Muñoz, A; Höppner, W; Sap, J
To determine the capacity of the chicken c-erbA (cTR-alpha) gene product in regulating expression of known thyroid hormone-responsive genes, both the cTR-alpha and the viral v-erbA genes were expressed in FAO cells, a rat hepatoma cell line defective for functional thyroid hormone receptors. Upon...
Cross sections for neutron induced alpha production in carbon were measured at seventeen energies between 18 and 22 MeV, using a deuterated anthracene crystal as both target and detector. Pulse shape discrimination was employed to separate the alphas and elastically scattered deuterons from the other reaction products. Published (n,d) elastic scattering data were used as a standard to obtain the alpha production cross sections. Comparison with available measurements shows good agreement
... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenpicadillo.html Chicken Picadillo To use the sharing features on this ... together on a busy weeknight Ingredients 1 pound chicken breast, boneless, skinless, cut into thin strips 2 ...
... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenstew.html Chicken Stew To use the sharing features on this ... leftovers for lunch the next day! Ingredients 8 chicken pieces (breasts or legs) 1 cup water 2 ...
In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...
Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Endo, Yasuo; Muramoto, Koji; Sugawara, Shunji
Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, functions as a cofactor of carboxylases that catalyze an indispensable cellular metabolism. Although significant decreases in serum biotin levels have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, the biological roles of biotin in inflammatory responses are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on TNF-alpha production. Mice were fed a basal diet or a biotin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. Serum biotin levels were significantly lower in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. After i.v. administration of LPS, serum TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. A murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1, was cultured in a biotin-sufficient or -deficient medium for 4 weeks. Cell proliferation and biotinylation of intracellular proteins were decreased significantly in biotin-deficient cells compared with biotin-sufficient cells. Significantly higher production and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha were detected in biotin-deficient J774.1 cells than biotin-sufficient cells in response to LPS and even without LPS stimulation. Intracellular TNF-alpha expression was inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating that biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production at the transcriptional level. However, the expression levels of TNF receptors, CD14, and TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 complex were similar between biotin-sufficient and -deficient cells. No differences were detected in the activities of the NF-kappaB family or AP-1. The TNF-alpha induction by biotin deficiency was down-regulated by biotin supplementation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that biotin deficiency may up-regulate TNF-alpha production or that biotin excess down-regulates TNF-alpha production, suggesting that biotin status may influence inflammatory diseases.
Carrillo, Eddy H; Gordon, Laura E; Richardson, J David; Polk, Hiram C
A systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is seen in approximately 75% of patients with complex blunt liver injuries treated nonoperatively. Many feel this response is caused by blood, bile, and necrotic tissue accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. Our current treatment for these patients is a delayed laparoscopic washout of the peritoneal cavity, resulting in a dramatic resolution of the SIR. Spectrophotometric analysis of the intraperitoneal fluid has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of free hemoglobin (Hb). We hypothesize that free Hb enhances the local peritoneal response by increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by monocytes, contributing to the local inflammatory response and SIR. Monocytes from five healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured in RPMI-1640 for 24 hours. Treatment groups included saline controls, lipopolysaccharide ([LPS], 10 ng/mL, from Escherichia coli), human Hb (25 microg/mL), and Hb + LPS. Supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test with Mann-Whitney posttest was used for statistical analysis with p < or = 0.05 considered significant. Free Hb significantly increased TNF-alpha production 915 +/- 223 pg/mL versus saline (p = 0.02). LPS and Hb + LPS further increased TNF-alpha production (2294 pg/mL and 2501 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.001) compared with saline controls. These data confirm that free Hb is a proinflammatory mediator resulting in the production of significant amounts of TNF-alpha. These in vitro findings support our clinical data in which timely removal of intraperitoneal free hemoglobin helps prevent its deleterious local and systemic inflammatory effects in patients with complex liver injuries managed nonoperatively.
Starkie, Rebecca; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Jauffred, Sune
and atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested (CON), rode a bicycle for 3 h (EX), or were infused with recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) for 3 h while they rested. After 2.5 h, the volunteers received a bolus of Escherichia coli...... exercise and rhIL-6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL-6, which is produced...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...
Yu, J.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Sauter, S.
precursors or metabolites [phosphatidylcholine, choline, betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)] have a modulating effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by endotoxin-stimulated human mononuclear leukocytes and whether SAM-dependent polyamines (spermidine, spermine) are mediators of SAM......-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha synthesis. Methionine and betaine had a moderate stimulatory effect on TNF-alpha production, whereas phosphatidylcholine (ID(50) 5.4 mM), SAM (ID(50) 131 microM), spermidine (ID(50) 4.5 microM) and spermine (ID(50) 3.9 microM) had a predominantly inhibitory effect. Putrescine did...
Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.
Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de
Porter, M H; Hrupka, B J; Altreuther, G; Arnold, M; Langhans, W
Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are assumed to mediate anorexia during bacterial infections. To improve our understanding of the role that these two cytokines serve in mediating infection during anorexia, we investigated the ability of pentoxifylline (PTX), a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha production, to block the anorectic effects of the bacterial products lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in rats. Intraperitoneally injected PTX (100 mg/kg body wt) completely eliminated the anorectic effect of intraperitoneally injected LPS (100 microg/kg body wt) and attenuated the anorectic effect of a higher dose of intraperitoneally injected LPS (250 microg/kg body wt). Concurrently, PTX pretreatment suppressed low-dose LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by more than 95% and IL-1beta production 39%, as measured by ELISA. Similarly, high-dose LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was reduced by approximately 90%. PTX administration also attenuated the tolerance that is normally observed with a second injection of LPS. In addition, PTX pretreatment attenuated the hypophagic effect of intraperitoneally injected MDP (2 mg/kg body wt) but had no effect on the anorectic response to intraperitoneally injected recombinant human TNF-alpha (150 ug/kg body wt). The results suggest that suppression of TNF-alpha production is sufficient to attenuate LPS- and MDP-induced anorexia. This is consistent with the hypothesis that TNF-alpha plays a major role in the anorexia associated with bacterial infection.
Reeves, Charles A.
Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)
Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul
In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)
Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...
Toropilova, D.; Takac, L.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M. M.
In our work, we focused the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on metabolic parameters in chickens. In the first group of chickens we monitor changes of the concentration in glucose and cholesterol after whole body irradiation dose of chicken (3 Gy). In the second group of chickens we studied the combined effect of radiation and intraperitoneal application solution of zinc chloride to changes of the concentration in glucose and total cholesterol. In the tissues of organisms are found only in a very small amount of microelements however are of particular importance in a number of enzymatic catalytic and regulatory processes. Zinc is found in all cells of the body. However, it is the highest percentage of zinc contained in muscle and bone cells. Resorption takes place in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum. For both groups of chickens, we performed analyzes on the 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 30 day. Results and an overview of the work can be helpful in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in preventing diseases from exposure to radiation, but also in the case of the consequences after nuclear accidents. (authors)
... on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as MSG, salt, or sodium erythorbate may be added but must be listed on the label. [ Top of Page ] Foodborne Organisms Associated with Chicken As on any perishable meat, fish, or poultry, bacteria can be found on raw ...
Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .
35 nm in diameter with a ... named chicken astrovirus (CAstV) isolated from broiler chicks (Baxendale and Mebatsion, 2004). CAstV has .... successfully used the RT-PCR method to detect CAstV in field samples from across the USA while Day et ...
ectoparasites of chickens in four areas of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, on 160 chickens raised under free-range ... 90% mortality of local free range chickens. Arthropod ... some cases premature death. ... from the birds by displaying the feathers.
Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.
The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...
Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.
The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat
Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.
Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline
A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...
Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.
Moersel, J.T.; Wende, I.; Schwarz, K.
Chickens were irradiated in a 6 deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .
Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...
Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D
This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.
Dwyer, Edward J.
The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…
This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.
Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I
Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.
Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...
Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...
Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...
Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning
The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516
Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.
Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.
The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer
Kulomaa, M.S.; Elo, H.A.; Tuohimaa, P.J.
A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)
1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by
.... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...
Rodriguez, Gustavo C
.... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...
Rodriguez, Gustavo C
.... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...
Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri
Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...
Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration
Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration
Dinesh D. Jayasena
Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.
Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.
To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro
This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...
Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...
What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...
Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.
Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens
Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa
factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...
Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the
Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...
Seyed Davoud Jazayeri
Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.
Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier
Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...
Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D
Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni
Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei
This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796
Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades
In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the
Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang
This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.
Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.
With a total population size of about 65 million, chicken make up the largest share in terms of number ... each PA, 40 households were randomly selected, making a total sample size ..... Production potential and qualitative traits of indigenous ...
Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung
A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.
Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...
Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.
Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng
The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A
Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.
Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,
Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole
to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...
Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.
Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F
This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (Pchicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of
Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D
In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ki Young Choi
Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.
Elenor M. Reyes
Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.
Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd
Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053
Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.
Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A Case Study of ... per household was lost per year due to diseases, predators, accidents, and theft. ... as well as chicken house construction so as to avoid the risks of predators.
Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.
MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...
Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather
The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...
Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas
The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...
Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.
Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen
Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....
This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...
Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S
Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.
Gresham Cathy R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and
Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna
It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...
Beach, R.L.; Popiela, Heinz; Festoff, B.W.
Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of ( 3 H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote ( 3 H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)
Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian
The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.
Paşayev, N.; Kocatepe, S.; Maraş, N.; Soylak, M.; Erol, M.
In recent years, obtaining the natural protein fibers from chicken feathers, which are obtained as a by-product in the production of chicken meat and which cause environmental pollution and important part is waste, has been drawn to the perspective of scientists. So, the investigations about the chicken feather fibers reveal important properties of these fibers. Chicken feather fibers are obtained by mechanical cutting of the barbs which have fibrous structure, the structure branched from rachis and constitute the body of the feather. The rachis part of chicken feather constitutes approximately half of the weight of the feathers. So, it is necessary to examine the properties of the chicken feathers in order to gain their industrialization. This study is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties of the material that is taken as a by-product in the production of fibers from chicken feathers and constitutes the rachis part of the feathers.
Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.
This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)
French, Lars E; Huard, Bertrand; Wysocka, Maria; Shane, Ryan; Contassot, Emmanuel; Arrighi, Jean-François; Piguet, Vincent; Calderara, Silvio; Rook, Alain H
Sézary syndrome (SzS) is an advanced form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma characterized by peripheral blood involvement, impaired cell-mediated immunity, and T-helper 1 (TH1) cytokine production. To understand the mechanism of these defects, we studied the expression and function of CD40L in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with SzS. We found that PBMCs of patients with SzS have a defect in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production upon anti-CD3 stimulation and that tumor CD4+ T lymphocytes have a specific defect in CD40L induction after anti-CD3 ligation in vitro. This defect may explain the poor IL-12 production, because IL-12 production by anti-CD3-stimulated PBMCs was dependent on CD40L in healthy donors. The observed defect in tumor cell CD40L expression appears to be due to inappropriate T-cell signaling upon CD3 ligation, because expression of other T-cell activation antigens such as CD25, and to a lesser extent CD69, are also impaired on tumor cells. Importantly however, the inability of SzS PBMCs to appropriately produce IL-12 and TNF-alpha could be restored by recombinant hexameric CD40L. Taken together, our results demonstrate that impaired IL-12 and TNF-alpha production in SzS is associated with defective CD4+ T lymphocyte CD40L induction and indicate that CD40L may have therapeutic potential in SzS.
Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A
The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K
The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...
Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D
Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S
A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from Malaysia.
Varabioff, Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.
After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens
Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C
fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. METHODS: Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA...... for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while...
Zhang, Yani; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Mengmeng; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou
Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated from blastoderms at stage-X and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 staining was conducted to detect ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-N1 in order to produce chimeric chicken. Firstly, the optimal electrotransfection condition was compared; the results showed the highest transfection efficiency was obtained when the field strength and pulse duration was 280 V and 75 μs, respectively. Secondly, the hatchability of shedding methods, drilling a window at the blunt end of egg and drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg was compared, the results showed that the hatchability was the highest for drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. Thirdly, the hatchability of microinjection (ESCs was microinjected into chick embryo cavity) was compared too, the results showed there were significant difference between the injection group transfected with ESCs and that of other two groups. In addition, five chimeric chickens were obtained in this study and EGFP gene was expressed in some organs, but only two chimeric chicken expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating that the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg.
Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken
Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying
Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji
We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.
A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...
Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile
Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.
During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the
This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and
This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...
Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.
Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior
Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…
Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K
The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...
The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...
Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)
A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.
Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.
A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.
Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E
The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.
The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken
Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E
1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.
... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...
Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam
The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.
Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.
Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla
) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor amplification of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in THP-1 human monocytic cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide of oral microorganisms.
Baqui, A A; Meiller, T F; Chon, J J; Turng, B F; Falkler, W A
Cytokines, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), are used to assist in bone marrow recovery during cancer chemotherapy. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) play important roles in inflammatory processes, including exacerbation of periodontal diseases, one of the most common complications in patients who undergo this therapy. A human monocyte cell line (THP-1) was utilized to investigate IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production following GM-CSF supplementation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from two oral microorganisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. LPS of P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum was prepared by a phenol-water extraction method and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and determination of total protein and endotoxin contents. Resting THP-1 cells were treated with LPS of P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum and/or GM-CSF (50 IU/ml) by using different concentrations for various time periods. Production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in THP-1 cells was measured by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to evaluate the gene expression of resting and treated THP-1 cells. IL-1beta was not detected in untreated THP-1 cells. IL-1beta production was, however, stimulated sharply at 4 h. GM-CSF amplified IL-1beta production in THP-1 cells treated with LPS from both oral anaerobes. No IL-1beta-specific mRNA transcript was detected in untreated THP-1 cells. However, IL-1beta mRNA was detected by RT-PCR 2 h after stimulation of THP-1 cells with LPS from both organisms. GM-CSF did not shorten the IL-1beta transcriptional activation time. GM-CSF plus F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis LPS activated THP-1 cells to produce a 1.6-fold increase in TNF-alpha production at 4 h over LPS stimulation alone. These investigations with the in vitro THP-1 model indicate that there may be an increase in the cellular immune response to oral
Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X
Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.
Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C
Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.
Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.
Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto
Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)
Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)
Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.
Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna
A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... updating parameters of the model to better describe processes observed in slaughterhouses. We propose Bayesian updating as a suitable technique to update expert judgment with microbiological data. Berrang and Dickens’s data are used to demonstrate performance of this method in updating parameters...... of the chicken processing line model....
E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani
Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...
Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20
Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.
Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.
Guo Liping; Yu Xuejun; Yu Menghong; Fu Junjie; Zhang Shimin; Bao Jinsong
The effects of gamma irradiation on the activities of aleipsis, peroxidase, perhydrol catalase and the peroxide values in chicken oil and effects of different storage time on self-oxidation of fat and lipa in irradiated chicken were studied. The results showed that the activities of aleipsis and perhydrol catalase in irradiated chicken decreased with increasing doses, and the peroxide activity and peroxide value of lipa increased with increase of doses. No significant effect of storage time on peroxide value was observed in the irradiated chicken
Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Vet World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20
Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.
During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...
Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim
Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...
Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S
In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.
Trampel, D.W.; Smith, Susan; Rocke, Tonie E.
During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.
Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi
Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.
Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to
Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.
The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57 0 C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3 H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3 H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines
Susan J. Hazel
Full Text Available A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1 the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2 any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.
This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...
The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as negative ...
A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households. Both purposive and random sampling methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic status of the farmers involved in rearing of indigenous chicken, systems of management of indigenous chicken, their ...
The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...
The objectives of this study were to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Sudanese native chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Five Sudanese native chicken breeds were compared with populations studied previously, which included six purebred lines, six African populations and one ...
The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...
Ngeno, K.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
This study characterized indigenous chicken (IC) ecotypes morphologically. Five IC ecotypes studied were Kakamega (KK), Siaya (BN), West Pokot (WP), Narok (NR) and Bomet (BM). Data on morphological features were collected from 1 580 chickens and 151 for zoometric measurements. Descriptive
One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...
Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: email@example.com [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)
A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.
Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should
One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...
Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.
A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.
This study attempted to estimate the cost of performing some functions in frozen chicken marketing and determined the major factors affecting the profit level of the marketers. Using data collected from 10 wholesalers and 29 retailers in Ibadan metropolis, the transportation costs per kilogram of frozen chicken were N1.20 ...
An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...
Hemert, van S.
Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine
Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt
Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil...
Jørgensen, Anders; Mølvig Jensen, Eigil; Moeslund, Thomas B.
This paper presents a method for detecting gallbladders attached to chicken livers using spectral imaging. Gallbladders can contaminate good livers, making them unfit for human consumption. A data set consisting of chicken livers with and without gallbladders, has been captured using 33 wavelengths...
Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S
This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...
The objectives were to assess sensory descriptive juiciness of cooked chicken breast meat (pectoralis major) during the entire process of consumption and to determine the relationship between sensory juiciness intensity scores during eating and raw meat characteristics. Chicken breast fillets were c...
Groenen, M.A.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Bumstead, N.; Benkel, B.; Briles, E.; Burt, D.W.; Burke, T.; Dodgson, J.; Hillel, J.; Lamont, S.; Ponce, de F.A.; Soller, M.
A consensus linkage map has been developed in the chicken that combines all of the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations. Genotyping data were contributed by the laboratories that have been using the East Lansing and Compton reference populations and from the Animal
Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J
The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.
Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...
Oct 20, 2008 ... challenge dose of Salmonella Enteritidis on detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Two groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected ... Since chickens may be exposed to variable quantities ... A second group of 8 hens was orally .... where presence of serum antibodies by most birds that.
Vaezirad, Mahdi M.; Keestra-Gounder, A.M.; Zoete, de Marcel R.; Koene, Miriam G.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, van Jos P.M.
Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of gastroenteritis in humans but rather harmless in chickens. The basis of this difference is unknown. We investigated the effect of the chicken immune defense on the behavior of C. jejuni using glucocorticoid (GC)-treated and mock-treated 17-day old Ross
Scott, Angela Bullanday; Phalen, David; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L
The types of wildlife and the frequency of their visits to commercial chicken farms in Australia were assessed using infrared and motion-sensing camera traps. Cameras were set up on 14 free-range layer farms, three cage layer farms, two barn layer farms, five non-free-range meat chicken farms, and six free-range meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin region and South East Queensland. Wildlife visits were found on every farm type and were most frequent on cage layer farms (73%), followed by free-range layer farms (15%). The common mynah ( Acridotheres tristis) was the most frequent wildlife visitor in the study (23.9%), followed by corvids (22.9%) and Columbiformes (7.5%). Most wildlife visits occurred during the day from 6 am to 6 pm (85%). There were infrequent observations of direct contact between chickens and wildlife, suggesting the indirect route of pathogen transfer may be more significant. The level of biosecurity on the farm is suggested to impact the frequency of wildlife visits more so than the farm type.
Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L
Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Grant, Ar'Quette; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen; Hashem, Fawzy; Vimini, Bob
This study's goal was to ascertain the effectiveness of a commercially available Salmonella bacteriophage during ground chicken production focusing on: water source, different Salmonella serovars, and time. Salmonella-free boneless, skinless chicken meat was inoculated with 4.0 Log CFU/cm2 of either a cocktail of 3 Salmonella isolates derived from ground chicken (GC) or a cocktail of 3 Salmonella strains not isolated from ground chicken (non-GC). Bacteriophages were spread onto the chicken using sterile tap or filtered water for 30 min or 8 h. Salmonella was recovered using standard plating method. Greater Salmonella reduction was observed when the bacteriophage was diluted in sterile tap water than in sterile filtered water: 0.39 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.23 Log CFU/cm2 reduction after 30 min, respectively (P Salmonella's susceptibility to the bacteriophage, and treatment time. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.
Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.
Contamination of certain areas of Europe with radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident led to a higher 137 Cs accumulation (i.e. 300-600 Bq kg -1 ) in grain and to potential post-accident contamination of broiler chickens. In future, such contamination may require a simple determination of the 137 Cs activity concentration in broiler chicken meat which would lead to measures for preventing the recommended limits of radionuclide contamination of the meat for human consumption from being exceeded. This paper describes the development of a rapid method for the in vivo monitoring of the broiler chicken using a lead-shielded sodium iodide detector. The method enables simply fixed live chicken to be monitored, the results showing a good correlation (R 2 =0.98) with measurements of meat from chicken previously monitored in vivo prior to slaughter
Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K
Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...... tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin...
Remeš, V; Székely, T
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.
Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, H.
The impact of gamma irradiation with doses between 0 and 8 kGy on microbiological quality of chicken meat produced in Japan and micro flora change of irradiated chicken meat were studied. Radiation at the dose 2 kGy resulted in 4 log cycles reduction of total aerobic bacteria, 5 - 6 log cycles reduction of lactic acid bacteria and 2 log cycles reduction of fungi and yeasts. For the coliforms, it could be eliminated below detectable level by irradiation dose of 1 kGy. For the chicken flora-analysis, it was found that chicken of each area had their own specific microbial community structure. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were found to be dominant organisms in the microflora of Japanese chicken meat. Irradiation with dose 2 kGy resulted in disappearance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. The microorganisms which dominated in irradiated chickens with doses of 2 kGy and higher were Psychrobacter and yeast. These studies support the view that radiation improves the microbiological quality of chicken meat and substantiate that radiation does not present hazard resulting from a change in the microflora of irradiated chicken
...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...
Leandro S. Machado
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient
Ripoll García, Guillermo; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Panea Doblado, Begoña
The aim of this study was to disseminate knowledge regarding the perceptions of Spanish consumers of chicken breast and their related lifestyles and to classify different consumer groups according to their food-related lifestyles. Nearly all Spanish consumers consume chicken breast once or twice per week. The preference for white or yellow chicken appears to be divided evenly, although the preferred is white chicken. Chicken breast is perceived as a product of convenience. Seventy percent of ...
Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.
Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin
Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel
The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV.
N Noor Hidayat
Full Text Available The Objectives of this research was to know income and efficiency level of local chicken entreprise. Beside that, to know potency of local chicken enterprise developing in DAS Serayu, Banyumas and know factors can effect level of that income and efficiency. Methode that used at this research is survey method to farmer families. Take of research data by random sampling.The data is analysed by multiple regression analysis. The results of this research showed that income level of local chicken entreprise at DAS Serayu is Rp 277.375,00 / year and economi efficiency 2.80 , that means the farmers get return Rp 2.80 for every one unit cost addition. The age of farmers and total of chicken possession effect at efficiency of local chicken entreprise. Potency of local chicken developing very big if showed from power of area and human resources. Very important to increase entreprise capital and increase knowledge for farmer. Beside that more important present motivation and support for develop there enterprise (Animal Production 2(1: 13-17 (2000 Key Words: local chicken, farmers income, economic efficiency
Hamid, Penny Humaidah; Kristianingrum, Yuli Purwandari; Wardhana, April Hari; Prastowo, Sigit; da Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro
Avian coccidiosis is a huge problem worldwide. Heavily infected animals that show severe clinical signs and coccidiostat resistance are causing important economic losses. The present study aimed to update the recent cases of coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia, and to show the importance of the disease in the region. A total of 699 samples were obtained from different chicken breed. Different Eimeria species were detected in 175 individuals (25.04%). Three different groups of chicken breed were considered: local chicken (autochthonous chickens of Sentul and Jawa), commercial broiler, and layer. Broiler chickens showed the highest prevalence of infection (34%), followed by layer (26.26%) and local chickens (10.45%). Mild to severe clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were observed in 42% of the infected animals, while 58% of the infected animals showed no clinical signs other than low feed conversion rates. Seven different Eimeria species were identified: E. tenella was the most prevalent (43.3%), followed by E. maxima (26.3%), E. necatrix (15.7%), E. acervulina (8%), E. praecox (3.1%), E. mitis (2.2%), and E. brunetti (1.3%). Coinfections with several Eimeria species were diagnosed. With this study we found massive usage of coccidiostat in the region even though its usage cannot guarantee coccidiosis-free chicken production.
Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa
Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption
Hashim, I B; McWatters, K H; Hung, Y C
Chicken (bone-in, skinless, split breast) injected with lemon-pepper poultry pump marinade containing 20 or 30% honey was compared with chicken (with and without skin) marinated without honey. The objectives were to 1) determine moisture and fat contents and instrumental color and texture measurements, 2) characterize the sensory profiles of marinated chicken baked with and without skin, and 3) investigate the effect of honey marinades on the sensory characteristics of chicken baked without skin. Chicken was roasted at 177 C for one h to an internal temperature of 80 C. A trained panel (n = 13) evaluated the roasted chicken. Results showed that skin could be removed from premarinated chicken breast before baking without significantly affecting the amount of marinade uptake, moisture content, fat content, texture (force required to shear), or most instrumental measurements of color. With regard to sensory characteristics, skin removal before baking resulted in a less glossy and moist appearance, less brown color, and more intense pepper flavor in the roasted product than when the skin was not removed. Addition of honey to the marinade restored, to some extent, the intensities of moist and glossy appearance and brown color that were reduced by removal of the skin before baking.
Tesfaye, Tamrat; Sithole, Bruce; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Chunilall, Viren
The characterisation of the chemical properties of the whole chicken feather and its fractions (barb and rachis), was undertaken to identify opportunities for valorizing this waste product. The authors have described the physical, morphological, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of the chicken feathers and related them to potential valorisation routes of the waste. However, identification of their chemical properties is necessary to complete a comprehensive description of chicken feather fractions. Hence, the chicken feathers were thoroughly characterised by proximate and ultimate analyses, elemental composition, spectroscopic analyses, durability in different solvents, burning test, and hydrophobicity. The proximate analysis of chicken feathers revealed the following compositions: crude lipid (0.83%), crude fibre (2.15%), crude protein (82.36%), ash (1.49%), NFE (1.02%) and moisture content (12.33%) whereas the ultimate analyses showed: carbon (64.47%), nitrogen (10.41%), oxygen (22.34%), and sulphur (2.64%). FTIR analysis revealed that the chicken feather fractions contain amide and carboxylic groups indicative of proteinious functional groups; XRD showed a crystallinity index of 22. Durability and burning tests confirmed that feathers behaved similarly to animal fibre. This reveals that chicken feather can be a valuable raw material in textile, plastic, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical and bioenergy industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oscar, T P
The flow pack wrapper is a popular packaging choice for retail sale of whole chickens. However, it may provide a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package, leading to an outbreak of salmonellosis. To investigate this possibility, a process risk model was developed that predicted the risk of salmonellosis from chicken parts prepared from whole chickens sold in flow pack wrappers and subjected to proper storage (6 h at 4°C) or improper storage (72 h at 15°C) before preparation. The model had four unit operations (pathogen events): (i) preparation (contamination), (ii) cooking (death), (iii) serving (cross-contamination), and (iv) consumption (dose-response). Data for prevalence, number, and serotype of Salmonella on chicken parts were obtained by whole sample enrichment, real-time PCR. Improper storage increased (P chicken parts from 10.6% (17 of 160) to 41.2% (66 of 160) and incidence of cross-contamination of cooked chicken from 10% (4 of 40) to 52.2% (24 of 46). Improper storage also increased (P chicken part and from 0.048 ± 0.089 to 3.08 ± 1.50 log per cooked chicken part. The predominant serotypes isolated (n = 111) were Typhimurium (34.2%), Typhimurium var 5- (20.7%), Kentucky (12.6%), Enteritidis (11.7%), and Heidelberg (8.1%). When chicken was properly stored before preparation, the model predicted that risk of salmonellosis was low and sporadic with only six cases per 100 simulations of 10 5 chicken parts. However, when 0.1 to 1% of chickens were improperly stored before preparation, the model predicted that salmonellosis would increase (P chicken parts. These results indicated that the flow pack wrapper provided a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package and that even when only a small percentage of packages were subjected to improper storage before preparation, the risk and size of an outbreak of salmonellosis from chicken parts increased significantly.
Solyakov, A; Skog, K
Chicken cooked under well-controlled conditions and commercial chicken products were screened for heterocyclic amines (HAs). Chicken samples were boiled, deep-fried, pan-fried, oven-roasted, cooked in an unglazed clay pot or in a roasting bag in the oven, and oven broiled. 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) were identified in several samples. Chicken cooked at low temperatures contained low amounts of HAs. In pan-fried chicken breasts, MeIQx was detected in amounts below 2 ng/g, 4,8-DiMeIQx below 0.6 ng/g, and PhIP in amounts up to 38 ng/g. Harman and norharman were detected in almost all samples (below 15 ng/g). In skin from a commercially barbecued chicken, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP were detected, while only traces of MeIQx were detected in the meat. MeIQx was detected in a commercial chicken flavour, 0.1 ng/ml. No HAs were detected in pan-fried chicken liver. The results show that the content of HAs in chicken cooked in various ways is low if prepared at low temperatures, and increases with increasing cooking temperature. PhIP formation seems to start accelerating at cooking temperatures around or above 200 degrees C. Colour development increases with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HA content was observed.
Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A
Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups.
P. Hashim; M. S. Mohd Ridzwan; J. Bakar
Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two disti...
Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen
We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...
Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K
The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.
Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi
Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa
Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
MA41) from Atlantic Forest, using chicken fat and association of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation to seek economically attractive bioprocess. A 2-level, 4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and response ...
Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...
Dec 8, 2014 ... through eggs and meats. Supplementation of some ... heavy metal contaminations of chicken meat, eggs and other products .... processing and mixing of ingredients to the feed. ... Additives and Contaminants, 22(2): 141-. 149.
of the chicken model in teaching acoustic communication, animal behavior and the ... commercial laying strains so it is not important in intensive poultry husbandry ... And to introduce students to acoustic lab and explore some aspects of ...
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.
Feb 28, 2012 ... Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks ... sheep, cats, dogs, deer, mice, turkeys, guinea fowl and ..... complex: turkey astrovirus, turkey coronavirus, and turkey reovirus.
joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local ...
Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M
Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...
Sevastyanova Antonina A
Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.
Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production....
US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....
Oct 11, 2010 ... DNA polymorphism of 4 indigenous chicken ecotypes was assessed in Jordan using random amplified ... Such technology is random amplified polymorphic DNA. (RAPD) ..... ping from genetics lab for animal and plant at MU.
Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.
Luna C, P.C.
In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)
Vices Among Commercial Chickens in Maiduguri, Borno State: Causes and Possible Intervention Strategies. ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2009) > ... interviews with the farm managers and farm owners were employed for data collection.
Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...
Maeda, Eriko; Murakami, Koichi; Sera, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kenitiro; Fujimoto, Shuji
Escherichia albertii occasionally causes food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans; however, little is known about the vehicle of transmission. To screen retail chicken products for the presence of E. albertii, 104 retail chicken products were investigated. Portions of enrichment cultures that were PCR-positive for E. albertii (n=3) were sub-cultured on agar medium. Only 2 strains obtained from 2 chicken giblet samples were identified as E. albertii by multi locus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 1 strain was resistant to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. Both strains harbored the virulence genes cdt and eae. This study is the first description of E. albertii isolation from retail food, suggesting that chicken products are a potential vehicle of E. albertii transmission.
Sep 15, 2017 ... Gene interaction network analysis of differentially methylated genes in the promoter .... sequencing library and sequenced by HiSeq 2000 Illumina. The chicken ... annotation system (KOBAS) (Xie et al. 2011), which pro-.
Cooke, Roger M.; Nauta, Maarten; Havelaar, Arie H.; Fels, Ine van der
We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism
Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.
to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...... chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw (“point-source enrichment”), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges (“complex enriched environments”). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably...
Souza, S A; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; Souza, N E
Total lipids from meat portions of breast, thigh, wing, side and back with and without skin from 10 roasted chickens were extracted with chloroform and methanol and gravimetrically determined, and their fatty acids were analysed as methyl esters by gaseous chromatography, using a flame ionization detector and capillary column. The main fatty acids found were: C16:0, C18:1 omega 9, and C18:2 omega 6. The average ratio observed between PUFA/SFA was of 0.98, mainly due to the great concentration of the C18:2 omega 6 fatty acid, with an average of 26.75%. Regarding to the lipids content, the skinless breast showed the lowest content, 0.78 g/100 g, while the back with skin was the one with the highest content, 12.13 g/100 g except for the pure skin, with 26.54 grams of lipids by 100 grams.
Fernandez Gianotti, Tomas
One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D 10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens
Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.
Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)
Pascual, Mònica; Hugas, Marta; Badiola, Jose Ignacio; Monfort, Josep Maria; Garriga, Margarita
A rifampin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius strain, CTC2197, was assessed as a probiotic in poultry, by studying its ability to prevent Salmonella enteritidis C-114 colonization in chickens. When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S. enteritidis C-114 directly into the proventriculus in 1-day-old Leghorn chickens, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. The same results were obtained when the probiotic strain was also administered through t...
Fuet, Aurelie; Pain, Bertrand
In mammals, the introduction of the OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) genes into somatic cells has allowed generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. So far, this process has been only clearly demonstrated in mammals. Here, using chicken as an avian model, we describe a set of protocols allowing the establishment, characterization, maintenance, differentiation, and injection of putative reprogrammed chicken Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells.
Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl
jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing...... treated chickens compared to un-treated controls. Conclusion: Termination of the use of ionophore coccidiostats will not affect food safety related to campylobacter, but will increase the risk of necrotic enteritis in the broilers....
The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...
Novak, R.; Padilla, S.
A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. [ 3 H]Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay
Salmonellae infections in deep-frozen roasting chicken can be dealt with by ionising radiation as this process involves hardly any heating of the product. Deep-frozen chickens irradiated with doses up to 800 krad were stored at -30 0 C for two years and were regularly submitted to sensory tests. There was no significant difference in quality between the irradiated samples and the non-irradiated controls. (orig.) [de
T. M. Al-Saffar
Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.
Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.
Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Komoni, Driton S; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Hashimi, Medita SH; Krasniqi, Avdyl S
Introduction An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporar...
Jiang, H; Moreau, M; Greidanus, N; Bilo, J; Russell, G; Raso, J; Bagnall, K
The development of the innervation of both central and lateral (intertransverse) spinal ligaments was investigated in chickens between the time of hatching and 13 wk of age. A total of 36 White Leghorn chickens in 4 groups of 9 at ages 0, 2, 7, and 13 wk were used. The spinal ligaments were dissected, serially sectioned and labelled with a monoclonal antibody against neurofilament protein and observed using either conventional fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Only a few nerve elements wer...
Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S
The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Anna Vladimirovna Belova
Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.
Pedersen, Karl; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Heuer, Ole Eske
, 18, 20, and 24 ( Experiment 2). There was no mortality in any of the groups; however, chickens in the groups receiving both coccidial vaccine and C. perfringens developed the subclinical form of necrotic enteritis, demonstrated by focal necroses in the small intestine, whereas chickens in control...... groups or groups receiving only coccidial vaccine or only C. perfringens cultures developed no necroses. The results underline the importance of predisposing factors in the development of necrotic enteritis....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.
Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S
Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E
This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO 2 ), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)
Full Text Available The reaction of H2PO42- and HPO4- with Al and Fe in acid soils to form a precipitate reduces P availability. Chicken litter biochar has been used to improve soil P availability for maize production but with limited information on optimum rates of biochar and Triple Superphosphate (TSP to increase P availability. This study determined the optimum amount of chicken litter biochar and TSP that could increase P availability. Different rates of chicken litter biochar and TSP were evaluated in an incubation study for 30, 60, and 90 days. Selected soil chemical properties before and after incubation were determined using standard procedures. Soil pH, total P, available P, and water soluble P increased in treatments with 75% and 50% biochar. Total acidity, exchangeable Al3+, and Fe2+ were significantly reduced by the chicken litter biochar. The chicken litter biochar also increased soil CEC and exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg and Na. The use of 75% and 50% of 5 t ha-1 biochar with 25% TSP of the existing recommendation can be used to increase P availability whilst minimizing soil Al and Fe content. This rates can be used to optimize chicken litter biochar and TSP use in acid soils for crop production especially maize and short term vegetables.
US Agency for International Development — Males and females from resistant Fayoumi and susceptible Leghorn chicken lines were either challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle Disease virus or given a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. Methods CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks were determined by ELISA. Results The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb, decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb. The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. Conclusion We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p
Nishita, Toshiho; Tomita, Yuichiro; Yorifuji, Daisuke; Orito, Kensuke; Ochiai, Hideharu; Arishima, Kazuyosi
The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks) and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks) were determined by ELISA. The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old) was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb), decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb). The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old) was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL) and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL). The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL) chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p < 0.01).
Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I
The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu
Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.
Jiang, Qixiao; Lust, Robert M.; Strynar, Mark J.; Dagnino, Sonia; DeWitt, Jamie C.
Highlights: ► PFOA exposure thinned right ventricular wall thickness in D19 chicken embryo hearts. ► PFOA exposure induced left ventricle hypertrophy in hearts of hatchling chickens. ► PFOA exposure induced altered cardiac function in hatchling chickens. -- Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will
Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.
Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław
Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.
Yvernogeau, Laurent; Robin, Catherine
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that position the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence
Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu
Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours.
US Agency for International Development — To determine the gender impact on the immune response of chickens, the mRNA was isolated and sequenced from the lungs of 48 chickens of 2 lines as three time-points...
Larkin, D V; Miller, V L; Bearse, G E; Hamilton, C M
Experiments were performed in an attempt to show the effects of deprivation of feed and water on the liver and kidney mercury retention in two strains of chickens. The chickens to be depleted were fasted for 24 h and offered granulated sugar and drinking water containing vitamins. When the protein-depleted chickens has lost 30% of their body weight, they were injected intramuscularly with 3 mg phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) or mercuric chloride. A chemical analysis of the livers and kidneys of the chickens revealed that more mercury was retained in the organs from the protein-depleted chickens than from the control chickens. A difference was also found in the mercury retention in the kidneys in the two strains of chickens. Thus, alteration of the mercury retention patterns of these two strains of chickens may be accomplished by limiting their protein intake.
Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila
Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.
Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...
Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H
Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Badiola, J J; Luco, D F; Perez, V; Vargas, M A; Lujan, L; Marin, J F
A total of 480 1-day-old Hybro broiler chickens were divided into five treatment groups (A: unmedicated control, B: maduramicin, C: maduramicin + tiamulin, D: monensin + tiamulin and E: tiamulin) to study the effect on performance parameters, organ weights, blood haematology and biochemistry, and histopathology of liver and selected striated muscles, when maduramicin at 5 parts/10(6) and monensin at 100 parts/10(6) were included in feed in starter and grower periods, and tiamulin 9 in water at 270 parts/10(6) the recommended therapeutic level, from day 28 to 31. Performance parameters were significantly and negatively affected by monensin but not by maduramicin after treatment with tiamulin. Histopathological examination of striated muscles showed no incompatibility of maduramicin + tiamulin, while lesions were found in the monensin + tiamulin treated group. It is concluded that the use of tiamulin to a therapeutic level for 3 consecutive days is compatible with the simultaneous presence of maduramicin in the feed of broilers.
Turner, B E; Larick, D K
The influences of brine composition, internal temperature, heating rate, and storage periods up to 28 d on flavor, texture, and color of sous vide processed chicken breast were evaluated. Pectoralis major muscles containing water and sodium chloride, with or without sodium lactate, were browned and vacuum packaged. Sous vide processing was by fast or slow heating to an internal temperature of 77 or 94 C. Product was evaluated after 0, 14, and 28 d storage at 4 C. Quality was evaluated by gas chromatographic analyses of flavor volatiles, shear, color, and sensory panels. Incorporation of sodium lactate into brine did not influence oxidative stability (as measured by headspace gas chromatography) or sensory warmed-over flavor. Presence of sodium lactate did result in enhanced fresh roasted or meaty and saltiness sensory scores as well as a more yellow color. The more rapid heating rate decreased sulfur-containing compounds and did not influence other volatile concentrations. Products processed to 94 C were less juicy, less tender, and contained higher quantities of alcohols and hydrocarbons than those processed to 77 C. Storage resulted in a decline in fresh roasted or meaty flavor note and an increase in warmed-over flavor note and quantities of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and total headspace volatiles.
Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Bassami, Mohammadreza; Dehghani, Hesam
Site directional migration is an important biological event and an essential behavior for latent migratory cells. A migratory cell maintains its motility, survival, and proliferation abilities by a network of signaling pathways where CXCR4/SDF signaling route plays crucial role for directed homing of a polarized cell. The chicken embryo due to its specific vasculature modality has been used as a valuable model for organogenesis, migration, cancer, and metastasis. In this research, the regulatory regions of chicken CXCR4 gene have been characterized in a chicken hematopoietic lymphoblast cell line (MSB1). A region extending from -2000 bp upstream of CXCR4 gene to +68 after its transcriptional start site, in addition to two other mutant fragments were constructed and cloned in a promoter-less reporter vector. Promoter activity was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry techniques. Our findings show that the full sequence from -2000 to +68 bp of CXCR4 regulatory region is required for maximum promoter functionality, while the mutant CXCR4 promoter fragments show a partial promoter activity. The chicken CXCR4 promoter validated in this study could be used for characterization of directed migratory cells in chicken development and disease models.
Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Arbuzova, Evgeniia A.
The urgency of the task of analyzing the foodstuffs quality is determined by the strategy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the rational nutrition of the world population. This applies to products, such as chicken eggs. In particular, it is necessary to control the chicken eggs quality at the farm production prior to incubation in order to eliminate the possible hereditary diseases, as well as high embryonic mortality and a sharp decrease in the quality of the bred young. Up to this day, in the market there are no objective instruments of contactless express quality control as analytical equipment that allow the high-precision quality examination of the chicken eggs, which is determined by the color parameters of the eggshell (color uniformity) and yolk of eggs, and by the presence in the eggshell of various defects (cracks, growths, wrinkles, dirty). All mentioned features are usually evaluated only visually (subjectively) with the help of normalized color standards and ovoscopes. Therefore, this work is devoted to the investigation of the application opportunities of contactless express control method with the help of technical vision to implement the chicken eggs' quality analysis. As a result of the studies, a prototype with the appropriate software was proposed. Experimental studies of this equipment on a representative sample of eggs from chickens of different breeds have been carried out (the total number of analyzed samples exceeds 300 pieces). The correctness of the color analysis was verified by spectrophotometric studies of the surface of the eggshell.
Darmawan; Partadihardjo, S.; Suryanto, I.
A study of radiovaccin produced by PAIR-BATAN was carried out to examine safety, potenscy and duration of immunity of the vaccine. Radiovaccine was prepared in alhidrogel media and inactivation by irradiation was done with a dose of 125 Gy. Field test was localted at two places, i.e. at Rungkut menanggal and Pusvetma, Surabaya. The test was done on 105 chickens of Arbor acres which divided into two groups. Groups on which consisting of 60 chickens were vaccinated at the age of 10 days whereas group two as a control group which consisting of 15 chickens were not vaccinated. Challenge test was carried out at two weeks, four weeks and six weeks after vaccination by inoculating with exp.5 virulent oocysts. The parametersa used in this research were mortality rate, weight gained and albumin/globulin ratio analysed by electroforesis. The results of the study revealed that all of the control chickens showed a sign sickness, haemorrhagic diarrrhea. Severe haemorrhagic was apparent in the caecum and large amount of oocysts were found in the mocous. All vaccinated chickens showed neither sign of thickness nor macroscopic changes. The average weight gained of the vaccinated groups with challenge was more than that the control group challenge. (author). 9 refs, 2 tab
Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.
Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative spiral rod bacterium and is the leading but underreported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated in colonization and adhesion to the mucosal surface of chicken gastrointestinal tracts. Therefore, flagellar proteins would be the excellent targets for further investigation. In this report, we used the recombinant technology to generate a battery of C. jejuni flagellar proteins, which were purified by His tag affinity chromatography and determined antigenic profiles of these recombinant flagellar proteins using sera from chickens older than 6 weeks of age. The immunoblot results demonstrate that each chicken serum reacted to various numbers of recombinant flagellar proteins. Among these recombinant proteins, chicken sera reacted predominantly to the FlgE1, FlgK, FlhF, FliG and FliY proteins. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of these recombinant flagellar proteins as potential vaccines for chickens to improve food safety as well as investigation of host immune response to C. jejuni.
Full Text Available Chicken is a main poultry in China. Molecular breeding for disease resistance plays an important role in the control of diseases, especially infectious diseases. Choice of genes for disease resistance is the key technology of molecular breeding. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is of great interest to poultry breeding scientists for its extraordinary polymorphism and close relation with traits of resistance against infectious diseases. The MHC-B haplotype plays an important role in the study of disease resistance in chicken. The traditional chicken MHC-B haplotype is commonly defined by serologic reactions of erythrocytes and the majority of studies have been conducted in Leghorn and broiler but study about other chicken breeds is little. In this study, firstly, the microsatellite marker LEI0258 which is located within the MHC was sequenced by using target sequence capture assay in different chicken breeds, and then according to the number of repeated structures and polymorphic sequences in microsatellite, sequence information for the region defined by LEI0258 was obtained for different haplotypes. Afterwards, we identified the relation between MHC-B haplotypes and disease resistance. Collectively, these observed results provided the reference data for disease-resistant breeding association with blood type and for further study of MHC gene function in poultry.
Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W
The chicken calmodulin I (CaMI) gene has been isolated and characterized on the level of cDNA and genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence is identical to the one of chicken CaMII which consists of 148 aa. The CaMI gene contains six exons. Its intron/exon organization is identical...... to that of the chicken CaMII and the CaMI and CaMIII genes of rat and human. Expression of the CaMI gene was detected in all chicken tissues examined, although at varying levels. The gene is transcribed into four mRNAs of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7 and 4.4 kb as determined by Northern blot analysis. Our results demonstrate...... that the "multigene-one-protein" principle of CaM synthesis is not only applicable to mammals whose CaM is encoded by three different genes, but also to chickens....
Lim, H.Y.; Chung, K.H.; Won, P.O.
Radioactive phosphorus (P-32) was injected to the chicken in the purpose of determination of the uptake and distribution, as related to sex and hour differences of the various organs of the body. 2μCi of P-32 were injected to each chicken and the distribution of P-32 was observed at 1 hr, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs and 48 hrs after injection. In this experiment 34 heads of chicken were used (30 chicken for P-32, 4 chicken for control group) and the results obtained as follows: 1. The uptake of P-32 per gram of various organ in g. mm, femur (1 hr), liver, femur, tibia (24 hrs) and tibia (48 hrs) exhibited higher in the male than the female. 2. The uptake of P-32 per gram of various organ in heart, kidney, ovary (1 hr), kidney, brain (24 hrs) and kidney (48 hrs) exhibited higher in the female than the male. 3. The uptake ratio of brain, spleen, g. mm and tibia were increased gradually by the 12 hrs ahter injection of P-32, but decreased in liver, heart and kidney by the 24 hrs. 4. The uptake ratio of the femur was increased gradually by the 24 hrs, but testis and ovary was increased after 24 hrs. 5. The organs showed an uptake of P-32 per gram of various organ, with the following sequence: femur, tibia, testis or spleen, liver, kidney, heart, g. mm and brain. (Author)
O'Kane, Peter M; Connerton, Ian F; White, Kate L
To provide stable anaesthesia of long duration in broiler chickens in order to perform a terminal caecal ligated loop procedure. Prospective experimental study. Seven clinically healthy broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) aged 27-36 days, weighing 884-2000 g. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. All birds underwent intermittent positive pressure ventilation for the duration. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate and oesophageal temperature were monitored continuously. All birds received intraosseous fluids. Butorphanol (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly at two hourly intervals. Euthanasia by parenteral pentobarbitone was performed at the end of procedure. Stable anaesthesia was maintained in four chickens for durations ranging from 435 to 510 minutes. One bird died and one was euthanized after 130 and 330 minutes, respectively, owing to surgical complications and another died from anaesthetic complication after 285 minutes. Long-term, stable anaesthesia is possible in clinically healthy chickens, provided complications such as hypothermia and hypoventilation are addressed and vital signs are carefully monitored. There are no known previous reports describing monitored, controlled anaesthesia of this duration in chickens. © 2015 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.
Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.
Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment
Tanabe, Hiroko; Goto, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto
Chicken meat irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher doses were identified by GC/MS method analyzing 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB), which are formed from palmitic acid and stearic acid respectively, and isolated using extraction procedures of soxhlet-florisil chromatography. Many fat-containing foods have oleic acid in abundance as parent fatty acid, and chicken meat contains palmitoleic acid to the amount as much as stearic acid. In this study, we detected 2-tetradec-5'-enylcyclobutanone (2-TeCB) and 2-dodec-5'-enylcyclobutanone (2-DeCB) in chicken meat, which are formed from oleic acid and palmitoleic acid by irradiation respectively, using GC/MS method. Sensitivity in detection of both 2-TeCB and 2-DeCB were lower than that of 2-DCB. However, at least 0.57 μg/g/fat of 2-TeCB was detected in chicken meat irradiated at 0.5 kGy, so 2-TeCB seems to be a useful marker for the identification of irradiated foods containing fat. On the contrary, 2-DeCB was not detected clearly at low doses. This suggests that 2-DeCB may be a useful marker for irradiated fat in the food having enough amount of palmitoleic acid needed to analysis. In addition, 2-tetradecadienylcyclobutanone, which is formed from linoleic acid was also found in chicken meat. (author)
Salerno, B.; Hersener, J.L.; Dinkel, F.
This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the conception, planning and construction of an easy-to-operate pilot heating plant that uses chicken litter as its fuel. The plant, which is installed at a chicken farm in Boesingen, Switzerland, produces 250 - 350 kW and not only supplies heat for two chicken sheds and two households, but also provides energy for a drying plant in summer. The results of measurements made on emissions are discussed and, within the framework of an eco-balance analysis, comparisons are made between the direct use of the droppings as manure or as a fuel. The cost-effectiveness of the plant is examined and the influence of plant size and other factors discussed. Further, legal questions concerning the use of chicken litter as a fuel for heating installations are discussed; the use of the droppings as a fuel is not foreseen in the legislation concerning water protection and airborne emissions of pollutants. Although normally this type of plant is built at the same location as the chicken farms, questions on logistics are also looked at
Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotation of many genomes is limited, with a large proportion of identified genes lacking functional assignments. The construction of gene co-expression networks is a powerful approach that presents a way of integrating information from diverse gene expression datasets into a unified analysis which allows inferences to be drawn about the role of previously uncharacterised genes. Using this approach, we generated a condition-free gene co-expression network for the chicken using data from 1,043 publically available Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays. This data was generated from a diverse range of experiments, including different tissues and experimental conditions. Our aim was to identify gene co-expression modules and generate a tool to facilitate exploration of the functional chicken genome. Results Fifteen modules, containing between 24 and 473 genes, were identified in the condition-free network. Most of the modules showed strong functional enrichment for particular Gene Ontology categories. However, a few showed no enrichment. Transcription factor binding site enrichment was also noted. Conclusions We have demonstrated that this chicken gene co-expression network is a useful tool in gene function prediction and the identification of putative novel transcription factors and binding sites. This work highlights the relevance of this methodology for functional prediction in poorly annotated genomes such as the chicken.
Sycheva, M V; Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Pashkova, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L
Isolation and study of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from chickens thrombocytes. Peptides from chickens thrombocytes, obtained by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with stepped and linear gradients of concentration increase of the organic solvent were used in the study. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by microtitration method in broth; mechanism of biological effect--by using fluorescent spectroscopy method with DNA-tropic dyes. Individual fractions of peptides were isolated from chickens thrombocytes, that possess antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus P209 and Escherichia coli K12. A disruption of integrity of barrier structures of microorganisms under the effect of thrombocyte antimicrobial peptides and predominance of cells with damaged membrane in the population of E. coli was established. The data obtained on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal effect of the peptide fractions from chickens thrombocytes isolated for the first time expand the understanding of functional properties of chickens thrombocytes and open a perspective for their further study with the aim of use as antimicrobial means.
Hypoxia is a major factor that affects the subsistence and development of multicellular organisms. Tibet chicken, as a unique native chicken breed in altiplano, shows genetic adaptation to hypoxia comparing with the breeds at the low altitude. In the present study, to explore effects of hypoxia on chicken fetal livers, eggs of ...
Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Trung, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; Mai, Ho Huynh; Thanh, Tuyen H.; Campbell, James I.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hardon, Anita; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance
Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial
Carrique-Mas, J.J.; Trung, N.V.; Hoa, N.T.; Mai, H.H.; Thanh, T.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hardon, A.; Hieu, T.Q.; Schultsz, C.
Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained from...
...-FF02R06000] Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX... (EA) for Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR), located approximately 60... Prairie Chicken NWR draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Monica Kimbrough...
...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri... availability of the Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) Recovery Plan, Second Revision. A recovery plan was originally completed for the Attwater's prairie-chicken in 1983 and revised in 1993...
Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D
The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.
Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. It is not known what prevalence of Campylobacter to expect on fresh chicken livers available at retail. The objectives of this study were to measure prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and d...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty...
Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A
Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.
Oularbi, S.; Nouani, A.
Deshydrated chicken dejection obtained from chicken grown in battery were irradiated by using gamma rays and incorporated in the ovine and bovine food. Dejection presented a high content of nitrogen, and other minerals. Treatment done with a dose of 10kGy was biologically safe. Their incorporation in the ovine food allowed us to substitute the soybean by chicken dejection
Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.
This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).
Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that a G/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP at nucleotideposition 1,892 of coding sequence of chicken Mx gene confers susceptibility/resistance to avian viral diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the geographical distribution of G/A alleles in relation to differentgenetic backgrounds of a wide range of chicken populations. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction- RestrictionFragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods, 492 samples from 15 breeds of indigenous chickenpopulations from Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi islands were genotyped. Allele and genotypefrequencies of each population were calculated. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were testedand inbreeding coefficient FIS estimated. Overall, the susceptible allele G had a frequency of 37.27% whilethe resistant allele A had a corresponding frequency of 62.73%. No clear relation of the geographicaldistribution of the G/A alleles to genetic backgrounds was found. The distribution of this SNP acrosspopulations seems to be affected by genetic drift rather than selection.
The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barik, S; Forgacs, T; Isbister, J [ARCTECH, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)
Increasing quantities of chicken waste concerns the poultry industry because of escalating disposal costs and the potential for environmental pollution. Biological conversion of these wastes to valuable products such as methane and/or chemical feed-stocks appears to be feasible. Biomethanation of chicken waste by a sewage sludge microbial consortium produced as much as 69 mol% methane in the gas phase. Acetic and propionic acids were the major acids produced during the bioconversion. Addition of chelating agents and other micro-nutrients enhanced methane production and shifted the ratios of intermediates accumulated. Preliminary data indicate that more than 60% of the chicken waste carbon was converted and that the nitrogen-rich residue may have potential as a soil additive. (author).
Nvota, J.; Grom, A.; Faberova, A.
The reactions of 60 day old chickens Arbor Acres 60 X Vantress to immobilization stress lasting 1/2, 1, 2, 4 hours and to application of ACTH, manifested by activity changes in the systems hypophysis-adrenal gland and hypophysis-thyroid gland were studied. The highest activity increase in the two neuro-endocrine systems of the chickens was found to occur after 1/2 hour exposure to stress. With prolonged stress the responses weakened and after 4 hours most of the values gradually regressed to their initial level. The responses of both systems were synchronized. Reactions of the chickens differed from those of laboratory rats in which an increased activity of the hypophysis-adrenal gland system coincided with attenuation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system.
Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU
Full Text Available AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, 200 ppm anacardic acid provided the lower TBARS values. The redness decreased during storage, and, as reported by the means test, mortadella containing 200 ppm anacardic acid had lower values. The lightness of mortadellas decreased during storage. Also in accordance with the means test, mortadellas containing antioxidants had same lightness than control. The yellowness of mortadellas increased during storage. Thus, the anacardic acid is a potential natural antioxidant that could be included in chicken mortadella formulations before cooking.
Chawla, S.P.; Thomas, Paul
Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)
The irradiation like treatment of decontamination showed a great effectiveness. Indeed the amount 2 KGy destroyed more than 90% of total germs and the complete elimination of the germs of fecal contamination. The irradiation doses: 2 and 4 KGy significantly slow down the development of the germs of contamination during the cooled conservation of the chicken meat compared to the control meats. The physicochemical composition did not modify by irradiation in a clear way. Thus, the majority of the measured parameters (pH, capacity of water retention, amino acid quantity, and the loss of weight during cooking) remained stable after the ionizing treatment. Lastly, the irradiation makes it possible to preserve the chicken meat 16 days compared to the control meat, which was damaged at the 6 2nd days of conservation. Theses result showed the effectiveness of the irradiation process on the lengthening storage cooled period of chicken meat. (author). 8 refs
Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.
This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.
The use of recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone (rcGH) in an avian growth hormone (GH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure is described. Antiserum to turkey GH bound 125 I-labeled rcGH, and unlabeled rcGH or turkey GH displaced binding in a dose-related manner. The dose-response curves of sera and pituitary extract from chickens and turkeys were parallel to the rcGH standard curve. Sera from hypophysectomized (hypox) chickens and turkeys produced no dose-response and did not inhibit binding of labeled rcGH. Recovery of rcGH added to hypox sera was quantitative. Modification of the homologous turkey GH RIA protocol of Proudman and Wentworth (1) to use rcGH made possible either an increase in assay sensitivity or a 3-day reduction in incubation time
Qiu Zhijun; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong
A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells
Haridy, Mohie; Goryo, Masanobu; Sasaki, Jun; Okada, Kosuke
A 7-week-old SPF chicken inoculated at 4 weeks of age with chicken anemia virus was puffed up depressed and had ruffled feathers and a good body condition. Intestinal volvulus involving the jejunum and part of the duodenum forming two loops with one knob was observed. Microscopically, venous infarction of the obstructed loops, periportal and sublobular multifocal coagulative hepatic necrosis and granulomatous inflammation of the cecal tonsils were observed. Gram staining revealed no bacteria in hepatic tissue; however, gram-positive bacilli were detected in the necrotic debris in the intestinal lumen. Immunosuppression might have predisposed the chicken to intestinal and cecal tonsil infection that then progressed to volvulus. Loss of the mucosal barrier in infarction might allow bacterial toxins and vasoactive factors to escape into the systemic circulation (toxemia) and be responsible for the hepatic necrosis.
Tang, J Y H; Nishibuchi, M; Nakaguchi, Y; Ghazali, F M; Saleha, A A; Son, R
We quantified Campylobacter jejuni transferred from naturally contaminated raw chicken fillets and skins to similar cooked chicken parts via standard rubberwood (RW) and polyethylene cutting boards (PE). RW and PE cutting boards (2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)) were constructed. RW surfaces were smooth and even, whereas PE was uneven. Scoring with scalpel blades produced crevices on RW and flaked patches on the PE boards. Raw chicken breast fillets or skin pieces (10 g) naturally contaminated with Camp. jejuni were used to contaminate the cutting boards (6.25 cm(2)). These were then briefly covered with pieces of cooked chicken. Campylobacter jejuni on raw chicken, the boards, and cooked chicken pieces were counted using a combined most-probable-number (MPN)-PCR method. The type of cutting board (RW, PE; unscored and scored) and temperature of cooked chicken fillets and skins were examined. Unscored PE and RW boards were not significantly different in regards to the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from raw samples to the boards. The mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW was significantly higher than from scored PE. When the chicken fillets were held at room temperature, the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW and PE was found to be 44.9 and 40.3%, respectively. RW and PE cutting boards are potential vehicles for Camp. jejuni to contaminate cooked chicken. Although cooked chicken maintained at high temperatures reduced cross-contamination via contaminated boards, a risk was still present. Contamination of cooked chicken by Camp. jejuni from raw chicken via a cutting board is influenced by features of the board (material, changes caused by scoring) and chicken (types of chicken parts and temperature of the cooked chicken). © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C; Doyen, V; Gomez-André, S-A; Bienvenu, F; Fischer, J; Ballardini, N; van Hage, M; Perotin, J-M; Silcret-Grieu, S; Chabane, H; Hentges, F; Ollert, M; Hilger, C; Morisset, M
Fish is one of the most allergenic foods. While clinical cross-reactivity among different fishes is a widely accepted feature of fish allergy, associations with other food allergies are not well understood. This study aims at analyzing the relevance of clinical cross-reactivity between fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA). Allergens were used in IgE ELISA and skin testing. Chicken parvalbumin and two new allergens, aldolase and enolase, were identified at 12, 40, and 50 kDa, respectively. They were recognized by sIgE of 61%, 75%, and 83% of all patient sera which were in the majority of the cases positive for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while parvalbumin was detectable in chicken legs and wings. Fish and chicken meat are cross-reactive foods; both fish-allergic and chicken meat-allergic patients might be at risk of developing a food allergy to chicken meat or to fish, respectively. This clinical phenomenon is proposed to be termed 'fish-chicken syndrome' with cross-reactive allergens involved being parvalbumins, enolases, and aldolases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...
Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency
Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence
Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar
Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...
Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne
Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...
Skarman, Axel; Jiang, Li; Hornshøj, Henrik
Abstract Background: Gene set analysis is considered to be a way of improving our biological interpretation of the observed expression patterns. This paper describes different methods applied to analyse expression data from a chicken DNA microarray dataset. Results: Applying different gene set...... analyses to the chicken expression data led to different ranking of the Gene Ontology terms tested. A method for prediction of possible annotations was applied. Conclusion: Biological interpretation based on gene set analyses dependent on the statistical method used. Methods for predicting the possible...
Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Huang Min; Wu Ling; Du Xiaoying; Lei Qing; Xie Yan
Fermented chicken feet was treated by 60Co irradiation, and the aerobic plate count, enumeration of coliforms, pathogens and TBARS value were measured during storage. The results showed that, aerobic plate count of all irradiated samples was lower than control, and enumeration of coliforms, and pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salmonella were not detected. TBARS value of all treatments was stable during 60 d storage. It could be concluded that 60Co irradiation of chicken feet was an effective method to prolong its shelf life. (authors)
Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Wegener, Henrik C.; Mølbak, Kåre
We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1–15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously f...
Sasangka, Bintara Her
An experiment to study the absorption of calcium through the duodenum of vitamin D deficient chickens was conducted using radiocalcium as tracer. In this experiment twenty chickens were reared from one day old chicken until one month and maintained on rachitogenic diet. Vitamin D was given to ten chickens orally fourty eight hours prior to the administration of radiocalcium. The result of this experiment indicated that the absorption of calcium in the duodenum was higher in chickens provided with vitamin D compared to those without vitamin D (P≤0.01). (author)
Murphy, R Y; Marks, B P; Johnson, E R; Johnson, M G
Thermal inactivation of six Salmonella spp. and Listeria innocua was evaluated in ground chicken breast and liquid medium. Survival of Salmonella and Listeria was affected by the medium composition. Under the same thermal process condition, significantly more Salmonella and Listeria survived in chicken breast meat than in 0.1% peptone-agar solution. The thermal lethality of six tested Salmonella spp. was additive in chicken meat. Survival of Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing was not affected by the presence of the six Salmonella spp. Sample size and shape affected the inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing.
Full Text Available The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3 and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6 fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.
Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.
Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar
The effectiveness of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella in vitro and on chicken breast fillets was examined in combination with lauric arginate (LAE) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). In another experiment, a sequential spray application of this bacteriophage (phage) solution on Salmonella inoculated chicken skin after a 20s dip in chemical antimicrobials (LAE, CPC, peracetic acid, or chlorine) was also examined in reducing Salmonella counts on chicken skin. The application of phage in combination with CPC or LAE reduced S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis up to 5 log units in vitro at 4 °C. On chicken breast fillets, phage in combination with CPC or LAE resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions of Salmonella ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g as compared to control up to 7 days of refrigerated storage. When phage was applied sequentially with chemical antimicrobials, all the treatments resulted in significant reductions of Salmonella. The application of chlorine (30 ppm) and PAA (400 ppm) followed by phage spray (10(9)PFU/ml) resulted in highest Salmonella reductions of 1.6-1.7 and 2.2-2.5l og CFU/cm(2), respectively. In conclusion, the surface applications of phage in combination with LAE or CPC significantly reduced Salmonella counts on chicken breast fillets. However, higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken skin by the sequential application of chemical antimicrobials followed by phage spray. The sequential application of chlorine, PAA, and phage can provide additional hurdles to reduce Salmonella on fresh poultry carcasses or cut up parts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G. In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.
Guo, H W; Li, C; Wang, X N; Li, Z J; Sun, G R; Li, G X; Liu, X J; Kang, X T; Han, R L
1. To explore the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region was sequenced in 102 birds from the Xichuan black-bone chicken, Yunyang black-bone chicken and Lushi chicken. In addition, 30 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Silkie fowls were downloaded from NCBI. The mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism and maternal origin of 4 chicken breeds were analysed in this study. 2. The results showed that a total of 33 mutation sites and 28 haplotypes were detected in the 4 chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of these 4 native breeds were 0.916 ± 0.014 and 0.012 ± 0.002, respectively. Three clusters were formed in 4 Chinese native chickens and 12 reference breeds. Both the Xichuan black-bone chicken and Yunyang black-bone chicken were grouped into one cluster. Four haplogroups (A, B, C and E) emerged in the median-joining network in these breeds. 3. It was concluded that these 4 Chinese chicken breeds had high genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree and median network profiles showed that Chinese native chickens and its neighbouring countries had at least two maternal origins, one from Yunnan, China and another from Southeast Asia or its surrounding area.
Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup
Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter ( p ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.
Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken.
Billam, P; LeRoith, T; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Meng, X J
Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, 54 chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5x10(2.5) 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicated that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors.
Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between
Xiang, Wenjin; Shang, Ying; Wang, Qin; Xu, Yuancong; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao
The genes commonly used to determine meat species are mainly mitochondrial, but the copy numbers of such genes are high, meaning they cannot be accurately quantified. In this paper, for the first time, the chromosomal gene Actb was selected as an endogenous reference gene for chicken species. It was assayed in four different chicken varieties and 16 other species using both qualitative and quantitative PCR. No amplification of the Actb gene was found in species other than chicken and no allelic variations were detected in chicken. Southern blot and digital-PCR confirmed the Actb gene was present as a single copy in the chicken genome. The quantitative detection limit was 10pg of DNA, which is equivalent to eight copies. All experiments indicated that the Actb gene is a useful endogenous reference gene for chicken, and provides a convenient and accurate approach for detection of chicken in feed and food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Degree Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat. Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. (author)
The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Degree Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat. Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. (author)
Zhang, Wenwen; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Ting; Lu, Weiwei; Tao, Yafei; Chen, Wen; Du, Xiaohui; Huang, Yanqun
Subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) is encoded by the mt-ND2 gene and plays a critical role in controlling the production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Our study focused on exploring the mt-ND2 tissue expression patterns and the effects of energy restriction and dietary fat (linseed oil, corn oil, sesame oil or lard) level (2.5% and 5%) on its expression in chicken. The results showed that mt-ND2 gene was expressed in the 15 tissues of hybrid chickens with the highest level in heart and lowest level in pancreas tissue; 30% energy restriction did not significantly affect mt-ND2 mRNA level in chicken liver tissue. Both the mt-ND2 mRNA levels in chicken pectoralis (p chicken age (p chicken age (p chicken age.
Roy, Krisna; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Christensen, Jens Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Bojesen, Anders Miki
To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic biomarker of selected bacterial infections we checked the performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) by analytical and overlap performances using two groups of serum samples obtained from 26 Gallibacterium anatis-infected and 20 Streptococcus zooepidemicus-infected brown layer chickens. In addition, sera from 14 apparently healthy and 19 negative control chickens were analysed in the Gallibacterium group whereas sera from 20 healthy and 11 negative control chickens from the Streptococcus group were analysed. All calibration curves revealed high coefficients of determination (≥ 0.97) between optical density (OD 450nm) and concentrations of OTF (mg/ml). OTF concentrations in high, medium and low pools (made of sera from a combination of infected and/or non-infected birds) were >6.4, >3.8 to 6.7, >3.5 to chickens (Gallibacterium, 4.4 ± 0.3 mg/ml; Streptococcus, 3.2 ± 0.4 mg/ml) compared with negative controls (1.7 ± 0.1 mg/ml) (P Chicken-OTF-ELISA can be used to measure reproducible serum OTF concentrations in brown layer chickens as a response to G. anatis infections, whereas an adjustment of dilution process is proposed to optimize to use in S. zooepidemicus-infected chickens.
Pinyochon, Wasana; Piadang, Nattayana; Mulika, Ladda; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Vitittheeranon, Arag; Damrongwatapokin, Sudarat
A study on the efficacy of gamma radiation on the inactivation of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype, Thai isolate was carried out. The virus was in the form frozen infected allantoic fluid frozen chicken meat and frozen chicken feces. The result indicated that 9 kilo grey of gamma radiation could completely inactivated 106.0 EID50/ml of AIV infected allantoic fluid and 22 kiel grey and 15 kilo grey of gamma radiation completely inactivate 106.0 EID50/10/ grams of chicken meat and 106.0 EID50/5 grams of chicken feces respectively.
Su, Bor Sheu; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Hung, Li Hsiang; Huang, Ji Ping; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw
Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Jun; Yu, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Wang, Xing-Man; Li, Jin-Pei; Hu, Tao; Hu, Yong; Wang, Ming-Li; Shen, Yong-Zhou; Xu, Jing-Dong; Han, Guo-Xiang; Chen, Jason
In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 10 6 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the T max was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T 1/2 ) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T 1/2 ) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent.
Kelsey Needham Dancause
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region (HVR sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary
Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam
Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.
Lamers, W. H.; Geerts, W. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Dottin, R. P.
The distribution pattern of creatine kinase (EC 126.96.36.199) isozymes in developing chicken heart was studied by immunohistochemistry. Creatine kinase M, which is absent from adult heart, is transiently expressed between 4 and 11 days of incubation. During that period, numerous muscular cells in the
Three levels of erythrocytes suspensions, 1.5%, 1% and 0.5% respectively from goat and guinea pig, were compared to conventional 0.5% chicken erythrocytes, in an attempt to investigate the suitability for the two sources of mammalian erythrocytes as indicators for Newcastle disease virus haemagglutination (HA) tests.
Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...
The present study aimed to outline the population differentiation of Sinai and Norfa chicken, native to Egypt, with microsatellite markers. Twenty microsatellite loci recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were used. Fifty eight birds were sampled (29 for each strain: 12 males + 17 females). Data were ...
leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...
In Ghana, local chickens are raised across distinct agro-ecological zones and constitute unique populations with variable phenotypes that need to be characterized to provide needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. In particular, the Interior Savannah (GHIS) in the north, the Forest ...
The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...
We obtained blood samples of 57 Indian ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) belonging to three indigenous duck populations of geographically distinct locations of the country and genotyped them using chicken microsatellite markers. Twenty three of the 30 loci were amplified and 17 loci yielded high success rate (> 91%).
A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...
An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...
A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...
Zoller, O.; Schoeni, D.; Zimmerli, B.
The author explains his method to determine O-Tyrosine in irradiated chickens with a high-performance liquid chromatography. The method is simple and fast, but a proper chromatographic separation is difficult. The detection limit with a high sensitive detector is about 0.05-0.1 mg O-Tyrosine/kg meat (9 refs)
The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.
An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of turning frequency of chicken eggs on hatchability in hurricane lantern incubator. There were four treatments in which eggs were not turned in treatment one (control), those in treatment two were turned once daily (morning), treatment three turned twice daily ...
Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.
Delaski, Kristina M; Gehring, Ronette; Heffron, Brendan T; Negrusz, Adam; Gamble, Kathryn C
Providing appropriate analgesia is an important concern in any species. Fentanyl, a μ-receptor specific opioid, use is common in mammalian species but has been incompletely evaluated for this purpose in avian species. Transdermal fentanyl patches were applied to domestic chickens (n = 10) of varying
Full Text Available Abstract Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is known for their sensory characteristics and antioxidant properties, mainly due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. The aim of this work, was determine the antioxidant activity and apply the Rosemary lyophilized extract (RLE in chicken burger, for assess their ability to reduce the lipid oxidation. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds profile were analyzed by colorimetric tests and liquid chromatography analysis, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay was used to evaluate the ability of the RLE to prevent lipid peroxidation in chicken burger stored at 4 °C. Three treatments of chicken burgers were prepared (T1 – control, without addition of synthetic antioxidant BHT: butylated hydroxytoluene or RLE, T2 – with addition of BHT, and T3 – experimental, containing RLE. The high contents of total phenolic compounds (40.91 mg GAE g-1: Gallic Acid Equivalent and total flavonoids (24.26 mg QE g-1: Quercetin Equivalents were found in RLE. Rutin was the major phenolic compound identified in the RLE. The RLE showed strong antioxidant capacity and inhibited 48.29% of lipid oxidation (21 days of storage in comparison to the control (T1, with low production of malonaldehyde, which has potential to be used in chicken burgers.
The aim of this work was to demonstrate transgene transmission by SMGT in chickens using ... group. EGFP mRNA was detected in 21% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group, ..... training or equipment was required and it is applicable to.
Nov 6, 2013 ... of eggs and meat, respectively, of which 80% are from indigenous stocks (FAO, 2006). In Sudan, the traditional sector comprises 70% of the total chicken's annual production of 20.1 million birds and 900 million eggs. (Sulieman, 1996). The Sudanese fowls with various types, which collectively are called ...
Two hundred bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli (95; 47.5%), Salmonella serotypes (78; 38.0%), Klebsiella (17; 8.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12; 6.0%) were isolated from chicken carcasses within the six-year period. On the overall, the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (40.5%), enrofloxacin (21.0%), ...
Apr 2, 2014 ... 1The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland. 2The National ... oxidative stress) in breast muscles of female and male chickens were also studied. Dietary SeY ...... properties of lycopene from tomato products and their possible role in.
H Hassen, FWC Neser, A de Kock, E van Marle-Köster ... in the present study are in accordance with the origin and marketing systems of ... initial step to plan the characterization and conservation of native chickens in Amhara region, Ethiopia.
Meanwhile, hens in partitioned battery cage (control) gave the best results. However, except for the egg weight, the housing systems had no significant effect (p>0.05) on other egg quality parameters measured. Partitioned (conventional) battery cage is still the best system of housing laying chickens, although extended ...
Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...
Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.
In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all
This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...
Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...
A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary raw and soaked and cooked velvet beans, Mucuna utilis on the performance of broiler chickens. Two batches of raw Mucuna seeds were used. The first batch of seeds was used raw. The second batch was soaked for 24 h, subdivided into four parts and ...
Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...
Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.
1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield)
One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...
Mikšík, Ivan; Ergang, Peter; Pácha, Jiří
Roč. 406, č. 29 (2014), s. 7633-7640 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mass spectrometry * bioanalyticalmethods * cuticle * chicken proteins * insoluble proteins * eggshell Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014
The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by ...
Persson, P.; Gagnemo-Persson, R.; Orberg, J.; Chen, D.; Hakanson, R.
As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa
Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting. Yushi Gao. 1,2#. , Yunjie Tu. 1,2. , Haibin Tong. 1. , Kehua Wang. 1. , Xiujun Tang. 1 and Kuanwei Chen. 1. 1 Institute of Poultry, Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China, Yangzhou, 225003, Jiangsu, China.
This study was conducted to assess the haematology and serum chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize-cassava diets supplemented with methionine and inorganic sulphur. A total of 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups of 30 birds making 10 birds per replicate group. Starter and ...
... that infection of MD in vaccinated adult commercial type chickens might be due to de novo infection (Super infection) with highly virulent strains despite existing considerable levels of vaccine immunity and age resistance, also vaccination failure may perhaps considered one of the important causes of disease outbreaks.
Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.
A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...
Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.
of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...
Afifi, E.A.; El-Nashaby, F.M.
This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products (Luncheon, Burger and debonded minced chicken) which are produced by three companies (Halwany Bros.(H)-Faragalla (F) and Egypco (E)). The samples were purchased from local supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The examination illustrated that all examined samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. While Luncheon (F), Burger (H) and debonded minced chicken (E) were only positive for Salmonella spp. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at 0, 3, 6 and 9 kGy. The effects of radiation treatments and cold storage (5+,-1 degree) on the total volatile basic nitrogen (T.V.B.N.), microbiological quality and sensory properties of samples under investigation were studied. The results indicated that 3kGy dose of gamma irradiation completely destroyed Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. and caused slight increase in (T.V.B.N.) content for all samples. A gradual increase in total bacteria, molds and yeast and T. V. B. N. during storage were observed, while 6 kGy dose was also sufficient for destroying Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in all chicken meat products under investigation without any detectable effects on the sensory properties of these products and increased the shelf-life of luncheon, burger and minced for 8, 4 and 3 weeks respectively as compared with 4, 2 and 1 weeks for control samples
van't Hof, R. J.; von Lindern, M.; Nijweide, P. J.; Beug, H.
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a polypeptide growth factor active on multiple cell types, mainly of hematopoietic origin. We studied the effects of avian SCF on the differentiation of chicken osteoclasts from their putative progenitors as well as on the bone-resorbing activity of terminally
Studies were carried out to evaluate the presence of rotavirus in some poultry flocks in Abeokuta and Oyo, using the reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. A total of 49 fecal samples in form of cloacal swabs were collected from chickens and turkeys with age groups ranging between 5days ...
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) has recently emerged as an important disease problem in some of Africa's major poultry-producing countries. Economic losses due to this disease arises from poor growth, increased mortality, carcass condemnations and the cost of antibiotics used to control secondary bacterial infections.
A retrospective flock health analysis revealed that the higher titres were associated with confirmable Newcastle Disease (ND) outbreaks in the affected flocks. These findings therefore suggested that the use of standardised guinea pig erythrocytes in parallel with chicken erythrocytes as indicators, might facilitate field ND ...
An eight week study was carried out to evaluate the effects of MFeed®, a nanotechnology growth promoter as feed additive in the diets of broiler chickens. Two hundred, day old Marshal broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomised design to five dietary treatments supplemented with MFeed® at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ...
Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Siwek, M.Z.; Cornelissen, S.J.B.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Poel, van der J.J.
The detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) of behavioural traits has mainly been focussed on mouse and rat. With the rapid development of molecular genetics and the statistical tools, QTL mapping for behavioural traits in farm animals is developing. In chicken, a total of 30 QTL involved in
Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy
Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca
Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy
DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam, India. H Chutia, N Kalita, N Barua, P Hazarika. Abstract. A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households.
Detection and isolation of salmonella in broiler chickens around the slaughter time. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, MA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. Crop contents may serve as important sources of Salmonella carcass contamination within processing plants. This study, evaluated the effect of feed withdrawal before the ...
This dissertation describes the development of molecular tools to identify genes that are involved in production and health traits in poultry. To unravel the chicken genome, fluorescent molecular markers (microsatellite markers) were developed and optimized to perform high throughput
The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. These included ...
Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...
Derks, Martijn F.L.; Herrero-Medrano, Juan M.; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Vereijken, Addie; Long, Julie A.; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Groenen, Martien A.M.
Background: Sex-linked slow (SF) and fast (FF) feathering rates at hatch have been widely used in poultry breeding for autosexing at hatch. In chicken, the sex-linked K (SF) and k+ (FF) alleles are responsible for the feathering rate phenotype. Allele K is dominant and a partial duplication of the
Full Text Available Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN agar containing antibiotics supplement. The DNA was extracted from suspected colonies of Yersinia spp. and then PCR test using specific primers for 16S rRNA gene of Yersinia enterocolitica was performed. In this study, 30% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia spp. by culture method and 25% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Biotyping of isolated colonies showed that all of the isolates belonged to biotype 1A. Culture and detection of Yersinia spp. from food samples traditionally take 4 days. Due to high accuracy and speed of PCR assay, it is a good alternative method for microbiological techniques. In conclusion, poultry meat can act as a source of Y. enterocolitica and could be considered as a public health hazard.
investigate the implications of feeding broiler chickens with mucuna bean processed by simple domestic methods on performance, haematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods. Sample preparation: The raw Mucuna pruriens beans used in this study were purchased from International Institute of.
Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue
Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.
Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue
Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.
Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...
suggested that there is no economic justification for keeping local chicken under intensive management ... Poultry meat and eggs provide proteins of high biological value. Poultry production is a relatively simpler means of generating family income and employment ... In both cases, clean water was made available at.
synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.
A study was conducted to evaluate growth traits, including body weight, body length, chest girth, leg length, shank length and shank circumference, using data obtained from 150 mixed sex birds originating from improved Nigerian local chicken (75 normal feather and 75 naked neck genotypes) of 4 – 16 weeks of age.
Charles Moses Lyimo
Dec 21, 2013 ... Tanzanian human population (Swai et al., 2007; Lwelamira et al., 2008). .... Least square means of phenotypic measurements of ulna length, shank ... (2005) was applied from K = 1 to K = 5 to determine the optimal .... Genetic distance estimates between Tanzanian indigenous chicken populations was ...
Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the possibility of replacing soybean oil in a diet with glycerol, and investigate the effect of glycerol on performance indicators and health in broiler chickens. The experiment was performed on 122 one-day-old chickens that were divided based on sex into two control groups (30 females and 31 males and two experimental groups (30 females and 31 males. Half (50% of the soybean oil in diets used in the experimental groups was replaced with glycerol at a ratio of 1:2. On 15, 32 and 38 day of age chickens of both sexes in the experimental group that were fed with diets containing glycerol showed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01 mean body weight compared to the control group. At the end of the experiment, the mean weight of chickens in the control group was 2.078 kg, whereas the mean weight of chickens in the experimental group was 2.341 kg. In females, the overall consumption of diets within 38 days of fattening was 3.588 kg in the control group and 4.011 kg in the experimental group, in males, it was 3.915 kg in the control group and 4.366 kg in the experimental group, i.e. it was higher in experimental chickens. Feed conversion in chickens in experimental groups was better, being 1.84 kg in the control group and 1.81 kg in the experimental group in females, and 1.73 kg in the control group and 1.72 kg in the experimental group in males. It follows from our results that the optimum amount of glycerol in feed for poultry is 5%.This study presents an original solution to optimize feed formula by replacing plant oil with glycerol. The results of the study can improve production indicators and economy in broiler fattening.
Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman
We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poeschl, M.; Borkovec, V.; Zelenka, J.
The distribution and biological half-life of radiocaesium ( 137 Cs) in broiler chickens after three oral applications (in course of 1 day at the age of 14 days) of artificially contaminated feed mixture were studied. There was a rapid uptake of the orally administered 137 Cs (within a few hours) and also a rapid loss of 137 Cs which varied in the different organs (the initial biological half-life was: liver 0.6 day, intestine 0.6 day, breast meat 2 days, leg meat 1.2 days). More than one-half of the total administered 137 Cs activity (55%) was excreted from the body within the 1st day after dosage, and after 14 days more than 90% had been excreted. The highest accumulation of 137 Cs occurred in meat (50%-90%), and the proportion of total activity in breast and leg meat varied during decontamination. The transfer of radiocaesium from feed into the chicken body (measured as ratios of the 137 Cs activity concentrations in the organ to the 137 Cs activity concentration in the applied dose) 1 day after application was: 0.0220, 0.0294, 0.0216 and 0.0195 for breast meat, leg meat, intestine and liver, respectively. Significant differences between the values were demonstrated (P 137 Cs activity in leg meat, whereas from the 4th day a greater part of total activity was found in breast meat. The latter results were confirmed in a subsequent study. Data from this study suggest that if broiler chickens are contaminated by radiocaesium to a level of 5 kBq/chicken in the course of 1 day at the age of 14 days, then immediate feeding with uncontaminated feed mixture for 18 days should be effective in decontaminating the chicken's meat below the intervention levels for radiocaesium in animal products, i.e. below 1000 Bq . kg -1 . (orig.)
Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.
Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Olaimat, Amin N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Holley, Richard A
This study explored the thermal characteristics (D- and z-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken shawirma. Marinated and non-marinated chicken breasts with skin were inoculated with S. Typhimurium 112 or S. Typhimurium 144. Inoculated samples were ground, packed in sterile bags and submerged in a water bath at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C for 2.5 to 72min. The mean D-values of S. Typhimurium strains in inoculated, non-marinated, ground raw chicken breast, as well as those of S. Typhimurium 15h after exposure to the marinade (inoculated before marinating, IBM) or after brief exposure (30min) to the marinade (inoculated after marinating, IAM) ranged from 9.15 to 12.44, 2.89 to 3.92, 1.06 to 1.30 and 0.32 to 0.52min at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C, respectively. Generally, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found among the D-values of S. Typhimurium in all chicken samples. However, the D-values of S. Typhimurium in raw ground chicken shawirma IBM were the lowest. The z-values of S. Typhimurium in all products ranged from 3.78 to 4.58°C. It was concluded that thorough cooking of the outside of the shawirma meat cylinder or cone before removal of slices at foodservice counters can enhance the safety of the product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Siriken, Belgin; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Erol, Irfan
The objectives of this study were, to find the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of L. monocytogenes from a total of 116 chicken meat samples including 50 carcasses and 66 meat parts marketed in Turkey between 2008 and 2009 using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) based cultivation technique, to detect the hlyA gene for the verification of the isolates by PCR, and to identify the genoserotypes of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR assay. In the study, 51 L. monocytogenes colonies were isolated from 34 (29.3%) chicken meat samples (eleven [22.0%] carcasses and 23 [34.8%] pieces of meat) by IMS based cultivation technique and confirmed by PCR. According to the multiplex PCR results, all the 51 isolates were identified as genoserotype IIa (1/2a or 3a). L. monocytogenes isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to eight antibiotic (gentamicin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin G, erythromycin) agents using the disk diffusion method. 14 isolates (27.45%) were susceptible to all eight antimicrobials drugs tested and the remaining 37 isolates (72.54%) were resistant to gentamicin (one isolate, 1.96%), vancomycin (four isolates, 7.84%), penicillin G (six isolates, 11.76%), streptomycin (nine isolates, 17.64%; resistant or intermediate), tetracycline (seven isolates, 13.72%) and ampicillin (six isolates, 11.76%). This study showed that antimicrobial resistance is not highly prevalent in L. monocytogenes isolated from chicken carcasses and pieces of meat. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken samples suggests an importance of this pathogen in chicken.
Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.
It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)
Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological processes for the reduction of microorganisms in food, It can be used to improve the safety of food products, and to extend their shelf lives. The aim of this study was to improve the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing. As part of the study a microbial assessment of broiler chicken thighs from three retail outlets (supermarket, local markets and farms) was conducted. The total viable count and total coliform counts were determined. Hygienic quality indicator organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and microbial counts made. Radiation sensitivity test to determine the D 10 (decimal reduction does) of E. coli on chicken at refrigeration and frozen temperature were conducted. D 10 values were 0.22 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.03 kGy at refrigerated and frozen temperatures respectively. A storage test consisting of an uninoculated pack experiment and a challenge test to explore the effect of irradiation and frozen food storage on the total viable count and survival of E. coli was conducted. Chicken thigh samples were treated with 0 (non irradiated), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy of gamma irradiation and held frozen for 56 days. The control and irradiated samples were stored at -18 o C and underwent microbial analysis and sensory evaluation at 7 days intervals. It was observed that irradiation and frozen storage reduced microbial loads. There were significant differences in sensory quality characteristics during freezing storage in chicken meat. The combination of irradiation and frozen storage resulted in greater overall reductions on microbial loads thus improving hygienic quality. (au)
Sayed Rasoul Zaker
Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.
Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply
Full Text Available The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403 was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.
Sanders, E.; Moorman, A. F.; Los, J. A.
Immunofluorescence studies were performed on serial sections of three days embryonic chicken hearts using antibodies specific for adult atrial and ventricular myosin heavy chains respectively. The anti-ventricular myosin serum reacted with the entire myocardium showing a decreasing intensity going
Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng
The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.
Green Brown, Laura; Khargonekar, Shivangi; Bushnell, Lisa
This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose was to examine restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers' food safety knowledge concerning chicken. EHS-Net members interviewed managers about chicken preparation practices in 448 restaurants. The study revealed that many restaurants were not following U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code guidance concerning cross-contamination prevention and proper cooking and that managers lacked basic food safety knowledge about chicken. Forty percent of managers said that they never, rarely, or only sometimes designated certain cutting boards for raw meat (including chicken). One-third of managers said that they did not wash and rinse surfaces before sanitizing them. Over half of managers said that thermometers were not used to determine the final cook temperature of chicken. Only 43% of managers knew the temperature to which raw chicken needed to be cooked for it to be safe to eat. These findings indicate that restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and manager food safety knowledge need improvement. Findings from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts to improve chicken preparation and cooking practices and knowledge concerning safe chicken preparation.
Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q
Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles. Poultry Science Association Inc.
Watanabe, Emi; Maeno, Masami; Kayashita, Jun; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Kogirima, Miho
Undernutrition caused by difficulties in masticating is of growing concern among the elderly. Soft diets are often served at nursing homes; however, the styles differ with nursing homes. Improperly modified food texture and consistency may lead to further loss of nutritive value. Therefore, we developed a method to produce a soft diet using chicken. The texture-modified chicken was prepared by boiling a mixture of minced chicken and additive foodstuff that softened the meat. The best food additive was determined through testing cooking process, size after modification and texture. The optimum proportions of each component in the mixture were determined measuring food texture using a creep meter. Teriyaki chicken was cooked using the texture-modified chicken, and provided to a nursing home. The amount of food intake by elderly residents was subsequently surveyed. This study involved 22 residents (1 man and 21 women; mean age 91.4±5.3 y). Consequently, yakifu, which was made from wheat gluten, was the most suitable additive foodstuff. The hardness of the texture-modified chicken, with proportions of minced chicken, yakifu, and water being 50%, 10%, and 40% respectively, was under 40,000 N/m 2 . The intake amount of the texture-modified chicken of subjects whose intake amount of conventional chicken using chicken thigh was not 100% was significantly higher. These findings suggest that properly modified food textures could contribute to improve the quality of meals by preventing undernutrition among the elderly with mastication difficulties.
Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli
Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the
Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V
A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application: An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Zuidhof, Martin J; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris
Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4-1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 μg/kg), Rox (0.4 μg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 μg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels. Liu Q, Peng H, Lu X, Zuidhof MJ, Li XF, Le XC. 2016. Arsenic species in chicken breast: temporal variations of metabolites, elimination kinetics, and residual concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 124:1174-1181; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510530.
Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R
Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect
Ohkubo, T; Tsukada, A; Shamoto, K
Orexin-A and -B are known to stimulate food intake in mammals. However, the critical roles of orexins in birds are not fully understood, since orexins have no stimulatory effect on food intake in the chicken. To understand the physiological role(s) of orexins in birds, we have cloned chicken orexin receptor (cOXR) cDNA by RT-PCR, and analysed the tIssue distribution of OXR mRNA in the chicken. The cOXR cDNA is 1869 bp long and encodes 501 amino acids. The cloned cDNA for cOXR corresponds to the type 2 OXR in mammals, and shows approximately 80% similarity to those of mammals at the amino acid level. Expression analysis by RNase protection assay revealed OXR mRNA was distributed widely in brain regions, and expression in the cerebrum, hypothalamus and optic tectum were abundant. In peripheral tIssues, OXR mRNA was expressed in the pituitary gland, adrenal gland and testis, but no mRNA expression was observed in other tIssues examined. Furthermore, we found that the amount of cOXR mRNA was different between testis and ovary, while prepro-orexin mRNA is equally expressed in the gonads of both sexes in the chicken. These data indicate that the orexins have neuroendocrine actions in chickens, which are mediated through hypothalamic receptors as has been observed in mammals. In addition, orexin may have specific role(s) in the regulation of gonadal function in which sex-dependent mechanisms could be involved.
Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...
We reported earlier that day-old broiler chickens showed typical runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) post infection with chicken parvovirus (ChPV). There was also evidence that ChPV-specific maternal antibodies could provide significant protection against parvovirus induced enteric disease. Here, we st...
The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...
In this work, the properties of the radicals produced in chicken bones have been investigated by ESR technique to determine the amount of dose applied to the chicken meats during the food irradiation. For this goal, the drumsticks from 6-8 weeks old chickens purchased from a local market were irradiated at dose levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 kGy. Then, the ESR spectra of the powder samples prepared from the bones of the drumsticks have been investigated. Unirradiated chicken bones have been observed to show a weak ESR signal of single line character. CO-2 ionic radicals of axial symmetry with g=1.9973 and g=2.0025 were observed to be produced in irradiated samples which would give rise to a three peaks ESR spectrum. In addition, the signal intensities of the samples were found to depend linearly on the irradiation dose in the dose range of 0-10 kGy. The powder samples prepared from chicken leg bones cleaned from their meats and marrow and irradiated at dose levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, B, 10, 12,14, 16, 1B, 20 and 22 kGy were used to get the dose-response curve. It was found that this curve has biphasic character and that the dose yield was higher in the 12-1B kGy dose range and a decrease appears in this curve over 18 kGy. The radical produced in the bones were found to be the same whether the irradiation was performed after stripping the meat and removing the marrow from the bone or before the stripping. The ESR spectra of both irradiated and non irradiated samples were investigated in the temperature range of 100 K-450 K and changes in the ESR spectra of CO-2 radical have been studied. For non irradiated samples (controls). the signal intensities were found to decrease when the temperature was increased. The same investigation has been carried out for irradiated samples and it was concluded that the signal intensities relative to the peaks of the radical spectrum increase in the temperature range of 100 K-330 K, then they decrease over 330 K. The change in the
Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Wang, Dehe; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Ning; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua
Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles. RIR chickens had higher egg production than BS chickens under warm conditions, but BS chickens produced more eggs than RIRs under cold conditions. Furthermore, BS chickens showed stable body weight gain under cold conditions while RIRs did not. These results suggested that BS breed is a preferable candidate for cold-tolerance selection and that the cold adaptability of RIRs should be improved in the future. BS chickens had higher serum thyroid hormone concentrations than RIRs under both environments. RNA-Seq generated 344.3 million paired-end reads from 16 sequencing libraries, and about 90% of the processed reads were concordantly mapped to the chicken reference genome. Differential expression analysis identified 46-1,211 genes in the respective comparisons. With regard to breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome, BS chickens showed higher cell replication and development, and immune response-related activity, while RIR chickens showed higher carbohydrate and protein metabolism activity. The cold environment reduced breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome compared with the warm environment. Transcriptional plasticity analysis revealed different adaptive responses in BS and RIR chickens to cope with the cold
Full Text Available In this study, thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated to the cake dough and a whole raw chicken was investigated. The cake dough was inoculated with 6.15 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis then, thermal treatment was applied at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The initial count of S. Enteritidis showed reductions 1.49 log-cfu/g, 2.06 log-cfu/g and 4.29 log-cfu/g in the samples from the cold point location from the geometric center of the cake at 5, 7 and 10 minutes of thermal treatment, respectively. Although S. Enteritidis is not detected at the end of 15 minutes of heat treatment, the center of the cake temperature has reached 85.69°C and the cake sample is uncooked and its sensory properties are not acceptable. The cake that is safe and favorable with the sensory properties to the consumers was obtained by heat treatment for 30 minutes. After the cold point of a whole raw chicken was inoculated with 7.29 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis, thermal treatment was applied at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The temperature at the cold point of 35 and 45 minutes heat-treated chickens reached 59.33 and 74.08°C, respectively, and 1.93 log-cfu/g and 5.33 log-cfu /g S. Enteritidis reduction caused in the samples respectively. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the whole chicken heat treated at 220°C for 60 minutes. The cakes, heat treated at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 30 minutes, were stored at two different storage temperatures as 4°C and 25°C for 72 hours. The whole chicken, heat treated at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 60 minutes, was stored at 4°C for 72 hours. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the cake and the whole chicken samples after the storage period.
K. W. Lee
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX or monensin (COBN as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2+ IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2+, BU1+, and TCR1+ spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.
Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Bang, Dang D.; Li, Yiping
the synthesis of antigenic C. jejuni proteins upon cultivation with chicken cells. Two strains of C. jejuni (the human isolate NCTC11168 and the chicken isolate DVI-SC11) were incubated with primary intestinal chicken cells and subsequently used to raise antisera in rabbits. Negative controls were carried out...... to the environment of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently without causing disease in the birds. Upon co-cultivation with mammalian cells, C. jejuni secrete specific Cia proteins, which are required...... for internalization into host cells. However, the pathogenic lifestyle of C. jejuni in the human intestine is different from the commensal colonization of the chicken gut, and it was therefore hypothesized that different proteins are secreted during chicken colonization. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing...
Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji
The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.
Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan
The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.
Abdelqader, A.; Wollny, C. B. A.; Gauly, M.
On-farm surveys were conducted to investigate the biodiversity of local chickens and their performance potential. The study was carried out in rural areas of northern Jordan. A sample of 846 adult local chickens was phenotypically characterized based on morphology, feather colors, comb shape and performance. Body measurements for cluster analyses were recorded on 460 adult females. The most predominant chicken type was the Jordan Baladi (67.3%) followed by the Pakis...
Tokić Vesna; Lazarević Miodrag; Sinovec Z.; Tokić A.
Our investigations were conducted in order to determine the influence of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based prebiotics and polysaccharide microelement complexes on the performance and immune response of Arbor Acre broiler chickens. Total of 186 chickens was included in the study which lasted 42 days. Birds were fed ad libitum three different complete food mixtures (from days 1- 21, 21 - 35 and 35-42) according to the standard fattening procedure. Mixtures for chickens from the first group wer...
Oke, O.E.; Obanla, L.O.; Onagbesan, O.M.
This study evaluated early growth and plasma hormonal profile in exotic strains of broiler and Nigerian indigenous chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included the Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), the Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Chicks weights were monitored weekly. Blood samples were collected at hatch (day-old), weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-hatch for triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone ...
Brown, Laura Green; Khargonekar, Shivangi; Bushnell, Lisa
This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose was to examine restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers’ food safety knowledge concerning chicken. EHS-Net members interviewed managers about chicken preparation practices in 448 restaurants. The study revealed that many restaurants were not following U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code guidance concerning cr...
Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang
In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240?360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and ?-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us t...
ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI WARALABA FRIED CHICKEN DI BANJARMASIN BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI KONSUMEN (Studi Pada KFC Duta Mall, Texas Fried Chicken Duta Mall,AW Duta Mall Dan California Fried Chicken Rs Ulin Banjarmasin)
Prihatini Ade Mayvita; Ikhwan Faisal
During the last 14 years, the growth rate of fried chicken franchise with the concept of fast food restaurants in Banjarmasin is 12% per year. It is characterized by large number of outlets/stores of fried chicken franchise in Banjarmasin city as many as 10 outlets. Most of the existing outlets are in Duta Mall Banjarmasin. This study aims to identify and analyze the competitive position of fried-chicken fast-food franchise restaurants based on the consumers’ perceptions (St...
Lopez M, A.; Cuapio O, L.A.; Cardenas P, S.; Balcazar, M.; Jauregui, V.; Bonilla P, A.
In this work the results of the samples analysis of chicken feathers are presented, used as adsorber of the heavy metals Cd and Cr present in water solutions with well-known concentrations of these metals. It was used the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (AAN), using the TRIGA Mark-III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The obtained results they show the advantages of having a versatile installation for the analysis of this type of samples. By means of the analysis of the results, it was determined the feasibility of using chicken feathers like adsorber of these metals present in polluted waters, additionally, it was detected the presence of others polluting elements in the inputs to prepare the reference solutions as well as in the processes, so much of preparation of the feathers like of the metals adsorption. (Author)
Bixler, G.S. Jr.
The chicken with its dissociation of immune responses in cell-mediated immunity, dependent on the thymus, and humoral immunity, dependent on the bursa of Fabricius, provides a unique model for studying the two components of the immune system. While there are methods of obtaining selective, profound deficiency of humoral immunity, in this species, methods for obtaining a consistent, profound selective deficiency of cell-mediated immunity have been lacking. Oxisuran, 2[(methylsulfinyl)acetal] pyridine, has been reported to have the unique ability to differentially suppress cell-mediated immunity in several species of mammals without a concomitant reduction in antibody forming capacity. The effect of this compound on two parameters of cell-mediated immune responses in chickens was investigated. In further attempts to create a deficiency of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, the effects of a combination of cyclophosphamide treatment and x-irradiation early in life on immune responses were studied
Full Text Available The function of Ito cells is expanding from a fat-storing site to a center of extracellular matrix metabolism and mediator production in the liver. Immunohistochemical reactivities of Ito cells were examined in eight livers of broiler chickens affected with spontaneous cholangiohepatitis and six chicken livers with malformation of extrahepatic biliary tracts. The livers in both groups revealed severe diffuse fibrosis. Ito cells expressing HHF35 muscle actin and desmin actively proliferated in the fibrotic foci of the all livers. The immunoreactivities of Ito cells to antibodies were enhanced compared with those in normal livers. There were no immunohistochemical differences between the Ito cells of two groups. From these findings, it was suggested that Ito cells actively proliferate and show enhanced immunoreactivities in the livers affected with cholangiohepatitis andmalformation of extrahepatic biliary tracts.
Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.
Radurization is a particularly suitable method to lengthen the shelf life of chicken carcasses. A study was undertaken to determine the influence of four different dose rates and three storage temperatures, namely 3, 4, 5 and 7 kGy and 2, 4 and 8 degrees Celsius respectively. A total bacteria population of 10 6 per gramme was used as cut-off point for shelf life. Accordingly the untreated samples had a shelf life of 3 days at 4 degrees Celsius in comparison with 13 and 29 days for 3 and 5 kGy respectively. This study showed that low gamma radiation doses is not only an economical preservation method for chicken carcasses, but also destroys typical food pathogens such as Salmonella spp. The method also produces an organoleptic acceptable product
Nor Adzliana Sajahan
Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.
Brun, Lucas R; Lupo, Maela; Delorenzi, Damián A; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo
Taken into consideration that the deficiency of calcium (Ca) in the diet is a common problem, the aim of this work was to study the chicken eggshell as Ca source at home. It was evaluated: (1) different mechanisms to process eggshells and find an easy way to determine the required amount of Ca at home and; (2) the flavor and the texture for eggshell fortified food. Chemical and mechanical methods of eggshell processing were evaluated. Changes in flavor and texture were evaluated in volunteers coordinated by a professional chef. A single eggshell contains 2.07 ± 0.18 g of Ca; therefore half an eggshell could provide the amount of Ca needed by adult human beings per day. The best way to use chicken eggshell as Ca dietary supplement is powdered to add to bread, pizza or spaghetti as there were small changes in texture and no changes in flavor.
Cifuentes, Ignacio J; Yañez, Ricardo A; Salisbury, Maria C; Rodriguez, José R; Varas, Julian E; Dagnino, Bruno L
Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training.
Full Text Available Osmolarity is a colligative property of solutions that depends on the number ofdissolved particles. The three types of solutes most encountered in biological fluidsare electrolytes, organic non-electrolyte molecules and colloids. The osmolarity ofthe extracellular fluid is about equal to that of the intracellular fluid, although thereare significant differences in the ionic composition of the two compartments. Plasmaosmolarity is a convenient and accurate guide to intracellular osmolarity. There areseveral different formulas for the calculation of human serum osmolarity. The goalof this study is to estimate the plasma osmolarity in chickens from theconcentrations of the main electrolytes and the glucose and urea content, and toestablish the contribution of each osmotic component. Linear regression analysiswas carried out to determine the best predictors of serum osmolarity in chickens.Two equations were also deduced for calculating serum osmolarity using manualregression analysis.
Carlos Alberto de Oliveira
Full Text Available Mozambican poultry industry might be an option to facilitate people's access to animal protein, as well as to reduce the dependence on imports of the product, bringing jobs and income forth. This study aimed to characterize and to analyze the competitiveness of poultry industry in Mozambique. Porter’s Five Forces Model, which focuses on the five strengths that shape business competition, was applied. The results show a low level of competition within the industry, a limited supply of raw material and the fact that national products are commodities and competes with strong foreign participants. Domestic demand for chicken meat is increasing, but buyers base their decision mainly on price. Challenges include establishment of governance structure and policies for poultry sector and consumer welfare. Another alternative to improve the poultry industry in Mozambique is to promote technical cooperation with other countries, such as Brazil, in order to acquire specific structures for chicken production, genetic material and adequate nutrition.
Bakir, E.T.; Fadhil, A.B.
Chicken fried oil was converted into different bio diesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better bio diesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v). The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.
Devatkal, Suresh; Anurag, Rahul; Jaganath, Bindu; Rao, Srinivasa
High-pressure processing (300 MPa for 5 min) as a non-thermal post-processing intervention was employed to improve the shelf life and qualities of cooked refrigerated chicken nuggets. Pomegranate peel extract (1%) was also used as a source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial in chicken nuggets. Microstructure, microbial profile, instrumental colour, texture profile and lipid oxidation were evaluated. High-pressure treatment and pomegranate peel extract did not influence significantly the colour and textural properties of cooked chicken nuggets. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values significantly (p chicken nuggets were the major spoilage bacteria. © The Author(s) 2014.
Victoria, A.; Crone, J.; Hamilton, J.T.G.; Stevenson, M.H.
Results are presented indicating a linear relationship between irradiation dose (10–60 kGy) and the quantity of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone produced in irradiated frozen (-46°C) chicken meat. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was found in chicken meat sterilized (at -40°C) by gamma and electron beam irradiation 12 years previously and used for toxicity clearance. After freeze-drying the irradiated chicken samples still contained 2-dodecylcyclobutanone indicating that it was present in the diets tested. The compound was not detected in chicken meat sterilized by thermal processing 13 years ago. In addition, there was evidence that 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone was also present in the irradiation sterilized samples
Wang, Ming-Shan; Zhang, Rong-Wei; Su, Ling-Yan; Li, Yan; Peng, Min-Sheng; Liu, He-Qun; Zeng, Lin; Irwin, David M; Du, Jiu-Lin; Yao, Yong-Gang; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping
As noted by Darwin, chickens have the greatest phenotypic diversity of all birds, but an interesting evolutionary difference between domestic chickens and their wild ancestor, the Red Junglefowl, is their comparatively weaker vision. Existing theories suggest that diminished visual prowess among domestic chickens reflect changes driven by the relaxation of functional constraints on vision, but the evidence identifying the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for this change has not been definitively characterized. Here, a genome-wide analysis of the domestic chicken and Red Junglefowl genomes showed significant enrichment for positively selected genes involved in the development of vision. There were significant differences between domestic chickens and their wild ancestors regarding the level of mRNA expression for these genes in the retina. Numerous additional genes involved in the development of vision also showed significant differences in mRNA expression between domestic chickens and their wild ancestors, particularly for genes associated with phototransduction and photoreceptor development, such as RHO (rhodopsin), GUCA1A, PDE6B and NR2E3. Finally, we characterized the potential role of the VIT gene in vision, which experienced positive selection and downregulated expression in the retina of the village chicken. Overall, our results suggest that positive selection, rather than relaxation of purifying selection, contributed to the evolution of vision in domestic chickens. The progenitors of domestic chickens harboring weaker vision may have showed a reduced fear response and vigilance, making them easier to be unconsciously selected and/or domesticated.
Cansu, ?mran; Boran, G?khan
Chicken bone is not adequately utilized despite its high nutritional value and protein content. Although not a common raw material, chicken bone can be used in many different ways besides manufacturing of collagen products. In this study, a multi-step procedure was optimized to isolate chicken bone collagen for higher yield and quality for manufacture of collagen products. The chemical composition of chicken bone was 2.9% nitrogen corresponding to about 15.6% protein, 9.5% fat, 14.7% mineral ...
Full Text Available Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh as compared with some conventional methods, i.e. boiling, pressure and roasting
Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.
You, X; Yang, S; Zhao, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Cheng, Y; Hou, C; Xu, Z
To evaluate the residual target tissues for better monitoring of amantadine abuse in broiler chickens, 22-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chickens were, respectively, fed with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of amantadine for five consecutive days. Plasma, breast, and liver tissue samples from the chickens were collected 0, 4, 16, 24, 48, 96, 144, and 312 h after amantadine withdrawal. The high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to detect the concentrations of amantadine. The highest concentration was found in the chicken liver and it took the longest time for amantadine to vanish by metabolism. In the high-dose group, amantadine residues were still detected 312 h after amantadine withdrawal. As the amantadine dose increased, amantadine residues in the chicken liver were more slowly to disappear than in other tissues. Even if approximately the same concentration of amantadine residues was found in chicken breast and plasma samples, it took a shorter time before the residues were eliminated. In the medium- and high-dose groups, the concentrations of amantadine residues in chicken liver samples were substantially higher than those in chicken breast and plasma samples, and it took more time to eliminate them. Therefore, the chicken liver can be used as a target tissue to detect illegal use of amantadine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J
Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P chicken than in broilers (P chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.
Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki
Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental st...
EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique
on broiler chickens. The ad hoc Working Group (WG) set up by EFSA performed the assessment in three main steps, i.e. checking the data provided against the criteria laid down in the EFSA Guidance (EFSA AHAW Panel, 2013); running an extensive literature search, followed by data extraction and performing......, be suitable for depopulation, respecting the technical conditions defined in the present conclusions. The WG considers that a revision of the present version of the EFSA Guidance could be beneficial....
Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.
Sahar M Gadelhaq
Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.
Gadelhaq, Sahar M; Arafa, Waleed M; Aboelhadid, Shawky M
Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.
GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M
Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950
Full Text Available Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1. We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.666 and p < 0.05. There were 19 up- and 32 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. E16 group, 238 up- and 227 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. D1 group, and 13 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins in E16 vs. D1 group. Protein interaction network analyses indicated that these differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the pathway of protein synthesis, muscle contraction, and oxidative phosphorylation. Integrative analysis of proteome and our previous transcriptome data found 189 differentially expressed proteins that correlated with their mRNA level. The interactions between these proteins were also involved in muscle contraction and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. The lncRNA-protein interaction network found four proteins DMD, MYL3, TNNI2, and TNNT3 that are all involved in muscle contraction and may be lncRNA regulated. These results provide several candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of chicken embryonic muscle development, and enable us to better understanding their regulation networks and biochemical pathways.
The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...
Antonella Di Pizio
Full Text Available Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors (Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs, representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste. Using homology modeling and induced-fit docking simulations, we investigated the binding modes of ggTas2r agonists. Interestingly, promiscuous compounds are predicted to establish polar interactions with position 6.51 and hydrophobic interactions with positions 3.32 and 5.42 in all ggTas2rs; whereas certain residues are responsible for receptor selectivity. Lys3.29 and Asn3.36 are suggested as ggTas2r1-specificity-conferring residues; Gln6.55 as ggTas2r2-specificity-conferring residue; Ser5.38 and Gln7.42 as ggTas2r7-specificity conferring residues. The selectivity profile of quinine analogs, quinidine, epiquinidine and ethylhydrocupreine, was then characterized by combining calcium-imaging experiments and in silico approaches. ggTas2r models were used to virtually screen BitterDB compounds. ~50% of compounds known to be bitter to human are likely to be bitter to chicken, with 25, 20, 37% predicted to be ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7 agonists, respectively. Predicted ggTas2rs agonists can be tested with in vitro and in vivo experiments, contributing to our understanding of bitter taste in chicken and, consequently, to the improvement of chicken feed.
Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.
Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species
Aranberri, Ibon; Montes, Sarah; Azcune, Itxaso; Rekondo, Alaitz; Grande, Hans-Jürgen
The aim of this work was to develop new biodegradable polymeric materials with high loadings of chicken feather (CF). In this study, the effect of CF concentration and the type of biodegradable matrix on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites was investigated. The selected biopolymers were polylactic acid (PLA), polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT) and a PLA/thermoplastic copolyester blend. The studied biocomposites were manufactured with a to...
Jerrold E. Winandy; James H. Muehl; Jessie A. Glaeser; Walter Schmidt
Medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels were made with aspen fiber and 0-95% chicken feather fiber (CFF) in 2.5%, 5%, or 25% increments, using 5% phenol formaldehyde resin as the adhesive. Panels were tested for mechanical and physical properties as well as decay. The addition of CFF decreased strength and stiffness of MDF-CFF composites compared with that of all-wood...
Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB regarded as safe microorganisms; they can naturally live in gastrointestinal tract, so appropriately used as a probiotic for chicken. This study aimed to select six isolates of LAB (E1223, E3, E4, E5, E7, and E8 to obtain the isolates potentially as probiotic candidate for chicken. The six isolates were derived from spontaneous fermented corn obtained from Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Biomedical, PPSHB, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. LAB isolates were tested their susceptibility to antibiotics (bambermycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline then were examined in vitro for their tolerance to gastrointestinal pH (2, 3, 4, and 7.2 and 0.5% bile salt condition, antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidis and Enterococcus casseliflavus, and ability to adhere to chicken ileal cells. The results showed the isolates E5, E7, and E8 were sensitive to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, they could survive at pH 2, 3, 4, and 7.2, could survive at 0.5% bile salts, produced antimicrobial activity, and able to adhere to ileal cells (9.40±0.00 Log CFU/cm2 of E8 and were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of control (5.30±0.14 Log CFU/cm2. In conclusion, this study showed that isolate E8 had better potential compared to isolates E5 and E7 in most in vitro assays as a probiotic candidate for chicken. E5, E7, and E8 were closely related with Pediococcus pentosaceus based on 16S rRNA gene.
Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Habimana, R; Kahi, A K
Characterization of indigenous chicken (IC) production systems in Rwanda was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 with the aim of understanding socio-economic characteristics, management of IC, production parameters, feed resources, and constraints faced by farmers rearing IC. A survey involving 206 households was carried out in 5 districts with the highest populations of IC using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SAS software. The results showed that the majority of respondents (62.4%) were males and 37.6% were females. The majority of respondents (83.6%) had formal education. All family members were involved in the chicken husbandry practices. However, women (78%) were highly responsible for IC management activities. The family size averaged 5 persons (ranging 2 to 13) per household. Land was privately owned by farmers (84%) with a mean holding of 0.87 ha per household. The production system was mainly extensive with minimum provision of supplementary feeds. Chickens were being housed in separate houses at night and mating was uncontrolled. Breeding and replacement stocks were mainly sourced from the hatching of eggs using broody hens (60.68% of respondents). There were no vaccination programs, and ecto- and endo-parasites control was done when need arose. Egg production, income generation, meat production, and production of breeding stock were the main reasons of keeping IC. The first 3 main challenges facing IC production were diseases outbreaks, lack of investment capital, and predators. Others challenges, such as feed shortage, thieves, fluctuation of market price, lack of information on poultry rearing, and lack of chicken houses, also were mentioned. The IC production constraints mentioned need urgent mitigation measures to sustain utilization of IC against the changing climatic and economic conditions. Therefore, individual, public institution, and non-governmental organization efforts are required to develop sustainable breeding
Skeletal muscles in broilers are generally characterised by pathological muscle damage, indicated by greater plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, higher incidence of haemorrhages, lighter and less coloured breast muscles, compared with layers and traditional breeds of chicken. Muscle damage is further exacerbated by exposure to stressful conditions such as high ambient temperatures which results in a further decrease in the quality of broiler meat and leads to the production o...
A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the response of finishing broiler chicken to diets containing three metabolizable energy (ME)/crude protein (CP) combinations ( 3203.76 ME vs 19.90 %CP, 2884.15 ME vs 18.10%CP and 2566.42 ME vs 18.10 %CP) at fixed ME:CP ratio of 160:1. A total of 126 four weeks ...
Apr 6, 2009 ... Poultry production in Ethiopia is an important livestock sector contributing ... chickens, which are becoming important to design effective selection .... 10 X Buffer, 2 µl of. 100 mM dNTPs, 0.5 µl of each (10 pmol/µl) forward and reverse primers, 0.2 µl of 5U/µl Taq DNA polymerase, 0.6 µl of 25 mM. MgCl2 and ...
weight gain were N307.13 and N87.50 /kg for the birds served 120 ml FPLE/litre of water compared to control (N208.17 and N96.52/kg), respectively. An average NP of N273.56 was made for the broiler chickens served 30-120 ml FPLE/l of water with reference to control (N208.17), which was a difference of N64.39 per bird.
P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath
Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...
De Boever , Sandra; Croubels , Siska; Meyer , Evelyne; Sys , Stanislas; Beyaert , Rudi; Ducatelle , Richard; De Backer , Patrick
Abstract Intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli O127:B8 at a dose of 1,500,000 units/kg BW evoked a hypothermic response followed by a fever phase in five week old broiler chickens. The hypothermic phase coincided with a severe decrease in blood pressure. We assume that this decrease in blood pressure is, at least partly, responsible for the hypothermic phase of the body temperature curve. LPS administration also caused a decrease in circulatin...
Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K
The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences.
Xu, Lu; Chang, Guobin; Ma, Teng; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Jing; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Wan, Fang; Ren, Lichen; Lu, Wei; Chen, Guohong
Piwil1 mediates spermatogenesis and ensures stable cell division rates in germline cells in mammals. However, the involvement of Piwil1 in poultry spermatogenesis and meiosis is poorly understood. In the present study, we used TaqMan RT-qPCR to characterize Piwil1 mRNA expression in different types of spermatogenic cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), spermatogonia cells (Sa), tetraploid cells (Tp), round sperm cells (Rs), mature sperm, and in PGCs treated with retinoic acid. Our results revealed that Piwil1 is differentially expressed during spermatogenesis in chicken. Compared to PGCs, SSCs, Tp, and Sa, Rs cells presented the highest Piwil1 mRNA expression levels. Retinoic acid significantly upregulated Piwil1 and Stra8 mRNA expression as well as Piwil1 levels in chicken PGCs. In addition, retinoic acid induced PGCs to progress through all the meiotic stages, eventually leading to haploid cell formation, which was determined using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results showed that during spermatogenesis, Piwil1 was first expressed at low levels in germ stem cells, PGCs, and SSCs. Its expression levels increased during later meiosis stages. Finally, no expression was detected in mature sperm after meiosis. Treatment of PGCs with retinoic acid further demonstrated that Piwil1 plays a key role in meiosis during chicken spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Administration of anesthetic substances to chickens requires careful consideration for the safe delivery of the agent to the bird. The research objective was to evaluate several drug combinations for intramuscular anesthesia in chickens for physiologic, nutritional, pharmacological and other investigations. Meterial & Methods: Sixty healthy chickens were randomly assigned in six treatment groups and received Ketamine in combination with Xylazine, Midazolam or Acepromazine. Heart and respiratory rate, induction time, duration of surgical anesthesia and light anesthesia were measured. Results: Induction of anesthesia was significantly longer following Acepromazine- Ketamine and Midazolam- Ketamine compared to other groups (P<0.05. Duration of surgical anesthesia was longest with Xylazine- Midazolam- Ketamine and shortest with Midazolam-Ketamine and Acepromazine- Ketamine (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, the most effective drug combinations resulting in longer duration of surgical anesthesia, were Xylazine- Acepromazine- Ketamine and Xylazine- Midazolam- Ketamine. Other combinations did not produce appropriate surgical anesthesia, but they make slight changes in physiological data.
Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier
Microneurovascular anastomosis and aneurysm clipping require extensive training before mastering the technique and are a surgical challenge. We developed the "infused chicken wing method" to provide a simple but realistic training method minimizing animal use and need for special facilities for animal care and anesthesia. Fresh chicken wings were used in this model. The main brachial artery was cannulated, and water was infused at 140 mm Hg followed by anatomical neurovascular dissection. Multiple microsurgical training exercises were performed under microscope vision including terminoterminal, lateroterminal, laterolateral vascular anastomosis, and nerve anastomosis. Different complexity aneurysms were created using venous patches, clipping, rupture, and vascular reconstruction techniques were performed. This novel training model is inexpensive, easily obtainable, and no live animals are required. The diameter and characteristics of arteries and veins used are similar to those of the human brain. Great microsurgical technique progress may be obtained. The infused chicken wing artery model presents a realistic microvascular training method. It is inexpensive and easy to set up. Such simplicity provides the adequate environment for developing microsurgical technique. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma. Patricia Azanza
Full Text Available Microbial hazards associated with street-vended grilled chicken intestine (isaw were studied. Grilling of isaw effected ≥89.00% decrease in the total microbial load of the sample. Cooked isaw contained about 105-106 cfu/g aerobic plate counts and 103-104 MPN/g coliform counts. Salmonella per 25 g sample was isolated from cooked isaw samples. Grilling eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes cells initially present in pre-cooked samples. Different sauces of isaw showed increasing numbers of total aerobic microorganisms and coliform during vending operations. The total plate counts and coliform counts of the sour sauce, which ranged from 103-105 cfu/g and 101 MPN/g, respectively, were observed to be lower than those found in the sweet sauce. Sources of microbial contaminants of grilled chicken isaw included the natural flora of the raw materials, contaminations from food-contact surfaces, bamboo skewers, and the hands of the food handlers. Among the critical control points identified in the street-vending operation of chicken isaw were the control of time and temperature during cooking and hold-on periods during vending operations.
Nishimura, Shotaro; Yamashita, Miyu; Kaneko, Takane; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji
Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells found in the adenohypophysis and are identified in many animals by the S100 protein marker. Although keratin is another FS marker in several animals, there is no information on localization of keratin in the avian adenohypophysis. In this study, localization of cytokeratin in chicken adenohypophyseal cells was investigated immunohistochemically. Basic cytokeratin (bCK)-positive cells were arranged radially in the cell cords with their cytoplasmic processes reaching the basal lamina. The cell bodies encircled a follicle in the center of the cell cord. Furthermore, the bCK-positive cells were also S100B-positive. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and luteinizing hormone β-subunit did not co-localize with the bCK-positive cells. In addition, the bCK-positive cells had a laminin-positive area in their cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy observed agranular cells equipped with several microvilli that encircled a follicle. These results indicate that bCK-positive cells in the chicken adenohypophysis may be a predominant FS cell population and produce laminin. It is suggested that they function as sustentacular cells to sustain the adjacent endocrine cells and the structure of the cell cords in the chicken adenohypophysis. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J
Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.
Masetto, Sergio; Zucca, Giampiero; Bottà, Luisa; Valli, Paolo
The endolymph fills the lumen of the inner ear membranous labyrinth. Its ionic composition is unique in vertebrates as an extracellular fluid for its high-K(+)/low-Na(+) concentration. The endolymph is actively secreted by specialized cells located in the vestibular and cochlear epithelia. We have investigated the early phases of endolymph secretion by measuring the endolymphatic K(+) concentration in the chicken vestibular system during pre-hatching development. Measurements were done by inserting K(+)-selective microelectrodes in chicken embryo ampullae dissected at different developmental stages from embryonic day 9 up to embryonic day 21 (day of hatching). We found that the K(+) concentration is low (<10mM/L) up to embryonic day 11, afterward it increases steeply to reach a plateau level of about 140 mM/L at embryonic day 19--21. We have developed a short-term in vitro model of endolymph secretion by culturing vestibular ampullae dissected from embryonic day 11 chicken embryos for a few days. The preparation reproduced a double compartment system where the luminal K(+) concentration increased along with the days of culturing. This model could be important for (1) investigating the development of cellular mechanisms contributing to endolymph homeostasis and (2) testing compounds that influence those mechanisms.
Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian
In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.
Balas, J.; Poeschl, M.
The possibility of measuring the 137 Cs activity in broiler chickens in vivo was examined. The experiment was conducted with broiler chickens 7 to 22 days old (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). Three oral doses of 137 Cs (total activity 5 kBq/chicken) were administered during a day (at 8:00, 12:00 and 16:00). The radioactivity was determined by gamma spectroscopy with a stabilised Nal/Tl detector. The measurement was carried out on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 14 and 15 after the 137 Cs administration in vivo. The detector was put closely to the body in the area of breast muscles. The radiocesium activity concentrations in fresh daily excreta were also determined. A rapid uptake of the orally administered 137 Cs (within a few hours) as well as a rapid loss of radiocesium were observed. The dynamics and accuracy of the in vivo measurement of 137 Cs activity were comparable with the recently published results of in vitro measurement of radiocesium activity. Only the initial 137 Cs activity (during 2 days after 137 Cs application) was higher with regard to the content of contaminated feed mixture in the gastrointestinal tract
Full Text Available Identifying the signals of artificial selection can contribute to further shaping economically important traits. Here, a chicken 600k SNP-array was employed to detect the signals of artificial selection using 331 individuals from 9 breeds, including Jingfen (JF, Jinghong (JH, Araucanas (AR, White Leghorn (WL, Pekin-Bantam (PB, Shamo (SH, Gallus-Gallus-Spadiceus (GA, Rheinlander (RH and Vorwerkhuhn (VO. Per the population genetic structure, 9 breeds were combined into 5 breed-pools, and a 'two-step' strategy was used to reveal the signals of artificial selection. GA, which has little artificial selection, was defined as the reference population, and a total of 204, 155, 305 and 323 potential artificial selection signals were identified in AR_VO, PB, RH_WL and JH_JF, respectively. We also found signals derived from standing and de-novo genetic variations have contributed to adaptive evolution during artificial selection. Further enrichment analysis suggests that the genomic regions of artificial selection signals harbour genes, including THSR, PTHLH and PMCH, responsible for economic traits, such as fertility, growth and immunization. Overall, this study found a series of genes that contribute to the improvement of chicken breeds and revealed the genetic mechanisms of adaptive evolution, which can be used as fundamental information in future chicken functional genomics study.
Song, Xunyu; Cao, Lin; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Tan, Mingqian
Emergence of endogenous nanoparticles in thermally processed food has aroused much attention due to their unique properties and potential biological impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of fluorescence nanoparticles in roasted chicken breasts, elemental composition, physico-chemical properties and their molecular interaction with human serum albumin (HSA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the foodborne nanoparticles from roasted chicken were nearly spherical with an average particle size of 1.7 ± 0.4 nm. The elemental analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the composition of nanoparticles as 47.4% C, 25.8% O and 26.1% N. The fluorescence of HSA was quenched by the nanoparticles following a static mode, and the molecular interaction of nanoparticles with HSA was spontaneous (ΔG°＜0), where hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces played an important role during HSA-nanoparticles complex stabilization through thermodynamic analysis by isothermal titration calorimetry. The principal location of the nanoparticles binding site on HSA was primarily in site I as determined by site-specific marker competition. The conformational of HSA was also changed and ɑ-helical structure decreased in the presence of nanoparticles. Our studies revealed that fluorescent nanoparticles were produced after roasting of chicken breast at 230 °C for 30 min for the first time. The obtained nanoparticles can interact with HSA in a spontaneous manner, thus providing valuable insight into foodborne NPs as well as their effects to human albumin protein.
Tanabe, Hiroko; Hougetu, Daisuke
The author studied the conditions needed to routinely estimate the radiation dose in chicken bone by repeated re-irradiation and measuring ESR signals. Chicken meat containing bone was γ-irradiated at doses of up to 3kGy, accepted as the commercially used dose. The results show that points in sample preparation and ESR measurement are as follows: Both ends of bone are cut off and central part of compact bone is used for experiment. To obtain accurate ESR spectrum, marrow should be scraped out completely. Sample bone fragments of 1-2mm particle size and ca.100mg are recommended to obtain stable and maximum signal. In practice, by re-irradiating up to 5kGy and extrapolating data of the signal intensity to zero using linear regression analysis, radiation dose is estimated. For example, in one experiment, estimated doses of chicken bones initially irradiated at 3.0kGy, 1.0kGy, 0.50kGy and 0.25kGy were 3.4kGy, 1.3kGy, 0.81kGy and 0.57kGy. (author)
Juan María Díaz Carrasco
Full Text Available Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for decades in poultry farming as a tool to maintain bird health and improve growth performance. Global concern about the recurrent emergence and spreading of antimicrobial resistance is challenging the livestock producers to search for alternatives to feed added antibiotics. The use of phytogenic compounds appears as a feasible option due to their ability to emulate the bioactive properties of antibiotics. However, detailed description about the effects of in-feed antibiotics and alternative natural products on chicken intestinal microbiota is lacking. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to study composition of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens supplemented with either bacitracin or a blend of chestnut and quebracho tannins over a 30-day grow-out period. Both tannins and bacitracin had a significant impact on diversity of cecal microbiota. Bacitracin consistently decreased Bifidobacterium while other bacterial groups were affected only at certain times. Tannins-fed chickens showed a drastic decrease in genus Bacteroides while certain members of order Clostridiales mainly belonging to the families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were increased. Different members of these groups have been associated with an improvement of intestinal health and feed efficiency in poultry, suggesting that these bacteria could be associated with productive performance of birds.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out with an aim to investigate the genetic variability of growth hormone gene in Haringhata Black chicken. Blood samples were collected from 82 experimental birds and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified high salt method. Amplification of specific DNA fragment of intron 4 of growth hormone gene yielded a product size of 713 bp and was analyzed for polymorphism using PCR-SSCP technique. The banding pattern of present investigation revealed two SSCP variants AA and BB genotype in all experimental birds. In the analysed flock of Haringhata Black Chicken, the genotype frequencies were found to be 0.915 for AA and 0.085 for BB genotype. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.915 and 0.085 respectively which indicated A allele was predominant in the studied Haringhata Black Chicken population of the farm. The Chi Square Test revealed that studied population was not in accordance with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium with respect to intron 4 of Growth hormone gene.
Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris
The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.
Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei
A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.
Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S D; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini
The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.
Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit
The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4) cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P < 0.01). In Eimeria spp.-infected eggs (group E), lesions of score were between 1 and 2. Mono-infection with C. perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens.
Al-Bachir, M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.
Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 deg. C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.
Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.
Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 deg. C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.
Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L
Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.
Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman
DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL) -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1) and 14-day-old (Trial 2) specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine. The overall HI antibody titer in chickens immunized with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to chickens immunized with pDis/H5 (p chickens exhibited a shorter time to achieve the highest HI titer in comparison to the inoculation of the 1-day-old chickens. The cellular immunity was assessed by the flow cytometry analysis to enumerate CD4+ and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood. The chickens inoculated with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 demonstrated the highest increase in CD4+ T cells population relative to the control chickens. However, this study revealed that pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was not significant (P > 0.05) in inducing CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, with the exception of Trial 1, the flow cytometry results for Trial 2 demonstrated that the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 inoculated group was able to trigger a higher increase in CD4+ T cells than the pDis/H5 group (P 0.05) in modulating CD8+ T cells population in both trials. The pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 inoculated group showed the highest IL-15 gene expression in both trials compared to other inoculated groups (P chicken IL-15 and IL-18,with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 being a better vaccine candidate
SALIHU, A. Elayo; JOANNIS, T. Mamuela; ONWULIRI, F. Chukwuemeka; IBU, J. Okpabi
Serological evidence of EDS'76 virus in free-range chickens at the various chicken markets (Kasuwan kaji, New market, Gada biyu, and Kugiya) located in Jos and its environs was investigated through antibody detection. The serum samples randomly collected from chickens were assayed for antibodies against EDS'76 virus by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. It was observed that 292 (15.2%) of the 1920 sera tested were positive for EDS'76 antibodies with HI titres r...
Mahek Anand; Roland Tóth; Alayu Kidane; Alexandra Nagy; Bence Lázár; Eszter Patakiné Várkonyi; Krisztina Liptói; Elen Gocza
Chicken Primordial Germ cells (PGCs) are emerging pioneers in the field of applied embryology and stem cell technology. Now-a-days transgenic chickens are promising models to study human disease pathophysiology and drug designing. However, most of the molecular mechanism, which govern the stemness and pluripotency of chicken PGCs, not known in details. Recent studies have indicated the role of HSP70 in early embryonic development in many vertebrate species. Exposure of chicken to heat...
...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, 2012, proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a...
...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce... prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of the final...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab...