight reduction. There are several mechanisms responsible for the increased risk of OSA with obesity. These include reduced pharyngeal lumen size due to fatty tissue within the airway or in its lateral walls, decreased upper airway muscle protective force due to fatty deposits in the muscle, and reduced upper airway size secondary to mass effect of the large abdomen on the chest wall and tracheal traction. These mechanisms emphasize the great importance of fat accumulated in the abdomen and neck regions compared with the peripheral one. It is the abdomen much more than the thighs that affect the upper airway size and function. Hence, obesity is associated with increased upper airway collapsibility (even in nonapneic subjects), with dramatic improvement after weight reduction. Conversely, OSA may itself predispose individuals to worsening obesity because of sleep deprivation, daytime somnolence, and disrupted metabolism. OSA is associated with increased sympathetic activation, sleep fragmentation, ineffective sleep, and insulin resistance, potentially leading to diabetes and aggravation of obesity. Furthermore, OSA may be associated with changes in leptin, ghrelin, and orexin levels; increased appetite and caloric intake; and again exacerbating obesity. Thus, it appears that obesity and OSA form a vicious cycle where each results in worsening of the other.

  3. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  4. Long-term measurement of heart rate in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, R; Matsuhisa, A; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1999-12-01

    Taking advantage of acoustocardiogram (ACG), we measured the heart rate (HR) of chick embryos continuously from day 12 until hatching and then investigated the development of HR irregularities (HRI), HR variability (HRV), and the existence of a circadian rhythm in mean HR (MHR). HRI comprised transient bradycardia and tachycardia, which first developed on day 14 and 16 in most embryos, respectively. Transient bradycardia increased in frequency and magnitude with embryonic development and occurred over periods of up to 30 min in some embryos. MHR was maximal on around days 14-15 and thereafter decreased to about 250-260 bpm on days 16-18. Baseline HRV, which is an oscillation of the MHR baseline, occurred as HR decreased from days 15-16 and became predominant on days 17-18. The magnitude of the baseline oscillations reached up to 50 bpm in some embryos and the period ranged between about 40-90 min (ultradian rhythm). A circadian rhythm of MHR was not found in late chick embryos. On days 18-19, embryonic activities were augmented and then breathing movements began to occur, disturbing ACG signals and thus making it difficult to measure the HR. Instead, the development of breathing activities was recorded. Breathing frequency was irregular at first and then increased to a maximum of about 1.5 Hz prior to hatching.

  5. Investigating eggs hatchability in indigenous chicken system with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... 4. Njoro –high to medium potential with good to poor road network and market opportunities. The selected villages (with average farm sizes) were, 1) Piave (2.5 acres); 2) Gichobo (5 acres); 3) -. Njokerio (0.25 acres); 4) Likia (1.5 acres). 5. Naivasha – low potential, porous volcanic soils of high infiltration.

  6. BPR AND ERP: THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellissier, René; Kleynhans, Albert

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Well-known management guru, Tom Davenport, views as a key success factor to a holistic approach to ERP-related change, the need f or a simultaneous and integrated approach to strategy, organisation...

  7. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  9. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  10. The nutritional effect of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elezz Fouad Mohammed, Khaled; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves (MOL) as feed supplement on the performance and egg quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens under the tropical conditions of Yucatan, Mexico. Forty-eight RIR hens were allocated in 12 floor pen replicates each with four birds. Thereafter, the replicates were divided into three groups which were corresponded to ad libitum feed (control), ad libitum feed supplemented with MOL T1 (AL + MOL) and restricted feed amount (20% lower than control) with MOL T2 (RCD + MOL), respectively. T1 (AL + MOL) had higher egg laying rate (71.4% versus 66.6%), higher daily egg mass production (45.4 versus 41.9 g/day), lower feed intake (121.3 versus 127.5 g/day) and better feed conversion ratio (2.8 versus 3.2 g feed:g egg) versus control. T2 / (RCD + MOL) had lower values of body weight, egg laying rate, egg weight and egg mass, and recorded better feed conversion ratio than the control group. The control group recorded a higher percentage of pecked eggs versus T1 and T2 (6.5% versus 1.2% and 2.0 %). Similar intake of MOL (3.1 and 3.4 g DM/day) was recorded in T1 (AL + MOL) and T2 (RCD + MOL). Yolk color was improved significantly in T1 (AL + MOL) than both control and T2 (RCD + MOL), while T2 (RCD + MOL) had eggs with lower yolk and higher albumen percentages than the other two ad libitum groups. The results suggest that MOL could be used successfully as sustainable tropical feed resource for RIR hens.

  11. [AN ADULT CASE OF EGG ALLERGY TREATED WITH RUSH ORAL IMMUNOTHERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mayumi; Isozaki, Atsushi; Tanaka, Aki; Ando, Eriko; Nakamura, Yoichi; Kurihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    A 26-year-old female patient exhibited symptoms associated with egg allergy, which had been present since early childhood. The patient requested the treatment of egg allergy and was admitted to our hospital for rush oral immunotherapy. The threshold was determined by an oral food challenge test, after positive results on a double-blind food challenge test. The patient ingested dry powder of raw egg-white 5 times per day starting with a tenth of the threshold dose (3.0mg), followed by a 1.2-times increase every time. When the amount of powder reached 1g, it was replaced with 8g of scrambled egg, after then subsequent doses were increased 1.5 times every time. The target of one chicken egg (60g) was reached on the 18th day. During treatment, minor allergic symptoms of urticarial and dyspnea were observed on two occasions, but they disappeared after oral administration of antihistamines. The result of an exercise challenge test after ingestion of egg was negative, and no allergic symptoms were observed by the ingestion of processed foods that contained egg. The patient currently receives ongoing maintenance treatment, consisting of the ingestion of one chicken egg per day; no allergic symptoms have been observed during a period of 2 year while receiving this treatment. Rush oral immunotherapy is a treatment option to be considered for adults with food allergy who were not able to acquire immune tolerance during childhood.

  12. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Toshiho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. Methods CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks were determined by ELISA. Results The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb, decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb. The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. Conclusion We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p

  13. A chicken consultation with ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M

    2005-04-15

    In Madison I once worked with two postdoctoral fellows who had spent their youth in New York City and who, when asked what birds they knew both responded "why, pigeons and LBJ's!" (little brown jobbies). Despite their undoubted brilliance, they clearly had an educational deficiency not fixed by buying eggs and poultry at a grocery store. Though of enormous economic and nutritional importance to humans, turkeys and chickens constitute only a minute fraction of the disappearing avian life in our ecology. One could easily teach an entire middle or high school biology course around the reproduction, embryology, evolution, genetics, anatomy, special adaptations, virology, bacteriology, taxonomy, behavior, and extinctions of birds, as paradigmatic of all of life. Where would developmental or evolutionary biology be without the Galapagos finches, chick embryo, or neurobiology without the Zebra Finch? The modifications of the original red jungle fowl of India and South East Asia into hundreds of races through artificial selection and breeding practices provide as beautiful an example of developmental plasticity, well-known to Darwin, as the domestic dog, cat, laboratory mice, and guinea pigs. In what follows I have begun to repay my indebtedness to my mentor Emil Witschi who introduced me to developmental biology, physiology, and genetics and its historical study on the basis of birds (and amphibians); and to Mark Leppert, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Utah for collaborative support, and bird-watching fieldtrips. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Occurrence of Salmonella sp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci in raw eggs and Coalho cheese: comparative study between two cities of Brazil's northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Evêncio-Luz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analyses of chicken eggs in Recife and Salvador have shown a high occurrence of Salmonella in the egg shells and yolks. Likewise, the occurrence of Salmonella plus coagulase-positive staphylococci in Coalho cheese reached alarming levels. The data revealed a significant risk of infections and intoxications from consuming these foods in the cities.

  15. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives Viscosidade da clara de ovo proveniente de poedeiras de diferentes espécies com aditivos comerciais e naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.A coloração da gema, transparência e viscosidade da clara (albúmen são parâmetros importantes que os consumidores consideram na avaliação dos ovos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar as trocas que ocorrem na armazenagem por 36 dias em relação à viscosidade da clara de ovos produzidos por poedeiras de duas diferentes linhagens (Carijo Barbada eIsa Brown , as quais receberam dietas contendo urucum (1,5 e 2,0% ou aditivo sintético. Foram realizadas as análises de umidade, altura do albúmen, pH, viscosidade, formação e estabilidade da espuma. A linhagem Carijó Barbada apresentou menor quantidade de albúmen, menor umidade e maior viscosidade que a linhagem Isa Brown, entretanto, com a estocagem, a viscosidade diminuiu significativamente para ambas as linhagens. Inicialmente, a adição de 2,0% de urucum ou aditivo sintético foi suficiente para aumentar a viscosidade em ovos obtidos de ambas as linhagens, mas com a estocagem, somente o controle manteve maior viscosidade. A baixa viscosidade não interferiu na

  16. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  17. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Shi

    Full Text Available Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  18. Performance, Body Temperature and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Vitamins D and C Under Three Environmental Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber to determine the effects of vitamins D3 and C supplementation on performance, body temperature, and egg quality under thermoneutral temperature (24.8º to 27.0º C, a cyclic heat stress (26.2º C for 16 h and 32.1º C for 8 h and a constant heat stress (30.0º to 32.0º C for three weeks in each temperature. One hundred forty-four White Leghorn hens aged 31 weeks were used in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 x 3: vitamin D3 (2,500, 3,000, and 3,500 IU/kg and vitamin C (0, 200, and 400 ppm, with a total of nine treatments with four replicates of four hens each. Parameters measured included feed intake (FI, feed:gain (FG, egg production (EP, egg weight (EW, egg mass (EM, rectal (RT and dorsal temperatures (DT, percentages of albumen (AP and yolk (YP, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, shell percent (SP, shell thickness (ST and egg specific gravity (ESG. Vitamin D3 influenced the parameters SP, ST, ESG and DT; vitamin C influenced YI, SP and ESG. There was no influence of environmental temperature only on HU. It was concluded that higher levels of vitamin D3 and 200 or 400 ppm of vitamin C can be improve eggshell quality and that heat stress impaired the main characteristics evaluated.

  19. Effects of different levels of expanded perlite on the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Karakas Oguz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The influence of different levels of expanded perlite on the performance and egg quality traits was studied in laying hens. Forty Lohmann Brown females at 30 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four groups consisting of five replicates with two hens in each. Four diet groups were supplemented with 0% (control group, 1%, 2%, and 3% perlite, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There were no significant differences in final body weight, feed intake, egg yield, and egg weight. Feed conversion ratio and egg weight decreased with addition of 2% perlite. Dietary perlite supplementation has no significant effects on shape, yolk, and albumen index. Haugh unit was affected significantly by addition of 2% perlite. Fecal pH, dry matter, and NH3-N did not significantly differ among treatments. Dietary perlite has no negative effect on performance and egg quality traits except 2% perlite group. Dietary expanded perlite can be added at 1% level in laying hen rations without changing the animal performance.

  20. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic antiparasitic treatment for chickens, in laying hens after oral administration via drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaczik, Angella; Menge, Monika; Huyghe, Bruno; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie; Traon, Gaëlle Le

    2017-08-08

    Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the egg-laying industry. Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in chickens after oral administration. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of a 1% solution of fluralaner in drinking water to laying hens at the recommended treatment dose and at multiples of this dose. One hundred-twenty healthy 28-week-old laying hens, weighing 1.4-2.1 kg at first administration, were included in the study, and allocated to 4 treatment groups of 30 hens each receiving daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 0, 1, 3, and 5 times the recommended dose of fluralaner. The product was administered via drinking water on a total of six occasions, as 3-day treatment periods twice with an interval of 4 days with no treatment (treatment on days 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9, 10), representing 3 times the recommended number of administrations. Hens supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. During the study, all hens were clinically observed, and their health was carefully monitored including body weight, food and water consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, and withdrawal reflex test. Eggs laid over the study were evaluated for main characteristics (e.g. weight, shape, strength, shell thickness and soundness, albumen height, yolk color, Haugh unit and presence of blood and/or meat spots). Following euthanasia of the hens at the end of the second treatment period (day 11) or 18 days later (day 29), complete gross post-mortem examination, including organ weight determination, and histopathological examination of multiple tissues were conducted. There were no clinical findings related to fluralaner treatment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control group were observed for some clinical pathology

  1. A comparison of the teratogenicity of methylmercury and selenomethionine injected into bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride and seleno-L-methionine were injected separately or in combinations into the fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and the incidence and types of teratogenic effects were recorded. For all three species,selenomethionine alone caused more deformities than did methylmercury alone. When mallard eggs were injected with the lowest dose of selenium (Se) alone (0.1 μg/g), 28 of 44 embryos and hatchlings were deformed, whereas when eggs were injected with the lowest dose of mercury (Hg) alone (0.2 μg/g), only 1 of 56 embryos or hatchlings was deformed. Mallard embryos seemed to be more sensitive to the teratogenic effects of Se than chicken embryos:0 of 15 chicken embryos or hatchlings from eggs injected with 0.1 μg/g Se exhibited deformities. Sample sizes were small with double-crested cormorant eggs, but they also seemed to be less sensitive to the teratogenic effects of Se than mallard eggs. There were no obvious differences among species regarding Hg-induced deformities. Overall, few interactions were apparent between methylmercury and selenomethionine with respect to the types of deformities observed. However, the deformities spina bifida and craniorachischisis were observed only when Hg and Se were injected in combination. One paradoxical finding was that some doses of methylmercury seemed to counteract the negative effect selenomethionine had on hatching of eggs while at the same time enhancing the negative effect selenomethionine had on creating deformities. When either methylmercury or selenomethionine is injected into avian eggs, deformities start to occur at much lower concentrations than when the Hg or Se is deposited naturally in the egg by the mother.

  2. Identification of oviposition attractants of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) released from rotten chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Chaudhury, Muhammad F; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Skoda, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), is an important blowfly species affecting both livestock and humans. It can transmit pathogenic disease agents mechanically and is an agent of facultative myiasis, which leads to economic losses. The adult flies are attracted to decomposing carcasses, carrion, or rotten meat in order to deposit their eggs, and the hatched larvae develop on these decaying organic materials. This research was aimed to identify volatiles emitted from rotten chicken livers that were reported previously to attract gravid females. In laboratory oviposition assays, gravid females laid significantly more eggs on rotten livers than on fresh livers, and rotten chicken liver was more attractive than rotten beef liver. Volatiles from the two livers were collected using solid phase microextraction. Significantly different volatile profiles were detected from the rotten livers of beef and chicken. Electroantennography (EAG) was performed to determine antennal responses to chemicals released from the most attractive chicken liver that are candidate oviposition attractants. Seven compounds from rotten chicken liver elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of gravid females. Oviposition assays showed that the 7-component blend stimulated gravid females to lay significantly more eggs than the other combinations tested. This 7-component blend may have potential for use in monitoring and sampling populations of secondary screwworm and their associated disease epidemiology.

  3. Iodine content of beef, lamb and egg in Shahrekord retails during 2010 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shakerian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential element in human diet and is found in many types of animal-origin foods. Nevertheless, iodine defect is a serious problem in many countries throughout the world. This study was aimed to determine the iodine contents of beef, lamb as well as eggs at ShahreKord retails. Forty beef, 40 lamb and 60 egg samples were obtained from ShahreKord markets during spring and winter of 2011. Iodine content of the samples was determined by acid digestion and Sandell-Kolthoff-base method. According to the results, the iodine content (mean ± SD of lamb in winter and spring was 11.32 ± 3.79 and 105.65 ± 52.635 µg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the iodine content for beef samples was estimated at 16.17 ± 5.69 and 115.25 ± 41.18 µg/kg in winter and spring, respectively. Moreover, it was found that iodine content of egg yolk in winter was 340.40 ± 122.60 µg/kg and in spring was 462.63± 62.71 µg/kg. However, iodine content of egg albumin in winter and spring was 33.01 ± 14.56 and 47.87 ± 14.40 µg/kg, respectively. In this study, a significant (p>? relationship was not observed between the iodine content of albumen and egg yolk. It was concluded that beef, lamb and egg could be considered as a significant source of iodine for human.

  4. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. C. Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05. Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05, but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness.

  5. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  6. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  7. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...

  8. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  9. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local

  10. Growth performance of normal frizzle and naked-neck chickens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It therefore seems that any advantage the two major genes investigated may have as a consequence of their direct effects on efficiency of thermoregulation of chickens in hot environments would probably be manifested after the growing period. This justifies the exploitation of these genes for egg production in the tropics.

  11. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lam.) pod meal (MPM) on production, immunity, and functional food index of chicken eggs. Two hundred HyLine W36 layer birds aged 50 weeks, 1469 ± 46.63 g, were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design, with five ...

  12. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... (MPM) on production, immunity, and functional food index of chicken eggs. Two hundred HyLine ... pancreatic activity, resulting in better nutrient metabolism and utilization (Windisch et al., 2008; Grashorn,. 2010). To serve these ..... Use of Moringa oleifera in poultry and ruminant nutrition. Turkish. J. Agri.

  13. Influence of weight grouping on the short term egg production of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strain I) and Black Olympia (Strain 2) to determine the influence of weight grouping on short term egg production traits. The two strains of layer type chickens were separated on the basis of plumage pattern and body weight at three weeks of age.

  14. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor.

  15. Effect of crude glycerin level in the diet of laying hens on egg performance and nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J

    2009-03-01

    An experiment was conducted with 72 Bovans Brown laying hens to determine the effect of dietary crude glycerin on laying performance; egg quality; retention of N, Ca, and P; and metabolizability of energy. The dietary treatments consisted of a control corn-soybean diet containing 6% corn starch (17% CP, 2,775 kcal/kg of AME(n), 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% Ca, and 0.37% available P) and 3 experimental diets. In the experimental diets, 2, 4, or 6% crude glycerin (a coproduct of commercial biodiesel production from rapeseed) was substituted for corn starch. During the experimental period (28 to 53 wk of hen age), the dietary level of glycerin had no significant effects on performance indices [i.e., egg production (mean value of all 4 dietary treatments was 95.6%), egg weight (60.4 g), daily egg mass (57.8 g/hen), daily feed consumption (121 g/hen), and feed conversion (0.477 g of egg mass/g of feed consumed)]. No significant treatment effects were found for egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh units, yolk color and thickness, density and breaking strength of eggshell), excretion and retention of N, Ca and P, or metabolizability of energy. Linear regression analysis revealed that the AME(n) value of crude glycerol was 3,970 kcal/kg (as-is basis). The results of this study demonstrated that crude glycerin may be incorporated to a level of 6% in the diet of laying hens without any detrimental effect on egg performance, egg quality, nutrient retention, and metabolizability of energy.

  16. Leptin is involved in the effects of cysteamine on egg laying of hens, characteristics of eggs, and posthatch growth of broiler offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Ni, Y; Ren, L; Dai, J; Zhao, R

    2008-09-01

    Cysteamine has been reported to modulate energy homeostasis and exert significant growth-promoting effects in broiler chickens. However, little is known concerning its effects on egg production of hens and the growth rate of their offspring. In the present study, 67-wk-old broiler breeders were allotted at random to control and cysteamine-supplemented (400 mg/kg) groups for 8 wk. The hatchlings were fed under the same condition until 6 wk of age. Cysteamine significantly increased the average laying rate by 2.24% (P eggs by 40.55% (P eggs by 20.15% (P egg weight, egg quality, fertility, or hatch-ability but significantly increased eggshell weight (P albumin weight (P egg yolk and albumin extracts as well as in liver homogenates of hens. Cysteamine did not affect the yolk content of T(3), thyroxine, estradiol, or glucagon, but significantly increased leptin content in liver of hens (P albumin (P eggs. These changes were accompanied by a significant downregulation of leptin receptor mRNA expression (P eggs demonstrated significantly lower body weight at hatching (P egg deposition, together with altered yolk sac leptin receptor expression, may be involved in such an effect.

  17. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  18. Performance differences of Rhode Island Red, Bashang Long-tail Chicken, and their reciprocal crossbreds under natural cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Gao, Yahui; Jiao, Wenjie; Li, Xinghua; Li, Yajie; Ning, Zhonghua

    2017-10-01

    The Bashang Long-tail chicken (BS), an indigenous Chinese breed, is considered cold tolerant. We selected BS, the Rhode Island Red (RIR), and their reciprocal crossbreds for the present study. The objectives were: i) to validate whether BS is cold tolerant and whether egg production and cold tolerance of crossbreds could be improved; and ii) to determine the physiological characteristics that underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in cold environments. A total of 916 chickens were reared in warm and natural cold environments (daily mean ambient temperature varied from 7.4°C to 26.5°C in the warm environment and from -17.5°C to 27.0°C in the cold environment). To investigate their adaptability to the cold environment, the egg production performance and body weight were monitored and compared between breeds and environments. The cloacal temperature and serum biochemical parameters were monitored to reveal the physiological characteristics underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in the cold environment. The warm environment experiment showed that RIR had the highest egg production performance, and that the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. While in the cold environment RIR had the lowest egg production performance, and the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. In the cold environment BS and reciprocal crossbreds had higher triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine levels than RIR. At 35 and 39 wk of age, when the ambient temperature was extremely low (varied from -20°C to 0°C), serum glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol of BS and crossbreds were higher than RIR. Bashang Long-tail chicken has a favorable cold tolerance ability. Crossbreeding with RIR and BS is an effective way to develop cold tolerant chickens with improved egg production performance.

  19. Limestone particle sizes and lighting regimens on egg and bone quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of limestone particle sizes in the diet and of lighting regimes on the egg and bone quality and on the performance of commercial laying hens. Three hundred Hissex White layers, at 18 weeks of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 5×2 factorial arrangement (coarse limestone in the diet at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%; with or without artificial light, with five replicates of six birds. No significant interaction was observed between particle sizes and lighting regime for the evaluated parameters. There was no significant effect of coarse limestone level in the diet on the performance and egg quality of hens; however, bone deformity (3.23 to 4.01 mm, strength (5.19 to 6.70 kgf cm-2, and mineral matter (51.09 to 59.61% improved as the proportion of coarse limestone increased. For lighting regime, the treatment with artificial light yielded higher Haugh unit values (87.17 vs. 85.54 than that with natural light only. Greater limestone particles improve bone quality of laying hens, and the use of artificial light can benefit the albumen quality of the eggs.

  20. Can vitamin C elevate laying hen performance, egg and plasma characteristics under normal condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. H. Matin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C on laying hen performance, egg quality and some blood parameters under thermal neutrality condition. A total of 192 laying hens (20-week-old were used by completely randomize design. The treatments, from 20 to 35 weeks of age, included four levels of vitamin C: 0 (control, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet. Bird’s performance, egg characteristics, plasma glucose, calcium and uric acid were assayed at 28 and 35 weeks of age. Laying hen performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05. Greater albumen index and Haugh unit were obtained by fed 750 mg vitamin C/kg diet compared to other treatments at 28 weeks of age (P<0.05. Increased yolk height was attained by diet supplemented with 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet at this age (P<0.05. Shape index was improved (P<0.05 by 250 and 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet at 35 weeks of age. Higher yolk index was achieved by 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet at 28 and 35 weeks of age (P<0.05. Plasma uric acid was decreased by 250 mg vitamin C/kg diet compared with control diet (P<0.05. The results of the current study have shown that diets supplemented with vitamin C can improve some egg characteristics and decrease plasma uric acid, but have similar effects on performance.

  1. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  2. Toxicity of the Alternaria metabolites alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altenuene, and tenuazonic acid in the chicken embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G F; Chu, F S

    1983-12-01

    The effects in the chicken embryo assay of four Alternaria metabolites (alternariol [AOH], alternariol methyl ether [AME], altenuene [ALT], and tenuazonic acid [TA]) were investigated. Administered to 7-day-old chicken embryos by yolk sac injection, AOH, AME, and ALT caused no mortality or teratogenic effect at doses up to 1,000, 500, and 1,000 micrograms per egg, respectively. TA exhibited a calculated 50% lethal dose of 548 micrograms per egg, with no teratogenic effect observed at either lethal or sublethal doses.

  3. Identification of a novel UDP-GalNAc:GlcNAcβ-R β1-4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from the albumen gland and connective tissue of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Mulder, H.; Spronk, B.A.; Schachter, H.; Neeleman, A.P.; Eijnden, D.H. van den; Jong-Brink, M. de; Kamerling, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Both the albumen gland, one of the female accessory sex glands, and connective tissue of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis contain N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity, capable of transferring GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc in beta1-4 linkage to the terminal GlcNAc residue of GlcNAcbeta-R. The

  4. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  5. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality traits for each variety were also determined. Mean egg weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Brown variety (10.53g) than in the Black and White varieties. Likewise the Brown variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) in egg width, yolk weight, yolk ...

  6. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  7. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  8. Effects of dynamic feeding low and high methionine diets on egg quality traits in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lin, X; Zhou, X; Wan, D; Wang, Z; Wu, X; Yin, Y

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of dynamic feeding low and high methionine (MET) diets on performance, egg quality traits, and serum metabolites in laying hens. A total of 180 laying hens (Brown Hy-line, 41 wk old) were allocated into 3 equal groups with 6 replicates each. The average egg production (EP) of each group was around 87% during one-week statistics before the formal experiment (P = 0.989). The control group (CON) received the control diet (contained 0.30% MET) at both 07:30 h and 15:30 hours. The low-high group (LH) received a low MET diet (containing 0.27% MET) at 07:30 h and high MET diet (containing 0.33% MET) at 15:30 hours. The high-low group (HL) received a high MET diet at 07:30 h and low MET diet at 15:30 hours. After 10 wk, blood samples were collected at 4-hour intervals in a daily cycle initially starting at 07:30 h before feeding. Results showed that the MET intake of a d was not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05), respectively. The EP of the LH and HL group increased by 2.28 and 2.45% when compared with the CON group (P > 0.05). The hens in the LH group had a lower albumen ratio and thicker eggshell thickness than both CON and HL groups. Egg yolk ratio of the LH group was higher than the HL group (P < 0.05). The serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), total protein (TP), and calcium (Ca) of the LH group was significantly lower at 07:30 h than the CON and HL groups, and the serum TG of the HL group was lower at 07:30 h than the CON group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the LH group also had the lowest value of serum TP at 23:30 h and 03:30 h (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dynamic feeding low and high MET diets might alter the circadian variation of serum TC, TG, TP, and Ca, which is consistent with the change of component ratio of egg albumen and yolk and eggshell thickness. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Characterization and miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of vitelline membrane outer layer protein I in the adult chicken oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Lee, Sang; Ji, Mi-Ran; Jang, Ye-Jin; Jeon, Mi-hyang; Kim, Jeom Sun; Park, Jin-Ki; Jeon, Ik-Soo; Byun, Sung June

    2015-03-01

    The laying hen is the best model for oviduct growth and development. The chicken oviduct produces the egg components, including the egg white and eggshell. However, the mechanism of egg component production during oviduct development requires further investigation. Vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 (VMO-1) is found in the outer layer of the vitelline membrane of avian eggs. Comparison of the chicken VMO-1 protein-coding sequence and the human, mouse, rat, and bovine VMO-1 proteins via multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed high degrees of homology of 55%, 53%, 48%, and 54%, respectively. Although the avian homologue of VMO-1 is highly expressed in the magnum of the oviduct, little is known about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of VMO-1 during oviduct development. The results of this study revealed that estrogen induces VMO-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in oviduct cells in vitro. The expression of genes interacting with VMO-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) functional analysis revealed that ovomucin expression was decreased by VMO-1 silencing. In addition, gga-miR-1623, 1552-3p, and 1651-3p influenced VMO-1 expression via its 3'-UTR, suggesting the posttranscriptional regulation of VMO-1 expression in chickens. Collectively, these results suggest that VMO-1 is an estrogen-induced gene that is posttranscriptionally regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The present study may contribute to an understanding of egg component production during chicken oviduct development.

  10. Farmers' breeding practices and traits of economic importance for indigenous chicken in RWANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Mbuthia, J; Kahi, A K

    2018-01-01

    Data on breeding practices and traits of economic importance for the indigenous chicken (IC) were collected through personal interviews using structured questionnaires and direct observations of chicken management practices. The study was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 in Rwamagana, Rulindo, Ruhango, Kicukiro and Muhanga districts of Rwanda. Data were collected and analysed through computation of indices, which represented a weighted average of all rankings of a specific trait. Spearman's non-parametric rank correlation was calculated for ranking of traits of economic importance to indicate the directional effects. The results on chicken ecotypes and their attributes showed that prolificacy, mature weight, disease tolerance, egg number and heat tolerance were highly preferred. The dwarf ecotype was most abundantly reared (38.84%) and considered to be significantly smaller and to have poorer growth rate, but to have better prolificacy than other indigenous chicken ecotypes. Selection of breeding cock and hen was based on disease tolerance, body weight at sexual maturity, body size and growth rate. In addition, for hen, mothering ability and egg fertility (Fer) were considered. Indices for the traits perceived by farmers as of primary economic importance were egg yield (0.093), disease tolerance (0.091), high growth rate (0.089), prolificacy (0.088), high body weight (0.087) and egg fertility (0.083). The most important traits considered by the marketers were body weight (BW), disease tolerance (Dtol), plumage colour (Pcol), egg yolk colour (EYC), meat quality (MQ), growth rate (GR) and egg yield (EY) whereas for consumers, meat quality, egg yolk colour, egg yield, body weight and growth rate were considered. Among traits perceived as important by farmers, a positive and significant correlation was found between BW and GR and Fer. Correlation was moderate for BW and prolificacy, drought tolerance (Drtol), Dtol and EYC. BW was negatively correlated with

  11. Production of metallothionein polyclonal antibodies using chickens as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bueno, Angélica María; León-Chávez, Bertha Alicia; Ruiz-Tagle, Alejandro; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Castro-Caballero, Leopoldo; Achanzar, William E; Brambila, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    The production of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against metallothioneins (MT) has been done in mammals. In this work, we describe a model where pAbs against rat liver MT were produced in chickens. Liver MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms isolated from rats were used as immunogens. MT was purified by exclusion chromatography and MT isoforms isolated by ionic exchange chromatography. Chickens were immunized with each isoform emulsified with Freund adjuvant over 6 weeks. MT-pAbs obtained from egg yolk were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by thiophilic interaction chromatography. MT-pAbs were characterized by ELISA, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and Western blot assays. Results showed significant titers (1:1,000) of MT-1 and MT-2 IgY in the eggs collected 30 days after the first immunization as determined by a direct ELISA assay; results also show a cross-reaction between MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms: however, the Abs obtained did not react with other non-MT proteins in hepatic homogenates. Sensitivity assays showed that MT-pAbs detected MT-1 and MT-2 at nanogram levels. These data suggest that chickens are an alternative model for producing pAbs against mammal high-homology proteins such as MT.

  12. Examination the expression pattern of HSP70 heat shock protein in chicken PGCs and developing genital ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Anand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicken Primordial Germ cells (PGCs are emerging pioneers in the field of applied embryology and stem cell technology. Now-a-days transgenic chickens are promising models to study human disease pathophysiology and drug designing. However, most of the molecular mechanism, which govern the stemness and pluripotency of chicken PGCs, not known in details. Recent studies have indicated the role of HSP70 in early embryonic development in many vertebrate species. Exposure of chicken to heat stress result in activation of heat shock factors which activate the transcription of HSP70. Exposure chicken eggs to acute heat stress effects HSP70 expression in PGCs and gonads. HSP70 helps in maintaining the integrity of chicken PGCs. A new emerging role of HSP70 in apoptosis has emerged. In our lab, we aim to characterize the expression of cHsp70 in chicken PGCs and gonads during embryonic development by subjecting the parents to acute levels of heat stress. Chickens whose parents subjected to heat stress showed varied expression of cHsp70 and also improved thermo tolerance. In the future we plan to study other factors and miRNAs, which is characterized as an emerging player in regulating heat shock protein response in chicken and also plays an important role in apoptosis.

  13. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  14. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  15. Paraproteinaemia in inbred chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, J R; McNally, M P; Jaton, J C

    1975-01-01

    Sera from seventy chickens of several inbred lines were screened by cellulose acetate electrophoresis for abnormalities of immunoglobulin production. IgG levels in two sera (both from apparently healthy birds) were unusually high. The IgG proteins purified from these two sera were shown, by isoelectric focusing, to be of restricted heterogeneity. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1201862

  16. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  17. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Eggs of Hens Experimentally Intoxicated with Methylmercury Chloride and Detoxified with a Humic-Aluminosilicate Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Barej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive-detox preparation (P-dP based on humic and aluminosilicate substances in the diet of laying hens (3% daily dose previously intoxicated with methylmercury chloride (CH3ClHg, 5 mg Hg/kg feed mixture for six weeks. Mercury content in the whole eggs of the group intoxicated with CH3ClHg increased compared to the control group: 488-fold after 1 wk, 622-fold after 2 wks, and 853-fold after 6 wks of intoxication. The use of P-dP in the group previously intoxicated with CH3ClHg reduced he mercury content of whole eggs by 18.4%, on average, whereas the average was 29.9% two weeks after the discontinuation of CH3ClHg and P-dP supply. Maximum Hg content in the whole egg was observed in group III (299.7 g, whereas the highest mercury level was obtained in the egg albumen.

  18. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  19. Chronic Respiratory Disease (Crd of Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeripto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic respiratory disease (CRD of chicken is the most costly disease confronting poultry industries in the world. The economic losses due to CRD was estimated up to billions rupiahs per year in Indonesia, and in the USA was estimated up to hundred millions dollars per year. The losses mainly due to decreases of body weight gain, egg production, feed efficiencies, hatchabilities and increases of embryo mortality. The main causative agent of CRD is Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG. Respiratory disturbances, excretion of nasal exudate, coughing, sneezing and hyperaemic of the conjunctiva are very often seen as the clinical signs. Pathological lesions are often found as inflammation of respiratory organs and more specific lesions are seen as inflammation and thickening of the airsac membranes with foci cheesy materials scattered around the airsacs. Diagnosis of CRD can be made by clinical symptoms, serology examination dan isolation of MG. Treatment, prevention and controls of CRD have been carried out for years, but cases of CRD are still present up to now. The MGTS11 vaccine as the third generation of CRD vaccine was reported to be effective for controlling CRD of chickens and potentially used as a tool for eradication programme of CRD in the future.

  20. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  1. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  2. Chicken line-dependent mortality after experimental infection with three type IIxIII recombinant Toxoplasma gondii clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schares, G; Herrmann, D C; Maksimov, P; Matzkeit, B; Conraths, F J; Moré, G; Preisinger, R; Weigend, S

    2017-09-01

    Three genetically different clones of Toxoplasma gondii, also different in mouse virulence, were studied by experimental infection in chickens. For the experiments, four chicken lines were used, which differed in phylogenetic origin and performance level: two white egg layer lines, one with high laying performance (WLA), one with low (R11) and two brown layer lines, also displaying high (BLA) and low (L68) egg number. Chickens were intraperitoneally infected with three different T. gondii isolates representing type IIxIII recombinant clones, i.e. showing both, type II- and type III-specific alleles. These clones (K119/2 2C10, B136/1 B6H6, K119/2 A7) had exhibited virulence differences in a mouse model. In chickens, a significantly higher mortality was observed in white layer lines, but not in brown layer lines, suggesting that differences in the phylogenetic background may influence the susceptibility of chickens for toxoplasmosis. In addition, antibody (IgY) levels varied in surviving chickens at 31 days post infection. While low to intermediate antibody levels were observed in white layers, intermediate to high levels were measured in brown layers. Infection with a T. gondii clone showing low chicken virulence resulted in higher antibody levels in all chicken lines compared to infection with T. gondii clones of intermediate or high chicken virulence. This was in agreement with the parasite load as determined by real-time PCR. Overall, results show that progeny resulting from natural sexual recombination of T. gondii clonal lineages, may differ in their virulence for mice and chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shifts in bacterial communities of eggshells and antimicrobial activities in eggs during incubation in a ground-nesting passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Grizard

    Full Text Available Microbial invasion of egg contents is a cause of embryonic death. To counter infection risks, the embryo is protected physically by the eggshell and chemically by antimicrobial proteins. If microbial pressure drives embryo mortality, then females may have evolved, through natural selection, to adapt their immune investment into eggs. Although frequently hypothesized, this match between immune allocation and microorganisms has not been explored yet. To examine if correlations between microbes on eggs and immunity in eggs exist, we collected eggs from red-capped larks (Calandrella cinerea and simultaneously examined their bacterial communities and antimicrobial components--pH, lysozyme and ovotransferrin--during natural incubation. Using molecular techniques, we find that bacterial communities are highly dynamic: bacterial abundance increases from the onset to late incubation, Shannon's α-diversity index increases during early incubation stages, and β-diversity analysis shows that communities from 1 day-old clutches are phylogenetically more similar to each other than the older ones. Regarding the antimicrobials, we notice a decrease of pH and lysozyme concentration, while ovotransferrin concentration increases during incubation. Interestingly, we show that two eggs of the same clutch share equivalent immune protection, independent of clutch age. Lastly, our results provide limited evidence of significant correlation between antimicrobial compounds and bacterial communities. Our study examined simultaneously, for the first time in a wild bird, the dynamics of bacterial communities present on eggshells and of albumen-associated antimicrobial components during incubation and investigated their relationship. However, the link between microorganisms and immunity of eggs remains to be elucidated further. Identifying invading microbes and their roles in embryo mortality, as well as understanding the role of the eggshell microbiome, might be key to

  4. Salmonella Enteritidis universal stress protein (usp) gene expression is stimulated by egg white and supports oviduct colonization and egg contamination in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspoet, R; Gantois, I; Devloo, R; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2011-11-21

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis has caused a worldwide egg-associated pandemic since the mid 1980s. The exact mechanisms causing this egg tropism are still largely unknown, and only a few Salmonella genes have been implicated in the interaction with the oviduct or eggs. A in vivo expression technology screening performed previously, identified the uspA and uspB genes as being highly expressed in the chicken oviduct and in eggs. Here, we demonstrate that uspA and uspB gene expression is indeed induced after contact with egg white. Intra-oviduct inoculation of Salmonella Enteritidis uspB and uspBA mutant strains showed that the mutants had a decreased ability to colonize the magnum and isthmus of the oviduct, the organs that produce the egg white and eggshell membranes, respectively, at 7 days post-inoculation. Intravenous challenge showed that a Salmonella Enteritidis uspBA mutant strain had a decreased ability to contaminate eggs. Analogous to the function of universal stress proteins A and B in other bacterial species, we hypothesize that the Salmonella uspA and uspB genes are involved in long term persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis in harmful environments, such as in the oviduct and eggs, by conferring resistance against compounds that damage the bacterial cell membrane and DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Minor Salmonella: potential pathogens in eggs in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Heleili, Nouzha; Alloui, Nadir

    2015-10-29

    Salmonellosis is one of the major foodborne diseases known to be closely related to the consumption of contaminated eggs, infected poultry, and poultry products. Control and survey of the poultry chain are the key elements and the most critical steps in the prevention of human transmission of Salmonella. This study was carried out in East Algeria on 150 eggs meant for consumption collected from mini-markets and immediately tested for Salmonella using standard methods (ISO AFNOR 6579 modified in 2002). Briefly, the shell surfaces were carefully wiped using sterile appropriated tissues while the white and yellow yolks were separated. All 10 samples were pooled together and a total of 45 samples were carefully analyzed. A contamination rate of 4.4% was found, and two strains of Salmonella bradford were isolated from white and yellow yolks. The results showed that XLT4 was the best medium for Salmonella isolation from yolks. Screening for other Salmonella in parental chickens using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test revealed seropositive cases of Salmonella enteritidis at the top of the poultry production pyramid. Occurrence of Salmonella in yolks and seropositive results for S. in parental chickens is a serious and potential danger to public health. Radical and preventive measures must be taken at the critical points to control and to avoid human transmission. These measures must be installed at all levels of egg production through the application of appropriate and strict regulations, and use of good hygienic practices in transport, storage, and food preparation.

  6. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  7. Coral snake antivenom produced in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze-thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  8. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic poultry red mite treatment, for chicken breeders' reproductive performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Bruno; Le Traon, Gaelle; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-10-31

    Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the chicken egg-laying industry, altering the health condition of the birds, and causing stress, mortality and decline of egg quality impacting economic performance. Fluralaner is a novel systemic parasiticide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in chickens after oral administration. The evaluation of the safety of this new product in breeder chickens is particularly relevant because poultry mite infestation affects long cycle production systems, such as layers and breeders farms, for which the productivity heavily depends on the health of the reproductive function. This study was designed to investigate the safety for reproductive performances of fluralaner in male and female chickens at 3 times the recommended dose (1.5 instead of 0.5 mg/kg body weight) and 2 times the recommended duration (4 administrations instead of 2 administrations, with a 7 day interval between administrations). This randomized, parallel-group, blinded study included 432 Bovans brown parent stock chickens (48 males and 384 females, 17-week old). Birds were randomly assigned to 16 pens (three males and 24 females per pen), and then each pen assigned to one of the two treatment groups (8 pens, i.e. 216 birds per group). Fluralaner was administered via drinking water on a total of four occasions 7 days apart, at daily doses of 1.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 3 times the recommended dose of fluralaner per administration and 2 times the recommended number of administrations. Birds supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. The treatments were given at time of peak egg production in the bird's life: i.e. at 30 to 34 week of age. During that period, all adult chickens were clinically observed. The reproductive performances were carefully monitored including the number of eggs laid, egg weight, fertility and hatchability

  9. The autopsy of chicken nuggets reads "chicken little".

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Bigler, Steven; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2013-11-01

    To determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains. Chicken nuggets have become a major component of the American diet. We sought to determine the current composition of this highly processed food. Randomly selected nuggets from 2 different national fast food chains were fixed in formalin, sectioned and stained for microscopic analysis. Striated muscle (chicken meat) was not the predominate component in either nugget. Fat was present in equal or greater quantities along with epithelium, bone, nerve, and connective tissue. Chicken nuggets are mostly fat, and their name is a misnomer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets.

  11. Effect of Supplementation Purslane (Portulaca oleracea as a Source of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Production Performance and Physical Quality of Egg of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Kartikasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion plant source of n 3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3 on the diets of layers on production performance and physical quality of eggs. A total of  125 Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for five weeks following a seven day adaptation period. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Feed intake (FI measured weekly and feed consumption ratio (FCR was calculated at the end of the trial. A total of 25 egg yolk samples of day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment were collected to analyse physical quality of eggs. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analyzed using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that the incorporation of plants rich in ALA did not modify FI, FCR, and egg production. Supplementation of purslane meal in the diets had no effect on physical quality of eggs, including egg weight, yolk weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Unit (HU. The average of egg weight and yolk weight were 60,5 and 15.3 g, respectively. Diet containing purslane meal increased yolk colour. In conclusion, laying hens that fed diet supplemented with purslane meal rich in ALA improved yolk colour and did not change the production performance of the laying hens or the qualities of the eggs.

  12. Benefits and Limits of Egg Yolk vs. Serum Samples for Avian Influenza Virus Serosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2016-06-01

    Serologic tests are a valuable tool for retrospective surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and monitoring of postvaccination host immune response. Yet collection of serum samples, particularly in adult breeder chickens, is laborious, intrusive to birds, and may pose a serious risk to the biosecurity of a flock. In this study we compared the level of AIV-specific antibody titers in eggs and serum samples obtained from broiler breeder chickens vaccinated at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age with H5N2-inactivated vaccine. Nucleocapsid protein-specific ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) against homologous as well as heterologous antigens were used. The eggs and sera were collected at 22, 30, 45, and 50 wk of age (i.e., 4, 12, 27, and 32 wk after the third and final immunization, respectively). Using ELISA, the number of positive egg yolk samples decreased over time after vaccination, from 97% to 47%, while the seropositivity rate of serum samples was 97%-100% during the whole investigation period. No antibody titers were detected in egg white. By HI, antibody titers in serum samples were higher than in egg yolk samples. Compared to the homologous H5N2 antigen, significantly lower HI titers were obtained by using a heterologous H5N1 virus of clade 2.2.1.2. In addition, no HI titers were detected in egg yolk and/or serum samples tested against the antigen of an Egyptian H5N1 antigenic drift variant of clade 2.2.1.1. This study indicates that egg yolk may be used to monitor the postvaccination immune status of broiler breeder chickens and retrospective serosurveillance-by HI when a matching antigen is available as well as by ELISA-particularly for up to 12 wk postvaccination.

  13. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  14. Isozymes of lysozyme in leukocytes and egg white: evidence for the species-specific control of egg-white lysozyme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindenburg, A; Spitznagel, J; Arnheim, N

    1974-05-01

    Two structurally distinct forms of eggwhite lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) are known. The egg white of some species contains both of these forms, while the egg white of other species appears to contain only one or the other of them. We have immunological and electrophoretic evidence that the chicken, which has only one lysozyme type in its egg white, contains both types in its polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Experiments on Embden goose bone marrow showed that this tissue also contains both lysozymes, even though the egg white of this species contains only one of them. Our studies suggest that many avian species have the genetic loci that code for both forms of lysozyme, but that a species-specific regulatory mechanism controls whether one or the other or both of them are expressed during egg white production. The fact that two distinct lysozymes are present in chicken leukocytes may be of significance to the antibacterial mechanism of these cells, especially in light of the fact that they lack myeloperoxidase, an important leukocyte enzyme in mammals.

  15. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Habimana, R; Kahi, A K

    2017-12-01

    Characterization of indigenous chicken (IC) production systems in Rwanda was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 with the aim of understanding socio-economic characteristics, management of IC, production parameters, feed resources, and constraints faced by farmers rearing IC. A survey involving 206 households was carried out in 5 districts with the highest populations of IC using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SAS software. The results showed that the majority of respondents (62.4%) were males and 37.6% were females. The majority of respondents (83.6%) had formal education. All family members were involved in the chicken husbandry practices. However, women (78%) were highly responsible for IC management activities. The family size averaged 5 persons (ranging 2 to 13) per household. Land was privately owned by farmers (84%) with a mean holding of 0.87 ha per household. The production system was mainly extensive with minimum provision of supplementary feeds. Chickens were being housed in separate houses at night and mating was uncontrolled. Breeding and replacement stocks were mainly sourced from the hatching of eggs using broody hens (60.68% of respondents). There were no vaccination programs, and ecto- and endo-parasites control was done when need arose. Egg production, income generation, meat production, and production of breeding stock were the main reasons of keeping IC. The first 3 main challenges facing IC production were diseases outbreaks, lack of investment capital, and predators. Others challenges, such as feed shortage, thieves, fluctuation of market price, lack of information on poultry rearing, and lack of chicken houses, also were mentioned. The IC production constraints mentioned need urgent mitigation measures to sustain utilization of IC against the changing climatic and economic conditions. Therefore, individual, public institution, and non-governmental organization efforts are required to develop sustainable breeding

  16. Comparison of HMOX1 expression and enzyme activity in blue-shelled chickens and brown-shelled chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhePeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blue egg coloring is attributed to biliverdin derived from the oxidative degradation of heme through catalysis by heme oxygenase (HO. The pigment is secreted into the eggshell by the shell gland. There is uncertainty as to whether the pigment is synthesized in the shell gland or in other tissues. To investigate the site of pigment biosynthesis, the expression of heme oxygenase (decycling 1 (HMOX1, a gene encoding HO, and HO activity in liver and spleen were compared between blue-shelled chickens (n=12 and brown-shelled chickens (n=12. There were no significant differences in HMOX1 expression and HO activity in these tissues between the two groups. Since the liver and spleen, two important sites outside the shell gland where heme is degraded into biliverdin, CO and Fe2+, did not differ in HO expression and activity we conclude that the pigment is most likely synthesized in the shell gland.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40 were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  18. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  19. Vitamins C and E can Alleviate Adverse Effects of Heat Stress on Live Weight and Some Egg Quality Profiles of Layer Hens

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    J. J. Ajakaiye1*, M. Cuesta-Mazorra and J. R. Garcia-Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of vitamins C and E on live weight and egg quality profile of layer hens subjected in situ to heat stress. Hybrid White Leghorn (L33 layer hens (n=720 and 39 weeks old, were randomly allotted to 4 treatments containing 0, 150 mg vitamin C, 150 mg (150 IU vitamin E, and 150 mg vitamin C plus 150 mg vitamin E/kg of diet. Final live weight in supplemented groups were significantly (P<0.05 higher than control. Egg, egg yolk and egg albumen weight in groups administered with vitamins E and C+E were very significantly higher compared with control, meanwhile, the same indicators were only significantly (P<0.05 higher in vitamin C group compared with control. Similarly, eggshell weight was significantly (P<0.05 higher in all treated groups, with the highest value recorded in group supplemented with vitamins C+E compared with control. By sustaining bird’s live weight and increasing egg quality indicators, it is concluded that both antioxidants offered protective effect against the thermally stressful hot-humid condition.

  20. Qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com levedura seca de cana-de-açúcar Quality of the eggs of commercial layers fed with sugarcane dry yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George André Rodrigues Maia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de levedura seca (Saccharomyces cerevisiae à dieta de poedeiras na qualidade dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 120 poedeiras comerciais com 33 semanas de idade, distribuídas em um delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0, 7, 14, 21 e 28% de levedura, quatro repetições e seis aves por unidade experimental. Rações isoprotéicas (18% de proteína bruta, isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal de energia metabolizável/kg, isocálcicas (3,8% Ca e isofosfóricas (0,38% P disponível foram formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja. Os níveis de levedura seca não alteraram o peso do ovo (64,35± 0,85 g, a altura do albúmen (7,95±0,22 mm, a unidade Haugh (87,42±1,31, os sólidos totais da gema (50,86±0,20%, o extrato etéreo da gema (30,74±0,26%, a proteína da gema (16,92±0,16%, a gravidade específica do ovo (1,0912±0,001 g/mL, o peso da casca (6,67±0,08 g e a espessura da casca (0,4671±0,003 mm. Foi observado efeito quadrático na variável cor da gema no terceiro ciclo de postura. A inclusão de até 28% de levedura seca nas rações intensificou a cor da gema e foi considerada uma prática viável pela análise econômica.This work aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the laying diet on the quality of the eggs. One hundred and twenty chickens with 33 weeks of age were used in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28% of dried yeast, four replicates and six birds per pen. Diets similar in protein (18% of crude protein, energy (2,800 kcal of metabolizable energy/kg, calcium (3.8% and in phosphorus (0.38% of available phosphorus were formulated based on corn and soybean meal. The levels of dry yeast did not affect egg weight (64.35±0.85 g, albumen height (7.95±0.22 mm, Haugh unit (87.42±1.31, total yolk solids (50.86±0.20%, ether extract of yolk (30.74±0.26%, yolk protein (16.92±0

  1. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  2. Egg Products for Use in a Cook-Freeze System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    0.004 1.8 4.78 0.63 286.8 Margarine 4.78 0.63 286.8 2. Melt margarine and COOK vegetables lightly fcr 5 minutes. Tomatoes , peeled , chopped...heating cycles» c. Serve with tomato catsup, ’able 3. Production Guide for Creamed Egg and Beef, Chicken or Turkey On ^oast Yield: 100 Portions... tomatoes and spices Simmer until reduced to 2/3 volume, 4. Fill 60 grams (2.1 ounces into 4X6 inch pouches.* 5. Seal, mark anafr eeze TOTALS 100.00

  3. The solubility of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sandra B.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Baird, James K.; Meehan, Edward J.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium solubility of chicken egg-white lysozyme in the presence of crystalline solid state was determined as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and temperature. The solubility curves obtained represent a region of the lysozyme phase diagram. This diagram makes it possible to determine the supersaturation of a given set of conditions or to achieve identical supersaturations by different combinations of parameters. The temperature dependence of the solubility permits the evaluation of Delta-H of crystallization. The data indicate a negative heat of crystallization for the tetragonal crystal form but a positive heat of crystallization for the high-temperature orthorhombic form.

  4. Avian Adenoviruses Infections with Special Attention to Inclusion Body Hepatitis/ Hydropericardium Syndrome and Egg Drop Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first avian adenovirus (AAV associated with clinical disease was isolated from an outbreak of respiratory disease in quail in 1950 (Olson, 1950. Since that time, AAVs have been found in all types and breeds of chickens and from a variety of other avian species. The infections may be asymptomatic or associated with several clinical and pathological conditions. Vertical transmission via the egg is the most common way of transmission. Also horizontal transmission through faeces, contaminated egg trays, crates and trucks play a role in the infection route. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies in healthy poultry, and viruses have been isolated from normal birds. Avian adenoviruses in chickens are the etiological agents of 2 diseases known as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH and hydropericardium syndrome (HP. In some cases each condition is observed separately, however, recently the 2 conditions have frequently been observed as a single entity; therefore, the name hepatitis hydropericardium has been widely used to describe the pathologic condition. The syndrome is an acute disease of young chickens associated with anemia, haemorrhagic disorders, hydropericardium and high mortality. Egg-Drop-Syndrome (EDS is caused also by an adenovirus. The disease is characterised by a severe drop in egg production as well as the production of shell-less, thin-shelled, discoloured or misshapen eggs in apparently healthy birds. Ducks and geese are the natural host of the EDS virus. It was first described in chickens in the 1970s and spread to several countries world wide. The birds usually do not show any other signs of disease, and mortality is not expected. There is no specific treatment of the AAV infections. Active immunization by vaccination using an inactivated is wide spread.

  5. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  6. Direct and correlated responses to long-term selection for increased body weight and egg production in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Noble, D O; Zhu, N J; Moritsu, Y

    1996-10-01

    Lines of turkeys were selected long-term for increased egg production (E line; 34 generations) or increased 16-wk BW (F line; 28 generations). The E and F lines were started from randombred control populations (RBC1 and RBC2, respectively) that were also maintained to remove environmental variation among generations. Realized heritabilities (h2) +/- SE in the E line, based on regressions of response on cumulated actual selection differentials (selection differentials weighted for the number of offspring produced), for 180-d and 250-d egg production were 0.34 +/- 0.02 (17 generations) and 0.26 +/- 0.13 (8 generations), respectively. The realized h2 of 16-wk BW in the F line was 0.26 +/- 0.01. There was no consistent evidence of selection response reaching a plateau in either line. The genetic association of BW and egg production changed with selection in the E and F lines. The genetic correlation varied from near zero to strongly negative and fluctuated between these extremes in both lines even though they started from different base populations and selection criteria differed. Other correlated responses to selection for increased egg production were increased average clutch length (intensity of lay), and decreased broodiness (total days lost), egg weight, shell coloration, and rate of response to stimulatory lighting. Other correlated responses to selection for increased 16-wk BW in the F line included: increased egg weight (due to increased albumen), longer eating bouts, and decreased average clutch length, semen production, walking ability, and resistance to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus. Selection within the E and F lines also changed the frequency of MHC haplotypes and the changes appeared to be in opposite directions in the two lines.

  7. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morita, V.S.; Almeida, V.R.; Matos Junior, J.B.; Vicentini, T.I.; Brand, van den H.; Boleli, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a

  8. Chicken Domestication and Indigenous Chicken Breeds of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chicken was domesticated in South Asia in 2000 BC and then spread around the world .The red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus was the ancestor of the chicken. In consequence of long years of domestication and breeding activities, chickens were scattered over various countries, continents and regions. As a result, today there are many chicken breeds in the world. Native breeds are thought to be crossbreds of various breeds brought to Turkey in different time periods. It is difficult to predict when and how the hybridization has been taken shape, because Anatolia has been a passage for a variety of tribes since ancient times. Indigenous chicken breeds in Turkey are Gerze, Sultan and the most well-known Denizli.

  9. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  10. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  11. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTD Jácome

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the production of hatchable eggs and of commercial eggs. Light is required for the release of hormones responsible for reproduction; however, the best lighting practices to stimulate laying poultry during the reproductive period still need to be determined, with the aim of saving electric energy, and therefore, to dilute production costs and comply with environmental sustainability requirements. This review showed that layers are indeed photostimulated with more than 12 hours of light, independently of the artificial lighting program applied. Results demonstrate that artificial lighting programs influence egg production, but not egg quality parameters. Intermittent lighting programs are good alternatives when layers are housed in open-sided houses, which are typically used in Brazil. Transcranial light reception is the most important route for the stimulation of reproduction in poultry.

  12. The phylotypic egg timer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2000-01-01

    Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and

  13. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  14. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  15. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ensaios de penetração de Salmonella Enteritidis em ovos de galinha com diferentes qualidades de casca, submetidos ou não a lavagem industrial e a duas temperaturas de armazenagem Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken eggs, comparing different shell quality, industrial washing and temperature of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Pinto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento da Salmonella Enteritidis quando em contato com a superfície de ovos de consumo, classificados de acordo com a qualidade da casca ou com tratamentos (lavados ou não, usando fezes de aves como veículo de contaminação, e armazenados a 8°C e 70% de umidade relativa ou a 30°C e 90% de umidade relativa. A 8°C, o microrganismo permaneceu viável na superfície dos ovos, ao longo do tempo, enquanto a 30°C foi possível identificar a sua inibição e até sua eliminação da superfície. A contaminação do conteúdo de ovos com defeito de casca foi mais frequente quando os ovos foram submetidos a temperaturas inadequadas de armazenagem (30°C.Salmonella Enteriditis behavior was studied when present on the surface of consume eggs, classified according to the shell quality or treatments (washed or not. Stools of fowls were used as a vehicle for contamination. The eggs were stored at 8°C and 70% relative humidity or at 30°C and 90% of relative humidity. At 8°C, the microorganism stayed viable on the surface of the eggs throu