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Sample records for chicken anemia virus

  1. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

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    Omar Abdul; Hailemariam Zerihun; Hair-Bejo Mohd; Giap Tan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 ...

  2. Full-Genome Sequence of Chicken Anemia Virus Strain GXC060821, Isolated from a Guangxi Sanhuang Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel chicken anemia virus strain GXC060821, isolated from a Sanhuang chicken in Guangxi Province of southern China. The complete genome of GXC060821 was sequenced. The full-length of GXC060821 is 2,292 bp and contains three overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). A comparison of the complete sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of GXC060821 with 31 other published chicken anemia virus sequences showed that the homologies of the nucl...

  3. Study on immunofunction and immunoregulation post newcastle disease vaccination of chickens infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV) at one-day-old and vaccinated with La Sota vaccine 8 days later. Meanwhile, uninfected chickens were vaccinated as controls. At 7, 14 and 28 days post vaccination, the content of IgG,IgM,IgA and HI titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T、B cells, the inductive activity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon (IFN) in thymus and spleen were tested. The results showed that the content of IgG, IgM, IgA and hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T cells and B cells as well as the inductive activity of IL-2 and IFN in thymus and spleen of infected-vaccinated chickens significantly decreased compared with the control. These results indicated that the immunofunction and immunoregulation were dropped post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  4. An optimized polymerase chain reaction assay to identify avian virus vaccine contamination with Chicken anemia virus.

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    Amer, Haitham M; Elzahed, Hanan M; Elabiare, Elham A; Badawy, Ahmed A; Yousef, Ausama A

    2011-01-01

    The use of embryonating chicken eggs in preparation of avian virus vaccines is the principle cause for contamination with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). Identification of CAV in contaminated vaccines relies on the expensive, tedious, and time-consuming practice of virus isolation in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The experience of the last 2 decades indicates that polymerase chain reaction is extending to replace most of the classic methods for detection of infectious agents. In the present report, a simple, rapid, and accurate polymerase chain reaction method for detection of CAV in poultry vaccines is described. Oligonucleotide primers homologous to highly conserved sequences of the VP1 gene were used to amplify a fragment of 676 bp. The developed assay was specific for detecting CAV from different sources, with no cross reactivity with many avian viruses. No inter- and intra-assay variations were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the test was high enough to detect 5 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) of the virus per reaction; however, different factors related to the vaccine matrix showed considerable effects on the detection limit. In conclusion, this method may represent a suitable alternative to virus isolation for identification of CAV contamination of poultry virus vaccines.

  5. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

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    Omar Abdul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA. Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4 with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5 suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in

  6. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

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    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology.

  7. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology. PMID:25952731

  8. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

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    Snoeck Chantal J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008, 14.3% (2009 and 10.4% (2010 in Central African Republic and 39% (2007 and 34.9% (2009 in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence.

  9. [Gene cloning and sequencing of chicken anemia virus(CAV) isolated from Harbin].

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    He, Chengqing; Ding, Naizheng; Li, Jingpeng; Li, Yunlong

    2002-08-01

    A Chicken anemia virus has been isolated from a chicken flock in Harbin of China. The genome of the ivrus was cloned through polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequence of the genome was analyzed. The cycle genome is made of 2298 base pairs including three overlapping open reading frames(vp1, vp2, vp3) and a regulative region. Comparing sequence of the genome through BLAST in GenBank, this sequence exhibits 96.9% identity with other genome of CA Vs and least. Multiple alignment of this genome of this virus, 26p4, strain isolated in Germany, strain isolated in Malaysia and Cux-1 found that this sequence exhibits 98.2% (42/2298), 98.2% (42/2298), 96.9% (72/2298) and 97.5% (60/2319) identify with them, respectively. A new CAV strain was isolated and it has better identify with CAV isolated in Europe countries than is Asia country Malaysia. Multiple alignment of VP1, VP2, VP3 of 26p4, strain isolated in Germany, strain isolated in Malaysia, Cux-1 and strain isolated in Harbin of China found the VP2 the most conservative.

  10. Duplex PCR assay for the detection of avian adeno virus and chicken anemia virus prevalent in Pakistan

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    Iqbal Aqib

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. Timely and efficient diagnosis of the viruses is needed in order to practice prevention and control strategies. In the first part of this study, we investigated broilers, breeder and Layer stocks for morbidity and mortality rates due to AAV and CAV infections and any co-infections by examining signs and symptoms typical of their infestation or post mortem examination. In the second part of the study, we developed a duplex PCR assay for the detection of AAV and CAV which is capable to simultaneously detect both the viral types prevalent in Pakistan with high sensitivity and 100% specificity.

  11. Chicken anemia virus and avian gyrovirus 2 as contaminants in poultry vaccines.

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    Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Scheffer, Camila Mengue; Schmidt, Candice; Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; Silva, Alessandra D'Avila; Esteves, Paulo Augusto; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) genomes in commercially available poultry vaccines. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (dqPCR), capable of identifying genomes of both viruses in a single assay, was employed to determine the viral loads of these agents in commercially available vaccines. Thirty five vaccines from eight manufacturers (32 prepared with live and 3 with inactivated microorganisms) were examined. Genomes of CAV were detected as contaminants in 6/32 live vaccines and in 1/3 inactivated vaccines. The CAV genome loads ranged from 6.4 to 173.4 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.07 to 0.69 genome copies per dose of vaccine). Likewise, AGV2 genomes were detected in 9/32 live vaccines, with viral loads ranging from 93 to 156,187 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.28-9176 genome copies per dose of vaccine). These findings provide evidence for the possibility of contamination of poultry vaccines with CAV and AGV2 and they also emphasize the need of searching for these agents in vaccines in order to ensure the absence of such potential contaminants.

  12. [Effect of Low Dose of Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in Attenuated Vaccine on SPF Chicken Body Weight and Vaccine Immune Antibody].

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    Fang, Lichun; Li, Xiaohan; Ren, Zhihao; Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-03-01

    In order to observe the effect of the immune and weight of chickens after use the attenuated vaccine with low dose of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV). In this study, the effects of low dose of CIAV on the weight of SPF chickens and NDV antibody production were observed by simulated experiments. The results showed that 10 EID50 and 5 EID50 CIAV per plume attenuated NDV vaccines were used to cause the weight loss of SPF chickens. Compared with the use of the non contaminated vaccine group, it has significant difference. And NDV antibody levels compared with the use of the non contaminated groups also decreased after use the vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. It has significant difference. A certain proportion of CIAV antibody positive was detected at the beginning of the second week after use the NDV vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. The detection of a high proportion of CIAV nucleic acid was detected in the first week after the use of a contaminated vaccine. The results of the study demonstrate the effects of CIAV pollution on the production and immune function of SPF chickens, and it is suggested that increasing the detection of viral nucleic acid can help save time and improve the detection rate in the detection of exogenous virus contamination by SPF chicken test method.

  13. Development of a subunit vaccine containing recombinant chicken anemia virus VP1 and pigeon IFN-γ.

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    Shen, Sin Ying; Chang, Wei Chun; Yi, Hsiang Heng; Tsai, Shinn-Shong; Liu, Hung Jen; Liao, Pei-Chun; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2015-10-15

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a severe threat to the chicken industry and causes heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy provided by a subunit vaccine containing recombinant VP1 (rVP1) and pigeon interferon-γ (rPiIFN-γ). Results indicated that rPiIFN-γ enhanced humoral immunity elicited by rVP1 as early as 10 day after primary immunization and reach the high titer after secondary immunization. When compared to chickens immunized with rVP1, inactivated vaccine, chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ showed faster and higher levels (pchickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ were significantly higher than those of the rVP1 or inactivated vaccine groups. In conclusion, our study found that rPiIFN-γ can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity elicited by an rVP1 vaccine. The rVP1+rPiIFN-γ vaccine may provide a new strategy vaccine against CAV in chicken.

  14. Persistence of chicken anemia virus antigen and inclusions in spontaneous cases of Marek's disease visceral lymphomas in broiler chickens at slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Sabry; Ono, Hiroki; Sasaki, Jun; Ochiai, Kenji; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) infect chickens worldwide; a single or dual infection by these viruses has a great impact on poultry production. In the present study, we examined the existence of CAV antigen and its inclusions in Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas in chickens in the slaughterhouses of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine spleens and 13 livers with different degrees of nodular lesions were histopathologically examined at our laboratory. Grossly, the tested organs showed various sizes and anatomical architectures. Based on the cellular morphology and the infiltrative nature of the neoplastic lymphocytes, MD was confirmed in 76% (37/49) of the spleens and 92% (12/13) of the livers. The lesions of MD, according to the pattern of lymphocytic accumulation in the affected organs, were divided into multifocal, coalesced and diffuse. CAV intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected within the small and the large bizarre lymphocytes of the MD lymphomas in 2 livers and 9 spleens, and the immunostaining test for CAV confirmed the persistence of CAV antigens and inclusions in the neoplastic cells. This study demonstrated the persistence of CAV infection within the neoplastic cells of naturally occurring MD lymphomas in chickens.

  15. Efficient Production of an Engineered Apoptin from Chicken Anemia Virus in a Recombinant E. coli for Tumor Therapeutic Applications

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    Lee Meng-Shiou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptin, a nonstructural protein encoded by the VP3 gene of chicken anemia virus (CAV, has been shown to not only induce apoptosis when introduced into the precursors of chicken thymocytes, but has been found to specifically kill human cancer cells, tumor cell and transformed cells without affecting the proliferation of normal cells. This tumor-specific apoptotic characteristic of the protein potentially may allow the development of a protein drug that has applications in tumor therapy. However, several major problems, which include poor expression and poor protein solubility, have hampered the production of apoptin in bacteria. Results Significantly increased expression of recombinant full-length apoptin that originated from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The CAV VP3 gene was fused with a synthetic sequence containing a trans-acting activator of transcription (TAT protein transduction domain (PTD. The resulting construct was cloned into various different expression vectors and these were then expressed in various E. coli strains. The expression of the TAT-Apoptin in E. coli was significantly increased when TAT-Apoptin was fused with GST-tag rather than a His-tag. When the various rare amino acid codons of apoptin were optimized, the expression level of the GST-TAT-Apoptinopt in E. coli BL21(DE3 was significantly further increased. The highest protein expression level obtained was 8.33 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 4 h at 25 °C. Moreover, approximately 90% of the expressed GST-TAT-Apoptinopt under these conditions was soluble. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified recombinant TAT-Apoptinopt protein was used to evaluate the recombinant protein’s apoptotic activity on tumor cells. The results demonstrated that the E. coli-expressed GST-TAT-apoptinopt showed apoptotic activity and was able to induce human

  16. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

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    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  17. Cloning of Chicken Anemia Virus vp3 Gene and Apoptosis Inductive Effect of vp3 Gene In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军; 王宇哲; 宗义强; 屈伸

    2003-01-01

    Using PCR technique, the vp3 gene of chicken anemia virus (CAV) was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3 to construct a recombinant pcDNA-vp3. Restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis revealed that CAV vp3 gene was correctly inserted into the blank vector pcDNA3. After LipofectAMINETM-mediated transfection in vitro with pcDNA-vp3 and pcDNA3 respectively, the total mRNA was extracted from liver carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and diploid cell line L-02, and RT-PCR was performed afterward. The results of RT-PCR suggested that vp3 gene was expressed in these two cell lines. At the same time, using in situ apoptotic detection assay, TUNEL kits, the apoptotic cells were found in pcDNA-vp3 transfected HepG2, but not in mock transfected cell lines. VP3 could induce cell death by apoptosis in cancer cell lines, but not in diploid cell lines. All the results indicated that CAV vp3 gene, a potential therapeutic agents, has the potential of being used for cancer treatment.

  18. Study on the immune function in local mucosa post newcastile disease vaccination of chicken infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with CAV at one-day-old and 8 days later, the infected and uninfected chickens were vaccinated with La Sota vaccine. At 7\\, 14\\, 28 days post vaccination, the number of T cells and IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in Harderian gland and cecal tonsil, the content of IgG, IgM and IgA in tear, trachea fluid, intestinal fluid and bile as well as the hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in tear and bile were detected. The results showed that the number of T cells and IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in Harderian gland and cecal consil, the content of IgG, IgM and IgA in tear, trachea fluid, intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tear and bile post ND vaccination of CAV infected chickens were decreased significantly than those of uninfected vaccinated chickens. These indicated that the immune response function was markedly weakened in local mucosa of digestive and respiratory tract post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  19. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

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    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  20. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham M Ittyachen; Mohan B Jose; Varghese Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  1. Characterization of mAbs to chicken anemia virus and epitope mapping on its viral protein, VP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Q; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong N; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba K; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Three (MoCAV/F2, MoCAV/F8 and MoCAV/F11) of four mouse mAbs established against the A2/76 strain of chicken anemia virus (CAV) showed neutralization activity. Immunoprecipitation showed a band at ~50 kDa in A2/76-infected cell lysates by neutralizing mAbs, corresponding to the 50 kDa capsid protein (VP1) of CAV, and the mAbs reacted with recombinant VP1 proteins expressed in Cos7 cells. MoCAV/F2 and MoCAV/F8 neutralized the 14 CAV strains tested, whereas MoCAV/F11 did not neutralize five of the strains, indicating distinct antigenic variation amongst the strains. In blocking immunofluorescence tests with the A2/76-infected cells, binding of MoCAV/F11 was not inhibited by the other mAbs. MoCAV/F2 inhibited the binding of MoCAV/F8 to the antigens and vice versa, suggesting that the two mAbs recognized the same epitope. However, mutations were found in different parts of VP1 of the escape mutants of each mAb: EsCAV/F2 (deletion of T89+A90), EsCAV/F8 (I261T) and EsCAV/F11 (E144G). Thus, the epitopes recognized by MoCAV/F2 and MoCAV/F8 seemed to be topographically close in the VP1 structure, suggesting that VP1 has at least two different neutralizing epitopes. However, MoCAV/F8 did not react with EsCAV/F2 or EsCAV/F8, suggesting that binding of MoCAV/F8 to the epitope requires coexistence of the epitope recognized by MoCAV/F2. In addition, MoCAV/F2, with a titre of 1 : 12 800 to the parent strain, neutralized EsCAV/F2 and EsCAV/F8 with low titres of 32 and 152, respectively. The similarity of the reactivity of MoCAV/F2 and MoCAV/F8 to VP1 may also suggest the existence of a single epitope recognized by these mAbs. PMID:25568186

  2. Studies on Chicken Anemia Virus%鸡贫血病毒的致病机理、检测及疫苗研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张刚; 曹善东; 李云龙

    2002-01-01

    鸡贫血病毒(chicken anemia virus,CAV)是鸡传染性贫血病的病原,广泛分布于世界各国.CAV感染能导致雏鸡严重贫血,并能造成免疫抑制,从而影响养禽业的发展.近年来,随着分子生物学的发展,许多国家对CAV进行了深入研究,取得了较大的进展.本文就近年来国内外对CAV的致病机理、检测以及疫苗研制的研究现状综述如下.

  3. Um protocolo de "nested-PCR" para detecção do vírus da anemia das galinhas A nested-PCR protocol for detection of the chicken anemia virus

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    Simone Simionatto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o estabelecimento de um pro!tocolo de "nested-PCR" para a detecção do vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV, chicken anemia virus, agente causador da anemia infecciosa das galinhas. Para a extração de DNA a partir de amostras clínicas um método baseado no uso de tiocianato de guanidina mostrou-se mais sensível e prático, do que os demais avaliados. Para a PCR inicial foi selecionado um par de primers que amplifica uma região de 664 pares de bases (pb do gene VP1. Para a "nested-PCR" propriamente dita, foi selecionado um segundo par que amplifica uma região interna de 520 pb. A especificidade dos primers foi avaliada utilizando amostras de lotes controlados para CAV. Outras trinta amostras vírus e bactérias, causadoras de doenças em aves, não geraram produto de amplificação. A sensibilidade do teste foi determinada a partir de diluições seriadas de uma amostra vacinal de CAV. A "nested-PCR" mostrou ser mais sensível do que a PCR e foi capaz de detectar pelo menos 0,16 TCID50% da cepa vacinal. Além disso, detectou DNA viral em tecidos, soro e cama aviária de lotes com e sem sinais clínicos. Conclui-se que, como técnica para a detecção do CAV, o protocolo de "nested-PCR" aqui descrito, é mais sensível, rápido e menos trabalhoso do que o isolamento viral em cultivo celular.This paper reports a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR protocol for detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causal agent of infectious chicken anemia. For DNA extraction from clinical samples, a method based on guanidine thiocyanate was found more sensitive and practical than other extraction protocols tested. The pair of primers used in the initial PCR targeted a 664 bp fragment on the VP1 gene. The primers for the internal PCR targeted a fragment of 520 bp. The specificity of the primers was evaluated on samples of CAV controlled flocks. Thirty different viruses and bacteria isolated from chickens did not give rise

  4. Advance in Research of Laboratory Assays for Detection of Chicken Anemia Virus%鸡贫血病毒实验室检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄金秋; 梅建国; 沈志强

    2012-01-01

      鸡贫血病毒不仅可引起鸡的传染性贫血,而且也是引起鸡免疫抑制病的主要病原。鸡传染性贫血是以雏鸡再生障碍性贫血和免疫抑制为主要特征的传染病,是导致许多疫苗免疫失败以及雏鸡死亡的主要原因之一。鸡贫血病毒在世界范围内广泛存在,是养鸡业潜藏的巨大威胁。本文主要阐述了该病毒的病毒分离鉴定、血清学方法和分子生物学方法等实验室检测方法,旨在为鸡传染性贫血病的诊断和防治提供参考。%  Chicken anemia virus(CAV)not only induces chicken infectious anemia disease,but also is the main pathogen of chicken immunodeficiency disease. Chicken infectious anemia(CIA)is one of important infectious diseases in the poultry industry. The condition is characterized by a plastic anemia and immunodepression disease,and causes anemia and immunopression in the infected birds and appears to be ubiquitous in all major chicken-producing countries of the world. This paper was a review on the laboratory methods including virus isolation and identification,serological method and molecular biology technology and so on. It is to provide reference for the diagnosis,prevention and treatment of the disease.

  5. Performance comparison between broilers positive and negative for antibodies against the chicken anemia virus Comparação de desempenho entre frangos positivos e negativos para anticorpos contra o vírus da anemia das galinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauricio Librelotto Rubin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The chicken anemia virus (CAV is present in virtually every country investigated, Brazil including. The aim of this study was to determine what the difference in performance is between positive (progeny of breeders vaccinated or with natural infection and negative broilers to the presence of antibodies against the CAV in currently intensive raising systems. As a result, it was observed that negative broilers were significantly heavier than positive broilers. Negative males had a final weight 5.43% higher than positive males. There was no significant difference among different treatments in relation to parameters as mortality and feeding conversion. These study indicated that the presence of antibodies against CAV in broilers - may it be through vaccination or natural infection of breeders - did not generate progeny with superior performance under the tested raising conditions.O vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV - "chicken anemia virus" está presente em praticamente todos os países investigados, inclusive no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar qual a diferença de desempenho, comparando frangos positivos (progênie de matrizes vacinadas ou com infecção natural com frangos negativos para a presença de anticorpos contra o CAV, no sistema atual de criação intensiva. Como resultado, foi observado que os frangos negativos foram significativamente mais pesados que os frangos positivos. Os machos negativos tiveram um peso final 5,43% superior ao dos machos positivos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação aos parâmetros de mortalidade e conversão alimentar. Este estudo indicou que a presença de anticorpos contra o CAV em frangos de corte, seja através da vacinação ou infecção natural das matrizes, não gerou uma progênie com melhor desempenho nas condições de criação testadas.

  6. 鸡传染性贫血病流行特点与诊断方法%Introduce on Epidemic Specialty and Diagnosis Method of Chicken Infectious Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊永忠; 王秀荣; 王笑梅

    2002-01-01

    @@ 鸡传染性贫血病(Chicken infectious anemia,CIA)最早被称之为贫血综合征、贫血皮炎综合征、出血性贫血病、贫血因子病等.其病原于1979年首次分离并确定,早期被称作鸡贫血因子(Chicken anemia agent,CAA)或鸡传染性贫血病毒(Chicken infectious anemia virus,CIAV),以后逐渐统一称作鸡贫血病毒(Chicken anemia virus,CAV)[1].

  7. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  8. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...

  9. Auto immune hemolytic anemia in a child precipitated by chicken pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoo, Samina Shamim; Jamalvi, Syed Waseem

    2008-05-01

    Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is a rare entity in children. We report a case of an adolescent girl with AIHA, which was precipitated by chicken pox. Clinical course over 3 years, till remission is described. PMID:18541094

  10. Prevalence of antibodies against chicken anaemia virus (CAV in broiler breeders in Southern Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV em matrizes de corte no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio W. Canal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicks infected during the first two weeks of life with chicken anaemia virus (CAV manifest clinical disease that can be avoided if the breeder hens transfer enough antibodies to their progeny. The objective of the present work was to establish the prevalence and titer of anti-CAV antibodies in some Brazilian broiler hen breeder flocks and verify in which phase of life the birds were infected. A total of 1,709 serum samples from 12 broiler hen flocks vaccinated against CAV and 64 unvaccinated flocks were analyzed for CAV antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All non-vaccinated breeder flocks were found to be infected with CAV, with 89% of the hens tested presenting antibodies, 52% of these with titers considered high enough to protect their progeny against CAV infection. Likewise, all vaccinated hens had antibody titer to CAV capable of conferring protection to their progeny. Thus, vaccination of hens seems capable of conferring protection to chicks against clinically apparent CAV-associated disease.A doença clínica causada pelo vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV ocorre quando os pintos são infectados durante as primeiras duas semanas de vida e pode ser prevenida se as matrizes transferirem anticorpos suficientes para a sua progênie. Em vista disso, este estudo foi realizado visando determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra o CAV em alguns lotes de matrizes pesadas no Brasil. Buscou-se ainda verificar em que fase da vida as reprodutoras seriam infectadas e quais seriam os títulos de anticorpos nessas aves. Um total de 1709 amostras de soro de 64 lotes de reprodutoras não vacinadas e 12 lotes de reprodutoras vacinadas contra o CAV foram analisados por ELISA. Todos os lotes de aves não vacinadas apresentaram anticorpos. Dentre esses, 89% dos indivíduos foram positivos, 52% com títulos de anticorpos capazes de conferir proteção a sua progênie contra o CAV. Igualmente, todos os lotes de matrizes vacinadas

  11. Structure of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Matrix Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hatanaka, Hideki; Iourin, Oleg; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth; Kingsman, Alan; Stuart, David I.

    2002-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is key to the budding of retroviruses from host cells and is cleaved upon virion maturation, the N-terminal membrane-binding domain forming the matrix protein (MA). The 2.8-Å resolution crystal structure of MA of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus, reveals that, despite showing no sequence similarity, more than half of the molecule can be superimposed on the MAs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However...

  12. Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway-Duren, Jacqueline B; Klaassen, Hillary

    2013-12-01

    Anemias continue to present a challenge to the health care profession. Anemia is defined as a reduction in one or more of the RBC indices. Patients presenting with a mild form of anemia may be asymptomatic; however, in more serious cases the anemia can become life threatening. In many cases the clinical presentation also reflects the underlying cause. Anemia may be attributed to various causes, whereas autoimmune RBC destruction may be attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Laboratory tests are essential in facilitating early detection and differentiation of anemia.

  13. Structure of equine infectious anemia virus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Hideki; Iourin, Oleg; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth; Kingsman, Alan; Stuart, David I

    2002-02-01

    The Gag polyprotein is key to the budding of retroviruses from host cells and is cleaved upon virion maturation, the N-terminal membrane-binding domain forming the matrix protein (MA). The 2.8-A resolution crystal structure of MA of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus, reveals that, despite showing no sequence similarity, more than half of the molecule can be superimposed on the MAs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, unlike the structures formed by HIV-1 and SIV MAs, the oligomerization state observed is not trimeric. We discuss the potential of this molecule for membrane binding in the light of conformational differences between EIAV MA and HIV or SIV MA. PMID:11799182

  14. EXPERIENCE OF USING SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TESTS TO DETECT EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS IN HORSE

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. GERASIMOVA; O.L. KOLBASOVA; S.Zh. TSYBANOV; A.V. LUNITSIN; D.V. KOLBASOV

    2014-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia in horses is caused by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, Lentivirus, Retroviridae), affecting hematopoietic organs. The symptoms of the disease are relapsing or continued fever, anemia and a disturbance of cardiovascular functions. Duly virus detection is the only effective way to control infection. Serological methods used to indicate EIAV have some limitations. For instance, they did not allow identifying infected animals prior to seroconversion. Also an immunod...

  15. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician October 01, 2002, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20021001/1217.html) Normocytic Anemia by JR Brill, ... Physician November 15, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001115/2255.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  16. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  17. Detection of avian nephritis virus in Australian chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Kylie A; O'Rourke, Denise; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2010-09-01

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) is thought to infect poultry flocks worldwide, but no confirmed case has been reported in Australia. The first such case is described in this study. Cases of young chickens with clinical signs of dehydration and diarrhea were submitted to our laboratory and histopathology detected interstitial nephritis. Vaccine strains of infectious bronchitis virus were detected in some of these cases but were not considered to be the causative agent. A total of seven fresh submissions from broiler chicken flocks were collected at 8-11 days of age. Degenerate PCR primers were designed based on published ANV polymerase gene sequences and used to analyze historic cases as well as the fresh submissions. Six of the seven fresh submissions, and one historic case, were positive for ANV with nucleotide sequencing confirming these results. These results establish ANV as an infectious pathogen circulating in Australian poultry.

  18. 感染鸡贫血病毒雏鸡接种新城疫疫苗后局部粘膜免疫功能的变化%THE CHANGES OF IMMUNE FUNCTION IN LOCAL MUCOSA POST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VACCINATION OF CHICKENS INFECTED WITH CHICKEN ANEMIA VIRUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠贵; 郑世民; 杨丽萍; 周志勇; 阿合买提·买买提; 李广兴

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with CAV at one-day-old and 8 days later the infected and uninfected chickens were vaccinated with newcastle disease vaccine.At 7、14、28 days post vaccination,the number of T cell and IgG+、IgM+ and IgA+antibody producing cells in Harderian glands and cecal tonsils,the content of IgG、IgM and IgA in tears,trachea fluid,intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tears and bile were detected.The results showed that the number of T cells and IgG+、IgM+、IgA+ antibody producing cells in harderian glands and cecal tonsils,the content of IgG、IgM and IgA in tears,trachea fluid,intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tears and bile post ND vaccination of CAV infected chickens were decreased significantly than those of uninfect-vaccinated chickens.These indicated that the immune response function was markedly weakened in local mucosa of digestive and respiratory tract post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chikens.%雏鸡1日龄感染鸡贫血病毒(CAV),8日龄接种Lasota疫苗,以未感染免疫雏鸡为对照,于免疫后7、14、28d检测其哈德尔腺和盲肠扁桃体T细胞及IgG+、IgM+、IgA+抗体生成细胞数量,泪液、气管液、肠液、胆汁中IgG、IgM、IgA含量以及泪液、胆汁HI抗体滴度的动态变化。揭示了感染CAV雏鸡接种ND疫苗免疫后哈德尔腺、盲肠扁桃体的T细胞和IgG+、IgM+、IgA+抗体生成细胞数量,泪液、气管液、肠液、胆汁中免疫球蛋白IgG、IgM、IgA含量以及泪液、胆汁HI抗体滴度,均较未感染免疫雏鸡明显减少。表明眼部、呼吸道和消化道局部粘膜免疫防御能力减弱。

  19. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Rani Gilhare; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Ashish Kumar; Surendra Kumar Naik; Tarini Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  20. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Annagur; Ayhan Tastekin; Pervin Gunaslan; Oguzhan Demirel; Ahmet Hakan Dikener

    2013-01-01

    Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella) can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also ...

  1. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  2. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  3. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  4. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.;

    1998-01-01

    Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...

  5. Chicken cyclophilin A is an inhibitory factor to influenza virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of enhancing influenza resistance in domestic flocks is quite clear both scientifically and economically. Chicken is very susceptible to influenza virus. It has been reported that human cellular cyclophilin A (CypA impaired influenza virus infection in 293T cells. Whether chicken CypA (chCypA inhibits influenza virus replication is not known. The molecular mechanism of resistance in chicken to influenza virus remains to be studied. Results The chCypA gene was isolated and characterized in the present study. It contained an ORF of 498 bp encoding a polypeptide of 165 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.8 kDa sharing high identity with mammalian CypA genes. The chCypA demonstrated an anti-influenza activity as expected. ChCypA protein was shown to be able to specifically interact with influenza virus M1 protein. Cell susceptibility to influenza virus was reduced by over-expression of chCypA in CEF cells. The production of recombinant influenza virus A/WSN/33 reduced to one third in chCypA expressing cells comparing to chCypA absent cells. ChCypA was widely distributed in a variety of chicken tissues. It localized in cytoplasm of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells. Avian influenza virus infection induced its translocation from cytoplasm into nucleus. ChCypA expression was not significantly up-regulated by avian influenza virus infection. The present study indicated that chCypA was an inhibitory protein to influenza virus replication, suggesting a role as an intrinsic immunity factor against influenza virus infection. Conclusion The present data demonstrates that chCypA possesses anti-influenza virus activity which allows the consideration of genetic improvement for resistance to influenza virus in chickens.

  6. The preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures for virus isolation, propagation, and titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennion, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken tracheal organ cultures (TOCs), comprising transverse sections of chick embryo trachea with beating cilia, have proved useful in the isolation of several respiratory viruses and as a viral assay system, using ciliostasis as the criterion for infection. A simple technique for the preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures in glass test tubes, in which virus growth and ciliostasis can be readily observed, is described.

  7. Study on Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 (Thai isolate) in Chicken Meat and Chicken Feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the efficacy of gamma radiation on the inactivation of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype, Thai isolate was carried out. The virus was in the form frozen infected allantoic fluid frozen chicken meat and frozen chicken feces. The result indicated that 9 kilo grey of gamma radiation could completely inactivated 106.0 EID50/ml of AIV infected allantoic fluid and 22 kiel grey and 15 kilo grey of gamma radiation completely inactivate 106.0 EID50/10/ grams of chicken meat and 106.0 EID50/5 grams of chicken feces respectively.

  8. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  9. When viruses were not in style: parallels in the histories of chicken sarcoma viruses and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Neeraja

    2014-12-01

    The discovery that cancer may be caused by viruses occurred in the early twentieth century, a time when the very concept of viruses as we understand it today was in a considerable state of flux. Although certain features were agreed upon, viruses, more commonly referred to as 'filterable viruses' were not considered much different from other microbes such as bacteria except for their extremely small size, which rendered them ultramicroscopic and filterable. For a long time, in fact, viruses were defined rather by what they were not and what they could not do, rather than any known properties that set them apart from other microbes. Consequently when Peyton Rous suggested in 1912 that the causative agent of a transmissible sarcoma tumor of chickens was a virus, the medical research community was reluctant to accept his assessment on the grounds that cancer was not infectious and was caused by a physiological change within the cells. This difference in the bacteriological and physiological styles of thinking appears to have been prevalent in the wider research community, for when in 1917 Felix d'Herelle suggested that a transmissible lysis in bacteria, which he called bacteriophagy, was caused by a virus, his ideas were also opposed on similar grounds. It was not until the 1950s when when André Lwoff explained the phenomenon of lysogeny through his prophage hypothesis that the viral identities of the sarcoma-inducing agent and the bacteriophages were accepted. This paper examines the trajectories of the curiously parallel histories of the cancer viruses and highlights the similarities and differences between the ways in which prevailing ideas about the nature of viruses, heredity and infection drove researchers from disparate disciplines and geographic locations to develop their ideas and achieve some consensus about the nature of cancer viruses and bacteriophages.

  10. Ribavirin-induced anemia in hepatitis C virus patients undergoing combination therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja M Krishnan

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection - combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin - elicits sustained responses in only ∼50% of the patients treated. No alternatives exist for patients who do not respond to combination therapy. Addition of ribavirin substantially improves response rates to interferon and lowers relapse rates following the cessation of therapy, suggesting that increasing ribavirin exposure may further improve treatment response. A key limitation, however, is the toxic side-effect of ribavirin, hemolytic anemia, which often necessitates a reduction of ribavirin dosage and compromises treatment response. Maximizing treatment response thus requires striking a balance between the antiviral and hemolytic activities of ribavirin. Current models of viral kinetics describe the enhancement of treatment response due to ribavirin. Ribavirin-induced anemia, however, remains poorly understood and precludes rational optimization of combination therapy. Here, we develop a new mathematical model of the population dynamics of erythrocytes that quantitatively describes ribavirin-induced anemia in HCV patients. Based on the assumption that ribavirin accumulation decreases erythrocyte lifespan in a dose-dependent manner, model predictions capture several independent experimental observations of the accumulation of ribavirin in erythrocytes and the resulting decline of hemoglobin in HCV patients undergoing combination therapy, estimate the reduced erythrocyte lifespan during therapy, and describe inter-patient variations in the severity of ribavirin-induced anemia. Further, model predictions estimate the threshold ribavirin exposure beyond which anemia becomes intolerable and suggest guidelines for the usage of growth hormones, such as erythropoietin, that stimulate erythrocyte production and avert the reduction of ribavirin dosage, thereby improving treatment response. Our model thus facilitates, in

  11. Screening of Chinese Herbal Medicines Resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Methed] Conven- tional punch method, test tube method and plate dilution method were adopted for in vitro susceptibility test of chicken E, coil strains O5 and O8 using 13 kinds of Chi- nese herbal medicines including Sanguisorba officinalis, Coptis chinensis, Anemar- rhena asphodeloides, Strobilanthes cusia, Agastache rugosa, etc.; chicken embryo inoculation experiment was adopted to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to chicken infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Result] Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba Taraxaci, Anemarrhena asphode- Ioides, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain O5; Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba taraxaci and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain 08; other Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively poor or no antibacterial effect. Results of chicken embryo inoculation experiment showed that nine kinds of Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively strong anti-lLTV effect, including Forsythia suspensa, Radix Isatidis, Fofium isatidis, Flos Ionicerae, Radix codonopsis, Radix astragali, Atractylodes, Radix gly- cyrrhizae, and Pericarpium granati. [Conclusion] The study laid the foundation for fur- ther development of Chinese herbal compound preparations to treat chicken cofibacil- Iosis, infectious laryngotracheitis and other bacterial, viral diseases.

  12. Estimation of transmission parameters of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Bouma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research efforts, little is yet known about key epidemiological parameters of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in their avian hosts. Here we show how these parameters can be estimated using a limited number of birds in experimental transmission studies. Our quantitative estimates, based on Bayesian methods of inference, reveal that (i the period of latency of H5N1 influenza virus in unvaccinated chickens is short (mean: 0.24 days; 95% credible interval: 0.099-0.48 days; (ii the infectious period of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens is approximately 2 days (mean: 2.1 days; 95%CI: 1.8-2.3 days; (iii the reproduction number of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens need not be high (mean: 1.6; 95%CI: 0.90-2.5, although the virus is expected to spread rapidly because it has a short generation interval in unvaccinated chickens (mean: 1.3 days; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 days; and (iv vaccination with genetically and antigenically distant H5N2 vaccines can effectively halt transmission. Simulations based on the estimated parameters indicate that herd immunity may be obtained if at least 80% of chickens in a flock are vaccinated. We discuss the implications for the control of H5N1 avian influenza virus in areas where it is endemic.

  13. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α,

  14. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  15. Lack of detection of host associated differences in Newcastle disease viruses of genotype VIId isolated from chickens and geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuyang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in the past 15 years have been predominantly VIId viruses, published data comparing goose- and chicken-originated ND viruses are scarce and controversial. Results In this paper, we compared genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens genetically and pathologically. Ten entire genomic sequences and 329 complete coding sequences of individual genes from genotype VIId NDVs of both goose- and chicken-origin were analyzed. We then randomly selected two goose-originated and two chicken-originated VIId NDVs and compared their pathobiology in both geese and chickens in vivo and in vitro with genotype IV virus Herts/33 as a reference. The results showed that all the VIId NDVs either from geese or from chickens shared high sequence homology and characteristic amino acid substitutions and clustered together in phylogenetic trees. In addition, geese and chickens infected by goose or chicken VIId viruses manifested very similar pathological features distinct from those of birds infected with Herts/33. Conclusions There is no genetic or phenotypic difference between genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens. Therefore, no species-preference exists for either goose or chicken viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VIId NDVs between geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  16. Emergence of Enteric Viruses in Production Chickens Is a Concern for Avian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mettifogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been identified in recent years in the intestinal contents of chickens and turkeys with enteric problems, which have been observed in commercial farms worldwide, including Brazil. Molecular detection of these viruses in Brazil can transform to a big threat for poultry production due to risk for intestinal integrity. This disease is characterized by severely delayed growth, low uniformity, lethargy, watery diarrhea, delayed feed consumption, and a decreased conversion rate. Chicken astrovirus (CAstV, rotavirus, reovirus, chicken parvovirus (ChPV, fowl adenovirus of subgroup I (FAdV-1, and avian nephritis virus (ANV were investigated using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, which may play a role in enteric disease, was included. The viruses most frequently detected, either alone or in concomitance with other viruses, were IBV, ANV, rotavirus, and CAstV followed by parvovirus, reovirus, and adenovirus. This study demonstrates the diversity of viruses in Brazilian chicken flocks presenting enteric problems characterized by diarrhea, growth retard, loss weight, and mortality, which reflects the multicausal etiology of this disease.

  17. Serum Antibody Levels against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Nigerian Village Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chukwudi Okwor, Didacus Chukwuemeka Eze* and Kodi Okonkwo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The serum antibody levels against infectious bursal disease (IBD virus in unvaccinated village chickens (n=484 reared in and around Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria were studied using indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Result showed a high seroprevalence (88.4%. Therefore, there is need for government involvement in the control of this disease in village chickens through extension services and mass vaccination of poultry population.

  18. Interaction of Sendai virus (HVJ) with chicken red blood cells, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the course of Sendai virus purification by adsorption-elution onto chicken red blood cells, it was found that the intensities of the hemagglutinating activities of each viruses were different. The cause of this differency is due to different contents of glucosamine containing high molecular substances which may situate on the surface of virions, from the results of electrophoretical and chemical analysis of the components of both adsorbed and unadsorbed viruses. (auth.)

  19. Serological and molecular detection of chicken anaemia virus in Iranian poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Despite chicken being the main natural host for chicken anaemia virus (CAV), other birds may be infected by this virus too. In this study we examined chickens, turkeys, and quails for serological and molecular detection of CAV in Iran. For this study, we used 375 sera and thymus samples from broiler chickens, 100 sera and blood samples from turkeys, and 250 thymus samples from quails. The sample were collected from all over Iran between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples were examined using ELISA. DNA was extracted from thymus and blood samples and was analysed for the presence of the VP2 gene of CAV by polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that 69.07% of chickens were positive for antibody to CAV. In chickens, 58.4% were positive for CAV VP2 gene. The prevalence of CAV infection in quails was 15%, based on CAV VP2 gene detection. In turkey flocks, all turkeys (100%) were negative with respect to detection of VP2 CAV gene and CAV antibodies. It was concluded that, for the span of the time considered in this study, CAV has circulated in broiler chickens and quails throughout Iran.

  20. Replacement of primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) by the DF-1 cell line for detection of avian leucosis viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der R.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Oei, H.L.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    International regulations prescribe that the absence of avian leucosis viruses (ALV) in avian live virus vaccines has to be demonstrated. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special SPF chicken lines are normally used for detection of ALV. The suitability of the DF-1 cell line for ALV-dete

  1. Genome Wide Host Gene Expression Analysis in Chicken Lungs Infected with Avian Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhale, Pradeep N.; Kumar, Himanshu; Kulkarni, Diwakar D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza infection varies greatly with individual bird species and virus strain. The molecular pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) or the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in avian species remains poorly understood. Thus, global immune response of chickens infected with HPAI H5N1 (A/duck/India/02CA10/2011) and LPAI H9N2 (A/duck/India/249800/2010) viruses was studied using microarray to identify crucial host genetic components responsive to these infection. HPAI H5N1 virus induced excessive expression of type I IFNs (IFNA and IFNG), cytokines (IL1B, IL18, IL22, IL13, and IL12B), chemokines (CCL4, CCL19, CCL10, and CX3CL1) and IFN stimulated genes (OASL, MX1, RSAD2, IFITM5, IFIT5, GBP 1, and EIF2AK) in lung tissues. This dysregulation of host innate immune genes may be the critical determinant of the severity and the outcome of the influenza infection in chickens. In contrast, the expression levels of most of these genes was not induced in the lungs of LPAI H9N2 virus infected chickens. This study indicated the relationship between host immune genes and their roles in pathogenesis of HPAIV infection in chickens. PMID:27071061

  2. Combined immunity of DNA vector and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Gag proteins of equine infectious anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chunming; ZHANG Xiaoyan; WANG Shuhui; LIU Ying; DUAN Danli; SHEN Rongxian; SHAO Yiming

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a new vaccine candidate for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), gag gene of Chinese donkey leukocyte attenuated strain (EIAV DLV) and its parental virulent strain (EIAV LN) were inserted respectively into the TK region of the Tiantan strain (VV) of vaccinia virus by homologous recombination and the positive clone was confirmed by blue plaque assay. Protein expression was examined by Western blot. Prime and prime-boost procedures were used to immunize mice with two DNA vectors and two recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing EIAV Gag proteins. The results showed that the specific lysis of CTL responses in the DNA+rVV groups was stronger than those in the DNA groups, amounting to 31%. Although the levels of specific antibodies were not significantly different, we could conclude that the recombinant vaccinia virus could boost the cellular responses following DNA vector priming. There was no detectable difference between the immune responses induced by DLV and LN Gag proteins. This data demonstrates that the combined immunity of DNA vector and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing EIAV gag proteins, utilizing the prime-boost procedure, can drive immunized mice to produce powerful cellular responses. These results lay an important foundation for the development of a new EIAV genetic engineering vaccine.

  3. Molecular Characteristics of S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Chicken Proventriculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-qin; ZHOU Ji-yong; John Dikki; SHEN Xing-yan; CHEN Ji-gang; ZHANG De-yong

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from swollen proventriculi of clinically ill chicken. Thesuspected virus samples (2/97, 3/97, 1/98) were adapted in SPF chicken embryos for virus isolation andidentification. All the virus isolates were able to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes after treatment with trypsin,and interfer with the reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chicken embryos, and have low antigenic relat-edness values with reference positive IBV. The isolates 2/97, 3/97, 1/98 RNAs extracted from the allantoicfluid of inoculated embryonated eggs were converted to cDNA by reverse transcription with 3'-primer of S1gene of (IBV). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with two primers which span the S1 gene.Amplified product of 1.93 kb was subjected to EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ digestion and the fragments obtainedwere the same as expected size. The PCR product was ligated to pBlueScript-SK (+) vector, and its nucleotidesequence was determined by the dideoxy-mediated chain termination method. Nucleotide sequence analysisshowed 73.6 - 99.7 % homology between the isolated IBV and the IBV strains in GenBank. The homology ofamino acid was 71.4 - 99.4 %.

  4. The pathogenesis of low pathogenicity H7 avian influenza viruses in chickens, ducks and turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Conrad R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza (AI viruses infect numerous avian species, and low pathogenicity (LP AI viruses of the H7 subtype are typically reported to produce mild or subclinical infections in both wild aquatic birds and domestic poultry. However relatively little work has been done to compare LPAI viruses from different avian species for their ability to cause disease in domestic poultry under the same conditions. In this study twelve H7 LPAI virus isolates from North America were each evaluated for their comparative pathogenesis in chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Results All 12 isolates were able to infect all three species at a dose of 106 50% egg infectious doses based on seroconversion, although not all animals seroconverted with each isolate-species combination. The severity of disease varied among isolate and species combinations, but there was a consistent trend for clinical disease to be most severe in turkeys where all 12 isolates induced disease, and mortality was observed in turkeys exposed to 9 of the 12 viruses. Turkeys also shed virus by the oral and cloacal routes at significantly higher titers than either ducks or chickens at numerous time points. Only 3 isolates induced observable clinical disease in ducks and only 6 isolates induced disease in chickens, which was generally very mild and did not result in mortality. Full genome sequence was completed for all 12 isolates and some isolates did have features consistent with adaptation to poultry (e.g. NA stalk deletions, however none of these features correlated with disease severity. Conclusions The data suggests that turkeys may be more susceptible to clinical disease from the H7 LPAI viruses included in this study than either chickens or ducks. However the severity of disease and degree of virus shed was not clearly correlated with any isolate or group of isolates, but relied on specific species and isolate combinations.

  5. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, S.

    1981-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation was examined in whole cell extracts from normal and avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. The addition of serum or epidermal growth factor to serum-starved normal cells resulted in increased 32P labeling of a Mr 30,000 protein. In extracts from cells transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of Schmidt-Ruppin virus, subgroup A, and grown at the permissive temperature, the protein was phosphorylated regardless of serum starvation. This Mr 30,00...

  6. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  7. Molecular diagnosis and adaptation of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus on chicken embryo fibroblast cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogender Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To collect Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV infected bursae based on postmortem findings of clinical samples followed by molecular confirmation and adaptation on chicken embryo fibroblast cell. Material and Methods: Enlarged bursae were processed to make 10% suspension in phosphate buffer saline and were used for viral RNA isolation to carryout VP2 gene fragment amplification using RT-PCR technique. Suspension was also used for adaptation of IBDV on chicken embryo fibroblast cells prepared from 11 day old chicken embryos. Infective titer of virus was calculated using Reed and Muench method. Results: Fifteen dead birds suspected of IBD infection were collected from different local poultry farms of Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh. After post-mortem, twelve enlarged bursae sample were used for total RNA isolation which was used for amplification of VP2 gene. Out of twelve, eleven were found positive for VP2 gene amplification. Virological characterization of PCR positive sample was done on chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture and various cytopathic effects like rounding of cells, cellular detachment and vacuolation were shown by five IBD field isolates after 48 hours on 4th passage. TCID50 per ml of the adapted virus on 4th passage at 48 hours after infection was 1.46 x 107 . Conclusion: VP2 gene amplification using RT-PCR technique is a specific target for IBDV detection. Passaging of highly virulent IBDV field isolates in cell culture leads to attenuation of virus which can be exploited as a cell culture adapted vaccine candidate.

  8. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

  9. Experimental infection of SPF and Korean native chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Woo, Sang-Hee; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In 2014, an H5N8 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in South Korea. The H5N8 strain produced mild to moderate clinical signs and mortality rates in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken farms. To understand the differences between their pathogenicity in SPF chicken and Korean native chicken., we evaluated the mean bird lethal doses (BLD50) of the Korean representative H5N8 virus (A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014) The BLD50values of the H5N8 virus were 10(5.3)EID50 and 10(6.7)EID50 in SPF and Korean native chickens, respectively. In addition, the mean death time was much longer, and the viral titers in tissues of H5N8-infected chickens were significantly lower, in the Korean group than in the SPF group. These features of the H5N8 virus likely account for its mild-to-moderate pathogenicity in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken flocks, despite the fact that it is a highly pathogenic virus according to the OIE criteria. To improve current understanding and management of HPAI, pathogenic characterization of novel emerging viruses should be performed by natural route in major poultry species in each country.

  10. Expression of the infectious salmon anemia virus receptor on atlantic salmon endothelial cells correlates with the cell tropism of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2012-10-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, characterized by slowly developing anemia and circulatory disturbances. The disease is caused by ISA virus (ISAV) in the Orthomyxoviridae family; hence, it is related to influenza. Here we explore the pathogenesis of ISA by focusing on virus tropism, receptor tissue distribution, and pathological changes in experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Using immunohistochemistry on ISAV-infected Atlantic salmon tissues with antibody to viral nucleoprotein, endotheliotropism was demonstrated. Endothelial cells lining the circulatory system were found to be infected, seemingly noncytolytic, and without vasculitis. No virus could be found in necrotic parenchymal cells. From endothelium, the virus budded apically and adsorbed to red blood cells (RBCs). No infection or replication within RBCs was detected, but hemophagocytosis was observed, possibly contributing to the severe anemia in fish with this disease. Similarly to what has been done in studies of influenza, we examined the pattern of virus attachment by using ISAV as a probe. Here we detected the preferred receptor of ISAV, 4-O-acetylated sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac(2)). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the in situ distribution of this sialic acid derivate. The pattern of virus attachment mirrored closely the distribution of infection, showing that the virus receptor is important for cell tropism, as well as for adsorption to RBCs. PMID:22811536

  11. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Hedemand, J.;

    1998-01-01

    This-paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non......-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense...... staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa...

  12. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  13. Canine Distemper Virus Utilizes Different Receptors to Infect Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts and Vero cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Xiu Liang; Pei-fu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Inducing animal viruses to adapt to chicken embryos or chicken embryo fibroblasts(CEF)is a common method to develop attenuated live vaccines with full security.Canine distemper virus(CDV)also does this,but the mechanisms and particular receptors remain unclear.Virus overlay protein blot assays were carried out on CEF membrane proteins,which were extracted respectively with a Mem-PERTM kit,a radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer or a modified co-immunoprecipitation method,and revealed a common 57 kDa positive band that differed from the 42-kDa positive band in Vero cells and also from those receptors reported in lymphocytes and293 cells,indicating a receptor diversity of CDV and the possibility of the 57-kDa protein acting as a receptor that is involved in adaptive infection of CDV Kunming strain to CEF.

  14. Replication of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in the Chicken Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the chicken mesenchymal stem cells to infectious bronchitis virus was characterized after twenty consecutive passages in chicken mesenchymal stemm cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. At 72 h post-infection (p.i. in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cell, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by from 24h p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tissue culture effective dose50 was used to measure virus titration performed on chicken mesenchymal stem cells and the titres in twenty passages was 108.6 TID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the chicken mesenhymal stem cells can be used for adaptation IBV and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

  15. In situ hybridization for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in sections of trachea from experimentally infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in experimentally infected chickens is described. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of trachea, taken from chickens on days 3-10 post-inoculation (p.i.) with ILTV were hybridized...

  16. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of infectious bursal disease in chickens and causes a significant economic loss for the poultry industry. Little is understood about the mechanism involved in the host responses to IBDV infection. For better understanding the IBDV......-host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Influenza Virus H9N2 Associated with a Fatal Outbreak among Chickens in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Siu-Ying; Joseph, Sunitha; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Honglin; Patteril, Nissy Annie Gerogy; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Muhammed, Rubeena; Baskar, Vijay; Lau, Susanna K P; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of influenza virus H9N2 associated with a fatal outbreak among chickens in Dubai. All segments are clustered with avian H9N2 viruses circulating in the Middle East but distinct from those in southeast Asia. It is not a reassortant virus or transmitted from other regions.

  18. Identification of a novel strain of influenza A (H9N2) virus in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; Wang; Zheng; Ruan; Yun; Wan; Bo; Wang; Si-Hua; Zhang; Xing-Yi; Ge

    2015-01-01

    Dear Editor,Avian Influenza virus(AIV)H9N2 subtype viruses circulate widely in domestic fowl,and usually cause mild clinical signs in poultry(Li et al.,2005).Occasionally,avian H9N2 can infect humans and cause mild clinical symptoms(Peiris et al.,1999;Lin et al.,2000).Genetic analysis indicates that the H9N2 genotype viruses exist in major poultry species(such as duck and chicken)and in minor poultry species(such as quail,partridge,chukar,pheasant,and guinea fowl)(Guan et al.,2000;Li et al.,2005).Meanwhile,frequent reassortment events among

  19. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.

  20. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus transmission using bioceramic derived from chicken feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    Bioceramic powder (BCX), at pH 13.0, derived from chicken feces, was evaluated for its efficacy to inactivate virus and inhibit virus horizontal transmission by fecal-oral route, using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain D78 as a challenge virus. Three 1-week-old SPF chicks were vaccinated per os and used as seeder birds. Six hours later, 3 sentinel 1-week-old SPF chicks were introduced into the same cage. Results revealed that BCX had excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV within 3 min. Treating IBDV contaminated litter in the cage with BCX could prevent transmission of IBDV to new sensitive chicks completely. Further, transmission of IBDV to the sentinel chicks was significantly inhibited by adding BCX to litter and chicken feed. These data suggest that BCX at pH 13, derived from chicken feces, has excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV, which can be applied in bedding materials for preventing viral transmission during production round. It is a good material that can effectively be used for enhancing biosecurity system in poultry farms. PMID:25892716

  1. Complete genome sequence of an avian leukosis virus isolate associated with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in egg-type and meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new virus isolate was separated from a commercial egg-type flock of chickens in China and was determined as subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). ALV-J is known to cause myeloid leukosis. But this new isolate of viruses causes both hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in chickens. Hemangioma is an a...

  2. Proviral genomic sequence analysis of Chinese donkey leukocyte attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine and its parental virus strain Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柳; 童光志; 刘红全; 杨志彪; 仇华吉; 孔宪刚; 王玫

    2002-01-01

    Proviral DNA was extracted from donkey leukocyte infected with Chinese donkey leukocyte attenuated equine infectious anemia virus(DLA-EIAV), and peripheral blood lymphocytes(PBL) from a horse infected with the virulent EIAV strain Liaoning(EIAV L). The entire proviral DNA from both viruses was cloned and sequenced. The lengths of complete genomic sequences of DLA-EIAV and EIAV L provirus were 8266 bp and 8235 bp, respectively. Sequence comparison indicated that DLA-EIAV shares 97.0% and 97.5% in sequence homology with EIAV L and donkey-adapted EIAV(DA-EIAV), respectively. Lots of variations occurred in long terminal repeat(LTR, consisting of U3, R, U5), ORF S2, and env regions between DLA-EIAV and EIAV L. The nucleotide sequence differences of the two viruses in U3, R, U5, ORF S2, and env are 13.2%, 7.5%, 5.1%, 3.9%, and 2.7%, respectively, and predicted amino acid sequence differences in env and S2 coding regions are 4.4% and 8.8%, respectively. Six conserved regions are characterized in Gp90. There is a cis-activating GATA motif in ENH of DLA-EIAV and EIAV L. Two N-linked glycosylation sites disappeared in DLA-EIAV Gp90 in comparison with that of EIAV L. A bHLH transcription factor binding consensus sequence was found in LTR of DLA-EIAV but not in EIAV L. Furthermore, there is a mutation in the stem of DLA-EIAV TAR resulting in formation of a uridine tuber. Further study is needed to uncover the relationship between sequence changes and their biological functions of DLA-EIAV and L.

  3. Complete Sequence of Proviral DNA of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Strain L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-quan; WANG Liu; YANG Zhi-biao; KONG Xian-gang; TONG Guang-Zhi

    2002-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus strain L (EIAV-L) is the parental virulent virus of equine infectious anemia donkey leukocyte attenuated vaccine (DLA EIAV ). In this study, peripheral blood leukocytes(PBL) were collected from a horse infected with EIAV-L. The PBL DNAs were extracted. The EIAV-L proviral DNA was amplified in four parts covering the entire proviral genomic sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each of the four parts was cloned into the plasmid pBluescript SK, and the recombinant plasmids were designated as p2.8, p2.4, p3.1, and p1.2 respectively. After identification with restriction digestion, the inserts within the four plasmids were sequenced. The complete nucleotide sequence of EIAV-L provirus was determined by analyzing each of the four parts and connecting them as a whole. The genome of EIAV-L is 8235 bp in length, and G + C content is 38%. The comparison analysis by the computer software DNASIS showed that the sequence of EIAV-L shares 98.4% and 96.9% identities with that of D-A EIAV and DLA EIAV respectively. The high homology between these strains showed that they were genetically related.The homology between EIAV-L and D-A EIAV is higher than that between EIAV-L and DLA EIAV, and this is consistent with the derivation progress of DLA EIAV. At both ends of EIAV-L provirus, there is an identical long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of 316bp in length. The LTR consists of U3, R, and U5 regions. The genome of EIAV-L provirus has three long open reading frames(ORF) corresponding to gag, pol and env genes respectively. The gag gene is 1200bp and located at position 613-1912nt. The pol gene is 3402bp and located at position 1708-5109nt. There is a termination codon within the env dividing it into two parts,env1 of 699bp (position 5305-6003nt)and env2 of 1827bp (position 6073-7899nt). The provirus has three additional small ORFs: S1, S2 and S3 with sizes of 153bp (position 5113-5265nt), 204bp (position 5279-5482nt) and 402bp ( position 7245

  4. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing H9 HA protects chickens against heterologous avian influenza H9N2 virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Abdou; Lee, Jinhwa; Mena, Ignacio; Henningson, Jamie; Li, Yuhao; Ma, Jingjiao; Duff, Michael; Li, Yonghai; Lang, Yuekun; Yang, Jianmei; Abdallah, Fatma; Richt, Juergen; Ali, Ahmed; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-05-17

    In order to produce an efficient poultry H9 avian influenza vaccine that provides cross-protection against multiple H9 lineages, two Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain recombinant viruses were generated using reverse genetics. The recombinant NDV-H9Con virus expresses a consensus-H9 hemagglutinin (HA) that is designed based on available H9N2 sequences from Chinese and Middle Eastern isolates. The recombinant NDV-H9Chi virus expresses a chimeric-H9 HA in which the H9 ectodomain of A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 was fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain of the fusion protein (F) of NDV. Both recombinant viruses expressed the inserted HA stably and grew to high titers. An efficacy study in chickens showed that both recombinant viruses were able to provide protection against challenge with a heterologous H9N2 virus. In contrast to the NDV-H9Chi virus, the NDV-H9Con virus induced a higher hemagglutination inhibition titer against both NDV and H9 viruses in immunized birds, and efficiently inhibited virus shedding through the respiratory route. Moreover, sera collected from birds immunized with either NDV-H9Con or NDV-H9Chi were able to cross-neutralize two different lineages of H9N2 viruses, indicating that NDV-H9Con and NDV-H9Chi are promising vaccine candidates that could provide cross-protection among different H9N2 lineage viruses. PMID:27102817

  5. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 7.73 and 81.6%, respectively.

  6. Immune Efficacy of a Recombinant Fowlpox Virus Co-Ex-pressing HA and NA Genes of Avian Influenza Virus in SPF Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Chuan-ling; JIANG Yong-ping; YU Kang-zhen; TIAN Guo-bin; CHEN Hua-lan

    2004-01-01

    A recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing Haemagglutinin(HA)and Neuraminidase(NA)named as rFPV-HA-NA was produced by HA and NA gene of A/Goose/Guangdong/3/96(H5N1)isolate of avian influenza virus recombined into the genome of fowlpox virus. In this study,to evaluate its ability of protecting chickens against challenge with a lethal dose of highly pathogenic isolates of avian influenza virus,eight-week-old specificpathogenic-free(SPF)chickens were vaccinated with recombinant virus or the wildtypefowlpox virus by wing-web puncture. After challenge 4 weeks with 10 LD50 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and H7N1 isolate,all chickens vaccinated with recombinant virus were protected,while the chickens vaccinated with the wildtype fowlpox virus or unvaccinated controls experienced 100% mortality respectively following challenge. This complete protection was accompanied by the high levels of specific antibody response to the respectivecomponents of the recombinant virus.

  7. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  8. Genetics, Receptor Binding, and Virulence in Mice of H10N8 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Ducks and Chickens in Live Poultry Markets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Jing; Kong, Huihui; Cui, Pengfei; Zhang, Fang; Tan, Dan; Suzuki, Yasuo; Liu, Liling; Jiang, Yongping; Guan, Yuntao; Chen, Hualan

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed eight H10N8 viruses isolated from ducks and chickens in live poultry markets from 2009 to 2013 in China. These viruses showed distinct genetic diversity and formed five genotypes: the four duck isolates formed four different genotypes, whereas the four chicken viruses belong to a single genotype. The viruses bound to both human- and avian-type receptors, and four of the viruses caused 12.7% to 22.5% body weight loss in mice.

  9. Natural Infection with Avian Hepatitis E Virus and Marek's Disease Virus in Brown Layer Chickens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuqing; Wang, Liyuan; Sun, Shuhong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration. These liver samples were investigated for HEV by reverse-transcription PCR. The overall detection rate of HEV RNA in samples of sick chickens was about 56% (14/25), while in samples from apparently healthy hens, it was 80% (4/5). Sequencing analysis of three 242-base-pair fragments of the helicase gene revealed 95.5% to 97.9% nucleotide identity compared with published avian HEV genotype 3, whereas identities demonstrated only 77.3% to 86.0% similarity when compared with genotypes 1, 2, and 4. Unexpectedly, the MDV meq gene was detected in livers from both apparently healthy chickens (2/5) and sick chickens (12/25) by PCR analysis. The meq gene (396 base pairs) was determined to belong to MDV-1 by further sequencing. The co-infection rate of avian HEV and MDV in this flock was 30% (9/30). This is the first report of dual infection of a nonenvelope RNA virus (HEV) with a herpesvirus (MDV) in chickens in China. PMID:27610734

  10. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865

  11. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865

  12. The infection of chicken tracheal epithelial cells with a H6N1 avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-I Shen

    Full Text Available Sialic acids (SAs linked to galactose (Gal in α2,3- and α2,6-configurations are the receptors for avian and human influenza viruses, respectively. We demonstrate that chicken tracheal ciliated cells express α2,3-linked SA, while goblet cells mainly express α2,6-linked SA. In addition, the plant lectin MAL-II, but not MAA/MAL-I, is bound to the surface of goblet cells, suggesting that SA2,3-linked oligosaccharides with Galβ1-3GalNAc subterminal residues are specifically present on the goblet cells. Moreover, both α2,3- and α2,6-linked SAs are detected on single tracheal basal cells. At a low multiplicity of infection (MOI avian influenza virus H6N1 is exclusively detected in the ciliated cells, suggesting that the ciliated cell is the major target cell of the H6N1 virus. At a MOI of 1, ciliated, goblet and basal cells are all permissive to the AIV infection. This result clearly elucidates the receptor distribution for the avian influenza virus among chicken tracheal epithelial cells and illustrates a primary cell model for evaluating the cell tropisms of respiratory viruses in poultry.

  13. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruku Bande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus (ALV belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.

  14. Amplification of complete gag gene sequences from geographically distinct equine infectious anemia virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Bazartseren, Tsevel; Koba, Ryota; Murakami, Hironobu; Oguma, Keisuke; Murakami, Kenji; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, primers described previously and modified versions of these primers were evaluated for amplification of full-length gag genes from different equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strains from several countries, including the USA, Germany and Japan. Each strain was inoculated into a primary horse leukocyte culture, and the full-length gag gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Each amplified gag gene was cloned into a plasmid vector for sequencing, and the detectable copy numbers of target DNA were determined. Use of a mixture of two forward primers and one reverse primer in the polymerase chain reaction enabled the amplification of all EIAV strains used in this study. However, further study is required to confirm these primers as universal for all EIAV strains. The nucleotide sequence of gag is considered highly conserved, as evidenced by the use of gag-encoded capsid proteins as a common antigen for the detection of EIAV in serological tests. However, significant sequence variation in the gag genes of different EIAV strains was found in the current study. PMID:23318370

  15. The detection of the meq gene in chicken infected with Marek's disease virus serotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Sung-Il; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Onuma, Misao

    2002-05-01

    In the genome of strains of very virulent Marek's disease virus serotype 1(vvMDV1), such as Md5 and RB1B, the meq open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 339-amino-acid bZIP protein, is present, while a slightly longer meq ORF, termed as L-meq, in which a 180-bp sequence is inserted into the meq ORF is found in other strains of MDV1, such as CV1988/R6 and attenuated JM. When chickens were infected with vvMDV1 strains and the meq gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the meq gene was detected throughout the experimental period for 7 weeks post inoculation (pi). However, the L-meq gene was also detected at 3 to 5 weeks and 3 to 4 weeks pi. in Md5-infected and RB1B-infected chickens, respectively. In the case of chickens infected with an attenuated MDV1, the JM strain, the L-meq gene was detected at 2 to 7 weeks pi., and the meq gene was also detected at 2 to 6 weeks pi. Both L-meq and meq genes were detected in chickens infected with an attenuated nononcogenic vaccine strain of MDV1 (CVI988/R6), throughout the experimental period. Though quantitative PCR was not performed, a larger amount of the PCR products corresponding to the L-meq than the meq gene was amplified from chickens infected with JM or CVI988/R6. These results suggest that a dynamic population shift between the MDV subpopulations displaying meq and L-meq genes occurs in chickens during the course of MDV infection. Since the MDV subpopulation that displays the L-meq gene only displays it during the latent phase, the L-meq and its gene product, if any, might contribute to the maintenance of the MDV latency.

  16. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.;

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly....... No significant clinical signs mere seen in any of the ostriches infected with either of the viruses by either route of infection. Both viruses were recoverable from both species up to 12 days post-infection, and low serological responses were detected in surviving infected ostriches and chickens at 21 days after...... pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation, The other virus, A/ostrich/Denmark-Q/72420/96 (H5N2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in Denmark during 1996, was of low pathogenicity for chickens, causing no clinical signs by either route of inoculation...

  17. Isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from vaccinated commercial layer chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachandran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an infectious, highly contagious and destructive viral disease of poultry and controlled by vaccination. In spite of vaccination, incidence of ND was reported in commercial layers with gastrointestinal lesions. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV involved in gastrointestinal tract abnormalities of vaccinated commercial layer chicken of Namakkal region for a period of three years from 2008 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, proventriculus, intestine and caecal tonsils samples collected from dead birds on postmortem examination from 100 layer flocks above 20 weeks of age with gastrointestinal lesions were subjected to isolation of NDV in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs. Mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index of the isolates were characterized. Flock details were collected from NDV positive flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of NDV on vaccinated commercial layer chicken. Results: Among the 100 flocks examined Newcastle disease virus was detected in 14 flocks as a single infection and 10 flocks as combined infections with worm infestation, necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI values ranged from 50.4 to 96.0 hrs and from 0.650 to 1.675 respectively. Affected birds showed anorexia, diarrohea and drop in egg production. Macropathologically, matting of vent feathers, petechial haemorrhage on the tip of proventricular papilla, caecal tonsils and degeneration of ovarian follicles were noticed. The incidence of ND was most commonly noticed in 20-50 wk of age and between the months of September to November. Morbidity rate varied from 5% to 10% in the NDV alone affected flocks and 5 to 15% in NDV with other concurrent infections. Egg production drop from the expected level ranged between 3 to 7 % in ND and

  18. Susceptibility of human and avian influenza viruses to human and chicken saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Auewarakul, Prasert; Wiriyarat, Witthawat

    2014-05-01

    Oral cavity can be an entry site of influenza virus and saliva is known to contain innate soluble anti-influenza factors. Influenza strains were shown to vary in their susceptibility to those antiviral factors. Whether the susceptibility to the saliva antiviral factors plays any role in the host species specificity of influenza viruses is not known. In this study, the antiviral activity of human and chicken saliva against human and the H5N1 avian influenza viruses were investigated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) assays. In comparison to human influenza viruses, H5N1 isolates showed reduced susceptibility to human saliva as measured by HI and NT assays. Interestingly, an H5N1 isolate that bind to both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid showed much higher HI titers with human saliva, suggesting that the susceptibility profile was linked to the receptor-binding preference and the presence of α2,6-linked sialic in human saliva. On the other hand, the H5N1 isolates showed increased HI titers but reduced NT titers to chicken saliva as compared to human influenza isolates. The human salivary antiviral components were characterized by testing the sensitivity to heat, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), CaCl₂/EDTA dependence, and inhibition by mannan, and shown to be α- and γ-inhibitors. These data suggest that the H5N1 HPAI influenza virus had distinctive susceptibility patterns to human and chicken saliva, which may play some roles in its infectivity and transmissibility in these hosts.

  19. Study on the construction of recombinant plasmid coexpressing newcastle disease virus F protein and chicken IL-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the protection against the ND in chickens by a recombinant DNA vaccine. A plasmid vector encoding NDV F protein, which is reqired for virus cell fusion and is important for vaccine induced immunity, was used as a model to study how DNA vaccines may be modulated by the simulaneous expression of chicken IL-2. The NDV D26 strain F gene with CMV promotor and BGH polyA signal sequence was amplified by PCR from eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA-F, which contains the full-length NDV F gene, and clond into reconstructed eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA-IL2, which contains chicken IL-2 gene. Restriction endonuclease cleavage and PCR amplification showed that a bicistronic plasmid encoding NDV F gene and chicken IL-2 separately was successfully constructed. Two-week-old SPF chickens were intramuscularly innoculated the recombinant plasmid. Antibody and lymphocyte proliferative assay showed that the humoral and cellular immunity of chickens vaccinated the recombinant plasmid greatly increased compared with those innoculated only plasmid expressing NDV F protein. Challenged with the lethal dose of NDV F48E9 strain, 72% chickens vaccinated recombinant plasmid were survived, and 30% chickens vaccinated plasmid expressing F protein were survived. These results proved the adjuvant effect of chicken IL-2, and further showed that the efficacy of a DNA vaccine can be greatly improved by simultaneous expression of IL-2.

  20. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  1. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV. PMID:27078641

  2. Modelling the Innate Immune Response against Avian Influenza Virus in Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, T. J.; Fischer, E. A. J.; Jansen, C. A.; Rebel, J. M. J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J. A.; de Jong, M. C. M.; Koets, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α, -β and -γ, lung (i.e. pulmonary) cells and Natural Killer cells. We use recent results from experimentally infected chickens to validate some of the model predictions. The model includes an initial exponential increase of the viral load, which we show to be consistent with experimental data. Using this exponential growth model we show that the duration until a given viral load is reached in experiments with different inoculation doses is consistent with a model assuming a linear relationship between initial viral load and inoculation dose. Subsequent to the exponential-growth phase, the model results show a decline in viral load caused by both target-cell limitation as well as the innate immune response. The model results suggest that the temporal viral load pattern in the lungs displayed in experimental data cannot be explained by target-cell limitation alone. For biologically plausible parameter values the model is able to qualitatively match to data on viral load in chicken lungs up until approximately 4 days post infection. Comparison of model predictions with data on CD107-mediated degranulation of Natural Killer cells yields some discrepancy also for earlier days post infection. PMID:27328069

  3. Co-administration of avian influenza virus H5 plasmid DNA with chicken IL-15 and IL-18 enhanced chickens immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Kian-Lam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV. However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1 and 14-day-old (Trial 2 specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine. Results The overall HI antibody titer in chickens immunized with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to chickens immunized with pDis/H5 (p  0.05 in inducing CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, with the exception of Trial 1, the flow cytometry results for Trial 2 demonstrated that the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 inoculated group was able to trigger a higher increase in CD4+ T cells than the pDis/H5 group (P  0.05 in modulating CD8+ T cells population in both trials. The pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 inoculated group showed the highest IL-15 gene expression in both trials compared to other inoculated groups (P  Conclusions This study shows the diverse immunogenicity of pDis/H5 co-administered with chicken IL-15 and IL-18,with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 being a better vaccine candidate compared to other groups.

  4. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  5. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  6. Transcriptional response of chicken embryo cells to Newcastle disease virus (D58 strain) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kirubaharan, J John; Chandran, N Daniel Joy; Gnanapriya, N

    2013-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) in chicken causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry worldwide. The mechanism involved in host response to NDV infection is not well understood. For better understanding of the virus-host interaction; transcriptional profile of some genes of chicken embryo (CE) cells infected with NDV vaccine strain D58 was established using quantitative RT-PCR SYBR Green method. The relative standard curve method was used to measure the level of transcripts of the cellular genes against an endogenous control (β actin) gene. Among the genes studied, IFN α, IFN γ, MHC I and DDX 1 were up-regulated while IL 6 was down regulated. The expression of viral genes (M and F) in the infected CE cells was also confirmed by relative quantification. The host cellular genes involved in pro-inflammatory response, interferon-regulated proteins and the cellular immune response were affected by NDV infection, indicating involvement of complex signaling pathways of host cell responses to the infection. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding of the pathogenesis of ND and provides an insight into the virus-host interaction. PMID:24426287

  7. Immunization with live nonpathogenic H5N3 duck influenza virus protects chickens against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, A S; Boravleva, E Y; Lomakina, N F; Kropotkina, E A; Gordeychuk, I V; Chvala, I A; Drygin, V V; Klenk, H-D; Matrosovich, M N

    2016-01-01

    Development of an effective, broadly-active and safe vaccine for protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) remains an important practical goal. In this study we used a low pathogenic wild aquatic bird virus isolate А/duck/Moscow/4182/2010 (H5N3) (dk/4182) as a live candidate vaccine. We compared this virus with four live 1:7 reassortant anti-H5N1 candidate vaccine viruses with modified hemagglutinin from either A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) or A/Kurgan/3/05 (H5N1) and the rest of the genes from either H2N2 cold-adapted master strain A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (rVN-Len and rKu-Len) or H6N2 virus A/gull/Moscow/3100/2006 (rVN-gull and rKu-gull). The viruses were tested in parallel for pathogenicity, immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in chickens using aerosol, intranasal and oral routes of immunization. All five viruses showed zero pathogenicity indexes in chickens. Viruses rVN-gull and rKu-gull were immunogenic and protective, but they were insufficiently attenuated and caused significant mortality of 1-day-old chickens. The viruses with cold-adapted backbones (rVN-Len and rKu-Len) were completely nonpathogenic, but they were significantly less immunogenic and provided lower protection against lethal challenge with HPAIV A/Chicken/Kurgan/3/05 (H5N1) as compared with three other vaccine candidates. Unlike other four viruses, dk/4182 was both safe and highly immunogenic in chickens of any age regardless of inoculation route. Single administration of 106 TCID50 of dk/4182 virus via drinking water provided complete protection of 30-days-old chickens from 100 LD50 of the challenge virus. Our results suggest that low pathogenic viruses of wild aquatic birds can be used as safe and effective live poultry vaccines against highly pathogenic avian viruses. PMID:27640442

  8. Comparison of pathology-based techniques for detection of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C C; King, D J; Seal, B S

    1999-05-01

    Two pathology-based techniques, immunohistochemistry and riboprobe in-situ hybridization, were applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from chickens infected with three different isolates of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV). With the immunohistochemical method, viral protein was consistently detectable in the spleen and caecum at the terminal phase of the infection. With in-situ hybridization, viral nucleic acid was consistently detected in the eyelid, spleen and caecum in both the acute and terminal phases. Hybridization with anti-sense probe to detect viral mRNA was often more intense than hybridization with sense probe to detect viral genomic RNA. PMID:10208734

  9. SEQUENTIAL PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN TURKEYS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH CHICKEN POX VIRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammd Mubarak and Muhammad Mahmoud

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25, 4-weeks old, turkey poults were used in the present study. Birds were inoculated by chicken pox virus at the dose of 3 x l07.6/ml. Skin biopsy samples were taken sequentially from the same inoculated bird at 12 and 24 hours and at 2nd, 3rd, 4'h, 5th, 7th, l0th, 14th and 21 days post inoculation (PI). Tissue samples from upper respiratory and digestive tracts were also collected. Pox cytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) were detected between 4 and 7 days PI in epidermal the...

  10. End products of glutamine oxidation in MC-29 virus-induced chicken hepatoma mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, T

    1989-10-01

    Products of glutamine metabolism were examined in the MC-29 virus-induced chicken hepatoma mitochondria incubated in vitro. Glutamine oxidation proceeded in the tumor mitochondria exclusively via a pathway involving glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase. Malate stimulated aspartate production from glutamine, while pyruvate exerted suppressive effect on aspartate production with little alanine formation. The mitochondria of this hepatoma are unique in that the metabolic pattern and response to malate and pyruvate are essentially inconsistent with those reported in normal cells as well as those proposed by Moreadith and Lehninger in various tumor cells. PMID:2571353

  11. Novel Reassortant H5N6 Influenza A Virus from the Lao People's Democratic Republic Is Highly Pathogenic in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jeffrey; Stewart, Cameron R; Layton, Daniel S; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Harper, Jennifer; Payne, Jean; Evans, Ryan M; Valdeter, Stacey; Walker, Som; Harvey, Gemma; Shan, Songhua; Bruce, Matthew P; Rootes, Christina L; Gough, Tamara J; Rohringer, Andreas; Peck, Grantley R; Fardy, Sarah J; Karpala, Adam J; Johnson, Dayna; Wang, Jianning; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Morrissy, Christopher; Wong, Frank Y K; Bean, Andrew G D; Bingham, John; Williams, David T

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People's Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. Infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. High virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spleen, liver, duodenum, heart, brain and lung) taken at euthanasia. Viral antigen was detected in endothelium, neurons, myocardium, lymphoid tissues and other cell types. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated compared to non-infected birds. Our study confirmed that this new H5N6 reassortant is highly pathogenic, causing disease in chickens similar to that of Asian H5N1 viruses, and demonstrated the ability of such clade 2.3.4-origin H5 viruses to reassort with non-N1 subtype viruses while maintaining a fit and infectious phenotype. Recent detection of influenza H5N6 poultry infections in Lao PDR, China and Viet Nam, as well as six fatal human infections in China, demonstrate that these emergent highly pathogenic H5N6 viruses may be widely established in several countries and represent an emerging threat to poultry and human populations. PMID:27631618

  12. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino, MD; Carlos Andrés Pérez Martínez, MD; Amaury Alexis Amaris Vergara, MD; Luis Antonio Salazar Montaña, MD; Ángela Peña Castellanos, MD; Jesica Liliana Pinto Ramírez; Laura Andrea Rincón Arenas

    2010-01-01

    La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV), virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomeg...

  13. Evaluation of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    The intricate sequence and antigenic variability of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have led to unprecedented difficulties in the development of vaccines. Much experimental evidence demonstrates that ALV-J mutants have caused immune evasion and pose a challenge for traditional efforts to develop effective vaccines. To investigate the potential of a multi-epitope vaccination strategy to prevent chickens against ALV-J infections, a recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) containing both immunodominant B and T epitope concentrated domains selected from the major structural protein of ALV-J using bioinformatics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy was studied in chickens. The results showed that rCMEPX could elicit neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses, and antibodies induced by rCMEPX could specifically recognize host cell naturally expressed ALV-J proteins, which indicated that the rCMEPX is a good immunogen. Challenge experiments showed 80% chickens that received rCMEPX were well protected against ALV-J challenge. This is the first report of a chimeric multi-epitope protein as a potential immunogen against ALV-J.

  14. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Orsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3% were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks.

  15. [Immunogenicity of recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus in chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongli; Hou, Shenda; Wang, Song; Wang, Yupeng; LuanI, Yunyan; Hou, Xilin

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine immunogenicity and protective effect in chickens, we used the IBDV (Infectious bursal disease virus)-Vp2/Lactobacillus casei as antigen transfer system. First, the immunized and control chickens were challenged by IBDV/DQ at lethal dose to determine the protective ratio. Second, chickens were orallyand intranasally vaccinated twice with 10(9) CFU/mL pLA-VP2/L. casei, pLA/L. casei and PBS as negativecontrol and commercial vaccine as positive control. The bursa injury and the lesion score wererecorded post challenge. The level of specific IgG and sIgA in pLA-VP2/L. casei and positive control groups was significantly higher than that in negativecontrol groups. The protection efficacy in pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was higher than that inintranasal group. The SI. of pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was significant higher than other groups. The lesion score indicated the pLA-VP2/L. casei was safer than commercial vaccine for bursa. Collectively, the pLA-VP2/L. casei could be a vaccine candidate for IBDV. PMID:25985519

  16. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from outbreak cases in commercial chickens and wild pigeons in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damena, Delesa; Fusaro, Alice; Sombo, Melaku; Belaineh, Redeat; Heidari, Alireza; Kebede, Abera; Kidane, Menbere; Chaka, Hassen

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1, is one of the most important diseases responsible for devastating outbreaks in poultry flocks in Ethiopia. However, the information about genetic characteristics of the Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) circulating in commercial chickens and wild birds is scarce. In this study, we characterized isolates obtained from ND suspected outbreaks during 2012-2014 from poultry farms (n = 8) and wild pigeons (n = 4). The NDVs isolated from pathological specimens, through inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs, were characterized biologically by conventional intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPI), and genetically on the basis of Phylogenic analysis of partial F-gene sequences (260 bp) encompassing the cleavage site. The ICPI values of isolates from chickens ranged from 0.9 to 1.8; whereas, the ICPI of pigeon isolates was 1.4. All isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenic analysis of the partial cleavage site of F-gene (260 bp) indicated that all the sequences of viruses obtained from pigeons were identical and clustered within the genotype VIh while the sequences of viruses obtained from chickens were clustered together within the genotype VIf. The similarity between the viruses obtained from chickens and those obtained from pigeons ranged from 82.5 to 85.6 %. This suggests that different sub genotypes of genotype VI are circulating in chicken and wild pigeon population in Ethiopia. This warrants further study to understand the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of NDV in Ethiopia and as well highlights the importance of continuous surveillances both in wild birds and domestic poultry. PMID:27217991

  17. What is for dinner? Viral metagenomics of US store bought beef, pork, and chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We describe here the metagenomics-derived viral sequences detected in beef, pork, and chicken purchased from stores in San Francisco. In beef we detected four previously reported viruses (two parvoviruses belonging to different genera, an anellovirus, and one circovirus-like virus) and one novel bovine polyomavirus species (BPyV2-SF) whose closest relatives infect primates. Detection of porcine hokovirus in beef indicated that this parvovirus can infect both ungulate species. In pork we detected four known parvoviruses from three genera, an anellovirus, and pig circovirus 2. Chicken meat contained numerous gyrovirus sequences including those of chicken anemia virus and of a novel gyrovirus species (GyV7-SF). Our results provide an initial characterization of some of the viruses commonly found in US store-bought meats which included a diverse group of parvoviruses and viral families with small circular DNA genomes. Whether any of these viruses can infect humans will require testing human sera for specific antibodies.

  18. Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on Erythrocyte Immune Adherence of Chickens Inoculated with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and forty specific pathogen free leghorn chickens were randomly divided into four groups and reared in isolated pens. The tested chickens were negative to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 25 d old. Group 1 was treated with saline, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 were inoculated with 0.3 mL IBDV suspension intranasally the next day.Groups 3 and 4 were also administered with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) intramuscularly twice daily at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 BW, respectively, until 31 d old. The erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) and the erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were measured at 25, 29, 32, 35, and 38 d old. The results showed that IBDV significantly reduced E-C3bRR and E-ICRR when compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while simultaneous administration of APS with IBDV maintained E-C3bRR at similar levels to the control group (P> 0.05) and increased E-ICRR when compared with the control group and the group non-treated with APS (P < 0.05). APS treatment reduced the morbidity and mortality of chickens inoculated with IBDV (P < 0.05). The results suggest that APS may enhance the immune adherence of chickens erythrocytes by affecting the activity and/or the number of complement receptors on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings can be beneficial in providing an understanding of the basic mechanisms required for the rational application of APS in modern medicine.

  19. Analysis of host- and strain-dependent cell death responses during infectious salmon anemia virus infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mjaaland Siri

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA, a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo. Results The results show that caspase 3/7 activity increased during the course of infection in ASK and SHK-1 cells, infected cells showed increased surface expression of phosphatidylserine and increased PI uptake, compared to mock infected cells; and morphological alterations of the mitochondria were observed. Expression analysis of immune relevant genes revealed no correlation between in vivo mortality and expression, but good correlation in expression of interferon genes. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that there is both strain and cell type dependent differences in the virus-host interaction during ISAV infection. This is important to bear in mind when extrapolating in vitro findings to the in vivo situation.

  20. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt;

    2003-01-01

    or complement activation via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP) -1 and -2. Thus, MBL plays a major role in the first-line innate defense against pathogens. We investigated the MBL concentrations in serum during experimental infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in chickens. The results showed...... that the acute phase MBL response to infection with IBV was, to a degree (P inoculated after 12 h of rest (dark) or after 12 h of activity (light). The acute phase response in chickens challenged after 12 h of activity peaked after 4.6 d with an increase of 24......, the highest value was found in chickens inoculated after 12 h of activity. Thus, an inverse relation exists between the MBL response and the IBV specific antibody response. The ability of MBL to activate the complement cascade was tested in a heterologous system by deposition of human C4 on the chicken MBL...

  1. Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, T. S.; Norup, L. R.; Pedersen, A.R.;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use flow cytometry to assess chicken T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study two inbred genetic chicken lines (L130 and L133) were subjected to two times vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and a subsequent challenge by ND virus (NDV) infection....... Furthermore, peripheral lymphocytes from L133 exhibited a significantly higher expression of CD44 and CD45 throughout the experiment. Interestingly, also vaccine-induced differences were observed in L133 as immune chickens had a significantly higher CD45 expression on their lymphocytes than the naïve controls....... Immune chickens from both lines had a significantly higher frequency of circulating γδ T cells than the naïve controls both after vaccination and challenge. Finally, the proliferative capacity of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ cells specific for NDV was addressed 3 weeks after vaccination and 1 week after...

  2. SEQUENTIAL PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN TURKEYS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH CHICKEN POX VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammd Mubarak and Muhammad Mahmoud

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25, 4-weeks old, turkey poults were used in the present study. Birds were inoculated by chicken pox virus at the dose of 3 x l07.6/ml. Skin biopsy samples were taken sequentially from the same inoculated bird at 12 and 24 hours and at 2nd, 3rd, 4'h, 5th, 7th, l0th, 14th and 21 days post inoculation (PI. Tissue samples from upper respiratory and digestive tracts were also collected. Pox cytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies were detected between 4 and 7 days PI in epidermal the cell as well as in the follicular and sinus epithelium. Proliferative and necrobiotic epithelial changes were observed. Thereafter, pox inclusions disappeared with the appearance of vesicular, pustular and ulcerative lesions. This was accompanied by the gradual development of granulation tissue and finally scar tissue formed. Ultrastructure of the inclusion bodies and fine changes of the affected epidermal cell were illustrated.. It was concluded that the inoculated chicken pox virus is highly pathogenic for turkeys. Taking sequential biopsy samples from the same inoculated bird was found to yield more accurate follow up of the pox skin lesions.

  3. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  4. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry.

  5. Analysis of transcriptional responses of chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using paraffin embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcriptional response of several cytokines in the spleen of chicken naturally infected by Newcastle Disease velogenic viscerotropic viruses was compared to the responses of atypical velogenic, velogenic neurotropic, and mesogenic strains during the first five days after infection. The ribonuc...

  6. GADD45ß, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retrovirus that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that confer genetic resistance to ALV-J infection in ch...

  7. NS1 gene truncations partially attenuate H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polybasic amino acid sequence in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H5 and H7 avian influenza (AI) viruses determines the high pathogenicity (HP) phenotype in chickens. The NS1 protein plays an important role in blocking the induction of antiviral defenses and other regulatory functions and thus...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in chickens, in Bangladesh, 2007-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Christensen, Jens Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Bangladesh has been severely hit by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI-H5N1). However, little is known about the genetic diversity and the evolution of the circulating viruses in Bangladesh. In the present study, we analyzed the hemagglutinin gene of 30 Bangladeshi chicken isolates from...

  9. Combined use of the ASK and SHK-1 cell lines to enhance the detection of infectious salmon anemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J.B.; Bouchard, D.; Coll, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a severe disease primarily affecting commercially farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in seawater. The disease has been reported in portions of Canada, the United Kingdom, the Faroe Islands, and the United States. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of ISA, has also been isolated from several asymptomatic marine and salmonid fish species. Diagnostic assays for the detection of ISAV include virus isolation in cell culture, a reverse transcriptase-PCR, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Virus isolation is considered the gold standard, and 5 salmonid cell lines are known to support growth of ISAV. In this study, the relative performance of the salmon head kidney 1 (SHK-1), Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK), and CHSE-214 cell lines in detecting ISAV was evaluated using samples from both experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Interlaboratory comparisons were conducted using a quality control-quality assurance ring test. Both the ASK and SHK-1 cell lines performed well in detecting ISAV, although the SHK-1 line was more variable in its sensitivity to infection and somewhat slower in the appearance of cytopathic effect. Relative to the SHK-1 and ASK lines, the CHSE-214 cell line performed poorly. Although the ASK line appeared to represent a good alternative to the more commonly used SHK-1 line, use of a single cell line for diagnostic assays may increase the potential for false-negative results. Thus, the SHK-1 and ASK cell lines can be used in combination to provide enhanced ability to detect ISAV.

  10. Systemic Virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic and high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Burt, D.W.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Broks, V.C.M.; Zoelen, van D.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP) and high pathogenic ( HP), based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host r

  11. Marek's disease virus Meq transforms chicken cells via the v-Jun transcriptional cascade: A converging transforming pathway for avian oncoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Alon M.; Gilad, Oren; Xia, Liang; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Choi, Jonathan; Tsalenko, Anya; Yakhini, Zohar; Witter, Richard; Lee, Lucy; Cardona, Carol J.; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2005-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly pathogenic and oncogenic herpesvirus of chickens. MDV encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein, Meq (MDV EcoQ). The bZIP domain of Meq shares homology with Jun/Fos, whereas the transactivation/repressor domain is entirely different. Increasing evidence suggests that Meq is the oncoprotein of MDV. Direct evidence that Meq transforms chicken cells and the underlying mechanism, however, remain completely unknown. Taking advantage of the DF-1 chicken e...

  12. A recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine expressing glycoprotein B gene from CVI988/Rispens strain of MDV: protection studies in different chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Peng, D; Wu, X; Xing, L; Zhang, R

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) was constructed to express glycoprotein B (gB) gene from CVI988/Rispens strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The rFPV-gB/R alone and in combination with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) preparations were evaluated for their protective efficacy against challenge with very virulent MDV strains Md5 and RB1B in different chickens. The rFPV-gB/R alone induced protection comparable to that by HVT vaccines in both Ab- SPF chickens and Ab+ production chickens. Significant protective synergism was observed in one of these two types of commercial production chickens when rFPV-gB/R was combined with HVT of either cell-associated or cell-free preparations. Immunogenesis studies showed that rFPV-gB/R, just like conventional vaccines, significantly reduced the level of viremia, splenocytes infection and feather follicle shedding of challenge virus in vaccinated chickens.

  13. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Halbherr

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade. Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  14. Transcriptomic Profiling of Virus-Host Cell Interactions following Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV Infection in an In Vivo Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios S Giotis

    Full Text Available Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV is an economically important virus that targets lymphoid and erythroblastoid progenitor cells leading to immunosuppression. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between viral infection and the host's immune response to better understand the pathways that lead to CAV-induced immunosuppression. To mimic vertical transmission of CAV in the absence of maternally-derived antibody, day-old chicks were infected and their responses measured at various time-points post-infection by qRT-PCR and gene expression microarrays. The kinetics of mRNA expression levels of signature cytokines of innate and adaptive immune responses were determined by qRT-PCR. The global gene expression profiles of mock-infected (control and CAV-infected chickens at 14 dpi were also compared using a chicken immune-related 5K microarray. Although in the thymus there was evidence of induction of an innate immune response following CAV infection, this was limited in magnitude. There was little evidence of a Th1 adaptive immune response in any lymphoid tissue, as would normally be expected in response to viral infection. Most cytokines associated with Th1, Th2 or Treg subsets were down-regulated, except IL-2, IL-13, IL-10 and IFNγ, which were all up-regulated in thymus and bone marrow. From the microarray studies, genes that exhibited significant (greater than 1.5-fold, false discovery rate <0.05 changes in expression in thymus and bone marrow on CAV infection were mainly associated with T-cell receptor signalling, immune response, transcriptional regulation, intracellular signalling and regulation of apoptosis. Expression levels of a number of adaptor proteins, such as src-like adaptor protein (SLA, a negative regulator of T-cell receptor signalling and the transcription factor Special AT-rich Binding Protein 1 (SATB1, were significantly down-regulated by CAV infection, suggesting potential roles for these genes as regulators of viral infection or

  15. Synergy of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and Eimeria tenella to increase pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenyan; Han, Linzhen; Wang, Jiazhong; Ma, Xingjiang; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Fangkun; Su, Shuai; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of co-infections of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and Eimeria tenella on the pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, groups of chickens were infected with ALV-J strain NX0101 at one day of age or with E. tenella at 14 days of age or both. The control group was left uninfected and was mock-inoculated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Mortality rates, body weights, cecal lesions, and viremia of infected chickens in each group were evaluated. Immune status was evaluated by measuring several parameters: immune organ weight/body weight index, specific humoral responses to inactivated NDV vaccine and to inoculated E. tenella, proportions of blood CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8α+ lymphocytes and transcriptional levels of cytokines in blood and cecal tonsils. The results show that co-infections of ALV-J and E. tenella induced a higher mortality rate and a lower body weight in SPF chickens compared to single-pathogen infection. In co-infected chickens, ALV-J accelerated the disease symptoms induced by E. tenella, and the E. tenella extended the ALV-J viremia. Thymus atrophy, decrease in the humoral response levels to pathogens and the NDV vaccine, modifications in the blood lymphocyte sub-populations and transcriptional cytokine disorders were found in co-infected chickens compared to chickens infected with one pathogen alone and to controls. We underline a synergy between ALV-J and E. tenella that results in increasing pathogenesis in SPF chickens.

  16. Synergy of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and Eimeria tenella to increase pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenyan; Han, Linzhen; Wang, Jiazhong; Ma, Xingjiang; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Fangkun; Su, Shuai; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of co-infections of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and Eimeria tenella on the pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, groups of chickens were infected with ALV-J strain NX0101 at one day of age or with E. tenella at 14 days of age or both. The control group was left uninfected and was mock-inoculated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Mortality rates, body weights, cecal lesions, and viremia of infected chickens in each group were evaluated. Immune status was evaluated by measuring several parameters: immune organ weight/body weight index, specific humoral responses to inactivated NDV vaccine and to inoculated E. tenella, proportions of blood CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8α+ lymphocytes and transcriptional levels of cytokines in blood and cecal tonsils. The results show that co-infections of ALV-J and E. tenella induced a higher mortality rate and a lower body weight in SPF chickens compared to single-pathogen infection. In co-infected chickens, ALV-J accelerated the disease symptoms induced by E. tenella, and the E. tenella extended the ALV-J viremia. Thymus atrophy, decrease in the humoral response levels to pathogens and the NDV vaccine, modifications in the blood lymphocyte sub-populations and transcriptional cytokine disorders were found in co-infected chickens compared to chickens infected with one pathogen alone and to controls. We underline a synergy between ALV-J and E. tenella that results in increasing pathogenesis in SPF chickens. PMID:27436443

  17. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens but not ducks is associated with elevated host immune and pro-inflammatory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Tellabati, Meenu; Sebastian, Sujith; Londt, Brandon Z; Jansen, Christine; Vervelde, Lonneke; Brookes, Sharon M; Brown, Ian H; Dunham, Stephen P; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infec

  18. Marek’s Disease Virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-der...

  19. Immune Responses to Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Chantrey, Julian; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious chicken viral disease, causing severe economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. In the last few decades, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been extensively studied, but knowledge of immune responses to virulent or vaccine strains of IBVs remains limited. This review focuses on fundamental aspects of immune responses against IBV, including the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in identification of conserved viral structures and the role of different components of innate immunity (e.g., heterophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, acute phase protein, and cytokines). Studies on adaptive immune activation and the role of humoral and cellular immunity in IBV clearance are also reviewed. Multiple interlinking immune responses are essential for protection against virulent IBVs, including passive, innate, adaptive, and effector T cells active at mucosal surfaces. Although the development of approaches for chicken transcriptome and proteome analyses have greatly helped the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms for immunity, there are still major knowledge gaps, such as the role of mucosal and cellular responses to IBVs. In view of recent reports of emergent IBV variants in many countries, there is renewed interest in a more complete understanding of poultry immune responses to both virulent and vaccine strains of IBVs. This will be critical for developing new vaccine or vaccination strategies and other intervention programs. PMID:26301315

  20. Molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from broiler chicken farms in Iran, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Hamideh; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Ghafouri, Seyed Ali; Maghsoudlo, Hossein; Farahani, Reza Khaltabadi

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a viral avian disease with economic importance in the world, including Iran. S1 gene sequencing has been used for molecular epidemiological studies and genotypic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A total of 118 IBV isolates were obtained from tissue samples from chickens with clinically suspected IB from Iranian broiler farms (eight provinces, 200 samples). The isolates were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characterized by sequencing the spike glycoprotein gene. The isolates formed six distinct phylogenetic groups (IS/1494/06 [Var2] like, 4/91-like, IS/720-like, QX-like, IR-1 and Mass-like) that were related to variants isolated in the region. The most frequently detected viruses were of the Var2-like (IS/1494/06-like) genotype, with an overall prevalence of 34 %. Twenty-one percent of the isolates formed a cluster together with the 4/91 IBV type, 10 % were of the QX genotype, and 8 % were of the IS/720 genotype. In addition, 4 % and 3 % of the isolates belonged to the Massachusetts and IR-1 genotype, respectively. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized IBV variants from broiler farms in different provinces of Iran. This study demonstrates a constant evolution of IBV in Iran, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring and development of new vaccines based on indigenous viruses.

  1. Systemic virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic or high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Post Jacob

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP and high pathogenic (HP, based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host responses. Methods To study differences in disease development between HPAIV and LPAIV, we examined the first appearance and eventual load of viral RNA in multiple organs as well as host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with two closely related H7N1 HPAIV or LPAIV strains. Results Both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV spread systemically in chickens after a combined intranasal/intratracheal inoculation. In brain, large differences in viral RNA load and host gene expression were found between H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Chicken embryo brain cell culture studies revealed that both HPAIV and LPAIV could infect cultivated embryonic brain cells, but in accordance with the absence of the necessary proteases, replication of LPAIV was limited. Furthermore, TUNEL assay indicated apoptosis in brain of HPAIV infected chickens only. In intestine, where endoproteases that cleave HA of LPAIV are available, we found minimal differences in the amount of viral RNA and a large overlap in the transcriptional responses between HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Interestingly, brain and ileum differed clearly in the cellular pathways that were regulated upon an AI infection. Conclusions Although both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV RNA was detected in a broad range of tissues beyond the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, our observations indicate that differences in pathogenicity and mortality between HPAIV and LPAIV could originate from differences in virus replication and the resulting host responses in vital organs like the brain.

  2. Development of the Intestinal RNA Virus Community of Healthy Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jigna D; Desai, Prerak T; Zhang, Ying; Scharber, Sarah K; Baller, Joshua; Xing, Zheng S; Cardona, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a) the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age) and (b) the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.

  3. Antibody response to chicken parvovirus following inoculation with inactivated virus and recombinant viruses expressing chicken parvovirus viral protein 2(VP2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    We reported earlier that day-old broiler chickens showed typical runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) post infection with chicken parvovirus (ChPV). There was also evidence that ChPV-specific maternal antibodies could provide significant protection against parvovirus induced enteric disease. Here, we st...

  4. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  5. Induction of inflammatory cytokines and toll-like receptors in chickens infected with avian H9N2 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Nguyen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9N2 influenza virus is endemic in many Asian countries and is regarded as a candidate for the next human pandemic. Knowledge of the induction of inflammatory responses and toll-like receptors (TLRs in chickens infected with H9N2 is limited. Here, we show that H9N2 induces pro-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta 3; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; interferon-alpha, -beta, and gamma; and TLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 15 in trachea, lung, and intestine of infected chickens. In the lung, TLR-15 was dominantly induced. Taken together, it seems that H9N2 infections efficiently induce inflammatory cytokines and TLRs in trachea, lung and intestine of chickens.

  6. Prevalence of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in commercial poultry flocks of northern India: a serological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, P; Shukla, S K; Mahendran, M; Dhama, K; Chawak, M M; Kataria, J M

    2011-10-01

    Globally, the chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) has gained much importance as an immunosuppressive and economically important emerging pathogen of poultry. In recent years, the virus has been detected and isolated from poultry flocks of India. The present study reports the first sero-epidemiological investigation of the presence of CIAV infection in poultry flocks of the country. A total of 404 serum samples were collected from chicken flocks of eleven poultry farms, which contain a total of 0.34 million birds from four Northern states, suspected of having chicken infectious anaemia (CIA). Screening of the sera samples using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit revealed 351 serum samples (86.88%) to be positive for CIAV antibodies. A high CIAV prevalence rate recorded in the present investigation, along with earlier virus detection reports, indicates the widespread distribution of the virus and that CIAV should be considered an economically important poultry pathogen affecting poultry industry of India. Extensive nationwide epidemiological studies are suggested for revealing the economic impact of CIA and to initiate further research along with devising and adapting suitable prevention and control strategies especially the use of suitable vaccines for safeguarding poultry health and production in the country.

  7. Highly immunogenic prime–boost DNA vaccination protects chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stachyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry because of high mortality rate in infected flocks and trade restrictions. Protective antibodies, directed mainly against hemagglutinin (HA, are the primary means of protection against influenza outbreaks. A recombinant DNA vaccine based on the sequence of H5 HA from the H5N1/A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 strain of HPAIV was prepared. Sequence manipulation included deletion of the proteolytic cleavage site to improve protein stability, codon usage optimization to improve translation and stability of RNA in host cells, and cloning into a commercially available vector to enable expression in animal cells. Naked plasmid DNA was complexed with a liposomal carrier and the immunization followed the prime–boost strategy. The immunogenic potential of the DNA vaccine was first proved in broilers in near-to-field conditions resembling a commercial farm. Next, the protective activity of the vaccine was confirmed in SPF layer-type chickens. Experimental infections (challenge experiments indicated that 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against H5N1 of the same clade and that 70% of them were protected against H5N1 influenza virus of a different clade. Moreover, the DNA vaccine significantly limited (or even eliminated transmission of the virus to contact control chickens. Two intramuscular doses of DNA vaccine encoding H5 HA induced a strong protective response in immunized chicken. The effective protection lasted for a minimum 8 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine and was not limited to the homologous H5N1 virus. In addition, the vaccine reduced shedding of the virus.

  8. Prediction and identification of T cell epitopes in the H5N1 influenza virus nucleoprotein in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Hou

    Full Text Available T cell epitopes can be used for the accurate monitoring of avian influenza virus (AIV immune responses and the rational design of vaccines. No T cell epitopes have been previously identified in the H5N1 AIV virus nucleoprotein (NP in chickens. For the first time, this study used homology modelling techniques to construct three-dimensional structures of the peptide-binding domains of chicken MHC class Ι molecules for four commonly encountered unique haplotypes, i.e., B4, B12, B15, and B19. H5N1 AIV NP was computationally parsed into octapeptides or nonapeptides according to the peptide-binding motifs of MHC class I molecules of the B4, B12, B15 and B19 haplotypes. Seventy-five peptide sequences were modelled and their MHC class I molecule-binding abilities were analysed by molecular docking. Twenty-five peptides (Ten for B4, six for B12, two for B15, and seven for B19 were predicted to be potential T cell epitopes in chicken. Nine of these peptides and one unrelated peptide were manually synthesized and their T cell responses were tested in vitro. Spleen lymphocytes were collected from SPF chickens that had been immunised with a NP-expression plasmid, pCAGGS-NP, and they were stimulated using the synthesized peptides. The secretion of chicken IFN-γ and the proliferation of CD8(+ T cells were tested using an ELISA kit and flow cytometry, respectively. The significant secretion of chicken IFN-γ and proliferation of CD8(+ T lymphocytes increased by 13.7% and 11.9% were monitored in cells stimulated with peptides NP(89-97 and NP(198-206, respectively. The results indicate that peptides NP(89-97 (PKKTGGPIY and NP(198-206 (KRGINDRNF are NP T cell epitopes in chicken of certain haplotypes. The method used in this investigation is applicable to predicting T cell epitopes for other antigens in chicken, while this study also extends our understanding of the mechanisms of the immune response to AIV in chicken.

  9. Molecular analysis and pathogenesis of the feline aplastic anemia retrovirus, feline leukemia virus C-Sarma.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Riedel; Hoover, E. A.; Gasper, P W; Nicolson, M O; Mullins, J I

    1986-01-01

    We describe the molecular cloning of an anemogenic feline leukemia virus (FeLV), FeLV-C-Sarma, from the productively infected human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD(FeLV-C-S). Molecularly cloned FeLV-C-S proviral DNA yielded infectious virus (mcFeLV-C-S) after transfection of mammalian cells, and virus interference studies using transfection-derived virus demonstrated that our clone encodes FeLV belonging to the C subgroup. mcFeLV-C-S did not induce viremia in eight 8-week-old outbred specific-p...

  10. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings. PMID:27236304

  11. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  12. Low plasma selenium concentrations, high plasma human immunodeficiency virus load and high interleukin-6 concentrations are risk factors associated with anemia in adults presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba district, Malawi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, M.H.E. van; West, C.E.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Wieringa, F.; Semba, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although anemia is common among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa, the factors contributing to its pathogenesis have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the antioxidant micronutrient status, inter

  13. Chimeric newcastle disease virus protects chickens against avian influenza in the presence of maternally derived NDV immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Steglich

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV, an avian paramyxovirus type 1, is a promising vector for expression of heterologous proteins from a variety of unrelated viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV. However, pre-existing NDV antibodies may impair vector virus replication, resulting in an inefficient immune response against the foreign antigen. A chimeric NDV-based vector with functional surface glycoproteins unrelated to NDV could overcome this problem. Therefore, an NDV vector was constructed which carries the fusion (F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN proteins of avian paramyxovirus type 8 (APMV-8 instead of the corresponding NDV proteins in an NDV backbone derived from the lentogenic NDV Clone 30 and a gene expressing HPAIV H5 inserted between the F and HN genes. After successful virus rescue by reverse genetics, the resulting chNDVFHN PMV8H5 was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Expression and virion incorporation of the heterologous proteins was verified by Western blot and electron microscopy. Replication of the newly generated recombinant virus was comparable to parental NDV in embryonated chicken eggs. Immunization with chNDVFHN PMV8H5 stimulated full protection against lethal HPAIV infection in chickens without as well as with maternally derived NDV antibodies. Thus, tailored NDV vector vaccines can be provided for use in the presence or absence of routine NDV vaccination.

  14. Transcriptomics of host-virus interactions: immune responses to avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemers, S.S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Upon entry of the respiratory tract avian influenza virus (AIV) triggers early immune responses in the host that are aimed to prevent or in case of already established infection control this infection. Although much research is performed to elucidate the course of events that follow after AIV infect

  15. Isolation and characterization of virus of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the isolation and characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia was conducted at Indonesian Research Institute for Veterinary Science. Outbreaks of avian disease had been reported in Indonesia since August 2003 affecting commercial layer, broiler, quail, and ostrich and also native chicken with showing clinical signs such as cyanosis of wattle and comb, nasal discharges and hypersalivation, subcutaneous ptechiae on foot and leg, diarre and sudden high mortality. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the causal agent of the disease. Samples of serum, feather follicle, tracheal swab, as well as organs of proventriculus, intestine, caecal tonsil, trachea and lungs were collected from infected animals. Serum samples were tested haemaglutination/haemaglutination inhibition to Newcastle Disease and Egg Drop Syndrome viruses. Isolation of virus of the causal agent of the outbreak was conducted from samples of feather follicle, tracheal swab, and organs using 11 days old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. The isolated viruses were then characterised by agar gel precipitation test using swine influenza reference antisera, by haemaglutination inhibition using H1 to H15 reference antisera, and by electron microscope examination. The pathogenicity of the viruses was confirmed by intravenous pathogenicity index test and its culture in Chicken Embryo Fibroblast primary cell culture without addition of trypsin. The study revealed that the causative agent of the outbreaks of avian disease in Indonesia was avian influenza H5 subtype virus based upon serological tests, virus isolation and characterization using swine influenza reference antisera, and electron microscope examination. While subtyping of the viruses using H1 to H15 reference antisera suggested that the virus is very likely to be an avian influenza H5N1 subtype virus. The pathogenicity test confirmed that the viruses

  16. Equine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and their applications for infectivity and neutralization studies of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, M R; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    1998-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been shown to infect cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. These primary cells are intrinsically difficult to obtain, to purify and to culture in vitro for extended periods of time. As a result, most in vitro studies concerning this lentivirus make use of primary equine fibroblasts or transformed canine or feline cell lines. We describe methods that yield reproducibly pure cultures of equine blood monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The in vitro differentiation of these cells into mature equine macrophage was verified using various cytochemical staining methods. The equine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) cultures were found to replicate cell-adapted and field strains of EIAV more efficiently than cultures of fully differentiated equine splenic macrophage. Having established reproducible and fully differentiated cultures of equine macrophage, in vitro assays of virus infectivity and serum neutralization were developed using the in vivo target cell of EIAV. These procedures, while developed for the EIAV system, should be equally useful for in vitro cultures of other macrophage-tropic pathogens of horses. PMID:9628225

  17. Contribution of the NS1 Gene of H7 Avian Influenza Virus Strains to Pathogenicity in Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Vervelde, L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Using reverse genetics (rg), we generated two reassortant viruses carrying the NS1 gene of two closely related HPAIV and LPAIV H7N1 variants (designated rgH7N7 HPHPNS1 and rgH7N7 HPLPNS1, respectively) in the backbone of the HP H7N7 strain A/Chicken/Netherlands/621557/03 (rgH7N7 HP). Comparison of t

  18. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

  19. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances. PMID:27497875

  20. Genome sequencing and characterization analysis of a Beijing isolate of chicken corona virus infectious bronchitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weiwu; YU Jialin; LI Ning; GONG Yuanshi; SUN Qixin; CHEN Zhangliang; CHEN Chen; ZHANG Ying; ZHAO Yiqiang; FENG Jidong; CHEN Fuyong; WU Qingming; YANG Hanchun; WANG Ming

    2004-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV) is lassified as a member of the genus coronavirus in the family coronaviridae. The enveloped virus has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 28 kilo-bases,which has a 5′ cap structure and 3′ polyadenylation tract.The complete genome sequence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Beijing isolate, was determined by cloning sequencing and primer walking. The whole genome is 27733 nucleotides in length, has ten open reading frames: 5′-orfla-orflab-s-3a-3b-e-m- 6a-6b-n-3′. Alignments of the genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate with those of two AIBV strains and one SARS coronavirus were performed respectively. The genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate compared with that of the IBV strain LX4 (uncompleted, 19440 bp in size) was 91.2%similarity. However, the full-length genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate was 85.2% identity to that of IBV Strain Beaudette, and was only 50.8% homology to that of SARS coronavirus. The results showed that the genome of IBV has remarkable variation. And IBV Beijing isolate is not closely related to SARS coronavirus. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome sequence, S protein, M protein and N protein, also showed that AIBV Beijing isolate is lone virus in group Ⅲ and is distant from SARS coronavirus. In conclusion, this study will contribute to the studies of diagnosis and diseases control on IBV in China.

  1. Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo

    2014-08-01

    Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P≤0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response.

  2. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus in chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic capture reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    chain reaction (RT-PCR) without RNA extraction because of effective removal of RT-PCR inhibitors. The developed bead-based assay showed a similar detection limit comparable to the RNA extraction and the classic virus isolation method. Using ready-to-use antibody-conjugated bead, the method requires less....... In this study, magnetic beads were applied for immunoseparation and purification of AIV from spiked chicken fecal sample. The beads were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies against the AIV nucleoprotein, which is conserved in all the AIV. The bead-captured virus was detected by reverse transcriptase–polymerase...

  3. Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Anemia Print A A A ... With Anemia Preventing Anemia en español Anemia About Anemia Anemia, one of the more common blood disorders, ...

  4. Perturbations in the antioxidant metabolism during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken. Protective role of vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Kadiam C. Venkata; Raniprameela, D.; Visweswari, Gopalareddygari; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Lokanatha, Valluru

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on pro/anti-oxidant status in the liver, brain and heart of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infected chickens. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- S-transferase (GST) and the levels of reduced glutathione and malonaldehyde were estimated in selected tissues of uninfected, NDV-infected and NDV + vit. E-treated chickens. A significant increase in MDA levels in brain and liver ( p < 0.05) was observed in NDV-infected chickens when compared to controls. The activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST and levels of GSH were significantly ( p < 0.05) decreased in brain and liver of NDV-infected chickens over controls. On the other hand, a significant decreased MDA levels and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity levels were observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals compared to NDV-infected chickens. Histopathological studies revealed that liver of NDV infected chicken shows focal coagulation and infiltration of hepatocytes, whereas neuronal necrosis and degeneration of Purkinje cells were observed in brain and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in heart. However such histological alterations were not observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals. The results of the present study, thus demonstrated that antioxidant defense mechanism is impaired after the induction of NDV, suggesting its critical role in cellular injury in brain and liver. Further, the results also suggest that vitamin E treatment will ameliorate the antioxidant status in the infected animals. The findings could be beneficial to understand the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of NDV and therapeutic interventions of antioxidants.

  5. Changes in adaptation of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in chickens and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused a severe poultry outbreak in the United States (U.S.) during 2015. In order to examine changes in adaptation of this viral lineage, the infectivity, transmission and pathogenesis of poultry H5N2 viruses was investigated in chickens and mal...

  6. Induction of Innate Host Responses in the Lungs of Chickens Following Infection With A Very Virulent Strain of Marek's Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural route of entry of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is via the respiratory system. However, induction of host responses in the respiratory system of chickens following inhalation of the virus has not been studied previously. The objective of the study was to examine MDV replication and inducti...

  7. Detection of the meq gene in the T cell subsets from chickens infected with Marek's disease virus serotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung-Soo; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Lee, Sung-Il; Takagi, Michihiro; Onum, Misao

    2005-08-01

    The meq gene was thought to be only detected in Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV 1) including a very virulent strain, Md5, while L-meq, in which a 180-bp sequence is inserted into the meq open reading frame, is found in other strains of MDV 1, such as CVI 988/R6. However, both meq and L-meq were previously detected by PCR in chickens infected with MDV 1, suggesting that MDV 1 may consists of at least two subpopulations, one with meq, the other with L-meq. To further analyze these subpopulations, we analyzed the time course changes in distribution of these subpopulations among T cell subsets from chickens infected with MDV 1. Both meq and L-meq were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infected with strain Md5 or CVI 988/R6. The shift in MDV subpopulations from one displaying meq to the other displaying L-meq and/or the conversion from meq to L-meq occurred mainly in the CD8+ T cell subset from Md5-infected chickens. PCR products corresponding to L-meq rather than meq were frequently amplified from the CD8+ T cell subset from CVI 988/R 6 -infected chickens. These results suggest that a dominant subpopulation of MDV 1 changes depending on the T cell subsets, and that L-meq is dominantly present in the CD8+ T cells which play a role in the clearance of pathogenic agents.

  8. Development of the Intestinal RNA Virus Community of Healthy Broiler Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna D Shah

    Full Text Available Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age and (b the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.

  9. Immunological changes of chicken infected with marek‘s disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZhonggui; LiQingzhagn; 等

    1994-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to infect one-day old healthy AA chicks with virulent Marek's disease virus(MDV).Compared with the uninfected control chicks,it was undertaken to detect the inductive activity of interlukin-2,expression of IL-2 recepter(IL-2R)and proliferative reaction of T cell in the thymus and spleen;to determine the number of α-naphthyl esterase positive T cells,acid phosphatase positive T cells and antibody forming cells in the thymus,Bursa Fabricius,spleen,cecal tonsil,Harder gand and mucosal lympoid tissue of bronchus;to check the number of T cell in peripheral blood as well as the dynamic changes of the amount of IgG,IgM and IgA in the serum,tear,trachea washings and intestinal secretions of infected chickens at 5,25,45 days old,respectively.The experimental results reveal that immunoregulation of IL-2 in immune organs of infected chicknens was disordered;the cellular and humoral immune functions were significantly depressed in the central and peripheral immune organs;the local or mucosal immune defense function were also markedly decreased in respiratory and digestive tracts.

  10. Type III interferon gene expression in response to influenza virus infection in chicken and duck embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zou, Tingting; Hu, Xiaotong; Jin, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) comprise a group of newly identified antiviral cytokines that are functionally similar to type I IFNs and elicit first-line antiviral responses. Recently, type III IFNs were identified in several species; however, little information is available about type III IFNs in ducks. We compared the expression of type III IFNs and their receptor in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) in response to influenza virus infection. The results showed that the expression of type III IFNs was upregulated in both DEFs and CEFs following infection with H1N1 influenza virus or treatment with poly (I:C), and expression levels were significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs (IL-28Rα) was also upregulated following infection with H1N1 virus or treatment with poly (I:C) and was significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs occurred from 8 hpi and remained at similar levels until 36 hpi in CEFs, but the expression level was elevated from 36 hpi in DEFs. These findings revealed the existence of distinct expression patterns for type III IFNs in chickens and ducks in response to influenza virus infection. The provided data are fundamentally useful in furthering our understanding of type III IFNs and innate antiviral responses in different species.

  11. Type III interferon gene expression in response to influenza virus infection in chicken and duck embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zou, Tingting; Hu, Xiaotong; Jin, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) comprise a group of newly identified antiviral cytokines that are functionally similar to type I IFNs and elicit first-line antiviral responses. Recently, type III IFNs were identified in several species; however, little information is available about type III IFNs in ducks. We compared the expression of type III IFNs and their receptor in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) in response to influenza virus infection. The results showed that the expression of type III IFNs was upregulated in both DEFs and CEFs following infection with H1N1 influenza virus or treatment with poly (I:C), and expression levels were significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs (IL-28Rα) was also upregulated following infection with H1N1 virus or treatment with poly (I:C) and was significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs occurred from 8 hpi and remained at similar levels until 36 hpi in CEFs, but the expression level was elevated from 36 hpi in DEFs. These findings revealed the existence of distinct expression patterns for type III IFNs in chickens and ducks in response to influenza virus infection. The provided data are fundamentally useful in furthering our understanding of type III IFNs and innate antiviral responses in different species. PMID:26598110

  12. Equine schlafen 11 restricts the production of equine infectious anemia virus via a codon usage-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Sun, Liu-Ke; Zhu, Dan-Tong; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Human schlafen11 is a novel restriction factor for HIV-1 based on bias regarding relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Here, we report the cloning of equine schlafen11 (eSLFN11) and the characteristics of its role in restricting the production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus similar to HIV-1. Overexpression of eSLFN11 inhibited EIAV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous eSLFN11 by siRNA enhanced the release of EIAV from its principal target cell. Notably, although eSLFN11 significantly suppressed expression of viral Gag protein and EIAV release into the culture medium, the levels of intracellular viral early gene proteins Tat and Rev and viral genomic RNA were unaffected. Coincidently, similar altered patterns of codon usage bias were observed for both the early and late genes of EIAV. Therefore, our data suggest that eSLFN11 restricts EIAV production by impairing viral mRNA translation via a mechanism that is similar to that employed by hSLFN11 for HIV-1. PMID:27200480

  13. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  14. Chicken interferon alpha pretreatment reduces virus replication of pandemic H1N1 and H5N9 avian influenza viruses in lung cell cultures from different avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hanchun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I interferons, including interferon alpha (IFN-α, represent one of the first lines of innate immune defense against influenza virus infection. Following natural infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV, transcription of IFN-α is quickly up regulated along with multiple other immune-related genes. Chicken IFN-α up regulates a number of important anti-viral response genes and has been demonstrated to be an important cytokine to establish anti-viral immunity. However, the mechanisms by which interferon inhibit virus replication in avian species remains unknown as does the biological activity of chicken interferon in other avian species. Methods In these studies, we assessed the protective potential of exogenous chicken IFN-α applied to chicken, duck, and turkey primary lung cell cultures prior to infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus (A/turkey/Virginia/SEP-4/2009 and an established avian H5N9 virus (A/turkey/Wisconsin/1968. Growth kinetics and induction of select immune response genes, including IFN-α and myxovirus-resistance gene I (Mx, as well as proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6, were measured in response to chicken IFN-α and viral infection over time. Results Results demonstrate that pretreatment with chicken IFN-α before AIV infection significantly reduced virus replication in both chicken-and turkey-origin lung cells and to a lesser degree the duck-origin cells. Virus growth was reduced by approximately 200-fold in chicken and turkey cells and 30-fold in duck cells after 48 hours of incubation. Interferon treatment also significantly decreased the interferon and proinflammatory response during viral infection. In general, infection with the H1N1 virus resulted in an attenuated interferon and proinflammatory response in these cell lines, compared to the H5N9 virus. Conclusions Taken together, these studies show that chicken IFN-α reduces virus replication, lower host innate immune

  15. Protection conferred by a recombinant Marek’s disease virus that expresses the spike protein from infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen-free chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaorong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, the predominant field isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV have been classified as QX-like strains since 1996. However, no commercial vaccines that are specific for this type of IBV are currently available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel vaccines that prevent QX-like IBV infection. Results A recombinant Marek’s disease virus (MDV, rMDV-S1, that expresses the S1 subunit of the spike (S protein from the QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV was constructed by inserting the IBV S1 gene into the genome of the CVI988/Rispens strain of MDV. Specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens that were vaccinated with rMDV-S1 were protected when challenged with the QX-like IBV. They were observed to have mild clinical signs of disease, a short virus-shedding period and low mortality. Additionally, the rMDV-S1 conferred full protection to chickens against virulent MDV, as did the CVI988/Rispens strain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rMDV-S1 is an effective and promising recombinant vaccine for the prevention of QX-like IBV infection.

  16. Major histocompatibility complex-linked immune response of young chickens vaccinated with an attenuated live infectious bursal disease virus vaccine followed by an infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.;

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the MHC on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine response in chickens was investigated in three different chicken lines containing four different MHC haplotypes. Two MHC haplotypes were present in all three lines with one haplotype (1319) shared between the lines. Line I...... Jungle Fowl genes, was clearly differentiated from the other two investigated lines. These results suggest an MHC II restricted T-cell dependent secondary antibody response against IBDV....

  17. Impact of heterophil granulocyte depletion caused by 5-fluorouracil on infectious bursal disease virus infection in specific pathogen free chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... inoculated with the classical IBDV strain F52/70. Bursae of Fabricius were sampled at fixed intervals, and the progress of the infection was monitored by various histological techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found correlation between histological observations and RT......-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection (post inoculation...

  18. Localization of Avian Influenza Virus in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Chicken Tissues by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wan-po; GU Chang-qin; BI Ding-ren; SONG Nian-hua; CHENG Guo-fu

    2005-01-01

    In this study, in situ hybridization (ISH) was developed to detect avian influenza virus (AIV) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded chicken tissues. A cDNA probe corresponding to a region of AIV nucleoprotein (NP) gene was synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin. Probe specificity was determined by AIV infected MDCK cells in vitro and the results showed that strong cytoplasmic staining was only detected in AIV-infected cells. Various tissues were collected from 12 h to 3 5 days post-infection (PI) following inoculation with the H9N2 subtype AIV. AIV was localized in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and cartilage of the throat and trachea at 12 h PI. Tissues from uninfected chickens were negative. The finding of this study indicated ISH was a sensitive and specific technique to detect and localize AIV as well as to study AIV pathogenesis.

  19. Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. If you have it, your bone marrow doesn't make ... blood cells. There are different types, including Fanconi anemia. Causes include Toxic substances, such as pesticides, arsenic, ...

  20. Hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jager U, Lechner K. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ... Price EA, Schrier SS. Extrinsic nonimmune hemolytic anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ...

  1. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  2. The Comparison of Genetic Variation in the Envelope Protein Between Various Immunodeficiency Viruses and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Yuan; Chang Liu; Zhipin Liang; Xueqing Chen; Danhong Diao; Xiaohong Kong

    2012-01-01

    The envelope protein(Env) of lentiviruses such as HIV,SIV,FIV and EIAV is larger than that of other retroviruses.The Chinese EIAV attenuated vaccine is based on Env and has helped to successfully control this virus,demonstrating that envelope is crucial for vaccine.We compared Env variation of the four kinds of lentiviruses.Phylogenetic analysis showed that the evolutionary relationship of Env between HIV and SIV was the closest and they appeared to descend from a common ancestor,and the relationship of HIV and EIAV was the furthest.EIAV had the shortest Env length and the least number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites(PNGS) as well as glycosylation density compared to various immunodeficiency viruses.However,HIV had the longest Env length and the most PNGS.Moreover,the alignment of HIV and SIV showed that PNGS were primarily distributed within extracellular membrane protein gp120 rather than transmembrane gp41.It implies that the size difference among these viruses is associated with a lentivirus specific function and also the diversity of env.There are low levels of modification of glycosylation sites of Env and selection of optimal protective epitopes might be useful for development of an effective vaccine against HIV/AIDS.

  3. [Lentivirus Delivery of the Short Hairpin RNA Targeting NDV P Gene Inhibits Production of the Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts and Chicken Embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Xu, Chuantian; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yanyan; Huang, Qinghua; Hu, Beixia; Zhang, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-induced RNA degradation can inhibit viral infection, and has been investigated extensively for its efficacy as antiviral therapy. The potential therapeutic role of lentiviral-mediated short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) replication in vivo has been explored less often. We constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against the phosphoprotein (P) of the NDV, RNAi-341 and RNAi-671. Recombinant shRNA lentivirus vectors were co-transfected into 293T cells, along with helper plasmids, to package the recombinant shRNA lentivirus. Lentivirus-based shRNAs were titrated and transduced into NDV-susceptible chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chick embryos. Antiviral activity against the NDV strain was evaluated by virus titration and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 strongly suppressed transient expression of a FLAG-tagged P fusion protein in 293T cells. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 NDV reduced virus titers by 66.6-fold and 30.6-fold, respectively, in CEFs 16 h after infection. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 reduced virus titers in specific pathogen-free chick embryos by 99% and 98%, respectively, 48 h after infection. Both shRNAs inhibited accumulation of not only P-gene mRNA, but also nucleocapsid, M-, F-, HN-, and L-gene mRNA. RNAi-341 silenced P-gene mRNA more potently than RNAi-671. These results suggest that shRNAs silencing the P gene had substantial antiviral properties and inhibited NDV replication in CEFs and chick embryos.

  4. Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Lu, Rufeng; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Lu, Xiangyun; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2016-07-01

    H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect mammals and pose a threat to human health. From June 2014 to July 2015, 12 H6N6 AIVs were isolated from chickens in live-poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates received their genes from H6 and H9N2 subtype AIVs of poultry in China. These novel reassortant viruses showed moderate pathogenicity in mice and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that novel reassorted H6N6 viruses were isolated from chickens in this study, it is possible that these chickens play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N6 AIVs, and these results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of the H6N6 AIVs circulating in poultry. PMID:27101069

  5. Persistence of the tissue culture origin vaccine for infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial chicken flocks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Silvana H Santander; Nuñez, Luis F; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2015-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of great importance that causes serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Its control is based on biosecurity procedures and vaccination programs that use live attenuated vaccines such as tissue culture origin (TCO), chicken embryo origin (CEO), and vectored vaccines. However, problems have been reported, such as the reversion of virulence, virus latency, and field virus outbreaks. Several molecular techniques have been developed to differentiate between the field and vaccine strains. This study was conducted to determine the presence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in Brazil from 2012 to 2014. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was used to detect and differentiate ILTV strains; DNA sequencing and predictive RFLP analysis were also used for this purpose. Molecular analysis detected the presence of ILTV in 15 samples that were characterized as strains of TCO vaccine origin. This study showed that the ILTV TCO vaccine strain has been circulating in commercial chicken flocks in Brazil since its introduction during the 2002 outbreak.

  6. Homodimerization of Marek's disease virus-encoded Meq protein is not sufficient for transformation of lymphocytes in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolski, Paulette F; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Lupiani, Blanca; Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Gilad, Oren; Lee, Lucy F; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2009-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), the etiologic agent of Marek's disease, is a potent oncogenic herpesvirus. MDV is highly contagious and elicits a rapid onset of malignant T-cell lymphomas in chickens within several weeks after infection. MDV genome codes an oncoprotein, Meq, which shares resemblance with the Jun/Fos family of bZIP transcription factors. Similar to Jun, the leucine zipper region of Meq allows the formation of homo- and heterodimers. Meq homo- and heterodimers have different DNA binding affinities and transcriptional activity; therefore, they may differentially regulate transcription of viral and cellular genes. In this study we investigated the role of Meq homodimers in the pathogenicity of MDV by generating a chimeric meq gene, which contains the leucine zipper region of the yeast transcription factor GCN4 (meqGCN). A recombinant virus (rMd5-MeqGCN) containing the chimeric meqGCN gene in place of parental meq was generated with overlapping cosmid clones of Md5, a very virulent MDV strain. The rMd5-MeqGCN virus replicated in vitro and in vivo but was unable to transform T cells in infected chickens. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that Meq homodimers are not sufficient for MDV-induced transformation.

  7. Comparative evaluation of vaccine efficacy of recombinant Marek's disease virus vaccine lacking Meq oncogene in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy F; Kreager, K S; Arango, J; Paraguassu, A; Beckman, B; Zhang, Huanmin; Fadly, Aly; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M

    2010-02-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5 Delta Meq, in which the oncogene meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) 15I(5) x 7(1) chickens vaccinated with rMd5 Delta Meq virus or an ADOL preparation of CVI988/Rispens indicated that rMd5 Delta Meq provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens when challenged with the very virulent plus MDV 648A strain. In the present study we set to investigate the vaccine efficacy of rMd5 Delta Meq in the field compared to several commercial preparations of CVI988/Rispens. Three large-scale field experiments, in which seeder chickens were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of 686, vv+ MDV, were conducted in a model developed by Hy-Line International. In addition, comparisons were made with bivalent vaccine (HVT+SB-1), HVT alone and several serotype 3 HVT-vectored vaccines individually or in combination with CVI988/Rispens. Experimental results showed that addition of HVT to either of the two commercial CVI988/Rispens preparations tested (A or B) did not enhance protection conferred by CVI988/Rispens alone and that rMd5 Delta Meq was a better or equal vaccine compared to any of the CVI988/Rispens vaccines tested under the conditions of the field trials presented herein. Our results also emphasized the complexity of factors affecting vaccine efficacy and the importance of challenge dose in protection. PMID:19941987

  8. Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings in commercial laying hens and in backyard chickens naturally infected with the infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IS Preis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-eight chickens from a very high poultry density (approximately eight million region and twelve backyard chickens from neighboring areas were analyzed by histopathology and additional techniques for the presence of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The virus distribution was determined in different tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The disease was histopathologically diagnosed in 41.0% (32/78 of the commercial layers. Lesions were mainly characterized by syncytial cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion body formed from the hyperplastic epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, primary and secondary bronchi, and conjunctiva. IHC showed 70% (21/30 positive signal in the larynx/trachea and, 53.8% (14/26 in the lungs, either in epithelial cells or syncytia. In the turbinates and paranasal sinuses, 29.6% (8/27 of samples showed positive signal. PCR detected the following gallid herpesvirus 1-positive percentages: conjunctiva 63.2% (31/49, lungs 57.6% (30/52, turbinates and paranasal sinuses 56% (28/50, and larynx/trachea 50% (39/78. IHC showed to be a useful additional tool for definitive ILT diagnosis, especially during the subacute phase of the disease when syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies are no longer observed. PCR using specific primers from ICP4 gene, generating a product of 237 base pairs, was sensitive for ILT diagnosis, and very useful for rapid detection of GaHV-1 in chickens. Fixed tissues allowing histopatological examination and detection of GaHV-1 by PCR, are a good option in areas where farms are located several hundred kilometers away from a diagnostic center, reducing problems with conservation of fresh samples and the risk of virus spread.

  9. Novel Reassortant H5N6 Influenza A Virus from the Lao People’s Democratic Republic Is Highly Pathogenic in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel S.; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Harper, Jennifer; Payne, Jean; Evans, Ryan M.; Valdeter, Stacey; Walker, Som; Harvey, Gemma; Shan, Songhua; Bruce, Matthew P.; Rootes, Christina L.; Gough, Tamara J.; Rohringer, Andreas; Peck, Grantley R.; Fardy, Sarah J.; Karpala, Adam J.; Johnson, Dayna; Wang, Jianning; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Morrissy, Christopher; Wong, Frank Y. K.; Bean, Andrew G. D.; Bingham, John; Williams, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. Infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. High virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spleen, liver, duodenum, heart, brain and lung) taken at euthanasia. Viral antigen was detected in endothelium, neurons, myocardium, lymphoid tissues and other cell types. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated compared to non-infected birds. Our study confirmed that this new H5N6 reassortant is highly pathogenic, causing disease in chickens similar to that of Asian H5N1 viruses, and demonstrated the ability of such clade 2.3.4-origin H5 viruses to reassort with non-N1 subtype viruses while maintaining a fit and infectious phenotype. Recent detection of influenza H5N6 poultry infections in Lao PDR, China and Viet Nam, as well as six fatal human infections in China, demonstrate that these emergent highly pathogenic H5N6 viruses may be widely established in several countries and represent an emerging threat to poultry and human populations. PMID:27631618

  10. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  11. Evidence of expanded host range and mammalian-associated genetic changes in a duck H9N2 influenza virus following adaptation in quail and chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jaber Hossain

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to circulate worldwide; in Asia, H9N2 viruses have caused disease outbreaks and established lineages in land-based poultry. Some H9N2 strains are considered potentially pandemic because they have infected humans causing mild respiratory disease. In addition, some of these H9N2 strains replicate efficiently in mice without prior adaptation suggesting that H9N2 strains are expanding their host range. In order to understand the molecular basis of the interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses, we adapted in the laboratory a wildtype duck H9N2 virus, influenza A/duck/Hong Kong/702/79 (WT702 virus, in quail and chickens through serial lung passages. We carried out comparative analysis of the replication and transmission in quail and chickens of WT702 and the viruses obtained after 23 serial passages in quail (QA23 followed by 10 serial passages in chickens (QA23CkA10. Although the WT702 virus can replicate and transmit in quail, it replicates poorly and does not transmit in chickens. In contrast, the QA23CkA10 virus was very efficient at replicating and transmitting in quail and chickens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the QA23 and QA23CkA10 viruses compared to the WT702 virus indicated several nucleotide substitutions resulting in amino acid changes within the surface and internal proteins. In addition, a 21-amino acid deletion was found in the stalk of the NA protein of the QA23 virus and was maintained without further modification in the QA23CkA10 adapted virus. More importantly, both the QA23 and the QA23CkA10 viruses, unlike the WT702 virus, were able to readily infect mice, produce a large-plaque phenotype, showed faster replication kinetics in tissue culture, and resulted in the quick selection of the K627 amino acid mammalian-associated signature in PB2. These results are in agreement with the notion that adaptation of H9 viruses to land-based birds can lead to strains with expanded host range.

  12. 当归鸡精口服液改善营养性贫血功能研究%Research on the effect of angelica liquid chicken on improving nutritional anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 刘英华; 姜淑卿; 张静姝

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究当归鸡精口服液改善营养性贫血的功效.方法 按照随机双盲的原则,将符合贫血诊断的100例试食者分为试食组和对照组,每组各50例,分别给予当归鸡精口服液和安慰剂,实验前后对试食者进行膳食调查和血液学和血生化指标进行检测.结果 试食组服用当归鸡精口服液30 d后血红蛋白(HGB)含量为(117.94±9.79) g/L,高于服用前(106.90±9.65) g/L.试食组HGB平均升高幅度为10.98%,而对照组为1.06%.HGB水平及升高幅度,试食组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);试食组红细胞内游离原卟啉值低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组实验前后各指标无变化.结论 当归鸡精口服液具有改善营养性贫血的功能作用.%OBJECTIVE To research on the effect of Angelica liquid Chicken on improving nutritional anemia. METHODS We randomly divided 100 subjects with anemia into intervention group and control group in accordance with the double-blind randomly principle. 50 patients were in each group, and they were given Angelica Liquid Chicken and placebo, respectively. The dietary survey and detections of hematological and blood biochemical markers were performed before and after treatment period. RESULTS Hemoglobin content of the intervention group after taking Angelica Liquid chicken for 30 days was 117.94 ± 9.79g/L, which was higher than that before treatment (106.90 ± 9.65g/L). The HGB of test group increased by an average rate of 10.98%, while the control group was 1.06%. There was significant difference of HGB levels and increased rate between test group and control group (P < 0.05); The values of free protoporphyrin in REC of test group was significantly lower than that of the control group. There was significantly difference (P< 0.05). The indexes had no change before and after treatment in control group. CONCLUSION The Angelica Liquid Chicken could improve nutritional anemia.

  13. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-12-01

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted. PMID:23675158

  14. Identification of a dual-specific T cell epitope of the hemagglutinin antigen of an h5 avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Haghighi

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses (AIV of the H5N1 subtype have caused morbidity and mortality in humans. Although some migratory birds constitute the natural reservoir for this virus, chickens may play a role in transmission of the virus to humans. Despite the importance of avian species in transmission of AIV H5N1 to humans, very little is known about host immune system interactions with this virus in these species. The objective of the present study was to identify putative T cell epitopes of the hemagglutinin (HA antigen of an H5 AIV in chickens. Using an overlapping peptide library covering the HA protein, we identified a 15-mer peptide, H5(246-260, within the HA1 domain which induced activation of T cells in chickens immunized against the HA antigen of an H5 virus. Furthermore, H5(246-260 epitope was found to be presented by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and II molecules, leading to activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, marked by proliferation and expression of interferon (IFN-gamma by both of these cell subsets as well as the expression of granzyme A by CD8+ T cells. This is the first report of a T cell epitope of AIV recognized by chicken T cells. Furthermore, this study extends the previous finding of the existence of dual-specific epitopes in other species to chickens. Taken together, these results elucidate some of the mechanisms of immune response to AIV in chickens and provide a platform for creation of rational vaccines against AIV in this species.

  15. Immune Response to Inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus by Electrolysed Catholyte Anolyte and Binary Ethylenimine in Specific Pathogen Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV in specificpathogen-free (SPF chickens. The NDV was inactivated using either Binary ethyleneimine (BEI or Electrolysed water-Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA. Complete inactivation of NDV occurred after 24 hours with either BEI or ECA. Prepared inactivated NDV vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of specific pathogen free (SPF chicks. Test groups received 0.2 ml BEI inactivated NDV (NDVBEI and ECA (NDVECA subcutaneously. No significant ELISA total mean titer between NDVBEI group (11303 ± 4515 and NDVECA (12131 ± 1932 (p<0.05 at two week post inoculation. BEI and ECA inactivated vaccine gave higher antibody titers and preserves both structural integrity and antigenicity of the virus. Thus, it might be possible to use these compounds as an inactivator agent for commercial NDV inactivated vaccines in future.

  16. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Vinkler, Michal; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey and enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). The resistance to ALV-J in a great majority of examined galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of NHE1, and genetic polymorphisms around this site predict the susceptibility or resistance of a given species or individual. In this study, we examined the NHE1 polymorphism in domestic chicken breeds and documented quantitative differences in their susceptibility to ALV-J in vitro. In a panel of chicken breeds assembled with the aim to cover the maximum variability encountered in domestic chickens, we found a completely uniform sequence of NHE1 extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) without any source of genetic variation for the selection of ALV-J-resistant poultry. In parallel, we studied the natural polymorphisms of NHE1 in wild ducks and geese because of recent reports on ALV-J positivity in feral Asian species. In anseriform species, we demonstrate a specific and highly conserved critical ECL1 sequence without any homologue of tryptophan 38 in accordance with the resistance of duck cells to prototype ALV-J. Last, we demonstrated that the new Asian strains of ALV-J have not evolved their envelope glycoprotein to the entry the duck cells. Our results contribute substantially to the current discussion of possible heterotransmission of ALV-J and its spill-over into the wild ducks and geese.

  17. Molecular phylodynamics and protein modeling of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro-Nallar Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ISAV is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family that affects salmonids with disastrous results. It was first detected in 1984 in Norway and from then on it has been reported in Canada, United States, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. Recently, an outbreak was recorded in Chile with negative consequences for the local fishing industry. However, few studies have examined available data to test hypotheses associated with the phylogeographic partitioning of the infecting viral population, the population dynamics, or the evolutionary rates and demographic history of ISAV. To explore these issues, we collected relevant sequences of genes coding for both surface proteins from Chile, Canada, and Norway. We addressed questions regarding their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary rates, and demographic history using modern phylogenetic methods. Results A recombination breakpoint was consistently detected in the Hemagglutinin-Esterase (he gene at either side of the Highly Polymorphic Region (HPR, whereas no recombination breakpoints were detected in Fusion protein (f gene. Evolutionary relationships of ISAV revealed the 2007 Chilean outbreak group as a monophyletic clade for f that has a sister relationship to the Norwegian isolates. Their tMRCA is consistent with epidemiological data and demographic history was successfully recovered showing a profound bottleneck with further population expansion. Finally, selection analyses detected ongoing diversifying selection in f and he codons associated with protease processing and the HPR region, respectively. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the Norwegian origin hypothesis for the Chilean outbreak clade. In particular, ISAV HPR0 genotype is not the ancestor of all ISAV strains, although SK779/06 (HPR0 shares a common ancestor with the Chilean outbreak clade. Our analyses suggest that ISAV shows hallmarks typical of RNA viruses that can be exploited in epidemiological and

  18. Marek’s disease herpesvirus vaccines integrate into chicken host chromosomes yet lack a virus-host phenotype associated with oncogenic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotrophic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unimmunized host birds. The causative pathogen, Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres during viral latency an...

  19. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette;

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse...

  20. Protection patterns in duck and chicken after homo- or hetero-subtypic reinfections with H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Chaise

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are circulating continuously in ducks, inducing a mostly asymptomatic infection, while chickens are accidental hosts highly susceptible to respiratory disease. This discrepancy might be due to a different host response to the virus between these two bird species and in particular to a different susceptibility to reinfection. In an attempt to address this question, we analyzed, in ducks and in chickens, the viral load in infected tissues and the humoral immune response after experimental primary and secondary challenge infections with either homologous or heterologous low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV. Following homologous reinfection, ducks were only partially protected against viral shedding in the lower intestine in conjunction with a moderate antibody response, whereas chickens were totally protected against viral shedding in the upper respiratory airways and developed a stronger antibody response. On the contrary, heterologous reinfection was not followed by a reduced viral excretion in the upper airways of chickens, while ducks were still partially protected from intestinal excretion of the virus, with no correlation to the antibody response. Our comparative study provides a comprehensive demonstration of the variation of viral tropism and control of the host humoral response to LPAIV between two different bird species with different degrees of susceptibility to avian influenza.

  1. Growth and Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in the DF-1 Cell Line and Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

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    Kaliyaperumal Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs, and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50. The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production.

  2. The role of fish movements and the spread of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

    2014-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...

  4. Reverse genetics based rgH5N2 vaccine provides protection against high dose challenge of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S; Khandia, R; Sood, R; Bhat, S; Siddiqui, A; Jahagirdhar, G; Mishra, S; Mishra, A; Pateriya, A K; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-08-01

    An inactivated vaccine was developed using the rgH5N2 virus (6 + 2 reassortant) generated by plasmid based reverse genetics system (RGS) with WSN/33/H1N1 as backbone virus. Following mutation of the basic amino acid cleavage site RRRKKR*GLF to IETR*GLF, the H5-HA (haemagglutinin) gene of the selected donor H5N1 virus (A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008) of antigenic clade 2.2 was used along with the N2-NA gene from H9N2 field isolate (A/chicken/Uttar Pradesh/2543/2004) for generation of the rgH5N2 virus. A single dose (0.5 ml/bird) of the inactivated rgH5N2 vaccine protected 100% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 28(th) dpv (early challenge) and 90% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 200(th) dpv (late challenge) against high dose challenge with HPAI virus (10(9) EID50/bird). Challenge virus shedding via oropharynx and cloaca of the vaccinated chickens was detectable by realtime RT-PCR during 1-5 dpc and 1-9 days dpc in the early and the late challenge, respectively. The protective level of antibodies (mean HI titre > 128) was maintained without booster vaccination for 200 days. The present study provides the experimental evidence about the extent of protection provided by a reverse genetics based vaccine for clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses against challenge with high dose of field virus at two different time points (28 dpv and 200 dpv). The challenge study is uniquely different from the previous similar experiments on account of 1000 times higher dose of challenge and protection at 200 dpv. The protection and virus shedding data of the study may be useful for countries planning to use H5 vaccine in poultry especially against the clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses. PMID:27296706

  5. Anti-viral and anti-tumor effects induced by an attenuated Marek's disease virus in CD4- or CD8-deficient chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, T; Cho K-O; Kudo, Y; Hiramoto, Y; Ohashi, K; Hattori, M; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    1999-01-01

    By vaccination with an attenuated Marek's disease virus (MDV), strain CVI988, chickens are protected from the development of T cell lymphoma caused by an oncogenic MDV. To clarify the role of T lymphocyte subsets in the protection mechanisms of this vaccine, vaccinated chickens were depleted of T cell subsets by neonatal thymectomy and injections of monoclonal antibodies specific to chicken CD4 and CD8 molecules, and then challenged with an oncogenic MDV, strain Md5. The MDV titers rescued from CD8(+) T cells, which are the main targets for latent infection and subsequent transformation by MDV, was much higher in the CD8-deficient vaccinated chickens than in untreated vaccinated chickens at the early stage of the latent phase. However, the neonatal vaccination prevented lymphoma formation by strain Md5 even in either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell-depleted chickens. These results suggest that specific CD8(+) T cell responses induced by the MD vaccine play a crucial role in the prevention of MDV infection during the latent phase, but may not be essential for the prevention of lymphoma formation by an oncogenic MDV.

  6. Recombinant chicken interferon-alpha inhibits the replication of exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) in DF-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Manman; Wu, Siyu; Feng, Min; Feng, Saixiang; Sun, Chao; Bai, Dayong; Gu, Mingzhu; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-08-01

    Chickeninterferon alpha (ChIFNα) belongs to type I IFNs that are important antiviral cytokines. We investigated whether ChIFNα plays a role in avian leukosis virus (ALV) infections of chickens. Firstly, we explored the immune response to ALV in vivo by measuring cytokine expression profiles in the spleens and bursas of chickens during the late stages of ALV-J infection. The results indicated that ALV-J infection could induce a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response by elevating levels of both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-10. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels decreased in the spleen while interferon beta (IFNβ) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression levels in the bursa increased significantly. This indicated that ALV-J stimulates a Type I IFN response. Next, we found that different ALV subgroups or strains up-regulated chicken IFN regulatory factor 3 (ChIRF-3) promoter activity, suggesting that ALV infection could trigger Type I IFNs pathway in vitro. Accordingly, we further investigated ChIFNα antiviral effects on ALV replication in DF-1 cells by successfully expressing recombinant ChIFNα in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain BL21. The specific activity of the purified rChIFNα protein was determined to be 4×10(7)U/mL. When added at 4000U/mL, the recombinant protein restrained ALV replication as measured by decreases in viral protein p27 levels and mRNA expression. This new reagent may be useful for prophylactic and therapeutic drug design. PMID:27372921

  7. Circulating strains of variant infectious bursal disease virus may pose a challenge for antibiotic-free chicken farming in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulsuriya, Shanika; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Ojkic, Davor; Gunawardana, Thushari; Gupta, Ashish; Goonewardene, Kalhari; Karunaratne, Ruwani; Popowich, Shelly; Willson, Philip; Tikoo, Suresh K; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotic-free and safe animal products are most desirable among consumers. However, ensuring safe poultry products is a challenging task when the chicken immune system is compromised. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression and predisposes chickens to secondary infections. Breeder vaccination against IBDV is routinely practiced for producing chicks with maternally-derived antibody (MAb) to prevent infection in newly hatched chicks. The majority of IBDV circulating in Canadian farms are variant strains (vIBDV). Whether circulating vIBDV strains are immunosuppressive in chicks or are amenable to current vaccine regimens has not previously been tested through challenge studies. In this study, one-day-old broiler chicks (n=240) carrying MAb were obtained from broiler breeders vaccinated with commercial IBDV vaccines. In the first set of experiments (n=40/group), at six days post-hatch, one group was challenged with a Canadian field isolate, vIBDV (strain-SK09) (3×10(3) EID50). The second and the third groups (controls) were inoculated with non-immunosuppressive IBDV D-78 (10×10(3) TCID50) and saline, respectively. Histopathological examination on days 14 and 30 post-challenge revealed that despite the high level of MAb, vIBDV (SK09) caused severe bursal damage in chicks. Another set of experiments with treatment groups as above, demonstrated that pre-exposure of chicks with vIBDV (SK09) caused immunosuppression resulting in significantly higher mortality and disease severity in chicks challenged with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Our data provide evidence that IBDV strains circulating in Canada are immunosuppressive, not amenable to current anti-IBDV vaccination strategy, and a potential threat to antibiotic-free chicken farming. PMID:27663370

  8. Histologic Lesions of Thymus and Bursa of Fabricius in Commercial Broiler Chickens Inoculated with H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

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    M.M. Hadipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2 is of major concern for the poultry industry especially in Iran, as the virus can spread rapidly in and between flocks, causing high mortality and severe economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus in thymus and bursa of Fabricius of commercial broiler chickens, so we studied the histologic lesions of this isolate in these organs following intranasal (IN inoculation. Twenty-four 3-week-old chickens were inoculated with 106 EID50 per bird with H9N2 avian influenza virus. Then on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-inoculation (PI, samples of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were collected for histopathological studies. In inoculated chickens, lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, follicular atrophy and cystic follicles in the bursa of Fabricius were seen. The results indicated that the H9N2 has some immunosuppressive effects on chicken lymphoid organs.

  9. Detection of Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirus (TTMDV/SAV) in the sera of domestic village chickens and its vertical transmission from hen to eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzari, M; Salmanizadeh, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Although the infection of different animals and non-human primates with other members of Anelloviridae have already been reported there is no report about infection of animals with Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirs (TTMDV/SAV). The aim of this study was to detect the virus in domestic village chickens. Blood samples were collected from 79 domestic village chickens in Isfahan. Blood samples of five adult laying hens and one cockerel were collected in three consecutive weeks (days 1, 8 and 14) as experimental chickens. Ten eggs were randomly collected from the eggs laid during days 12 to 17 and thin and thick egg whites and yolk samples were collected aseptically. After DNA extraction Nested-PCR was performed using SMAs/SMAr primers. In PCR, 431 bp and 441 bp products were detected. The detected bands were extracted and sequenced. Totally 26 out of 79 (32.9%) of the blood samples were positive for the virus. The frequency of the infection of the different parts of the eggs tested was 76%. For the first time TTMDV/SAV was detected in domestic village chickens which also vertically transmitted to eggs. PMID:27175162

  10. Chicken dendritic cells are susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which induce strong cytokine responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervelde, L.; Reemens, S.S.; Haarlem, van D.A.; Post, J.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Jansen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds and mammals is associated with severe pathology and increased mortality. We hypothesize that in contrast to low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) infection, HPAI infection of chicken dendritic cells (DC) induces a cytokine deregulat

  11. Effects of chicken interferon Gamma on Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...

  12. 警惕鸡传染性贫血病对养鸡业的新威胁%New threaten to China poultry of chicken infectious anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包启明; 刘文奎

    2001-01-01

    鸡传染性贫血病(Chicken infectious anaemia,CIA)最早被称之为贫血综合症、贫血症——皮炎综合症、出血性贫血症、兰翅病、贫血因子病等。本病以再生障碍性贫血和全身淋巴组织萎缩造成免疫抑制为特征。因此,传染性贫血病常常为继发病毒、细菌和真菌性感染。

  13. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

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    E. S. Swai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

  14. Comparative histopathology and immunohistochemistry of QX-like, Massachusetts and 793/B serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyeda, Zs; Szeredi, L; Mató, T; Süveges, T; Balka, Gy; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs; Rusvai, M; Palya, V

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experimentally the pathogenicity and tissue distribution of the recently emerged QX-like strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with the widespread M41 and 793/B serotypes of the virus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical methods were employed to define the main sites of virus replication. One-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with five different QX-like strains, or with the M41 and 793/B IBV strains and monitored for 42 days post-infection. Tracheal lesions developed in all infected birds, confirming the ability of all of the tested strains to induce respiratory disease. Replication of the isolates in the alimentary tract was detected, but the infection did not cause significant gut lesions. Four of the five QX-like IBV strains induced severe kidney lesions. Dilation of the oviduct with accumulation of serum-like fluid in the lumen of this structure, reported previously from field cases of QX-like IBV infection, was observed following experimental infection with all of the five QX-like strains. Microscopical and immunohistochemical examination of the affected oviducts did not help to elucidate the pathogenesis of this lesion.

  15. Low plasma selenium concentrations, high plasma human immunodeficiency virus load and high interleukin-6 concentrations are risk factors associated with anemia in adults presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba district, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, van M.; West, C.E.; Meer, van der J.W.M.; Wieringa, F.T.; Semba, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Although anemia is common among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa, the factors contributing to its pathogenesis have not been well characterized. Objective: To characterize the antioxidant micronutrient status, interleukin-6 (IL

  16. Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.

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    Dong-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1 virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

  17. Strong innate immune response and cell death in chicken splenocytes infected with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus

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    Hu Zenglei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates induce more severe damage to lymphoid tissues, especially to the spleen, when compared to virulent viruses of other genotypes. However, the biological basis of the unusual pathological changes remains largely unknown. Methods Virus replication, cytokine gene expression profile and cell death response in chicken splenocytes infected with two genotype VIId NDV strains (JS5/05 and JS3/05, genotype IX NDV strain F48E8 and genotype IV NDV strain Herts/33 were evaluated. Statistical significance of differences between experimental groups was determined using the Independent-Samples T test. Results JS5/05 and JS3/05 caused hyperinduction of type I interferons (IFNs (IFN-α and -β during detection period compared to F48E8 and Herts/33. JS5/05 increased expression level of IFN-γ gene at 6 h post-inoculation (pi and JS3/05 initiated sustained activation of IFN-γ within 24 h pi, whereas transcriptional levels of IFN-γ remained unchanged at any of the time points during infection of F48E8 and Herts/33. In addition, compared to F48E8 and Herts/33, JS3/05 and JS5/05 significantly increased the amount of free nucleosomal DNA in splenocytes at 6 and 24 h pi respectively. Annexin-V and Proidium iodid (PI double staining of infected cells showed that cell death induced by JS3/05 and JS5/05 was characterized by marked necrosis compared to F48E8 and Herts/33 at 24 h pi. These results indicate that genotype VIId NDV strains JS3/05 and JS5/05 elicited stronger innate immune and cell death responses in chicken splenocytes than F48E8 and Herts/33. JS5/05 replicated at a significantly higher efficiency in splenocytes than F48E8 and Herts/33. Early excessive cell death induced by JS3/05 infection partially impaired virus replication. Conclusions Viral dysregulaiton of host response may be relevant to the severe pathological manifestation in the spleen following genotype VIId NDV infection.

  18. Role of position 627 of PB2 and the multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin in the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens and ducks.

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    Karel A Schat

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in domestic and free-living birds with transmission to humans resulting in 59% mortality amongst 564 cases. The mutation of the amino acid at position 627 of the viral polymerase basic-2 protein (PB2 from glutamic acid (E in avian isolates to lysine (K in human isolates is frequently found, but it is not known if this change affects the fitness and pathogenicity of the virus in birds. We show here that horizontal transmission of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 (VN/1203 virus in chickens and ducks was not affected by the change of K to E at PB2-627. All chickens died between 21 to 48 hours post infection (pi, while 70% of the ducks survived infection. Virus replication was detected in chickens within 12 hours pi and reached peak titers in spleen, lung and brain between 18 to 24 hours for both viruses. Viral antigen in chickens was predominantly in the endothelium, while in ducks it was present in multiple cell types, including neurons, myocardium, skeletal muscle and connective tissues. Virus replicated to a high titer in chicken thrombocytes and caused upregulation of TLR3 and several cell adhesion molecules, which may explain the rapid virus dissemination and location of viral antigen in endothelium. Virus replication in ducks reached peak values between 2 and 4 days pi in spleen, lung and brain tissues and in contrast to infection in chickens, thrombocytes were not involved. In addition, infection of chickens with low pathogenic VN/1203 caused neuropathology, with E at position PB2-627 causing significantly higher infection rates than K, indicating that it enhances virulence in chickens.

  19. Chicken pox infection (varicella zoster virus) and acute monoarthritis: evidence against a direct viral mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, C G; Read, S J; Giddins, G.; Eglin, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A 9 year old boy developed acute monoarthritis of the left knee concurrent with the appearance of a varicella zoster virus (VZV) rash. Repeated VZV DNA hybridisation of the cells within the synovial fluid and synovial membrane failed to show any evidence of intracellular virus. Virus was isolated from synovial fluid 24 hours after the start of clinical infection but not later. These findings suggest that the mechanism of the arthritis is not due to viral replication inside the swollen joint.

  20. Solution structure of the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus p9 protein: a rationalization of its different ALIX binding requirements compared to the analogous HIV-p6 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henklein Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine infection anemia virus (EIAV p9 Gag protein contains the late (L- domain required for efficient virus release of nascent virions from the cell membrane of infected cell. Results In the present study the p9 protein and N- and C-terminal fragments (residues 1-21 and 22-51, respectively were chemically synthesized and used for structural analyses. Circular dichroism and 1H-NMR spectroscopy provide the first molecular insight into the secondary structure and folding of this 51-amino acid protein under different solution conditions. Qualitative 1H-chemical shift and NOE data indicate that in a pure aqueous environment p9 favors an unstructured state. In its most structured state under hydrophobic conditions, p9 adopts a stable helical structure within the C-terminus. Quantitative NOE data further revealed that this α-helix extends from Ser-27 to Ser-48, while the N-terminal residues remain unstructured. The structural elements identified for p9 differ substantially from that of the functional homologous HIV-1 p6 protein. Conclusions These structural differences are discussed in the context of the different types of L-domains regulating distinct cellular pathways in virus budding. EIAV p9 mediates virus release by recruiting the ALG2-interacting protein X (ALIX via the YPDL-motif to the site of virus budding, the counterpart of the YPXnL-motif found in p6. However, p6 contains an additional PTAP L-domain that promotes HIV-1 release by binding to the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101. The notion that structures found in p9 differ form that of p6 further support the idea that different mechanisms regulate binding of ALIX to primary versus secondary L-domains types.

  1. Generation of Live Attenuated Novel Influenza Virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) Vaccines with High Yield in Embryonated Chicken Eggs ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Wang, Weijia; Zhou, Helen; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Shambaugh, Cindy; Kim, Lomi; Zhao, Jackie; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Several live attenuated influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in eggs, reassortants expressing the HA and NA of CA09 were passaged in MDCK cells and variants exhibiting large-plaque morphology were isolated. These variants replicated at levels approximately 10-fold higher than the rate of replication of the parental strains in embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis indicated that single amino acid changes at positions 119, 153, 154, and 186 were responsible for the improved growth properties in MDCK cells and eggs. In addition, the introduction of a mutation at residue 155 that was previously shown to enhance the replication of a 1976 swine influenza virus also significantly improved the replication of the CA09 virus in eggs. Each variant was further evaluated for receptor binding preference, antigenicity, attenuation phenotype, and immunogenicity. Mutations at residues 153, 154, and 155 drastically reduced viral antigenicity, which made these mutants unsuitable as vaccine candidates. However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses. PMID:19864389

  2. Generation of live attenuated novel influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) vaccines with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Wang, Weijia; Zhou, Helen; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Shambaugh, Cindy; Kim, Lomi; Zhao, Jackie; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Several live attenuated influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in eggs, reassortants expressing the HA and NA of CA09 were passaged in MDCK cells and variants exhibiting large-plaque morphology were isolated. These variants replicated at levels approximately 10-fold higher than the rate of replication of the parental strains in embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis indicated that single amino acid changes at positions 119, 153, 154, and 186 were responsible for the improved growth properties in MDCK cells and eggs. In addition, the introduction of a mutation at residue 155 that was previously shown to enhance the replication of a 1976 swine influenza virus also significantly improved the replication of the CA09 virus in eggs. Each variant was further evaluated for receptor binding preference, antigenicity, attenuation phenotype, and immunogenicity. Mutations at residues 153, 154, and 155 drastically reduced viral antigenicity, which made these mutants unsuitable as vaccine candidates. However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses.

  3. Subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection of chicken dendritic cells induces apoptosis via the aberrant expression of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Dai, Manman; Zhang, Xu; Cao, Weisheng; Liao, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that causes immunosuppression and enhances susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense in preventing bacterial and viral infections, and dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in innate immunity. Because bone marrow is an organ that is susceptible to ALV-J, the virus may influence the generation of bone marrow-derived DCs. In this study, DCs cultured in vitro were used to investigate the effects of ALV infection. The results revealed that ALV-J could infect these cells during the early stages of differentiation, and infection of DCs with ALV-J resulted in apoptosis. miRNA sequencing data of uninfected and infected DCs revealed 122 differentially expressed miRNAs, with 115 demonstrating upregulation after ALV-J infection and the other 7 showing significant downregulation. The miRNAs that exhibited the highest levels of upregulation may suppress nutrient processing and metabolic function. These results indicated that ALV-J infection of chicken DCs could induce apoptosis via aberrant microRNA expression. These results provide a solid foundation for the further study of epigenetic influences on ALV-J-induced immunosuppression.

  4. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken thymidine kinase gene and the relationship of its predicted polypeptide to that of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoh, T J; Engler, J A

    1984-05-11

    The entire DNA nucleotide sequence of a 3.0 kilobase pair Hind III fragment containing the chicken cytoplasmic thymidine kinase gene was determined. Oligonucleotide linker insertion mutations distributed throughout this gene and having known effects upon gene activity ( Kwoh , T.J., Zipser , D., and Wigler , M. 1983. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2, 191-200), were used to access regions of the Hind III fragment for sequencing reactions. The complete nucleotide sequence, together with the positions of the linker insertion mutations within the sequence, allows us to propose a structure for the chicken thymidine kinase gene. The protein coding sequence of the gene is divided into seven small segments (each less than 160 base pairs) by six small introns (each less than 230 base pairs). The proposed 244 amino acid polypeptide encoded by this gene bears strong homology to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase. No homology with the thymidine kinases of the herpes simplex viruses was found.

  5. What Is Aplastic Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Aplastic Anemia? Aplastic anemia (a-PLAS-tik uh-NEE-me-uh) is ... heart, heart failure , infections, and bleeding. Severe aplastic anemia can even cause death. Overview Aplastic anemia is ...

  6. What Causes Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  7. About Anemia (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes About Anemia KidsHealth > For Kids > About Anemia Print A A ... to every cell in your body. What Is Anemia? Anemia occurs when a person doesn't have ...

  8. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  9. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from neurological complications associated with chicken pox or herpes zoster.

    OpenAIRE

    Puchhammer-Stöckl, E; Popow-Kraupp, T; Heinz, F X; Mandl, C W; Kunz, C.

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with VZV infection associated with neurological symptoms. Positive results were obtained in three of five children with post-chicken pox cerebellitis and in seven of seven herpes zoster patients with neurological symptoms. The PCR thus provides a useful tool for the early diagnosis of VZV-associated neurological disease.

  10. Evaluation of a chimeric multi-epitope-based DNA vaccine against subgroup J avian leukosis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Cui, Ning; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-07-19

    The prokaryotic expressed recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) had been evaluated with good immunogenicity and protective efficacy against subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in our previous study. In the present research, we cloned the chimeric multi-epitope gene X into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to evaluate its potency as a DNA vaccine. The purified recombinant gp85 protein and rCMEPX were used as positive controls and a DNA prime-protein boost strategy was also studied. Six experimental groups of 7-day-old chickens (20 per group) were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2weeks interval with PBS, gp85, rCMEPX, pVAX1, pVAX-X and pVAX-X+rCMEPX respectively. The antibody titers and cellular immune responses were assayed after immunization. The efficacy of immunoprotection against the challenge of ALV-J NX0101 strain was also examined. The results showed that the DNA vaccine could elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses. Immune-challenge experiments showed good protection efficacy against ALV-J infection. Particularly, the regimen involving one priming pVAX-X and twice recombinant rCMEPX boosting, induced the highest antibody titers in all immunized groups. Our results suggest that the constructed chimeric multi-epitope DNA has potential for a candidate vaccine against ALV-J when used in proper prime-boost combinations. The data presented here may provide an alternative strategy for vaccine design in chicken ALV-J prevention.

  11. Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Marek’s Disease Vaccines Derived from Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Dhanutha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the endogenous ALVs in cell associated MD vaccine. Chicken embryo fibroblast cell associated Marek’s disease vaccine was tested for possible contamination with Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs. Initially the vaccine cell lysate was tested for presence of group specific antigen (p27 of ALVs by ELISA and found positive for GSA. Subsequently total DNA and RNA was isolated from vaccine CEFs and analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR using primers specific for ALV subgroups A-E and J. Subgroup specific PCR and RT-PCR revealed that the CEFs were positive for ALV-E and negative for all other exogenous ALV subgroups (ALV-A, B, C, D and J. Envelope gp85 gene sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ALV sequences found in CEFs of MD vaccine were belongs to endogenous ALV-E. Further this sequence has high homology with endogenous loci ev-1, ev-3 and ev-6. Amplification of genomic DNA with endogenous virus locus specific primers revealed that the CEFs of MD vaccine possess ev-1 and ev-6 and negative for ev-3, ev-9 and ev-21. In conclusion, the data in this study clearly demonstrated that the cell associated commercial MD vaccine tested was contaminated with an endogenous subgroup E and also possess ev-loci such as ev1 and ev-6.

  12. Detecção do vírus da laringotraqueíte das galinhas no Brasil Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzane Beltrão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi detectar a presença do vírus da laringotraqueíte infecciosa (VLTI das galinhas em algumas granjas do Brasil. Tecidos da traquéia e suabes foram coletados de 10 lotes de frangos de corte e galinhas de postura com sinais respiratórios. O material foi inoculado em ovos embrionados e as membranas corioalantóides examinadas por histopatologia. Além disso, as amostras foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Três lotes foram positivos para VLTI por isolamento viral e PCR. Os resultados confirmam a presença do VLTI nas galinhas no Brasil.A study was carried out in search for evidences of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV infections in some Brazilian chicken flocks. Tracheal tissues and swabs were collected from 10 different flocks of layers and broilers displaying respiratory signs of disease. Samples were processes for virus isolation in embryonated eggs and the membranes examined by histopathology. In addition, specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Three flocks had ILTV positive chickens by virus isolation and PCR. These results confirm the occurrence of ILTV in chickens in Brazil.

  13. Development of a Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Visual Detection of Chicken Infectious Anemia%鸡传染性贫血病毒病LAMP快速可视化检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓显文; 谢芝勋; 谢志勤; 刘加波; 庞耀珊; 谢丽基; 彭宜; 范晴

    2011-01-01

    为建立一种能快速检测鸡传染性贫血病毒病(CIAV)的检测方法,根据基因库中鸡传染性贫血病毒病的保守序列,设计一套特异性环介导等温扩增(LAMP)引物,建立了CIAV的LAMP可视化检测方法.该法敏感性可达10 fg,高于常规PCR方法10倍;全部反应可在1h内完成;可通过肉眼观察颜色直接判定结果;对其它鸡常见病原体的检测结果均为阴性.结果表明建立的LAMP方法简便、快速、灵敏、特异,可用于CIAV感染的快速检测.%A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for detection of chicken infectious anemia(CIAV). According to the sequences of CIAV in GenBank, six primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized. The results showed that the detection limit of this LAMP method was 10 fg, which was higher than the routine PCR. The amplification could be finished within 1h, and the presence of CIAV could be detected by naked eyes. There was no cross-reactivity with the other pathogen of chiken. These results suggest that this LAMP assay is a simple and specific method for rapid detection of CIAV in clinical samples.

  14. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry.

  15. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Liu

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and avian influenza (AI are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP. Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising.

  16. Co-infection of Avian Leukosis Virus and Salmonella pullorum with the Preliminary Eradication in Breeders of Chinese Local “ShouGuang” Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiang Huang, Jing Kai Xin, Cui Mao, Feng Zhong and Jia Qian Chai*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the infection status and to finish the preliminary eradication of avian leukosis virus (ALV and Salmonella pullorum (SP in breeders of Chinese local “ShouGuang” chickens. ALV antigen and antibody was tested via ELISA, and SP antibody was detected by serum plate agglutination test (SPAT. The etiology and pathology was also studied. The ALV-P27 antigen, ALV-A/B and SP antibody positive chickens were eliminated in turn, and then the negative were retained as the breeder flocks. The results showed that the positive rate of antigen to ALV-P27, antibody to ALV-A/B, ALV-J and SP was 57.8, 6.7, 0 and 17.8% in this breeder farm, respectively. The co-infection of ALV and SP was confirmed and the positive rate of both SP and ALV-P27 or ALV-A/B was 10 and 1%, respectively. There were obvious tumor nodules and lymphoid tumor cells in the comb, liver and spleen of the co-infected chickens. The degenerative and atrophic ovarian follicles, inflammatory cell infiltration in muscle biopsies were also found. The elimination rate of ALV-p27, ALV-A/B and SP positive chickens was 55.4, 13 and 6.1%, respectively. The final amount of the breeder conservation was 309 chickens. In conclusion, the co-infection of ALV-B and SP was found and more emphasis should be given on its prevention; the preliminary eradication of “ShouGuang” breeder chickens was finished.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of simultaneous infection with E. coli O2 and H9N2 influenza virus on inflammatory factors in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Dadras

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of experimental infection with Escherichia coli O2 and H9N2 influenza virus on inflammato- ry factors in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were divided randomly to 6 groups. Inoculation program with 109 EID50/bird of the A/Chicken/Iran/772/1998 (H9N2 virus and 109 CFU/mL/bird of E. coli O2 was carried out as follows: the chicks in group 1 were inoculated with virus and bacteria simultaneously on day 26, group 2 received virus on day 26 and then bacteria 3 days later, group 3 were inoculated with bacteria on day 23 and then virus on day 26, group 4 received only bacteria on day 26, group 5 were inoculated with only virus on day 26 and group 6 served as control. Serum samples were collected from wing vein at days 20, 30, and 40. Sera were examined for inflammatory mediators (TNF-a and INF-γ, acute phase reactants (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and gangliosides (total, lipid-bound and protein-bound sialic acids using validated standard procedures. Among the measured parameters, serum gangliosides showed significant differences between the challenged and control groups in different days post inoculation (P<0.05. Significant increase in serum concentrations of serum sialic acids was observed on the 30th day in challenged groups. Elevations were found in the concentrations of serum gangliosides on day 40 compared to their first concentrations. The most obvious increase in serum sialic acids was observed in group 1 challenged with avian influenza virus and E. coli O2 simultaneously. Bacterial infected group showed more significant changes in comparison with viral infected one. These findings suggest that serum sialic acids may be a useful indicator of H9N2 avian influenza virus and avian pathogenic E. coli O2 co-infection.

  18. Vaccination with virus-like particles containing H5 antigens from three H5N1 clades protects chickens from H5N1 and H5N8 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter

    2016-03-18

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious. Here we describe a recombinant VLP containing HA proteins derived from three distinct clades of H5N1 viruses as an experimental, broadly protective H5 avian influenza vaccine. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5 genes from recent H5N1 HPAI isolates A/chicken/Germany/2014 (clade 2.3.4.4), A/chicken/West Java/Subang/29/2007 (clade 2.1.3) and A/chicken/Egypt/121/2012 (clade 2.2.1). Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells along with influenza neuraminidase (NA) and retrovirus gag genes resulted in production of triple-clade H555 VLPs that exhibited hemagglutination activity and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Vaccination of chickens with these VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with three different viruses including the recent U.S. H5N8 HPAI isolate. We conclude that these novel triple-clade VLPs represent a feasible strategy for simultaneously evoking protective antibodies against multiple variants of H5 influenza virus.

  19. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine intake evaluation by detection of virus amplification in feather pulps of vaccinated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, I; Raibshtein, I; Altori, A; Elkin, N

    2016-03-18

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus, ILTV. The live vaccine is applied worldwide by drinking water or by the respiratory route, and by the vent application in Israel. No system of direct evaluation of the efficacy of vaccination exists today, except of antibody elicitation, which is an indirect indication of vaccination intake and might happen due to environment exposure. We suggest for the first time an assay for evaluating the accuracy of the vaccination process by spotting the spread of the live vaccine systemically, namely by virus detection in the feather shafts of the vaccinated birds. The feathers are particularly beneficial as they are easy to collect, non-lethal for the bird, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. Moreover, the continuous survey of the vaccine virus unveiled the different kinetics of viremia by the different vaccination routes; while after the vent vaccination the systemic viremia peaks during the first week afterwards, after two consecutive vaccine administration by drinking water with 6 day interval, the vireamia peaks only after the second administration. A robust amplification was needed because the vaccine ILTV was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. For the vaccine virus identification in feather shafts a nested real-time PCR for the TK ILTV gene was developed. The sensitivity of detection of the nested rtPCR was greater by 1000 compared to conventional nested PCR and 10 times that real-time PCR.

  20. Association of Mx1 Asn631 variant alleles with reductions in morbidity, early mortality, viral shedding, and cytokine responses in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are produced by host cells and have been shown to limit replication of influenza and other viruses. Selective breeding for the Mx polymorphism is an attractive approach to improve genetic resistance of chickens to avian influenza (AI) viruses. Following infection w...

  1. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken tracheal samples using an impedance aptasensor with gold nanoparticles for signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Sardar; Wang, Ronghui; Kelso, Lisa; Lu, Huaguang; Huang, Tony Jun; Li, Yanbin

    2016-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 is a continuous threat to public health and poultry industry. The recurrence of the H5N1 led us to develop a robust, specific, and rapid detection method for the virus. In this study, an impedance aptasensor was developed for the virus detection using specific H5N1 aptamer and a gold interdigitated microelectrode. Streptavidin was immobilized on the microelectrode surface and biotin labeled H5N1 aptamer was bound to the immobilized streptavidin. The microelectrode was blocked with the polyethylene glycol and the bound aptamer captured the virus. The impedance change caused by the captured virus was measured using an impedance analyzer. To enhance impedance signal, a nanoparticle-based amplifier was designed and implemented by forming a network-like gold nanoparticles/H5N1-aptamer/thiocyanuric acid. The detection limit of the impedance aptasensor was 0.25 HAU for the pure virus and 1 HAU for the tracheal chicken swab samples spiked with the H5N1 virus. The detection time of aptasensor without employing the amplifier was less than an hour. The amplifier increased impedance by a 57-fold for the 1 HAU samples. Only negligible impedance change was observed for non-target viruses such as H5N2, H5N3, H7N2, H1N1, and H2N2. This aptasensor provides a foundation for the development of a portable aptasensor instrument. PMID:27452670

  2. An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianhan; Wang, Ronghui; Jiao, Peirong; Li, Yuntao; Li, Yanbin; Liao, Min; Yu, Yude; Wang, Maohua

    2015-05-15

    Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50 μl was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50 μl. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation. PMID:25263315

  3. Infection of chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells with subgroup J avian leukosis virus inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and alters cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Manman; Qin, Jianru; Hao, Jianjong; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus known to induce tumor formation and immunosuppression in infected chickens. One of the organs susceptible to ALV-J is the bone marrow, from which specialized antigen-presenting cells named dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are derived. Notably, these cells possess the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. In the present study, a method of cultivating and purifying DCs from chicken bone marrow in vitro was established to investigate the effects of ALV-J infection on BM-DC differentiation or generation. The results indicated that ALV-J not only infects the chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells but also appears to inhibit the differentiation and maturation of BM-DCs and to trigger apoptosis. Moreover, substantial reductions in the mRNA expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, MHCI, and MHCII and in cytokine production were detected in the surviving BM-DCs following ALV-J infection. These findings indicate that ALV-J infection disrupts the process of bone marrow mononuclear cell differentiation into BM-DCs likely via altered antigen presentation, resulting in a downstream immune response in affected chickens.

  4. Development and field application of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, L V; Park, M-J; Kye, S-J; Kim, J-Y; Lee, H-S; Choi, K-S

    2013-08-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) using a baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen (rNDV-N) and an rNDV-N-specific monoclonal antibody (5B3) was developed for the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. The specificity and sensitivity of the C-ELISA was found to be 98.4 and 98.9%, respectively, for chickens, and 98.2 and 97.9% for ducks. However, the C-ELISA showed weak cross-reaction with hyperimmune antisera to some other avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In all experimentally vaccinated chickens, seroconversion rates at 7 d postinoculation were 100 and 40% when measured by C-ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI), respectively. In field trials, the C-ELISA showed positive results in 98.9% of HI-positive sera and 40.8% of HI-negative sera from NDV-vaccinated chickens (n = 705). In domestic ducks (n = 158) from NDV-positive duck farms (n = 8), the positive rates according to C-ELISA were significantly higher than those according to the HI test. At the same time, 98.1% of ducks (n = 209) from NDV-negative duck farms (n = 11) were also negative by C-ELISA. Our results indicate that C-ELISA could be a useful alternative to HI testing for detecting NDV antibodies in different avian species such as chickens and ducks.

  5. Increased expression of Interleukin-6 related to nephritis in chickens challenged with an Avian infectious bronchitis virus variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe S. Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian field isolate (IBV/Brazil/PR05 of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, associated with development of nephritis in chickens, was previously genotyped as IBV variant after S1 gene sequencing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of IL-6 in kidneys and trachea of birds vaccinated and challenged with IBV/Brazil/PR05 strain, correlating these results with scores of microscopic lesions, specific IBV antigen detection and viral load. The up-regulation of IL-6 and the increased levels of viral load on renal and tracheal samples were significantly correlated with scores of microscopic lesions. Reduced levels of viral load were detected in kidneys of birds previously vaccinated and challenged, compared to non-vaccinated challenged group, although markedly microscopic lesions were observed for both groups. The expression of IL-6, present both in the kidney and in the tracheas, was dependent on the load of the virus present in the tissue, and the development of lesions was related with IL-6 present in the tissues. These data suggest that variant IBV/Brazil/PR05 can induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a manner correlated with viral load and increased IL-6 is involved in the tissue with the influx of inflammatory cells and subsequent nephritis. This may contribute with a model to the development of immunosuppressive agents of IL-6 to prevent acute inflammatory processes against infection with IBV and perhaps other coronaviruses, as well as contribute to the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of IBV nephropatogenic strains.

  6. Molecular charecterization of Avian Adeno virus causing Inclusion Body Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome in broiler chickens of Anand, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K B Thakor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Adenovirus was isolated from naturally infected broiler chickens. Two Liversample were collected in glycerol saline from the birds came from Aman and Jankipoutry farm for the postmortem in the Dept. of pathology,Veterinary college,Anand(Gujarat. Extraction of viral DNA from infected liver tissues was done as per the method of Meuleman et al., (2001 with minor modifications. The amplified PCR analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis indicated DNA fragments of approximately 890 bp as expected by primer HexonA F & HexonB R. PCR assay revealed presence of IBH-HPS virus in both samples. Obtained PCR product of both sample were subjected to DNA sequencing and obtained sequencing was compared with other matched sequince. On phylogenetic analysis using Clustal W program showed 3 major group like upper, middle and lower respectively. In the minor branch of upper group the AMAN and JANKI isolates were found to group with Fowl adenovirus 12 strain 380 and Fowl adenovirus 11 strain C2B, so AMAN and JANKI isolates indicating a new fowl adenovirus genotype. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 178-182

  7. Construction, expression and immunoassay detection of recombinant plasmid encoding fusion protein of Roman chicken complement C3d and Newcastle disease virus F gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Niu, Z-X

    2008-12-01

    The terminal degradation product (C3d) of mammalian complement component C3 plays an important role in modulation of the adaptive immune response through the interaction with complement receptor type 2 (CR2) on B cells. In this study, the gene fragment coding for the complement protein C3d (chC3d) from Roman chicken was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein for its application in the vaccine study of chicken, and for in vitro experiments. The chC3d fragment strengthened B-cell responses when complexed with antigen. Three potential vaccine construct units were engineered to contain two, four and six copies of chC3d coding gene linked to the F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an economically important pathogen of chicken that is classified as a list A contagious disease of poultry by the Office International des Epizooties. The cloned chC3d protein and different repeats of C3d proteins in addition to the F gene of NDV were generated separately in Escherichia coli and chicken embryo fibroblast cells with the help of expression vectors. All recombinant proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Analysis of the immunogenicity of different repeats of C3d revealed that chC3d had an enhancing effect on the immunogenicity of antigens, and that six or more repeats of C3d may be necessary for efficient enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses. To date, published research into the adjuvant activities of C3d has been limited to experiments in mice, rabbits and cattle. The adjuvant properties of C3d have not been assessed in poultry using homologous C3d in association with antigens relevant to the target species. The Roman chicken C3d fusion proteins described in this study is the first report and will provide a basis for immunization trials in chicken, studies of receptor binding and cell activation of chicken lymphocytes, and investigations of new types of vaccines, including recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines for future use against other

  8. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sites where virulent Newcastle disease virus persists in endemic countries are unknown. Evidence presented here shows that the same strain that caused a previous outbreak was present in both apparently healthy and sick vaccinated birds from multiple farms that had high average specific antibody...

  9. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-01

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  10. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  11. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenkai; Ji, Jun; Yan, Yiming; Lin, Wencheng; Li, Hongxin; Chen, Feng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Weiguo; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-12-11

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1) BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2) METHODS: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  12. Detection and strain differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus in tracheal tissues from experimentally infected chickens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Comparison with an immunohistochemical technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, M.W.;

    1999-01-01

    Oligonucleotide pairs were constructed for priming the amplification of fragments of nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike glycoprotein (S) genes of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One oligonucleotide pair amplified a common segment......3896 and 793B strains of IBV, respectively, Groups of specific pathogen free chickens were experimentally inoculated with the Massachusetts (H120, M41), the D1466 and the 793B strains of IBV, and tracheal tissue preparations were made from each bird for RT-PCR and for immunohistochemistry (IHC) up to 3...... days post-inoculation. The N-gene RT-PCR detected IBV in 82% of the chickens, while IHC only detected IBV in 60%. This difference was significant (P PCR varied from 67 to 100% for the various strains of IBV inoculated. The S1 gene oligonucleotide pairs were...

  13. Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in chicken lung and trachea with avian influenza virus infection by a deep sequencing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rui

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in a wide spectrum of biological processes and have been shown to be important effectors in the intricate host-pathogen interaction networks. Avian influenza virus (AIV not only causes significant economic losses in poultry production, but also is of great concern to human health. The objective of this study was to identify miRNAs associated with AIV infections in chickens. Results Total RNAs were isolated from lung and trachea of low pathogenic H5N3 infected and non-infected SPF chickens at 4 days post-infection. A total of 278,398 and 340,726 reads were obtained from lung and trachea, respectively. And 377 miRNAs were detected in lungs and 149 in tracheae from a total of 474 distinct chicken miRNAs available at the miRBase, respectively. Seventy-three and thirty-six miRNAs were differentially expressed between infected and non-infected chickens in lungs and tracheae, respectively. There were more miRNAs highly expressed in non-infected tissues than in infected tissues. Interestingly, some of these differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR-146, have been previously reported to be associated with immune-related signal pathways in mammals. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study on miRNA gene expression in AIV infected chickens using a deep sequencing approach. During AIV infection, many host miRNAs were differentially regulated, supporting the hypothesis that certain miRNAs might be essential in the host-pathogen interactions. Elucidation of the mechanism of these miRNAs on the regulation of host-AIV interaction will lead to the development of new control strategies to prevent or treat AIV infections in poultry.

  14. APLASTIC ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Dharma Laksmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Aplastic Anemia describes a disorder of the clinical syndrome is marked by a deficiency of red blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets in the absence of other forms of bone marrow damage. Aplastic anemia is classified as a rare disease in developed countries the incidence of 3-6 cases / 1 million inhabitants / year. The exact cause of someone suffering from aplastic anemia also can not be established with certainty, but there are several sources of potential risk factors. Prognosis or course of the disease varies widely aplastic anemia, but without treatment generally gives a poor prognosis /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Protective Efficacy of an H5N1 Inactivated Vaccine Against Challenge with Lethal H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 Influenza Viruses in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianying; Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Liling; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Kong, Huihui; Feng, Huapeng; Bai, Jie; Li, Xin; Shi, Wenjun; Tian, Guobin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-05-01

    The Goose/Guangdong-lineage H5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (HA) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. Since late 2013, the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. Different subtypes of the clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in Asia, Europe, and North America. In this study, we developed a new H5N1 inactivated vaccine by using a seed virus (designated as Re-8) that contains the HA and NA genes from a clade 2.3.4.4 virus, A/chicken/Guizhou/4/13(H5N1) (CK/GZ/4/13), and its six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. We evaluated the protective efficacy of this vaccine in chickens challenged with one H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1b virus and six different subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 strains. In the clade 2.3.2.1b virus DK/GX/S1017/13-challenged groups, half of the vaccinated chickens shed virus through the oropharynx and two birds (20%) died during the observation period. All of the control chickens shed viruses and died within 6 days of infection with challenge virus. All of the vaccinated chickens remained healthy following challenge with the six clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, and virus shedding was not detected from any of these birds; however, all of the control birds shed viruses and died within 4 days of challenge with the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses. Our results indicate that the Re-8 vaccine provides protection against different subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses. PMID:27309064

  16. Viral proliferation and expression of tumor-related gene in different chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with different tumorigenic phenotypes of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yajin; Liu, Litao; Niu, Yujuan; Qu, Yue; Li, Ning; Sun, Wei; Lv, Chuanwei; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Guihua; Liu, Sidang

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induced formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. To identify the molecular pathological mechanism underlying changes in host susceptibility and tumor classification induced by these two types of ALV-J strains, chicken embryo fibroblasts derived from chickens with different genetic backgrounds (broiler breeders and laying hens) and an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) were prepared and infected with strain NX0101 or HN10PY01, respectively. The 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and levels of ALV group-specific antigen p27 and heat shock protein 70 in the supernatant collected from the ALV-J infected cells were detected. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of tumor-related genes p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 in ALV-J-infected cells were quantified. The results indicated that the infection of ALV-J could significantly increase mRNA expression levels of p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 Strain HN10PY01 exhibited a greater influence on the three tumor-related genes in each of the three types of cells when compared with strain NX0101, and the TCID50 and p27 levels in the supernatant collected from HN10PY01-infected cells were higher than those collected from NX0101-infected cells. These results indicate that the infection of the two ALV-J strains influenced the gene expression levels in the infected cells, while the newly isolated strain HN10PY01 showed higher replication ability in cells and induced higher expression levels of tumor-related genes in infected cells. Furthermore, virus titers and expression levels of tumor-related genes and cellular stress responses of cells with different genetic backgrounds when infected with each of the two ALV-J strain were different

  17. Viral proliferation and expression of tumor-related gene in different chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with different tumorigenic phenotypes of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yajin; Liu, Litao; Niu, Yujuan; Qu, Yue; Li, Ning; Sun, Wei; Lv, Chuanwei; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Guihua; Liu, Sidang

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induced formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. To identify the molecular pathological mechanism underlying changes in host susceptibility and tumor classification induced by these two types of ALV-J strains, chicken embryo fibroblasts derived from chickens with different genetic backgrounds (broiler breeders and laying hens) and an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) were prepared and infected with strain NX0101 or HN10PY01, respectively. The 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and levels of ALV group-specific antigen p27 and heat shock protein 70 in the supernatant collected from the ALV-J infected cells were detected. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of tumor-related genes p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 in ALV-J-infected cells were quantified. The results indicated that the infection of ALV-J could significantly increase mRNA expression levels of p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 Strain HN10PY01 exhibited a greater influence on the three tumor-related genes in each of the three types of cells when compared with strain NX0101, and the TCID50 and p27 levels in the supernatant collected from HN10PY01-infected cells were higher than those collected from NX0101-infected cells. These results indicate that the infection of the two ALV-J strains influenced the gene expression levels in the infected cells, while the newly isolated strain HN10PY01 showed higher replication ability in cells and induced higher expression levels of tumor-related genes in infected cells. Furthermore, virus titers and expression levels of tumor-related genes and cellular stress responses of cells with different genetic backgrounds when infected with each of the two ALV-J strain were different

  18. Electrostatic Architecture of the Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Core Fusion Protein Illustrates a Carboxyl-Carboxylate pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan D; Soto-Montoya, Hazel; Korpela, Markus K; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-07-24

    Segment 5, ORF 1 of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genome, encodes for the ISAV F protein, which is responsible for viral-host endosomal membrane fusion during a productive ISAV infection. The entry machinery of ISAV is composed of a complex of the ISAV F and ISAV hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins in an unknown stoichiometry prior to receptor engagement by ISAV HE. Following binding of the receptor to ISAV HE, dissociation of the ISAV F protein from HE, and subsequent endocytosis, the ISAV F protein resolves into a fusion-competent oligomeric state. Here, we present a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the fusion core of the ISAV F protein determined at low pH. This structure has allowed us to unambiguously demonstrate that the ISAV entry machinery exhibits typical class I viral fusion protein architecture. Furthermore, we have determined stabilizing factors that accommodate the pH-dependent mode of ISAV transmission, and our structure has allowed the identification of a central coil that is conserved across numerous and varied post-fusion viral glycoprotein structures. We then discuss a mechanistic model of ISAV fusion that parallels the paramyxoviral class I fusion strategy wherein attachment and fusion are relegated to separate proteins in a similar fashion to ISAV fusion.

  19. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eGarcía

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3 with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP, fusion (F, hemagglutinin (HE and matrix (M proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

  20. MHC Expression on Spleen Lymphocyte Subsets in Genetically Resistant and Susceptible Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina; Bøving, Mette K.; Handberg, Kurt;

    2009-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) are strongly influenced by the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In this study, splenic lymphocytes from MD-resistant and MD-susceptible chickens of three MHC genotypes (B21/B21, B19/B21, and B19/B19) were analyzed by flow...

  1. Molecular cloning of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens and its adaptation in tissue culture by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-length cDNA of both genome segments of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (BD 3/99) were cloned in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged to the 5'-ends. Mutations were introduced in the cloned cDNA to bring about two amino acid exchanges (Q253H and A284T) in the capsid protein VP2. Transfection of primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells with RNA transcribed in vitro from the full-length cDNA resulted in the formation of mutant infectious virus particles that grow in tissue culture. The pathogenicity of this molecularly-cloned, tissue-culture- adapted virus (BD-3tc) was tested in commercial chickens. The parental wild-type strain, BD 3/99, was included for comparison. The subclinical course of the disease and delayed bursal atrophy in BD-3tc-inoculated birds suggested that these amino acid substitutions made BD-3tc partially attenuated. (author)

  2. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  3. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  4. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  5. Living with Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  6. Standardization of the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcastle disease is the major viral disease of poultry causing significant economic losses in most countries except Australia and New Zealand. Serological monitoring of poultry has traditionally been carried out using the haemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) test. More recently, ELISA has been used for the same purpose. This paper described the use of an indirect ELISA for assay of antibodies in chickens against Newcastle disease viruses and compares some of the parameters for this test. The sucrose density gradient purified, inactivated, antigen enabled performance of the test without the addition of any blocking agents other than the usual Tween 20. A range of plates was compared and the most suitable plate was found to be a polystyrene haemagglutination plate giving an excellent positive to negative ratio of 33.2, compared with some expensive ELISA plates which gave very low +ve/-ve ratios. Various incubation conditions for the steps in the ELISA were compared and incubation with shaking at room temperature (24 to 28 deg. C) gave adequate reactivity whilst simplifying incubation conditions and speeding up the test. The negative cut-off value was determined by testing 1632 HI negative specific pathogen free sera from birds of a wide age range. The reactivity of sera in the ELISA was standardized using a standard curve on every plate and converting the readings to ELISA units (EUs) in the range of 16 to 512 EUs. The EU values of these sera were not normally distributed and so the 95% cut-off was determined by ranking the values in descending order and retaining only the top 5% of the values as false positives. This resulted in a cut-off value of 33.6 EUs, with few of HI positive sera having values lower than this cut-off. The use of a standard curve on each plate is recommended in order to standardize the assay and to determine the ELISA units for the test sera. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Expression of chicken Interleukin-2 by turkey herpesvirus increases the immune response against Marek?s disease virus but fails to increase protection against virulent challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarpey, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract As Marek?s disease virus continues to evolve towards greater virulence more efficacious vaccines will be required in the future. We expressed chicken interleukin-2 (IL-2) from a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) in an attempt to increase the efficacy of HVT as a vaccine against Marek?s disease. The recombinant IL-2/HVT was safe for in ovo vaccination though it replicated less in the birds compared to the parent HVT strain. Expression of IL-2 increased the neutralizing antibody r...

  8. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  9. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  10. The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization for the detection of measles virus and chicken anaemia virus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.; McQuaid, S. [Royal Group of Hospitals, Belfast (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.]|[Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Microwave irradiation was investigated as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Two probe/tissue systems were used: a single-stranded RNA probe for the detection of measles virus nucleocapsid genome in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain tissue, and a double stranded DNA probe for chicken anaemia virus in thymus of chicken infected with the virus. Microwaving, when used as sold pretreatment, was not as effective as the more traditional enzyme pretreatments for in situ hybridization. However, when used in combination with existing pretreatments, a significant increase was found in hybridization signal in both brain and thymus tissue. This was emphasized when combination enzyme/microwave pretreatments were used prior to detection of measles virus by in situ hybridization in a series of five archival subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases. The use of microwave irradiation would be recommended as a means of supplementing in situ hybridization methods, especially when using long-term formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. (Author).

  11. 再生障碍性贫血继发流感病毒感染的危险性研究%Research on danger of aplastic anemia secondary infection with influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭潮潭; 尤金彪; 曹毅; 胡致平; 陈帅帅; 沃恩康; 王怡婷; 杨新燕; 张儒轩

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨流感病毒感染对再生障碍性(再障)贫血模型小鼠造血功能的影响,以期为临床再障合并流感的研究提供参考.方法 采用环磷酰胺及甲苯法构建小鼠再障模型,观察再障模型小鼠与正常小鼠血红蛋白和血细胞三系的变化,判断造模效果.用微量病毒接种法判断流感病毒对正常小鼠及再障小鼠血细胞及生存的影响.结果 成功建立了小鼠再障模型,再障小鼠的血红蛋白、红细胞、白细胞、血小板计数显著下降,与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与未接种病毒的小鼠相比,正常小鼠微量多次接种流感病毒后除发生一过性体重轻度下降外,血细胞三系均无明显变化;而再障小鼠模型接种病毒后的病死率较正常小鼠接种病毒后显著增高.结论 流感病毒感染对正常小鼠的造血功能无明显影响,但可能会导致再障动物病情加重,甚至增加病死率.%Objective To investigate the influence of influenza virus infection on the hematopoietic function of aplastic anemia model mouse,and provide reference for research on clinical aplastic anemia influenza complication.Methods Small mice aplastic anemia model was set up by cyclophosphamide and toluene method.Through observing changes of hemoglobin and blood three series between model mouse and normal mouse to estimate the molding effect.Virus inoculation method was used to estimate the effects of influenza virus on the blood cell and survival of normal and aplastic anemia mouse.Results Aplastic anemia model mouse with chemical method were successfully established.Hemoglobin,red blood cell,white blood cell and blood platelet were reduced obviously,the differences compared with control group had statistical significance (P<0.05).In contrast with uninoculated mouse,normal mouse had no significant change in blood three series after less frequent influenza virus inoculation except for temporary body weight loss

  12. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  13. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkai Dai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1 Background: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2 Methods: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01. Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3 Results: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  14. Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the attenuated and inactivated Malaysian isolate of vvIBDV (UPM0081 in specific-pathogen-free (SPF chickens. The UPM0081T15 passage 15 and UPM0081T20 passage 20 of vvIBDV attenuated in Vero cells were inactivated using water-Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA. Complete inactivation of UPM0081T15 with titer of 106.7 TCID50/0.1 mL and UPM0081T20 with titer of 107.4 TCID50/0.1mL occurred after 24 hours. The inactivated virus suspension and an equal volume of Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were mixed together water-in-oil emulsion and injected subcutaneously into 42-day-old SPF chickens. Neither clinical signs nor gross lesions were observed in chickens before and after vvIBDV challenged. High and protective level of IBD antibody titer was recorded into 2 groups at 2 weeks post infection and 2 weeks post challenged. The study showed that both the inactivated UPM0081T15 and UPM0081T20 was safe and could provide 100% protection against vvIBDV challenged with titer of 107.8 EID50/ 0.1 mL

  15. Study on Propagation of Chicken Infectious Bursal Disease Virus on Vero Cells Using Microcarriers in Fermentor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Gang; WANG Hong-jun; SUN Hui-ling

    2002-01-01

    It was in flask optimization tests proved that 2% serum, pH 7.0, 5:10 000 inoculation concentration of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and 108 hours cultivation for IBDV harvest after its inoculation were the optimal conditions when IBDV was propagated on Vero cells. 250 mi self-made spinner bottle and 5 L stirring fermentor tests proved that IBDV could maintain higher titers for a long time and the highest titers of IBDV in a spinner bottle and a fermentor were 8. 875 and 8.58 ( - lgTCID50/0.1 ml) respectively when IBDV was proliferated on Vero cells using 2 g/L microcarriers in a spinner bottle and a fermentor and was cultivated under the optimum conditions obtained from flask tests after Vero cells had developed a confluent monolayer on microcarriers, which were at least one titer higher than the highest titer in the traditional rolling bottle. All these results suggested that this technology could be applied to large scale production for IBDV.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes Mutants Carrying Newcastle Disease Virus F Gene Fused to its actA and plcB: In vitro Expression and Immunogenicity in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli JIANG; Chunlin KE; Jingjing XU; Jianshun CHEN; Xueyan CHEN; Ning CHEN; Jiangbing SHUAI; Weihuan FANG

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes mutants carrying Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein gene F were constructed by homologous recombination. NDV F or its truncated fragment Fa was used as the model heterologous gene to be integrated into actA or plcB downstream of their signal sequences.Correct orientation of the inserted genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of F or Fa.The inserted F and Fa were expressed in the two recombinants Lm-ΔactA-F and Lm-ΔplcB-Fa as shown by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Both recombinants exhibited reduced virulence to embryonated eggs and mice by about 1.5-2.5 logs as compared with the parent wild strain 10403S. They were also less invasive than strain 10403S (P<0.05). Chickens receiving the recombinant strains orally or intraperitoneally were partially protected from virulent NDV challenge possibly due to enhancement of non-specific immunity because the antibody titers against the homologous virus strain or the recombinant truncated fusion protein were marginal. Further research is needed in other animal models to see if the low antibody response results from insufficient expression of the heterologous genes as a result of failure of L. monocytogenes or its recombinants to persist or replicate in chickens.

  17. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  18. Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-α and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18 as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-α or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-α and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2.

  19. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  20. In vivo transcriptional cytokine responses and association with clinical and pathological outcomes in chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the host response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) infection in chickens and the relationship between the innate immune response and the severity of clinical disease. Innate responses are considered important during the earliest phases of microbial invasion because they can lim...

  1. Study on Injection of Zedoary Turmeric Volatile Oil against Newcastle Disease Virus in SPF Chicken Embryo Inoculation%莪术油注射液鸡胚接种抗新城疫病毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学理; 鄢长庆; 刘珂飞; 杨明; 杨明霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the inhibiting and killing effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the newcastle disease virus. [ Method] The inhibitory effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the multiplication of the newcastle disease virus was determined by the SPF chicken embryo culture and hemagglutination test. [ Result] The zedoary turmeric volatile oil had no toxicity effect on the SPF chicken embryo. Inoculating SPF chicken embryo synchronously with the zedoary turmeric volatile oil and the virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit the reproduction of the newcastle disease virus in the SPF chicken embryo. [Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for the application of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil in the Veterinary Clinical.%[目的]探讨莪术油对新城疫病毒的抑制和杀灭作用.[方法]用鸡胚培养法和血凝试验,测定莪术油对鸡新城疫病毒增殖的抑制作用.[结果]莪术油对鸡胚无毒性作用;莪术油与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城疫病毒在鸡胚中的增殖.[结论]结果为莪术油在兽医临床上的应用提供了理论依据.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase gene of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from chicken in Iran during 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Norouzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Classified as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses, the H9N2 subtype causes severe respiratory disease in poultry farms and occasional respiratory disease in humans. In this study, the neuraminidase (NA gene of three Avian Influenza (AI H9N2 strains isolated from poultry farms in Iran during 2010-11, as well as other reported Iranian H9N2 isolates, were genetically analyzed and their nucleotide changes were evaluated.The NA gene of three AIVs were sequenced and evaluated for genetic characteristics and phylogenetic relationship.One new potential glycosylation site (PGS at amino acid position 306 was observed in one of the studied isolates (A/Chicken/Iran/N102/2011. Antigenic sites of NA in Iranian H9N2 isolates have varied in a yearly manner. The Iranian isolates can be divided into 2 main subgroups; 11-T like subgroup viruses isolated mainly during 1998-2004 and second subgroup viruses isolated during 2004-2009. Interestingly, the three studied isolates fell into a third subgroup. The nucleotide sequences of the three studied isolates showed high identity to recent Pakistani H9N2 isolates (94.5-97% compared to former Iranian AIV isolates (89-94%.High frequency of substitutions in the NA gene of studied isolates in recent years and effects of those substitutions on the pathogenicity of AI virus highlight the need to continue surveillance of genetic characteristics of AIV H9N2 in Iran.

  3. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 controls type I IFN induction in chicken macrophage HD-11 cells: a polygenic trait that involves NS1 and the polymerase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liniger Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses are well characterized to antagonize type I IFN induction in infected mammalian cells. However, limited information is available for avian cells. It was hypothesised that avian influenza viruses (AIV with distinct virulence may interact differently with the avian innate immune system. Therefore, the type I IFN responses induced by highly virulent and low virulent H5N1 AIV and reassortants thereof were analysed in chicken cells. Results The highly pathogenic (HP AIV A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1 (Yama did not induce type I IFN in infected chicken HD-11 macrophage-like cells. This contrasted with an NS1 mutant Yama virus (Yama-NS1A144V and with the attenuated H5N1 AIV A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (Vac carrying the haemagglutinin (HA of the Yama virus (Vac-Yama/HA, that both induced type I IFN in these cells. The substitution of the NS segment from Yama with that from Vac in the Yama backbone resulted in induction of type I IFN secretion in HD-11 cells. However, vice versa, the Yama NS segment did not prevent type I IFN induction by the Vac-Yama/HA virus. This was different with the PB1/PB2/PA segment reassortant Yama and Vac-Yama/HA viruses. Whereas the Yama virus with the Vac PB1/PB2/PA segments induced type I IFN in HD-11 cells, the Vac-Yama/HA virus with the Yama PB1/PB2/PA segments did not. As reported for mammalian cells, the expression of H5N1 PB2 inhibited the activation of the IFN-β promoter in chicken DF-1 fibroblast cells. Importantly, the Yama PB2 was more potent at inhibiting the IFN-β promoter than the Vac PB2. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the NS1 protein and the polymerase complex of the HPAIV Yama act in concert to antagonize chicken type I IFN secretion in HD-11 cells. PB2 alone can also exert a partial inhibitory effect on type I IFN induction. In conclusion, the control of type I IFN induction by H5N1 HPAIV represents a complex phenotype that involves a particular viral

  4. H9N2 influenza virus acquires intravenous pathogenicity on the introduction of a pair of di-basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin and consecutive passages in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakoda Yoshihiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of avian influenza (AI caused by infection with low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have occurred in poultry, resulting in serious economic losses in Asia and the Middle East. It has been difficult to eradicate the H9N2 virus because of its low pathogenicity, frequently causing in apparent infection. It is important for the control of AI to assess whether the H9N2 virus acquires pathogenicity as H5 and H7 viruses. In the present study, we investigated whether a non-pathogenic H9N2 virus, A/chicken/Yokohama/aq-55/2001 (Y55 (H9N2, acquires pathogenicity in chickens when a pair of di-basic amino acid residues is introduced at the cleavage site of its HA molecule. Results rgY55sub (H9N2, which had four basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site, replicated in MDCK cells in the absence of trypsin after six consecutive passages in the air sacs of chicks, and acquired intravenous pathogenicity to chicken after four additional passages. More than 75% of chickens inoculated intravenously with the passaged virus, rgY55sub-P10 (H9N2, died, indicating that it is pathogenic comparable to that of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs defined by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. The chickens inoculated with the virus via the intranasal route, however, survived without showing any clinical signs. On the other hand, an avirulent H5N1 strain, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (Vac1 (H5N1, acquired intranasal pathogenicity after a pair of di-basic amino acid residues was introduced into the cleavage site of the HA, followed by two passages by air sac inoculation in chicks. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that an H9N2 virus has the potential to acquire intravenous pathogenicity in chickens although the morbidity via the nasal route of infection is lower than that of H5N1 HPAIV.

  5. THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. W. Yuniwarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI disease in broiler chicken by increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surface by antigen presenting cell (APC. Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intact during specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO was potential as immunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyte T and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was Completely Randomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AI vaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed. Day Old Chick (DOC were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and water were given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 in chickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCO without AI vaccine.

  6. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  7. Inborn anemias in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an α-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes

  8. Prevalence of the C-terminal truncations of NS1 in avian influenza A viruses and effect on virulence and replication of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Breithaupt, Angele; Gohrbandt, Sandra; Ziller, Mario; Teifke, Jens P; Stech, Jürgen; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) evolve from low pathogenic (LP) precursors after circulation in poultry by reassortment and/or single mutations in different gene segments including that encoding NS1. The carboxyl terminal end (CTE) of NS1 exhibits deletions between amino acid 202 and 230 with still unknown impact on virulence of AIV in chickens. In this study, NS1 protein sequences of all AIV subtypes in birds from 1902 to 2015 were analyzed to study the prevalence and distribution of CTE truncation (ΔCTE). Thirteen different ΔCTE forms were observed in NS1 proteins from 11 HA and 8 NA subtypes with high prevalences in H9, H7, H6 and H10 and N9, N2, N6 and N1 subtypes particularly in chickens and minor poultry species. With 88% NS217 lacking amino acids 218-230 was the most common ΔCTE form followed by NS224 (3.6%). NS217 was found in 10 and 8 different HA and NA subtypes, respectively, whereas NS224 was detected exclusively in the Italian HPAIV H7N1 suggesting relevance for virulence. To test this assumption, 3 recombinant HPAIV H7N1 were constructed carrying wild-type HP NS1 (Hp-NS224), NS1 with extended CTE (Hp-NS230) or NS1 from LPAIV H7N1 (Hp-NSLp), and tested in-vitro and in-vivo. Extension of CTE in Hp NS1 significantly decreased virus replication in chicken embryo kidney cells. Truncation in the NS1 decreased the tropism of Hp-NS224 to the endothelium, central nervous system and respiratory tract epithelium without significant difference in virulence in chickens. This study described the variable forms of ΔCTE in NS1 and indicated that CTE is not an essential virulence determinant particularly for the Italian HPAIV H7N1 but may be a host-adaptation marker required for efficient virus replication. PMID:26981790

  9. Identification of Viruses Present in Tissues Collected from Chickens with Hypoglycemia-Spiking Mortality Syndrome (H-SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissues were collected, over a 10-year period, from broiler chickens diagnosed with severe H-SMS at the Georgia Poultry Lab, in Oakwood, GA. All samples were stored in tissue culture media, with antibiotics and 15% fetal bovine serum, in an ultra-cold freezer @ -80F. Specimens were homogenized,...

  10. Rapid sample preparation for detection and identification of avian influenza virus from chicken faecal samples using magnetic bead microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bu, Minqiang; Handberg, Kurt;

    2010-01-01

    -PCR is a sensitive method for detection of AIV, it requires sample preparation including separation and purification of AIV and concentrate viral RNA. It is laborious and complex process especially for diagnosis using faecal sample. In this study, magnetic beads were used for immunoseparation of AIV in chicken...

  11. Mutations in and Expression of the Tumor Suppressor Gene p53 in Egg-Type Chickens Infected With Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Yulong, G; Liting, Q; Shuai, Y; Delong, L; Yubao, L; Lili, J; Sidang, L; Xiaomei, W

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic effects of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), we examined mutations in and the expression of p53 in the myelocytomas distributed in the liver, spleen, trachea, and bone marrow, as well as in fibrosarcomas in the abdominal cavity and hemangiomas in skin from chickens that were naturally or experimentally infected with ALV-J. Two types of mutations in the p53 gene were detected in myelocytomas of both the experimentally infected and the naturally infected chickens and included point mutations and deletions. Two of the point mutations have not been reported previously. Partial complementary DNA clones with a 122-bp deletion in the p53 gene ORF and a 15-bp deletion in the C-terminus were identified in the myelocytomas. In addition, moderate expression of the mutant p53 protein was detected in the myelocytomas that were distributed in the liver, trachea, spleen, and bone marrow. Mutant p53 protein was not detected in the subcutaneous hemangiomas or in the abdominal fibrosarcomas associated with natural and experimental ALV-J infection, respectively. These results identify mutations associated with abnormal expression of p53 in ALV-J-associated myelocytomas, suggesting a role in tumorigenesis.

  12. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  13. Cooley's Anemia Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History About Thomas Benton Cooley Medical Research ... Gabriella was diagnosed with thalassemia, and the Cooley’s Anemia Foundation continues to play an almost-daily role ...

  14. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most recent scientific research View all publications Home Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  15. Anemia in the Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD ... Prematurity (ROP) Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL ... and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  18. Anemia in Elderly Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the geriatric population in Korea has grown to comprise approximately 10% of the total population, and anemia has become a significant problem among elderly patients. Many elderly patients have anemia due to nutritional deficiency, chronic inflammation, or comorbid diseases; however, in a significant fraction of the patients with anemia, the cause remains obscure. Anemia of any degree is recognized as a significant independent contributor to morbidity and mortality in elderly patien...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ...

  2. Who Is at Risk for Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aplastic Anemia Hemolytic Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Pernicious Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... A family history of inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: May ...

  3. Molecular cloning of a Bangladeshi strain of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens and adaptation in tissue culture by site directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive as well as fatal disease known as infectious bursal disease (IBD) or Gumboro disease in young chickens. IBDV is a dsRNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae having a bisegmented genome. Very virulent (vv) IBDV does not replicate in common tissue culture; adaptation to tissue culture following repeated passages in embryonated eggs results in too much attenuation. It has been reported that only a few amino acids in the VP2 are responsible for tissue culture adaptation. In the present study, full-length cDNA corresponding to the genome segments A and B of a Bangladeshi vvIBDV strain BD-3/99 were synthesised and amplified by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in overlapping fragments. The PCR amplicons were used to construct full-length cDNA clones of both segments in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged at the 5'-end. Complete nucleotide sequences of both genome segments of BD 3/99 were established (GenBank Accession No. AF352776 and AF36270) and compared with 16 and 17 published sequences of segment A and segment B of IBDV, respectively, using Clustal V method of multiple alignment analysis (MegAlign, Lasergene, DNASTAR Inc., USA). In phylogenetic analysis BD-3/99 clustered with other vvIBDV strains isolated earlier from Europe, Asia and Africa.The reverse genetics technique was optimised for BD-3/99. The plasmids were linearised with appropriate restriction enzymes and cRNA corresponding to both segment A and segment B of BD-3/99 were transcribed in vitro under the control of T7 promoter. Freshly prepared chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell monolayer was then transfected with the transcribed cRNA. Transfection of CEF cells with this wild-type cRNA resulted in the formation of infectious virus particles but the progeny virus could not be passaged any further in fresh CEF cells. However, this molecularly cloned virus (BD-3mc) could

  4. THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Y.W. Yuniwarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI disease in broiler chickenby increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surfaceby antigen presenting cell (APC. Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intactduring specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO was potential asimmunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyteT and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was CompletelyRandomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AIvaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed.Day Old Chick (DOC were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and waterwere given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 inchickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCOwithout AI vaccine.

  5. 鸡新城疫山东强毒株的分离鉴定及致病性研究%Isolation,Identification and Pathogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Chickens of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋敏训; 李锋; 王莉莉; 黄兵; 牟建青; 杨英阁; 张秀美

    2001-01-01

    从山东省不同地区的发病鸡群中分离了6株病毒,经HA、HI试验、病毒回归试验和血清中和接种鸡胚试验确定所分离的毒株为新城疫病毒。分别对6个毒株的MDT、ICPI和IVPI进行了测定,结果表明这些毒株为鸡新城疫强毒,但各个毒株的致病性有所差异。%Six virus strains were isolated from affected chickens in some areas of Shandong province,and characterized as Newcastle disease virus by hemagglutination/hemagglutination-inhibition test,challenge with 6-week specific pathogen free(SPF) chickens and inoculation of embryos after neutralization using particular sera.Mean death time(MDT)of embryos,intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks(ICP)and intravenous pathogenicity index in 6-week-old chickens(IVPI)were determined respectively for isolates.The results showed that the six strains were highly vilulent and produced different pathogenicity in chickens and embryos.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of J-subgroup avian leukosis virus isolated from meat-type chickens in southern China between 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wencheng; Li, Xinjian; Dai, Zhenkai; Zhang, Xinheng; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-11-01

    Members of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) cause various diseases associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, resulting in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. To assess the status of ALV-J infection in meat-type chickens in southern China, the molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains was investigated. A total of 265 clinical samples collected from southern China from 2013 to 2014 were investigated in this study for the presence of ALV-J, which resulted in 12 virus isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 91.7 % (11/12) of the ALV-J isolates have possessed high homology to Chinese layer isolates and belong to one subgroup. One of the ALV isolates (designated GD1411-1) was relatively closely related to the ALV-J broiler isolates, indicating that the GD1411-1 isolate might be a transition strain. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in gp85 and the U3 region were detected in all 12 ALV-J isolates. This study provides some interesting information on the molecular characterization of ALV-J isolates. These findings will be beneficial for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of ALV-J infection.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of J-subgroup avian leukosis virus isolated from meat-type chickens in southern China between 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wencheng; Li, Xinjian; Dai, Zhenkai; Zhang, Xinheng; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-11-01

    Members of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) cause various diseases associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, resulting in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. To assess the status of ALV-J infection in meat-type chickens in southern China, the molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains was investigated. A total of 265 clinical samples collected from southern China from 2013 to 2014 were investigated in this study for the presence of ALV-J, which resulted in 12 virus isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 91.7 % (11/12) of the ALV-J isolates have possessed high homology to Chinese layer isolates and belong to one subgroup. One of the ALV isolates (designated GD1411-1) was relatively closely related to the ALV-J broiler isolates, indicating that the GD1411-1 isolate might be a transition strain. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in gp85 and the U3 region were detected in all 12 ALV-J isolates. This study provides some interesting information on the molecular characterization of ALV-J isolates. These findings will be beneficial for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of ALV-J infection. PMID:27503348

  8. Analyzing the H19- and T65-epitopes in 38 kd phosphorylated protein of Marek's disease viruses and comparing chicken immunological reactions to viruses point-mutated in the epitopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhizhong; ZHANG Zhi; QIN Aijian; Lee Lucy F

    2004-01-01

    DNA sequencing analysis in 38 kd phosphorylated protein (pp38) ORF of Marek's disease viruses (MDV) indicated that all tested 10 virulent strains with different pathotypes had 'A' at base #320 and glutamine at aa#107 while reacted with monoclonal antibody (Mab) H19 in indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFA). However, vaccine strain CVI988 had 'G' at base#320 and arginine at aa#107 instead, when it was negative in IFA with Mab H19. Some strains were also reactive with Mab T65 in IFA while there was 'G' at base #326 and glycine at aa#109, but the other strains, which had 'A' at base #326 and glutamic acid at aa#109, did not react with Mab T65. By comparison of CVI988 to its point mutants CVI/rpp38(AG) and CVI/rpp38(AA) with 1 or 2 base(s) changes at bases #320 and /or #326 of pp38 gene for their reactivity with Mab H19 and T65, it was confirmed that the glutamine at aa#107 and glycine at aa#109 were critical to epitopes H19 and T65 respectively. Immuno-reactions to MDV were compared in SPF chickens inoculated with cloned CVI988 and its mutant CVI/rpp38(AG). It was found that antibody responses to MDV in chickens inoculated with CVI/rpp38(AG) were delayed and significantly lower than that in chickens inoculated with the native CVI988. By differential comparison of antibody titers to different antigens, a third epitope specific to CVI988 and dependent on arginine at aa#107 was suggested to be responsible for the big difference in antibody responses induced by native CVI988 and its mutant.

  9. Pathogenicity of recombinant H5N1 avian influenza viruses with truncated NS1 gene in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NS1 protein of influenza A virus plays an important role in blocking the induction of type I interferon and other regulatory functions in infected cells. However, differences in length of the NS1 protein has been observed in highly pathogenic H5N1, H5N2, and H7N1 subtype avian influenza viruses...

  10. Increased virulence of Marek's disease virus field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1997-01-01

    The continuation of an apparent evolutionary trend of Marek's disease virus (MDV) towards greater virulence may explain recent increased losses from Marek's disease (MD) in vaccinated flocks. To address this question, the virulence of 31 isolates of serotype 1 MDV obtained from layer or broiler flocks between 1987 and 1995 were characterized. Each isolate was cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts for four to six passages, and ascertained to be free from contamination with avian retroviruses, chicken anemia virus, and MDVs of other serotypes. The viruses, along with prototype viruses JM/102W and Md5, were tested for virulence by inoculation at 6 days of age into laboratory strain 15I5 x 7(1) chickens of three types: nonvaccinated, vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and bivalent (HVT + SB-1)-vaccinated. The results showed that three isolates did not differ from JM/102W and were classified in the virulent (vMDV) pathotype. Twenty-one isolates produced significantly higher levels of MD in HVT-vaccinated chickens than did the JM/102W control and were classified in the very virulent (vvMDV) pathotype. Seven isolates, five of which were isolated in 1994 or 1995, produced significantly higher levels of MD in bivalent-vaccinated chickens than did the Md5 (vvMDV) control. These isolates, provisionally designated as the vv+MDV pathotype, appeared to be at the high end of a virulence continuum. Several MD response parameters, including lymphoma mortality, early mortality with bursal/thymic atrophy, and frequency of visceral lymphomas or ocular lesions in nonvaccinated chickens were positively correlated with virulence. These findings support the continued evolution of MDV towards greater virulence.

  11. Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Trus, Ivan; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Li, Yewei; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01(+) cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory mucosa explants and used more KUL01(+) cells to penetrate the deeper layers of the respiratory tract. B1648 was productively replicating in KUL01(+) monocytic cells in contrast with M41. In B1648 inoculated animals, 10(2.7-6.8) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days post inoculation (dpi), 10(2.4-4.5) viral RNA copies/mL in plasma at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dpi and 10(1.8-4.4) viral RNA copies/10(6) mononuclear cells in blood at 2, 4, 6 and 8 dpi. In M41 inoculated animals, 10(2.6-7.0) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dpi, but viral RNA was not demonstrated in plasma and mononuclear cells (except in one chicken at 6 dpi). Infectious virus was detected only in plasma and mononuclear cells of the B1648 group. At euthanasia (12 dpi), viral RNA and antigen positive cells were detected in lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys of only the B1648 group and in tracheas of both the B1648 and M41 group. In conclusion, only B1648 can easily disseminate to internal organs via a cell-free and -associated viremia with KUL01(+) cells as important carrier cells. PMID:27412035

  12. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a haemagglutination inhibition tests for the detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in village chickens using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, H; Thompson, P N; Goutard, F; Grosbois, V

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an endemic disease in village chickens in Ethiopia with substantial economic importance. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA, Svanova Biotech), indirect ELISA (iELISA, Laboratoire Service International) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for ND virus (NDV) antibody detection were evaluated in a Bayesian framework in the absence of a gold standard test, on sera collected from unvaccinated chickens kept under the village production system in household flocks and at markets in two woredas (i.e. districts) of the Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. The outcomes of the iELISA test differed dramatically from those of the two other tests with 92% of the samples testing positive as compared with less than 15% for bELISA and HI. iELISA results were also inconsistent with previous estimations of Newcastle serological prevalence. The information provided by the iELISA test was thus considered as highly unreliable, probably due to an extremely low specificity, and thus not considered in the Bayesian models aiming at estimating serological prevalence and test performance parameters. Bayesian modelling of HI and bELISA test results suggested that bELISA had both the highest Se (86.6%; 95% posterior credible interval (PCI): 61.8%; 98.5%), and the highest Sp (98.3%; 95% PCI: 97.2%; 99.5%), while HI had a Se of 80.2% (95% PCI: 59.1%; 94.3%), and a Sp of 96.1% (95% PCI: 95.1%; 97.4%). Model selection and the range of the posterior distribution of the correlation between bELISA and HI test outcomes for truly seropositive animals (median at 0.461; PCI: -0.055; 0.894) suggested a tendency for bELISA and HI to detect the same truly positive animals and to fail to detect the same truly positive animals. The use of bELISA in screening and surveillance for NDV antibodies is indicated given its high Se and Sp, in addition to its ease of automation to handle large numbers of samples compared to HI. The

  13. Prevalence of Marek's disease virus in different chicken populations in Iraq and indicative virulence based on sequence variation in the ecoRI-q (meq) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Salih J; Katz, Margaret E; Renz, Katrin G; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W

    2013-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in southern Iraq to determine the point prevalence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in different chicken populations followed by sequencing the meq gene for phylogenetic analysis and virulence-associated polymorphisms. A total of 109 samples from unvaccinated flocks were analyzed comprising 52 dust and 30 spleen samples from commercial broiler farms and 27 spleens from local layer chickens purchased in the town markets. The overall prevalence of MDV was 49.5% with no significant differences between provinces (P = 0.08) or sample types (P = 0.89). Prevalence ranged from 36.8% in Karbala and Nasiriyah to 65% in Amarah. The percentages of positive samples were 59.1%, 46.7%, and 48.1% in broiler dust, broiler spleen, and layer spleen, respectively. The overall mean (+/- SEM) Log10 MDV viral copy number per milligram of dust or spleen as determined by quantitative PCR was 1.78 +/- 0.19, with no significant differences between provinces (P = 0.10) or sample types (P = 0.38). In positive samples only, the overall mean was 3.43 +/- 0.18. Sequencing of the meq gene from samples that showed high levels of MDV target in qPCR testing was attempted. Nine samples were sequenced. These sequences were compared with meq sequences of MDVs of different pathotype. All the Iraqi MDVs had a short meq gene of 897 base pairs because of the deletion of 123 bp relative to the reference strain Md5. The Iraqi meq sequences also contained single-nucleotide polymorphisms, resulting in differences in the amino acid sequence. All of the nine Iraqi meq genes encoded two repeats of four-proline sequences. The published negative association between four-proline repeat number and MDV virulence suggests that the Iraqi MDVs are likely to be highly virulent, but this needs to be confirmed by in vivo testing. Taken together, these results indicate that MDV is common in unvaccinated commercial and village chickens in southern Iraq, that there is

  14. B-cell-rich T-cell lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus-reactivation and T-cell suppression following antithymocyte globulin therapy in a patient with severe aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Hanaoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD is generally characterized by the proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-infected B lymphocytes. We here report the development of EBV-negative B-LPD associated with EBV-reactivation following antithymocyte globulin (ATG therapy in a patient with aplastic anemia. The molecular autopsy study showed the sparse EBV-infected clonal T cells could be critically involved in the pathogenesis of EBV-negative oligoclonal B-LPD through cytokine amplification and escape from T-cell surveillances attributable to ATG-based immunosuppressive therapy, leading to an extremely rare B-cell-rich T-cell lymphoma. This report helps in elucidating the complex pathophysiology of intractable B-LPD refractory to rituximab.

  15. Chimeric Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for H5N1 HPAI and ND Confers Protection against a Lethal Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA) makes the virus surveillance difficult. In this study, we developed a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine that is composed of the hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix 1 (M1) proteins of the H5N1 HPAI virus (HPAIV) and a chimeric protein containing the ectodomain of the ND virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the HPAIV HA protein. A single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers against H5N1 HPAI virus and anti-NDV antibody detected in ELISA and protected chickens against subsequent lethal HPAIV and NDV infections. Furthermore, we could easily perform DIVA test using the commercial NP-cELISA tests against HPAIV and HI assay against NDV. These results strongly suggest that utilization of chimeric VLP vaccine in poultry species would be a promising strategy for the better control of HPAI and ND simultaneously. PMID:27626934

  16. Chimeric Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for H5N1 HPAI and ND Confers Protection against a Lethal Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA) makes the virus surveillance difficult. In this study, we developed a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine that is composed of the hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix 1 (M1) proteins of the H5N1 HPAI virus (HPAIV) and a chimeric protein containing the ectodomain of the ND virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the HPAIV HA protein. A single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers against H5N1 HPAI virus and anti-NDV antibody detected in ELISA and protected chickens against subsequent lethal HPAIV and NDV infections. Furthermore, we could easily perform DIVA test using the commercial NP-cELISA tests against HPAIV and HI assay against NDV. These results strongly suggest that utilization of chimeric VLP vaccine in poultry species would be a promising strategy for the better control of HPAI and ND simultaneously. PMID:27626934

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particul...

  19. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  20. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  1. Evaluation of Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujovich, Jody L

    2016-06-01

    Anemia is a common problem in primary care. Classification based on mean cell volume narrows the differential diagnosis and directs testing. A marked macrocytosis is characteristic of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, certain medications, and primary bone marrow disorders. The three most common causes of microcytic anemia are iron deficiency, thalassemia trait, and anemia of inflammation. Additional laboratory testing is required for diagnosis. Determination of the rate of development of anemia and examination of a blood smear may provide diagnostic clues to guide more specialized testing. Diagnosis of iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency mandates determination of the underlying cause. PMID:27212091

  2. Sickle Cell Anemia (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can You Do to Stay Well? en español Anemia falciforme What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Sickle cell ... about 10 to 20 days. This usually causes anemia . Anemia is what happens when the body's number ...

  3. Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations (PDF, 270 KB). Alternate Language URL Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes Page Content On this page: ... References For More Information Acknowledgments What are aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)? Aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Fanconi anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Fanconi anemia Fanconi anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fanconi anemia is a condition that affects many parts of ...

  5. How Is Aplastic Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Treated? Treatments for aplastic anemia include blood transfusions , blood and marrow stem cell ... a transplant. Removing a known cause of aplastic anemia, such as exposure to a toxin, also may ...

  6. How Is Pernicious Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pernicious Anemia Treated? Doctors treat pernicious anemia by replacing the missing vitamin B12 in the body. People who have pernicious anemia may need lifelong treatment. The goals of treating ...

  7. CELO病毒与包涵体肝炎%Chicken embryo lethal orphan virus and inclusion body hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤雪; 王云峰

    2005-01-01

    CELO病毒(Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan Virus,CELOV)即鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,属于腺病毒科,禽腺病毒属,鸡腺病毒Ⅰ型,归于腺病毒A群。1954年Yates等人首次报告从鸡胚中分离到一种新病毒,并于1957年命名为鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,简称CELO病毒。由于CELO病毒具有禽腺病毒属各种的主要生物学特性及抗原特性,1982年国际病毒学分类委员会(ICTV)第四次报告把CELO病毒确定为禽腺病毒属的代表种。

  8. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  9. IgA response and protection following nasal vaccination of chickens with Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine nanoencapsulated with Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Hao, Yan; Yu, Lu; Kang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Zejun

    2016-05-01

    Newcastle disease caused by ND virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease of birds. Vaccine for effective protection of poultry animals from NDV infection is urgently needed. Mucosal immunity plays a very important role in the antiviral immune response. In this study, a NDV F gene-containing DNA vaccine encapsulated in Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles (pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs) with an average diameter of 500 nm were prepared to assess the mucosal immune response. These nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity and did not destroy the bioactivity of plasmid DNA, which could be expressed in vitro. The plasmid DNA was sustainably released after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization showed that the intranasal immunization of chickens with pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs induced high titers of serum antibody, significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles could serve as an efficient and safe delivery carrier for NDV DNA vaccine to induce mucosal immunity. This study has provided promising results for the further development of mucosal vaccines encapsulated in inorganic nanoparticles.

  10. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  12. Antigenic cartography of H9N2 virus and its impact on the vaccine efficacy in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) is wide-spread in Asia and the Middle East. The efficacy of vaccines is enhanced by the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA) between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how antigenic variations affect the vaccine efficacy, speci...

  13. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M.; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G.; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been st...

  14. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2016-07-01

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics of representative Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses detected early in the North American outbreak were investigated in chickens. High mean chicken infectious doses and lack of seroconversion in survivors indicated the viruses were poorly chicken adapted. Pathobiological features were consistent with HPAI virus infection, although the delayed appearance of lesions, longer mean death times, and reduced replication in endothelial cells differed from features of most other Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Although these initial U.S. H5 HPAI viruses had reduced adaptation and transmissibility in chickens, multi-generational passage in poultry could generate poultry adapted viruses with higher infectivity and transmissibility.

  15. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2016-07-01

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics of representative Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses detected early in the North American outbreak were investigated in chickens. High mean chicken infectious doses and lack of seroconversion in survivors indicated the viruses were poorly chicken adapted. Pathobiological features were consistent with HPAI virus infection, although the delayed appearance of lesions, longer mean death times, and reduced replication in endothelial cells differed from features of most other Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Although these initial U.S. H5 HPAI viruses had reduced adaptation and transmissibility in chickens, multi-generational passage in poultry could generate poultry adapted viruses with higher infectivity and transmissibility. PMID:27110710

  16. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  17. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt;

    2005-01-01

    and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures. Also, beta-actin showed no significant variation in both normalized and non-normalized assays and virus dose-independent of inoculation, while other genes did. beta-Actin was further successfully used as an internal control to quantitate Bursine-2......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) can cause disease in chickens characterized by immunosuppression and high mortality. Currently, real-time RT-PCR has been used to quantitate virus-specific RNA and to better understand host response to infection. However, normalization of quantitative real...... following a 7-day IBDV infection. The CE cells were inoculated with various multiplicity of infection (MOI) of IBDV vaccine strain Bursine-2, the expression of genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR-based on cDNA synthesized from either normalized (100 ng) or non-normalized (10 mu l) total RNA...

  18. Safety and efficacy of a backpassaged rMd5-delta-Meq vaccine virus in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus EcoR1-Q fragment of the viral genome encodes meq (MDV EcoQ) gene. Meq is an unique oncogene, present only in serotype 1 MDV and is consistently expressed in all latent or tumor cells. The meq gene was deleted from the very virulent rMd5 genome and was designated as rMd5-delta-M...

  19. A comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of rMd5deltaMeq and CVI988/ Rispens against a vv+ strain of Marek's disease virus infection in a series of recombinant congenic strains of White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuang; Ding, Zhuang; Dunn, John R; Lee, Lucy F; Heidari, Mohammad; Song, Jiuzhou; Ernst, Catherine W; Zhang, Huanmin

    2011-09-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus known as Marek's disease virus (MDV). MD is presently controlled by vaccination. Current MD vaccines include attenuated serotype 1 strains (e.g., CVI988/Rispens), avirulent serotype 2 (SB-1), and serotype 3 (HVT) MDV strains. In addition, recombinant MDV strains have been developed as potential new and more efficient vaccines to sustain the success of MD control in poultry. One of the candidate recombinant MDV strains, named rMd5deltaMeq, was derived from Md5, a very virulent strain of MDV lacking the MDV oncogene Meq. Our earlier reports suggest that rMd5deltaMeq provided protection equally well or better than commonly used MD vaccines in experimental and commercial lines of chickens challenged with very virulent plus (vv+) strains of MDV. In this study, maternal antibody-positive (trial 1) and negative (trial 2) chickens from a series of relatively MD resistant lines were either vaccinated with the rMd5deltaMeq or CVI988/Rispens followed by infection of a vv+ strain of MDV, 648A, passage 10. This report presents experimental evidence that the rMd5deltaMeq protected significantly better than the CVI988/Rispens (P < 0.01) in the relatively resistant experimental lines of chickens challenged with the vv+ strain of MDV. Together with early reports, the rMd5deltaMeq appeared to provide better protection, comparing with the most efficacious commercially available vaccine, CVI988/Rispens, for control of MD in lines of chickens regardless of their genetic background.

  20. Evaluation of Macrocytic Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ralph; Dwyre, Denis M

    2015-10-01

    Macrocytic anemia, defined as a mean cell volume (MCV) ≥100 fL in adults, has a narrow differential diagnosis that requires evaluation of the peripheral blood smear as well as additional laboratory testing taken in conjunction with clinical information that includes patient history and physical examination findings. This review is an update on the approach to a patient with macrocytic anemia with attention paid to the differentiation of megaloblastic and non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemias. Critical to the determination of the diagnosis is the judicious use of laboratory testing and the evaluation of those findings in conjunction with the patient medical, surgical, and medication history. PMID:26404440

  1. Unexplained Anemia in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Makipour, Sasan; Kanapuru, Bindu; Ershler, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Among the elderly, anemia occurs with increasing frequency with each advancing decade. Unlike when anemia occurs in younger adults, the cause of anemia in the elderly is oftentimes not readily apparent or attributable to a single cause. However, this commonly observed form of anemia in the elderly (termed unexplained anemia [UA]) can generally be dissected to its root causes, which include renal insufficiency, inflammation, testosterone deficiency, and stem cell proliferative decline. Myelody...

  2. Comparision of Pathogenicity of Six Different Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Strains to 1-day-old SPF Chickens%不同来源禽网状内皮增生病病毒株的致病性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑红; 崔治中; 王辉

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of different Reticuloen-dotheliosis virus (REV) strains on 1-day-old SPF chickens. 1-day-old SPF chickens were inocula-ted with six REV strains including REV-C99, a cloned strain. The pathogenicity of REV from different strains was evaluated by the measurement of growing rate of chicks and the antibody ti-ters to the Newcastle disease virus(NDV) and Avian influenza virus (H9-AIV and H5-AIV) after vaccination. The results showed that REV challenge at a dose of 3 000 TCID_(50)/bird resulted in the significantly (P0.05).研究结果显示,不同来源REV株感染1日龄SPF鸡后均造成生长迟缓,并对体液免疫反应有明显的抑制作用,同时,这也揭示出REV感染可能是免疫失败的重要原因之一.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ... 18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... and see the benefits of treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  8. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for avascular necrosis of the hip Surgery for eye problems Treatment for overuse or abuse of narcotic pain medicines Wound care for leg ulcers Bone marrow or stem cell transplants can cure sickle cell anemia, but this treatment ...

  9. Proviral integrations and expression of endogenous Avian leucosis virus during long term selection for high and low body weight in two chicken lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornold Lina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term selection (> 45 generations for low or high juvenile body weight from a common founder population of White Plymouth Rock chickens has generated two extremely divergent lines, the LWS and HWS lines. In addition to a > 9-fold difference between lines for the selected trait, large behavioural and metabolic differences between the two lines evolved during the course of the selection. We recently compared gene expression in brain tissue from birds representing these lines using a global cDNA array analysis and the results showed multiple but small expression differences in protein coding genes. The main differentially expressed transcripts were endogenous retroviral sequences identified as avian leucosis virus subgroup-E (ALVE. Results In this work we confirm the differential ALVE expression and analysed expression and number of proviral integrations in the two parental lines as well as in F9 individuals from an advanced intercross of the lines. Correlation analysis between expression, proviral integrations and body weight showed that high ALVE levels in the LWS line were inherited and that more ALVE integrations were detected in LWS than HWS birds. Conclusion We conclude that only a few of the integrations contribute to the high expression levels seen in the LWS line and that high ALVE expression was significantly correlated with lower body weights for the females but not males. The conserved correlation between high expression and low body weight in females after 9 generations of intercrosses, indicated that ALVE loci conferring high expression directly affects growth or are very closely linked to loci regulating growth.

  10. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  11. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi,Hirokuni

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  12. How Is Hemolytic Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines rituximab and cyclosporine. If you have severe sickle cell anemia , your doctor may recommend a medicine called hydroxyurea. ... hemoglobin that newborns have. In people who have sickle cell anemia, fetal hemoglobin helps prevent red blood cells from ...

  13. Blood transfusions for severe malaria-related anemia in Africa: a decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Obonyo; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); A.J. Oloo; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractSevere childhood malarial anemia is commonly treated using blood transfusion. Although transfusion may decrease short-term mortality, the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is considerable in Africa. We constructed a decision tree to wei

  14. Anemia in the Preoperative Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Manish S; Carson, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Anemia is commonly encountered in the preoperative patient. With variable etiology, determination of the cause of the anemia can impact perioperative surgical and medical management and outcome. Red blood cell transfusions are often administered during the perioperative time period in patients with preoperative anemia, although evidence to support the optimal transfusion threshold is limited. We review the evaluation of anemia, as well as evidence regarding perioperative blood transfusions. R...

  15. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. PMID:26575109

  16. Anemia in People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Anemia in People With Cancer What is anemia? When you don’t have enough healthy red ... the symptoms that bother people most. What causes anemia? There are many different reasons a person with ...

  17. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in CKD Page Content On this page: What ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ...

  18. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed? People who have Fanconi anemia (FA) are born with the disorder. They may ... questions about: Any personal or family history of anemia Any surgeries you’ve had related to the ...

  19. How Is Fanconi Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Treated? Doctors decide how to treat Fanconi anemia (FA) based on a person's age and how ... Long-term treatments for FA can: Cure the anemia. Damaged bone marrow cells are replaced with healthy ...

  20. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

  1. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  2. Oseltamivir reduces transmission, morbidity, and mortality of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Goot, van der J.A.; Koch, G.; Boven, van M.; Kimman, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir on the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in chickens was studied. Per group, five chickens inoculated with HPAI A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 H5N2 virus were placed 1 day post-inoculation (p.i.) in one cage

  3. Immune responses in cecal tonsils of MDV-infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Clinical signs of MD include dep...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste ... Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... Institutes of Health—shows how Susan, a full-time worker and student, has coped with having iron- ...

  6. Sickle Cell Anemia Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven C.

    Presents sources for the acquisition of medical, social, psychological, educational, and practical knowledge of sickle cell anemia. The materials listed are designed to help parents, educators, and public service workers. Materials include journal articles, films, brochures, slides, and fact sheets. The usual bibliographic information is given.…

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia ... Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide ( ... your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE- ...

  10. FEBRILE SEIZURE AND ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConsidering the controversial results in present day literature regarding the relationship between febrile seizures and anemia and the high rate of such seizures in children, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between pediatric febrile seizures and anemia.Material and MethodsIn this case-control study, conducted in 2003, 60 children with febrile seizure(cases and 60 febrile children without seizure(controls were evaluated in the Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital; all patients were matched for age, sex, type of feeding, and use of supplemental iron. Thirty-six (60% and 39 (65% of the patients in case and control groups respectively were male, and the remaining female. Levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell indices were determined in all children and Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze data.ResultsOf the case group, 13.3% (6 male, 2 female and of controls, 20% (9 male, 3 female of children had anemia (p= 0.327, the condition being more common in male children aged over 6 months. Febrile seizures were found to occur mostly between the ages of 6 to 24 months.ConclusionThe risk of febrile seizure occurrence in anemic children seems to be less than that in children who do not suffer from the condition.Keywords:Febrile seizure, Anemia, Children

  11. Anemia and School Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobonis, Gustavo J.; Miguel, Edward; Puri-Sharma, Charu

    2006-01-01

    Anemia is among the most widespread health problems for children in developing countries. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized health intervention delivering iron supplementation and deworming drugs to Indian preschool children. At baseline, 69 percent were anemic and 30 percent had intestinal worm infections. Weight increased among…

  12. Twin anemia polycythemia sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghekke, Femke

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we describe that Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence (TAPS) is a form of chronic feto-fetal transfusion in monochorionic (identical) twins based on a small amount of blood transfusion through very small anastomoses. For the antenatal diagnosis of TAPS, Middle Cerebral Artery – Peak Syst

  13. Multidisciplinary approach to anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ghiațău

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We present the case of a 65 years- old woman who was admitted with a severe macrocytic anemia Hb= 5.7g/dl and diffuse bone pain. Biologically she has moderate thrombocytopenia 35 000/µl, a hepatic cytolysis and cholestatic syndrome. Material and method: The patient was extensively evaluated before presentation for a mild iron - deficiency anemia for which she underwent endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract- normal. The bone marrow aspiration on admission revealed a marked hyperplasia of the erythroblastic line with ~50% basophilic erythroblasts suggesting a regenerative erythroid hyperplasia. These changes along with the marked reticulocytosis on the peripheral blood smear oriented us towards a hemolytic anemia; Folic acid, vitamin B12, autoimmune tests and hemolytic tests were all normal. We continued the investigations with a thoraco-abdominopelvic computed tomography which identified diffuse demineralization, vertebral compactation and pelvic stress fractures. The breast examination revealed a right breast nodule, but the breast ultrasonography pleaded for benignity. Lacking a clear definitive diagnosis we decided to perform a bone marrow biopsy. Results: The osteo- medullary biopsy pointed towards a medullar invasion from a lobular mammary carcinoma; In these circumstances we performed an ultrasound guided biopsy of the right mammary lump thus histologically confirming a tumoral invasion of the bone marrow with subsequent anemia. The patient started chemotherapy in the Oncology ward. Conclusion: The particularity of this case consists in the pattern of anemia, which initially seemed iron deficient and afterwards macrocytic – apparently hemolytic and was actually due to the tumoral medullar invasion and also the nonspecific ultrasonographic appearance of the breast tumor.

  14. ALV-J相关的鸡急性纤维肉瘤发病模型的建立%Establishment of a Bird Experiment Model for Chicken Acute Fibrosarcomas Induced by ALV-J Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传龙; 张恒; 赵鹏; 崔治中

    2012-01-01

    [目的]证明纤维肉瘤病料中含有的ALV-J相关病毒能够诱发急性纤维肉瘤.[方法]将含ALV-J相关病毒的病料过滤液经不同部位接种1日龄817肉杂鸡;将该过滤液不同倍数稀释后接种1日龄SPF鸡和817肉杂鸡;将该过滤液接种细胞培养后的上清液接种1日龄817肉杂鸡,连续动态观测30d.[结果]颈部皮下、胸肌、腹腔3个部位攻毒鸡的肿瘤发生率分别为100% (20/20)、95.2% (20/21)、100% (20/20).病料过滤液未经稀释接种817肉杂鸡和SPF鸡的肿瘤发生率均为100% (10/10),10倍稀释后攻毒鸡的肿瘤发生率分别为80%( 8/10)和100% (10/10),1 00倍稀释后攻毒鸡的肿瘤发生率分别为100% (10/10)和80%( 8/10),1000倍稀释后攻毒鸡的肿瘤发生率分别为40%( 4/10)和50%( 5/10),更高倍数稀释后攻毒鸡没有肿瘤发生.接种病料的细胞培养上清也能使33.3% (2/6)的鸡只发生肉瘤.病理组织学检测显示:诱发的急性肿瘤系典型的纤维肉瘤.[结论]817肉杂鸡肉瘤病料中含有ALV-J相关的急性致肿瘤病毒,不论是病料过滤液本身还是其接种DF-1细胞培养后的上清液都能在不同品种鸡复制出急性纤维肉瘤,最快在接种后7d出现,且肿瘤发生的时间、动态和肿瘤发生率与接种量密切相关.%[Objective] An experiment was carried out to prove that the field chicken fibrosarcoma mass contains acute fibrosarcoma-inducing ALV-J associated virus. [Method] One-day-old 817 hybrid chickens were inoculated through different routes with tumor suspension filtrate containing ALV-J associated virus. One-day-old 817 hybrid chickens and SPF Leghan chickens were inoculated subcutaneously with tumor suspension filtrate containing ALV-J associated virus in different doses. Continuous observation of tumor development was made in 30 days. [Result] In the groups of inoculations through the subcutaneous, in muscule and intra-abdominal, the tumor incidence was 100% (20

  15. Randomized Trial Evaluating the Impact of Ribavirin Mono-Therapy and Double Dosing on Viral Kinetics, Ribavirin Pharmacokinetics and Anemia in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Waldenström

    Full Text Available In this pilot study (RibaC, 58 hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 infected treatment-naïve patients were randomized to (i 2 weeks ribavirin double dosing concomitant with pegylated interferon-α (pegIFN-α, (ii 4 weeks ribavirin mono-therapy prior to adding pegIFN-α, or (iii standard-of-care (SOC ribavirin dosing concurrent with pegIFN-α. Four weeks of ribavirin mono-therapy resulted in a mean 0.46 log(10 IU/mL HCV RNA reduction differentially regulated across IL28B genotypes (0.89 vs. 0.21 log(10 IU/mL for CC and CT/TT respectively; P = 0.006, increased likelihood of undetectable HCV RNA week 4 after initiating pegIFN-α and thus shortened treatment duration (P<0.05, and decreased median IP-10 concentration from 550 to 345 pg/mL (P<0.001. Both experimental strategies impacted on ribavirin concentrations, and high levels were achieved after one week of double dosing. However, by day 14, double dosing entailed a greater hemoglobin decline as compared to SOC (2.2 vs. 1.4 g/dL; P = 0.03. Conclusion: Ribavirin down-regulates IP-10, and may have an anti-viral effect differently regulated across IL28B genotypes.

  16. Randomized Trial Evaluating the Impact of Ribavirin Mono-Therapy and Double Dosing on Viral Kinetics, Ribavirin Pharmacokinetics and Anemia in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jesper; Westin, Johan; Nyström, Kristina; Christensen, Peer; Dalgard, Olav; Färkkilä, Martti; Lindahl, Karin; Nilsson, Staffan; Norkrans, Gunnar; Krarup, Henrik; Norrgren, Hans; Rauning Buhl, Mads; Stenmark, Stephan; Lagging, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this pilot study (RibaC), 58 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected treatment-naïve patients were randomized to (i) 2 weeks ribavirin double dosing concomitant with pegylated interferon-α (pegIFN-α), (ii) 4 weeks ribavirin mono-therapy prior to adding pegIFN-α, or (iii) standard-of-care (SOC) ribavirin dosing concurrent with pegIFN-α. Four weeks of ribavirin mono-therapy resulted in a mean 0.46 log10 IU/mL HCV RNA reduction differentially regulated across IL28B genotypes (0.89 vs. 0.21 log10 IU/mL for CC and CT/TT respectively; P = 0.006), increased likelihood of undetectable HCV RNA week 4 after initiating pegIFN-α and thus shortened treatment duration (P<0.05), and decreased median IP-10 concentration from 550 to 345 pg/mL (P<0.001). Both experimental strategies impacted on ribavirin concentrations, and high levels were achieved after one week of double dosing. However, by day 14, double dosing entailed a greater hemoglobin decline as compared to SOC (2.2 vs. 1.4 g/dL; P = 0.03). Conclusion: Ribavirin down-regulates IP-10, and may have an anti-viral effect differently regulated across IL28B genotypes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01226771 PMID:27167219

  17. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  18. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  19. Thiamine– Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Motavaselian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine Responsive megaloblastic anemia in DIDMOA (Wolfram syndrome has an autosomal- recessive mode of inheritance . Megaloblastic anemia and sideroblastic anemia is accompanied by diabetes insipidus (DI, diabetes mellitus (DM ,optic atrophy (OA and deafness (D. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are also present. We report a 7 month old girl with congenital macrocytic anemia; a rare clinical feature of Wolfram,s syndrome with increased plasma levels of blood glucose, both of which dramatically responded to administration of thiamine in large doses . The patient also had neurosensorial deafness, but no improvement was observed in the deafness. We presented the case because thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is a rare clinical presentation of Wolfram syndrome and after institution of treatment with thiamine, the anemia and hyperglycemia returned to normal.

  20. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  1. Anemia, Growth Failure and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chaytors, Richard Gordon; Higgins, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    A 12-year-old Caucasian female presented to her family physician with an old complaint of anemia and a new complaint of failure to grow. The anemia, first observed four years previously, had been diagnosed as iron deficiency, but had never satisfactorily responded to adequate iron therapy. Investigation of the failure to grow resulted in a diagnosis of hypothyroidism with related normochromic normocytic anemia.

  2. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T{sub 50} Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  3. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  4. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  6. Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Donate Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia Because you have aplastic anemia , everyday events can ... bleeding, such as contact sports. Pregnancy and Aplastic Anemia Pregnancy is possible for women who have been ...

  7. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 270 KB). Alternate Language URL Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Page Content On ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which a person ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  9. Crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious bronchitis virus after vaccination and challenge of chickens varying in serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle R.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    . Serum MBL levels also influenced IBV vaccine-induced changes in circulating T-cell populations. Moreover, addition of mannose to an IBV vaccine altered both vaccine-induced changes in circulating T-cell populations and IBV specific vaccine and infection-induced antibody responses in chickens with high...... serum MBL levels. These data demonstrate that MBL is involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response to IBV....

  10. Imaging diagnosis of neonatal anemia: report of two unusual etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Shabnam Bhandari; Preethi, G Rajalakshmi; Saluja, Sumita; Bhargava, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Anemia in neonatal period is rare, with the common causes being Rh and ABO blood group incompatibility, hemorrhagic disease of newborn, congenital hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinopathies, and TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus) infections. Congenital leukemia and infantile osteopetrosis (OP) are among the rare causes of neonatal anemia. A review of the literature shows approximately 200 reported cases of congenital leukemia. Articles describing the imaging features of congenital leukemia are still rarer. Infantile OP, another rare disorder with a reported incidence of 1 in 250,000 has characteristic imaging features, which are diagnostic of the disease. We report a case each, of two rare diseases: Congenital leukemia and infantile osteopetrosis. Additionally, our report highlights the radiological and imaging features of congenital leukemia and infantile OP and their crucial role in arriving at an early diagnosis. PMID:24605254

  11. Study on Pathogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Prevalence Strain GX-08 to Chickens and Ducks%新城疫病毒GX-08流行株对鸡和鸭的致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴国; 蔡丽丽; 王俊峰; 王政富; 黄淑坚

    2012-01-01

    选取新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)GX-08株对26日龄雏鸡和20日龄雏番鸭进行人工感染试验,对体外细胞培养物进行致病性试验,并进行病理组织学观察.结果表明,以105,5 EID50的攻毒剂量对26日龄雏鸡和20日龄雏番鸭通过肌注接种,雏鸡的发病率和死亡率分别为100%和100%,雏番鸭的发病率和死亡率分别为70%和70%;通过点眼、滴鼻及口服接种,雏鸡的发病率和死亡率分别为80%和30%,雏番鸭的发病率和死亡率分别为20%和20%.感染鸡消化器官和部分呼吸器官病变严重,表现出典型的嗜内脏型NDV感染的病理变化特点;感染鸭则肝脏、脾脏和胰腺等实质器官病变明显,消化器官和部分呼吸器官病变较轻微.以200 TCID50的剂量对单层鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)和鸭胚成纤维细胞(DEF)接种,结果CEF和DEF均于24 h左右开始出现病变,并分别于96和84 h左右细胞单层完全被破坏.与CEF相比,DEF接种病毒后,细胞坏死、裂解过程迅速,合胞体形成现象显著,合胞体的数量及合胞体平均含有的胞核数较多,病毒接种后培养物上清的HA效价峰值也较高,表明GX-08株均可致CEF和DEF病变,且对DEF有更强的细胞融合能力.%In this study. GX 08 strain was selected to perform virus infection test on 26 d chickens and 20 d tnuscovy ducks at the dose of 105.5 EID50. The morbility and mortality of chickens infected with viruses through intramuscular route were 100% and 100%, 70% and 70% for muscovy ducks. The morbility and mortality of chicken infected with viruses through both oral and oculonasal routes were 80% and 30%, 20% and 20% in muscovy ducks. Pathological changes of digestive tract and some respiratory tract of the infected chicken were severe, which was characterized as the infection of typical visceratonia ND. In comparison with slight pathological changes in digestive tract and some respiratory tract, obvious pathological

  12. Serological Surveys on antibodies against Avian Reticuloendotheliosis Virus, Chicken Anemia Virus and Avian Leucosis Virus in Meat-type Breeding Chickens%肉种禽网状内皮增生症、鸡传染性贫血和禽白血病血清学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡北侠; 黄艳艳; 路希山; 孟斌; 张秀美

    2009-01-01

    对不同种鸡场不同周龄肉种鸡进行REV、CAV和ALV(A、B亚群)抗体检测.在572份血清样品中,除了一个8.1周龄和15周龄鸡群CAV抗体阳性率分别为13.3%和75%外,其它鸡群无论是否进行CAV疫苗免疫,抗体阳性率均为100%.在212份血清样品中,REV抗体阳性率在16.7%~62.5%之间;ALV(A、B亚群)抗体阳性率在0%~75%之间.本研究结果表明,所检测种鸡群中存在3种免疫抑制性病毒的感染或混合感染.

  13. Marek's disease in backyard chickens, a study of pathological findings and viral loads in tumorous and non-tumorous birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge on Marek’s disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. Forty backyard chickens with presumptive MD diagnosis based on hi...

  14. Sickle cell anemia Review

    OpenAIRE

    Antmen, Bülent

    2009-01-01

    Sickle hemoglobin HbS so called because of the sickle shape it imparts to deoxynated red cells is responsible for a wide spectrum of disorders that vary with respect to degree of anemia frequency of crises extent of organ injury and duration of survival The sickle mutation substitutes thymine for adenine in the sixth codon of the b gene GAGÆGTG thereby encoding valine instead of glutamine in the sixth position of the ß chain This ostensibly minor change in structure is responsible for profoun...

  15. Genetic variation at the tumor virus B locus in commercial and labratory chicken populations assessed by a medium-throughput or a high-throughput assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.M.; Bacon, L.D.; Heidari, M.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Albers, G.A.; Rattink, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The tumour virus B (TVB) locus encodes cellular receptors mediating infection by three subgroups of avian leukosis virus (B, D, and E). Three major alleles, TVB*S1, TVB*S3, and TVB*R, have been described. TVB*S1 encodes a cellular receptor mediating infection of subgroups B, D, and E. TVB*S3 encodes

  16. The use of serotype 1-and serotype 3-specific polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Marek's disease virus in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Nielsen, Ole L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2001-01-01

    A serotype 1- and serotype 3-specific detection of Marek's disease virus (MDV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. The sensitivity of the method when applied to cell culture grown virus was comparable with that of cultivation. The method was applied to various tissue samples from...

  17. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  18. Proteomics analysis of feather pulp from chickens infected with very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus%马立克氏病病毒超强毒感染鸡羽髓蛋白质组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣虹; 卢占军; 钱琨; 金文杰; 王友; 秦爱建

    2011-01-01

    [目的]羽毛是细胞游离马立克氏病病毒(Marek's disease virus,MDV)释放的部位,为了解感染MDV后鸡羽中宿主基因表达的变化及对病毒感染的应答,进行了MDV感染鸡的羽髓蛋白质组学分析.[方法]1日龄无特定病原体(specific pathogen free,SPF)鸡人工感染MDV超强毒RB1B株(1000PFU),感染后21d采集鸡羽毛,提取羽髓蛋白,以17cm,pH5 -8的IPG胶条进行二维电泳,以未感染病毒的SPF鸡羽髓蛋白为对照,使用PDQuest软件对二维电泳图谱进行差异蛋白分析,并选取部分差异斑点进行质谱鉴定.[结果]PDQuest软件分析发现攻毒组和对照组表达差异大于两倍的蛋白点有41个,其中攻毒组表达上调的蛋白点25个,下调的蛋白点7个,新出现的蛋白点有9个.质谱分析共成功鉴定了21个斑点,对应于20个蛋白.如载脂蛋白AI( apolipoprotein AI)、14-3-3 sigma(两个斑点均为该蛋白)、癌蛋白18 (stathmin)等.[结论]功能预测表明这些蛋白涉及到宿主的抗病毒应答、物质代谢、细胞骨架成分、细胞增殖相关等方面.%[ Objective ] Feather follicle epithelium ( FFE ) and feather of chicken are sites that produce and release enveloped infectious Marek's disease virus ( MDV) . In order to investigate host responses, the feather pulp from chickens infected with MDV was analyzed by proteomics. [ Methods ] Forty-eight one-day old specific pathogen free ( SPF) chickens were randomly divided into two groups. One group of birds (n =24) were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1000 plaque-forming unit (PFU) of the RB1B strain of MDV, the rest (n =24) kept as uninfected control. Feather pulp were extracted from feather tips collected from chickens of infected and control group at 21 days post infected ( dpi) , and dissolved in two dimensional electrophoresis ( 2-DE) sample buffer. The soluble proteins were separated by 2-DE, 6 images (2 groups ×3 images) of 2-DE were used to analyze the differentially expressed

  19. Anemia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected and Uninfected Women in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Masaisa, Florence; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Mukiibi, Joshua; Delanghe, Joris; Philippé, Jan

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women in Rwanda and the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on anemia, we analyzed 200 HIV-positive women and 50 HIV-negative women in a cross-sectional study. Clinical examinations and iron and vitamin B12 assays were performed, and complete blood counts, serum folic acid levels, and CD4 cell count determined. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among H...

  20. Severe anemia and hydrops in a neonate with parvovirus B19 infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia at the time of birth may cause some problem like asphyxia, heart failure shock or even death in a neonate. Different etiologies can be considered for this problem. Parvovirus B19, as a viral organism, can cause hydrops fetalis and neonatal anemia and consequent complications. We present here a case of newborn infant with severe anemia who had human parvovirus B19 infection.Case Presentation: A male newborn with gestational age of 36 week was born from a mother with poor prenatal care and history of contact with domestic animal. The neonate was very pale with Apgar score 2 at 1 min and received resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and repeated blood transfusion The hemoglobin level was significantly low. Analysis was made based on the clinical presentations. According to the case history, physical and laboratory findings, neonatal severe anemia induced by parvovirus B19 infection was suggested and Laboratory work up documented his infection with parovirus B19.Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is the smallest single strand linear DNA virus in animal viruses, which is the only strain of parvovirus that is pathogenic in humans. Human parvovirus B19 may cross the placenta and result in fetal infection, morbidity and death. Parvovirus is an uncommon cause of neonatal anemia and hydrops fetalis so this etiology must be considered in differential diagnosis of anemia at birth.

  1. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Mitsan Olley; Joshua A. Anunibe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration ...

  2. Complement in hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Complement is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of human disease, including many hemolytic anemias. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are susceptible to hemolysis because of a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) develop a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that in most cases is attributable to mutations that lead to activation of the alternative pathway of complement. For optimal therapy, it is critical, but often difficult, to distinguish aHUS from other TMAs, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; however, novel bioassays are being developed. In cold agglutinin disease (CAD), immunoglobulin M autoantibodies fix complement on the surface of red cells, resulting in extravascular hemolysis by the reticuloendothelial system. Drugs that inhibit complement activation are increasingly being used to treat these diseases. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy for PNH, aHUS, and CAD.

  3. Managing anemia in lymphoma and multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Birgegård

    2008-01-01

    Gunnar BirgegårdDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: Anemia is common in cancer, and lymphoproliferative disease is no exception. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) have been used for renal anemia since 1986, and considerably later in cancer anemia. The first studies were published around 1993, but the use of ESA did not become common in cancer anemia until in the late 1990s. Cancer anemia is still under-treated. This review gives an overview...

  4. Protection of avian influenza (AI vaccines for poultry against infection of field isolates A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 under laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study level of protection of avian influenza (AI commercial vaccines available in Indonesia (subtipe H5N1, H5N2 and H5N9 against infection of HPAI field isolates of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. There were 7 commercial vaccines used in this study, the each vaccines were injected in to 3 weeks old of layer chichickenen intramuscularly. At 3 weeks after vaccination, ten chichickenens from each group were challenged separately with the A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 isolates intranasaly with dose 106 ELD50 per 0,1 ml per chicken. Ten unvaccinated chicken were included in the challenge test as control. The study demonstrate that the AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 protected chicken (100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and 90-100% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding were not seen by 2 days post challenge. The AI vaccines with subtipe H5N2 protected chicken at 20-30% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 70-100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected at 8 days post challenge. The AI vaccines AI with subtipe H5N9 did not protect chicken (0% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 50% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected by 8 days post challenge. This study concluded that AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 are better than other AI subtipe vaccines in preventing HPAI virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 dan A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 infections under laboratory condition.

  5. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247. The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 - 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006. Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004 affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

  6. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  7. Sexuality and sickle cell anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane de Almeida Côbo; Cibele Alves Chapadeiro; João Batista Ribeiro; Helio Moraes-Souza; Paulo Roberto Juliano Martins

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, the most common hereditary blood disease in the world, is the result of an atypical hemoglobin called S (Hb S) which, when homozygous (Hb SS) is the cause of sickle cell anemia. Changes of puberty, correlated with a delayed growth spurt, begin late in both male and female sickle cell anemia individuals with repercussions on sexuality and reproduction. The objectives of this exploratory and descriptive study were to characterize the development of sexuality in ...

  8. Mieloma Múltiplo e anemia Multiple Myeloma and anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia é uma complicação comum em pacientes com mieloma múltiplo (MM e ocorre em mais de 2/3 dos pacientes. Anemia de doença crônica, deficiência de eritropoetina (EPO devido à insuficiência renal e efeito mielossupressivo da quimioterapia são os principais mecanismos patofisiológicos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento de anemia no MM. Nos pacientes que obtêm remissão completa com tratamento quimioterápico, anemia usualmente se normaliza. Nos pacientes que não respondem ou apresentam recaída do mieloma, anemia freqüentemente persiste. As opções de tratamento dos pacientes anêmicos com MM incluem transfusões de hemácias e EPO recombinante humana. Essa proteína é biologicamente equivalente à EPO endógena e sua administração promove aumento dos valores de hemoglobina por tempo mais prolongado sem os riscos das transfusões de sangue. Vários estudos têm relatado melhora significante da eritropoese, redução da necessidade transfusional e melhora da qualidade de vida com o uso da EPO como tratamento a longo prazo da anemia associada ao mieloma. Nesse artigo, propomos o tratamento da anemia do MM baseado nas recomendações propostas pela Sociedade Americana de Hematologia (ASH em conjunto com a Sociedade Americana de Oncologia Clínica (ASCO, pela Organização Européia para Pesquisa e Tratamento do Câncer (EORTC, pelo IMF (Internacional Myeloma Foundation e pelo NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network.Anemia is a common complication in patients with multiple myeloma (MM occurring in more than two thirds of all patients. Anemia of chronic diseases, erythropoietin (EPO deficiency due to renal impairment and the myelosuppressive effect of chemotherapy are the most important pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of anemia in MM. In patients who achieve complete remission after chemotherapy, anemia usually normalizes. Non-responders and relapsing myeloma patients often continue to suffer

  9. Vaccination with virus-like particles containing H5 antigens from three H5N1 clades protects chickens from H5N1 and H5N8 influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI...

  10. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  11. RNA sequencing based analysis of the spleen transcriptome following the infectious bronchitis virus infection of chickens selected for different mannose-binding lectin serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria;

    2016-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune response to IBV infection is a crucial element for further improvements i...

  12. RNA sequencing based analysis of the spleen transcriptome following the infectious bronchitis virus infection of chickens selected for different mannose-binding lectin serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria;

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAvian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune response to IBV infection is a crucial element for further improvements in...

  13. Acute pancreatitis: Rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase awareness about this complication and its fatality in chicken pox.

  14. Identification of SNP Markers for Resistance to Salmonella and IBDV in Indigenous Ethiopian Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Psifidi, Androniki; Banos, Georgios; Matika, Oswald; Tadelle, D.; Christley, R.; Wigley, P.; Bettridge, J.; Hanotte, O.; Desta, T.; Kaiser, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Serological data for Salmonella and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) were recorded for 760 indigenous Ethiopian village chickens raised in two distinct geographical regions, Horro and Jarso. Chickens were genotyped with a 620K SNP array. A multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the two populations were genetically distinct. In Horro chickens, genome-wide scans revealed nine SNP with chromosome-wide significant association with Salmonella resistance and seven SNP with genome-wide ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  16. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Anemia? The most common symptom of anemia is fatigue ( ... mild symptoms or none at all. Complications of Anemia Some people who have anemia may have arrhythmias ( ...

  17. Processing chicken at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    POŽÁRKOVÁ, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Composition of poultry flesh and its purpose on human nutrition is described in this work. The quality and factors which affects quality are described further. HACCP system takes also important role. The end of this thesis is focused on poultry meat markets. The aim of this thesis was to study and describe chicken slaughtering process and processing of chicken carcass and determine the major share of the fleshy parts of broiler chicken carcass which means shares of breast muscles and tight mu...

  18. Diagnosis of fowlpox virus and Pasteurella co-infection in Ma chicken%一起麻鸡鸡痘病毒与巴氏杆菌混合感染病例的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 赵魁; 高丰; 何叶; 孙秀萍; 苏高莉; 丁宁; 王丽; 包英夫; 潘伟; 解胜男

    2012-01-01

    In October 2011 ,more than 150 Ma chickens with only 60 day-old were dead because of the outbreak of an acute deaths in Changchun. The chickens were loss of appetite,apathetic and steak yellow green thin stool. A large of pox eruptions having different sizes and nodular lesions were observed in the skins of crista galli and the smoothness and few feather of the back. In order to diagnose the disease,a sys- tematic analysis of the etiology and pathology was conducted by bacteriology, virus isolation and identifica- tion, animal regression test, and histopathological observation. A typical bipolar stain brevibacterium can be seen in the liver contacts of dead birds. PCR detection results showed that the fowlpox virus 4b core protein gene with specific primers amplified was positive. The processing supernatant of pox eruptions was inocula- ted on the surface of chorioallantoic membrane of SPF embryonated egg in 9-day-old. After 7 days,grayish- white variola were observed on the surface of chorioallantoic membrane. Also typical poxvirus particles could be seen under electron microscopy of negatively stained. The histopathological results showed that partial liver cell suffered from congestion, degeneration, necrosis, and a large number of heterophil granulo- cyte infiltration. It was confirmed that the cases were caused by fowlpox virus and Pasteurella mixed infec- tion according to the above-mentioned laboratory test results and clinical symptoms.%为了对2011年10月长春市某鸡场的150多只60日龄麻鸡发生急性死亡,病死鸡在临床上出现食欲不振、精神委靡,鸡冠以及背部皮肤有结节状痘疹以及排黄绿色稀粪等临床症状的疾病进行确诊,通过细菌学检查、病毒分离鉴定、动物回归试验以及病理组织学观察等方法从病原学和病理学角度进行了系统的分析。病死鸡肝触片可见有典型的两极浓染的短杆菌;应用鸡痘病毒4b核心蛋白基因特异性引物的扩增

  19. Proliferation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts%传染性法氏囊病病毒在鸡胚成纤维细胞中的增殖规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小楠; 张焕容

    2014-01-01

    为建立传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)弱毒鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)感染模型,用10日龄鸡胚制备原代 CEF,经过继代培养制备继1代 CEF,接种 IBDV 弱毒后观察细胞病变情况,采用 SYBR Green Ⅰ实时荧光定量反转录 PCR(qRT-PCR)方法检测 IBDV 在继1代 CEF 中病毒拷贝数并绘制病毒增殖曲线。结果显示,IBDV 接种继1代 CEF 后,36 h 开始出现细胞病变,60 h 时出现明显的细胞病变,表现为细胞间隙增宽,细胞变圆聚集和细胞大量脱落。荧光定量 RT-PCR 检测感染 CEF 12、24、36、48、60、72、96、120、156 h的病毒培养液,结果显示病毒拷贝数分别为1.70×107、3.72×107、7.41×107、1.20×108、4.80×107、1.51×107、9.33×106、7.76×106和2.24×106 copies/μL,其中 CEF 感染 IBDV 48 h 时病毒拷贝数最高。结果表明,成功建立了 IBDV 弱毒 CEF 感染模型,为进一步研究 IBDV 的致病机理、病毒与细胞的相互作用以及疫苗研究奠定了基础。%The aim of the study was to establish an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV )infection model in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF).CEF were prepared with 10-day old chicken embryo and passaged once.The cytopathic effect (CPE)of IBDV in once-passaged CEF was observed and the dynamic growth of IBDV in CEF was detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR)based on SYBR Green Ⅰ. The results showed that CPE first appeared at 36 h post IBDV infection,and the most obvious CPE such as the cell gap increasing,net-balloon filamentation and exfoliated CEF appeared at 60 h post IBDV infec-tion.The real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the viral RNA loads of IBDV were 1.70×10 7 ,3.72× 107 ,7.41×107 ,1.20×108 ,4.80×107 ,1.51×107 ,9.33×10 6 ,7.76×10 6 and 2.24×10 6 copies per mi-croliter in cultured virus suspension collected at 12,24,36,48,60,72,96,120 and 156 h post IBDV in-fection,respectively,the highest amount appeared

  20. Peptide motifs of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule explain the striking MHC-determined response to Rous sarcoma virus in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallny, Hans-Joachim; Avila, David; Hunt, Lawrence G.;

    2006-01-01

    are consistent with the peptides binding to models of the class I molecule encoded by the abundant cDNA. Finally, having shown for three haplotypes that there is a single dominantly expressed class I molecule at the level of RNA, protein, and antigenic peptide, we show that the motifs can explain the striking......Compared with the MHC of typical mammals, the chicken MHC is smaller and simpler, with only two class I genes found in the B12 haplotype. We make five points to show that there is a single-dominantly expressed class I molecule that can have a strong effect on MHC function. First, we find only one cDNA...... for two MHC haplotypes (B14 and B15) and cDNAs corresponding to two genes for the other six (B2, B4, B6, B12, B19, and B21). Second, we find, for the B4, B12, and B15 haplotypes, that one cDNA is at least 10-fold more abundant than the other. Third, we use 2D gel electrophoresis of class I molecules from...

  1. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  2. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  3. Chicken interferons, their receptors and interferon-stimulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Kate E; Ward, Alister C; Lowenthal, John W; Bean, Andrew G D

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of pathogenic viruses is a serious issue as they pose a constant threat to both the poultry industry and to human health. To prevent these viral infections an understanding of the host-virus response is critical, especially for the development of novel therapeutics. One approach in the control of viral infections would be to boost the immune response through administration of cytokines, such as interferons. However, the innate immune response in chickens is poorly characterised, particularly concerning the interferon pathway. This review will provide an overview of our current understanding of the interferon system of chickens, including their cognate receptors and known interferon-stimulated gene products.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: congenital dyserythropoietic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions CDA congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia ( CDA ) is an inherited blood disorder that affects ...

  5. Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160476.html Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds Blood condition ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older stroke victims suffering from anemia -- a lack of red blood cells -- may have ...

  6. FastStats: Anemia or Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Anemia or Iron Deficiency Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... visits Number of visits to emergency departments with anemia as the primary hospital discharge diagnosis: 237,000 ...

  7. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... In some cases, a drug can cause the immune system to mistake your own red blood cells for foreign substances. The body responds by making ...

  8. Emerging animal viruses: real threats or simple bystanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2013-10-01

    current distribution and impact of HEV infection in swine production are largely unknown. Avian gyrovirus type 2 (AGV2 is a newly described Gyrovirus, family Circoviridae, which was unexpectedly found in sera of poultry suspected to be infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV. AGV2 is closely related to CAV but displays sufficient genomic differences to be classified as a distinct species. AGV2 seems to be distributed in Brazil and also in other countries but its pathogenic role for chickens is still under investigation. Finally, the long time and intensive search for animal relatives of human hepatitis C virus (HCV has led to the identification of novel hepaciviruses in dogs (canine hepacivirus [CHV], horses (non-primate hepaciviruses [NPHV] or Theiler's disease associated virus [TDAV] and rodents. For these, a clear and definitive association with disease is still lacking and only time and investigation will tell whether they are real disease agents or simple spectators.

  9. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:25636824

  10. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  11. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  12. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  13. Relationship Between Blood Concentrations of Hepcidin and Anemia Severity, Mycobacterial Burden, and Mortality Among Patients With HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkhoff, AD; Meintjes, G.; Burton, R; Vogt, M.; Wood, R.; Lawn, SD

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia is very common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated tuberculosis, and hepcidin may be key in mediating this. We explored the relationship between blood hepcidin concentrations and anemia severity, mycobacterial burden and mortality in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. Methods Consecutive unselected HIV-infected adults in South Africa were systematically investigated for tuberculosis. Three groups were studied: 116 hospitalized inpatients wi...

  14. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  15. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  16. Anemia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Andersson, Charlotte; Andell, Pontus;

    2014-01-01

    Low hemoglobin concentration is associated with increased mortality, but there is disagreement with regard to the clinical definition of anemia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical correlates and association with total and cause-specific long-term mortality across the hemoglobin distrib...

  17. An anemia of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, N G; Rembach, A; Wiley, J; Ellis, K A; Ames, D; Fowler, C J; Martins, R N; Pertile, K K; Rumble, R L; Trounson, B; Masters, C L; Bush, A I

    2014-11-01

    Lower hemoglobin is associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since brain iron homeostasis is perturbed in AD, we investigated whether this is peripherally reflected in the hematological and related blood chemistry values from the Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study (a community-based, cross-sectional cohort comprising 768 healthy controls (HC), 133 participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 211 participants with AD). We found that individuals with AD had significantly lower hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volume and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates (adjusted for age, gender, APOE-ɛ4 and site). In AD, plasma iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation and red cell folate levels exhibited a significant distortion of their customary relationship to hemoglobin levels. There was a strong association between anemia and AD (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.43, confidence interval (CI) (1.31, 4.54)). Moreover, AD emerged as a strong risk factor for anemia on step-down regression, even when controlling for all other available explanations for anemia (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI (1.68, 6.92)). These data indicated that AD is complicated by anemia, which may itself contribute to cognitive decline. PMID:24419041

  18. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet, S; Ellouze, F; Ellini, S; Mrad, M F

    2015-12-01

    Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia. Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders. She had no history of neurological or psychiatric problems. The psychiatric interview revealed delirious syndrome, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Neurological examination noted a flaccid paraplegia with peripheral neuropathic syndrome and myoclonus in the upper limbs. At the full blood count, a macrocytosis (VGM: 112.2fl) without anemia was found. The level of vitamin B12 in the blood was low. Cerebro-spinal MRI was suggestive of a neuro-Biermer and showed hyper signal in the cervical cord on T2-weighted sagittal section. In axial section, hyper signal appears at the posterior columns in the form of V. There were no brain abnormalities. A sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy was diagnosed. The patient received vitamin B12 intramuscularly for ten days associated with neuroleptic treatment. Mrs. R.M., aged 40, was brought to the psychiatry consultation for acute behavioral disorders progressively worsening over a month. An anxiety syndrome, depressive syndrome and delirious syndrome were identified. Neurological examination showed a posterior cordonal syndrome with quadripyramidal syndrome. Full blood count showed a macrocytic anemia. Serum B12 level was collapsed. Cerebro-spinal MRI was normal. She received vitamin B12 with clinical and biological improvement. Features of pernicious anemia

  19. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  20. Detection of antibodies against bivalent inactivated vaccines containing newcastle disease virus and unequal contents of avian influenza virus in SPF chickens%不同禽流感病毒含量的新-流二联灭活疫苗免疫SPF鸡后抗体水平的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江兴华; 赵华娥; 林晓荣; 包松英; 崔龙萍; 王全溪

    2016-01-01

    将未浓缩的新城疫抗原分别与未浓缩的、浓缩3倍、浓缩6倍的禽流感抗原混合,并制备成三组鸡新城疫、禽流感(H9N2 HP株)二联灭活疫苗(简称新-流二联灭活疫苗),分别免疫21日龄SPF鸡,每羽0.3 mL,同时设置未免疫的空白对照组,免疫组与对照组均在免疫前及免疫后7、14、21、28、35 d进行采血,检测新城疫和禽流感抗体。结果发现,各免疫组在免后不同日龄的新城疫抗体基本一致,禽流感病毒抗原浓缩倍数越高(即禽流感病毒含量越高)的新-流二联灭活疫苗,免后14、21 d的抗体也越高;从免后21 d开始,各免疫组的禽流感抗体水平差异逐渐减小,免疫后禽流感抗体水平的高低可以反映该疫苗的免疫效果。试验结果表明,该疫苗可以通过浓缩提高抗原病毒含量的方法来提高免后早期抗体水平,取得良好的早期免疫效果。%21-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with three kinds of bivalent newcastle disease and avian influenza(H9N2 HP strain) inactivated vaccines, which contained original newcastle disease virus(NDV) and primal, three folds of con-centration, six folds of concentration of avian influenza virus(AIV), respectively. Every chicken in immune group was inoculated with a dose of 0.3 mL, and simultaneously, chickens were mock inoculated as control group.In order to detection antibodies of NDV and AIV blood samples were collected from both immune group and control group before immunization and at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 day post-immunization(dpi), respectively.Results showed that, the antibody levels against NDV in each immune groups were basically consistent at different timepoints of post-immunization, the antibody levels against AIV increased depending on the virus quantity at 14 and 21 dpi, and then decreased gradually till to non-difference.Overall, antibody levels against AIV could represent the

  1. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders. PMID:23960123

  2. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  3. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  4. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  5. Anemia and iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Hadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a common clinical finding in HIV-infected patients and iron deficiency or redistribution may contribute to the development of low hemoglobin levels. Iron overload is associated with a poor prognosis in HIV and Hepatitis C virus infections. Iron redistribution may be caused by inflammation but possibly also by hepatitis C co-infection. We examined the prevalence of anemia and its relation to mortality in a cohort of HIV patients in a setting where injecting drug use (IDU is a main mode of HIV transmission, and measured serum ferritin and sTfR, in relation to anemia, inflammation, stage of HIV disease, ART and HCV infection. Methods Patient characteristics, ART history and iron parameters were recorded from adult HIV patients presenting between September 2007 and August 2009 in the referral hospital for West Java, Indonesia. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox's regression were used to assess factors affecting survival. Logistic regression was used to identity parameters associated with high ferritin concentrations. Results Anemia was found in 49.6% of 611 ART-naïve patients, with mild (Hb 10.5 - 12.99 g/dL for men; and 10.5 - 11.99 g/dL for women anemia in 62.0%, and moderate to severe anemia (Hb Conclusion HIV-associated anemia is common among HIV-infected patients in Indonesia and strongly related to mortality. High ferritin with low sTfR levels suggest that iron redistribution and low erythropoietic activity, rather than iron deficiency, contribute to anemia. Serum ferritin and sTfR should be used cautiously to assess iron status in patients with advanced HIV infection.

  6. Fanconi anemia - learning from children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Svahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is a rare autosomic recessive and X-linked disease with chromosomal instability after exposure to crosslinking agents as the hallmark. Clinical features of FA are somatic malformations, progressive bone marrow failure and cancer proneness, however there is wide clinical heterogeneity. The symptom most frequently and early associated with morbidity and mortality is progressive pancytopenia in the first decade of life although acute myelogenous leukemia (AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS can appear before aplastic anemia. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the head-neck, intestinal or genital tract has a very high incidence in FA and can appear at young age. This paper will focus on treatment of bone marrow failure in FA.

  7. Pathophysiology of anemia and erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Vivien M; Rainey, Susan; Lappin, Terence R; Maxwell, A Peter

    2007-11-01

    An increasing understanding of the process of erythropoiesis raises some interesting questions about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of anemia and erythrocytosis. The mechanisms underlying the development of many of the erythrocytoses, previously characterised as idiopathic, have been elucidated leading to an increased understanding of oxygen homeostasis. Characterisation of anemia and erythrocytosis in relation to serum erythropoietin levels can be a useful addition to clinical diagnostic criteria and provide a rationale for treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Recombinant human erythropoietin as well as other ESAs are now widely used to treat anemias associated with a range of conditions, including chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammatory disorders and cancer. There is also heightened awareness of the potential abuse of ESAs to boost athletic performance in competitive sport. The discovery of erythropoietin receptors outside of the erythropoietic compartment may herald future applications for ESAs in the management of neurological and cardiac diseases. The current controversy concerning optimal hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease patients treated with ESAs and the potential negative clinical outcomes of ESA treatment in cancer reinforces the need for cautious evaluation of the pleiotropic effects of ESAs in non-erythroid tissues. PMID:17656101

  8. Diamond-Blackfan anemia and nutritional deficiency-induced anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbart, David

    2014-04-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare, inherited disease that characteristically presents as a chronic, normochromic macrocytosis due to red cell lineage bone marrow failure. Although studies are elaborating on the genetic basis for its associated comorbidities, little has been published comparing this anemia to other chronic anemias that have similar laboratory results in children. This article offers a global perspective of the disease and compares it with anemia due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in children.

  9. PERSEPSI TENTANG ANEMIA GIZI PADA REMAJA PUTRI PENDERITA ANEMIA DI SMAN 10 MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hatma, Zumrah; Indriasari, Rahayu; Jafar, Nurhaedar

    2014-01-01

    Anemia gizi merupakan kelainan gizi yang paling sering ditemui di negara berkembang dan bersifat epidemik. Anemia gizi umumnya terjadi pada perempuan dalam usia reproduktif dan anak-anak. Keadaan ini membawa efek keseluruhan terbesar dalam hal gangguan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persepsi tentang anemia gizi pada remaja putri penderita anemia. Teknik pengumpulan data melalui metode wawancara mendalam, serta focus group discussion (FGD). Selain itu juga dilakukan m...

  10. Maternal immunity against avian influenza H5N1 in chickens: limited protection and interference with vaccine efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.A.; Rosema, S.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Kemper-Venema, S.

    2011-01-01

    After avian influenza (AI) vaccination, hens will produce progeny chickens with maternally derived AI-specific antibodies. In the present study we examined the effect of maternal immunity in young chickens on the protection against highly pathogenic AI H5N1 virus infection and on the effectiveness o

  11. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Barjesteh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV. The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV.

  12. Molecular cloning of chicken IL-7 and characterization of its antiviral activity against IBDV in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shanshan; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Jianlou; Zuo, Yuzhu; Xu, Jian; Cui, Dan; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian interleukin-7 (IL-7) is able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and maturation, and reverse immunosuppression. However, whether poultry IL-7 has similar functions remains unclear. Chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes serious immunosuppression in chicken due to virus-induced immune disorder. Whether chicken IL-7 (chIL-7) has the ability to restore the immunity during IBDV-induced immunosuppression is not clear. To test this, we amplified chIL-7 gene by RT-PCR, prepared recombinant chIL-7 using HEK293T cells and treated the chicken with the chIL-7 prior to IBDV infection. Our results indicate that chIL-7 promoted mouse B cell proliferation in vitro, and significantly reduced virus titer in bursal tissue and chicken morbidity of IBDV-infected chicken. Mechanically, chIL-7 induced chicken lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-γ production, but down-regulated TGF-β expression, suggesting that chIL-7 has the ability to reverse IBDV-induced immunosuppression and might be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of infectious bursal disease. PMID:27466431

  13. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions X-linked sideroblastic anemia X-linked sideroblastic anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia is an inherited disorder that prevents developing red ...

  14. Do You Know about Sickle Cell Anemia? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lunch Recipes Do You Know About Sickle Cell Anemia? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do You Know About Sickle ... stay in the hospital. What Causes Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited (say: in- ...

  15. Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Anand, Inder S;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia....

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia and ataxia X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood ...

  17. Chicken skin virome analyzed by high-throughput sequencing shows a composition highly different from human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesvre, Caroline; Dumarest, Marine; Rémy, Sylvie; Gourichon, David; Eloit, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show that human skin at homeostasis is a complex ecosystem whose virome include circular DNA viruses, especially papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. To determine the chicken skin virome in comparison with human skin virome, a chicken swabs pool sample from fifteen indoor healthy chickens of five genetic backgrounds was examined for the presence of DNA viruses by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results indicate a predominance of herpesviruses from the Mardivirus genus, coming from either vaccinal origin or presumably asymptomatic infection. Despite the high sensitivity of the HTS method used herein to detect small circular DNA viruses, we did not detect any papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or circoviruses, indicating that these viruses may not be resident of the chicken skin. The results suggest that the turkey herpesvirus is a resident of chicken skin in vaccinated chickens. This study indicates major differences between the skin viromes of chickens and humans. The origin of this difference remains to be further studied in relation with skin physiology, environment, or virus population dynamics.

  18. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors

  19. DNA Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Partial env Gene of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J in Wuhua Chicken Flocks%五华鸡J亚群白血病病毒env部分基因的和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴银; 张丹俊; 胡晓苗; 赵瑞宏

    2011-01-01

    The partial sequence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) env gene was cloned by PCR in Anhui province, which was named as ALV-J-envl. And we compared ALV-J-envl with the partial sequence of eight ALV-J env genes in the GenBank database. The results showed that ALV-J infection in Wuhua chicken was found in Anhui province. Alignment of nine gene sequences of ALV-J env, the homology between ALV-J-envl and the other sequences ranged from 94. 2% to 96. 6%. The result revealed that the env gene from different strains had the mutation at nucleotide sequence. However, the highest homology with ALV-J-envl were HQ425636 and HM235665 gene sequences isolated from strains in China, and they gathered together in the evolutionary tree, indicating a close genetic relationship, and they evolved from common strains. The lowest homology with ALV-J-envl was the gene sequence of AY312965 isolated from Malaysia, it could be further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis.%本试验通过PCR技术获得了安徽省地方品种五华鸡禽白血病病毒J亚群(avian leukosis virus subgroup J,ALV-J)env部分基因序列AL V-J-env1,并将该序列与GenBank数据库中登录的8条env基因相应序列进行了比对分析.结果表明,五华鸡已经感染了J亚群禽白血病,且部分鸡个体已经发病.通过分析可见,AL V-J-env1与所比较的基因序列同源性介于94.2%~96.6%之间,说明不同毒株之间的env基因有一定变异.但与ALV J-env1同源性最高的是来自于中国ALV-J毒株的HQ425636和HM235665基因序列,且在进化树中聚集为一组,暗示它们之间亲缘关系较近,由共同的毒株进化而来.与ALV-J-env1同源性最低的是来源于马来西亚毒株的AY312965基因序列,遗传进化分析也进一步证实,两者之间亲缘关系较远.

  20. The cytoplasmic location of chicken mx is not the determining factor for its lack of antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla T O Benfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicken Mx belongs to the Mx family of interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPases, which in some species possess potent antiviral properties. Conflicting data exist for the antiviral capability of chicken Mx. Reports of anti-influenza activity of alleles encoding an Asn631 polymorphism have not been supported by subsequent studies. The normal cytoplasmic localisation of chicken Mx may influence its antiviral capacity. Here we report further studies to determine the antiviral potential of chicken Mx against Newcastle disease virus (NDV, an economically important cytoplasmic RNA virus of chickens, and Thogoto virus, an orthomyxovirus known to be exquisitely sensitive to the cytoplasmic MxA protein from humans. We also report the consequences of re-locating chicken Mx to the nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chicken Mx was tested in virus infection assays using NDV. Neither the Asn631 nor Ser631 Mx alleles (when transfected into 293T cells showed inhibition of virus-directed gene expression when the cells were subsequently infected with NDV. Human MxA however did show significant inhibition of NDV-directed gene expression. Chicken Mx failed to inhibit a Thogoto virus (THOV minireplicon system in which the cytoplasmic human MxA protein showed potent and specific inhibition. Relocalisation of chicken Mx to the nucleus was achieved by inserting the Simian Virus 40 large T antigen nuclear localisation sequence (SV40 NLS at the N-terminus of chicken Mx. Nuclear re-localised chicken Mx did not inhibit influenza (A/PR/8/34 gene expression during virus infection in cell culture or influenza polymerase activity in A/PR/8/34 or A/Turkey/50-92/91 minireplicon systems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The chicken Mx protein (Asn631 lacks inhibitory effects against THOV and NDV, and is unable to suppress influenza replication when artificially re-localised to the cell nucleus. Thus, the natural cytoplasmic localisation of the chicken Mx protein does

  1. Parvovirose e anemia acentuada em paciente imunocompetente Parvovirus and severe anemia in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Annete Damasceno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 16 anos, sexo masculino, com vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV negativo e sem doença hematológica prévia, desenvolveu anemia acentuada devido à infecção por parvovírus B19. A doença apresentou evolução bifásica, com acalmia clínica e retorno dos sintomas após 15 dias. Ao exame físico, apresentava-se descorado e febril, sem adeno e organomegalias, com sinais de insuficiência cardíaca. O aspirado de medula óssea mostrava megaloblastos com nucléolos aberrantes e, na histologia, foram observadas células gigantes com nucleolação aberrante e presença do corpúsculo de inclusão nuclear típico da parvovirose. O exame de imuno-histoquímica mostrou positividade para anticorpo específico para parvovírus. A sorologia comprovou a infecção.A 16-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV negative male patient without hematological disease developed acute anemia due to parvovirus B19 infection. The disease showed a biphasic evolution: clinical remission and return of symptoms after 15 days. Physical examination revealed paleness and fever, neither adeno nor organomegalies, and signs of heart failure. The bone marrow aspiration showed megaloblasts with aberrant nucleoli. As far as histology is concerned, giant cells with aberrant nucleoli and the presence of intranuclear inclusions typical of Parvoviruses were observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for specific Parvovirus antibody. Serology confirmed parvovirus B19 infection.

  2. Reverse transcriptase activity in chicken embryo fibroblast culture supernatants is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus EAV-0 RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Weissmahr, R N; Schüpbach, J; Böni, J

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown that live attenuated virus vaccines produced on chicken-derived cells contain low levels of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT). In both virus and corresponding control harvests produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts, these activities were present at significantly higher concentrations than in the vaccines. In order to identify the putative retrovirus sequence responsible for this activity, a novel method for the selective PCR amplification of particle-associ...

  3. Parvovirus B19 infection in Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia and acute erythroblastopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Mohamed

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parvovirus B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum in children. It is also associated with other clinical manifestations in different target groups. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia are at high risk of developing acute erythroblastopenia following infection by the virus. They usually become highly viremic and pose an increased risk of virus transmission. Close monitoring of such high risk groups is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease prevention activities. Here we report a molecular epidemiological study on B19 virus infection in Tunisian patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Methods This study was conducted on 92 young chronic hemolytic anemia patients who attended the same ward at the National Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of Tunis and 46 controls from a different hospital. Screening for IgM and IgG anti-B19 antibodies was performed using commercially available enzyme immunoassays and B19 DNA was detected by nested PCR in the overlapping VP1/VP2 region. DNA was sequenced using dideoxy-terminator cycle sequencing technology. Results Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were detected in 26 of 46 sickle-cell anemia patients, 18 of 46 β-thalassemia and 7 of 46 controls. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies were detected only in 4 of the sickle-cell anemia patients: two siblings and two unrelated who presented with acute erythroblastopenia at the time of blood collection for this study and had no history of past transfusion. B19 DNA was detected only in sera of these four patients and the corresponding 288 bp nested DNA amplicons were sequenced. The sequences obtained were all identical and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to a new B19 virus strain of Genotype1. Conclusion A new parvovirus B19 strain of genotype1 was detected in four Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia. Virus transmission appeared to be nosocomial and resulted in acute erythroblastopenia in the four

  4. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Chul Chung; Hye-Kang Kim; Jin Young Yoo; Jeong Rok Lee; Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; U-Im Jang; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system.Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease.Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment,resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain,bleeding,intussusceptions.We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia,which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polyperctomy.

  5. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... L10H chickens than in the infected and noninfected L10L chickens. Thus, these results indicate that MBL is produced locally and may be involved in the regulation of the cellular immune response after an IBV infection. However, MBL did not appear to influence the humoral immune response after IBV...

  6. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 699–710. 4 Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Eating, Diet, and Nutrition People with anemia caused by ... Phone: 202–776–0544 Fax: 202–776–0545 Internet: www. hematology. org Iron Disorders Institute P.O. Box 675 Taylors, SC 29687 ...

  7. The Student with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrault, Sylvia M.

    1981-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is the most common and severe of inherited chronic blood disorders. In the United States, sickle cell anemia is most common among the Black population. Among the most commonly occurring symptoms are: an enlarged spleen, episodes of severe pain, easily contracted infections, skin ulcers, and frequent urination. (JN)

  8. 9 CFR 311.34 - Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anemia. 311.34 Section 311.34 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.34 Anemia. Carcasses...

  9. Silent Infarcts with Sickle Cell Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The effect of transfusion therapy on the risk for new silent infarct or stroke in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography was determined at the University of Miami, FL, and other centers in the STOP trial (Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia).

  10. 鸡传染性贫血病毒、网状内皮增生症病毒与禽白血病病毒基因芯片检测方法的建立%The Establishment of Gene Chip for Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus, Reticuloeotheliosis Virus and Avian Leucosis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏霞; 朱瑞豪; 陈小玲; 杨丽聪; 周宏专; 徐福洲; 杨兵

    2015-01-01

    基于多重PCR技术,建立鸡传染性贫血病病毒(CAV)、禽网状内皮增生症病毒(REV)、禽白血病病毒禽(ALV)A、C、D亚群的基因芯检测方法.根据NCBI收录的鸡传染性贫血病毒(CIAV)、禽网状内皮增生症病毒(REV)与禽白血病病毒(ALV)A、C、D亚群参考毒株的序列,设计合成特异性扩增引物及探针,将下游引物进行Cy3荧光标记,制备基因芯片;分别提取几种病毒的基因组DNA,进行PCR扩增后与探针进行杂交,荧光检测仪扫描并分析结果.结果表明:制备的芯片能够同时检测CIAV、REV与ALV A、C、D亚群,该方法对病毒的最低检测限为106 copies/mL,特异性试验结果表明,该方法与NDV、MDV和IBDV均无交叉反应,可快速鉴别ALV、REV、CIAV.为今后在临床应用中快速鉴别诊断CIAV、REV与ALV A、C、D亚群提供了可行性.

  11. Herbal medicine Ninjinyoeito ameliorates ribavirin-induced anemia in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu Motoo; Hisatsugu Mouri; Koushiro Ohtsubo; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Norio Sawabu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Ribavirin (RBV) shows a strong antiviral effect on hepatitis C virus when used in combination with interferon.However, RBV-induced anemia is a major problem in this therapy. It would be of great clinical importance to ameliorate the anemia without reducing the RBV dose.We report here that, Ninjinyoeito (NYT), a herbal medicine can reduce the RBV-induced anemia.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with interferon alpha 2b plus RBV with (NYT group) or without (control group) NYT by a randomized selection. Eighteen patients completed the treatment schedule, and hemato-biochemical and virological effects were evaluated.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in biochemical and virological responses between the two groups. However, anemia was significantly reduced in the NYT group compared with the control group. The maximal decrease of Hb in the NYT group (2.59±1.10 g/dL)was significantly (P= 0.026) smaller than that in the control group (3.71±0.97 g/dL). There was no significant difference in serum glutathione peroxidase activity, serum RBV concentration, and Th1/Th2 balance between the two groups. There was no specific adverse effect in NYT administration.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NYT could be used as a supportive remedy to reduce the RBV-induced anemia in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  12. Successful treatment of severe anemia using erythropoietin in a Jehovah Witness with non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Agapidou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion many times works in a life-saving way when a patient is facing a critical situation. However, some patients, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, may refuse their administration because it opposes to their religion beliefs. Thus, clinicians are forced to respect patients’ preferences and seek other treatments in order to overcome the obstacle of the transfusion. In 1989, recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic renal failure. This is an amino acid glycol-protein that stimulates red blood cell production in the same manner as endogenous erythropoietin. Other treatment indications approved by the FDA include anemia due to chronic kidney disease, anemia secondary to zidovudine therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and anemia secondary to cancer chemotherapy. The drug also has been used for many off-label indications. Many Jehovah’s Witnesses have accepted rHuEPO as a treatment option to maintain and enhance erythropoiesis. This paper reports the case of a 57-year-old Jehovah’s Witness man, who was diagnosed with severe anemia due to aggressive non Hodgkin lymphoma and refused transfusion of blood; thanks to the treatment with rHuEPO he has managed to complete chemotherapy and has survived a life threatening situation.

  13. Unexplained Aspects of Anemia of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia of inflammation (AI, also known as anemia of chronic inflammation or anemia of chronic disease was described over 50 years ago as anemia in association with clinically overt inflammatory disease, and the findings of low plasma iron, decreased bone marrow sideroblasts and increased reticuloendothelial iron. Pathogenic features underlying AI include a mild shortening of red cell survival, impaired erythropoietin production, blunted responsiveness of the marrow to erythropoietin, and impaired iron metabolism mediated by inflammatory cytokines and the iron regulatory peptide, hepcidin. Despite marked recent advances in understanding AI, gaps remain, including understanding of the pathogenesis of AI associated with “noninflammatory” or mildly inflammatory diseases, the challenge of excluding iron deficiency anemia in the context of concomitant inflammation, and understanding more precisely the contributory role of hepcidin in the development of AI in human inflammatory diseases.

  14. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  15. Detection of chicken embryo lethal orphan virus and egg drop syndrome virus by multiplex polymerase chain reaction%鸡胚致死孤儿病毒和鸡减蛋综合症病毒多重PCR 检测方法的建立及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑菁; 付瑞; 李晓波; 王吉; 卫礼; 巩薇; 岳秉飞; 贺争鸣

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立鸡胚致死孤儿病毒( CELO)和鸡减蛋综合症病毒( EDS)的多重PCR检测方法并进行初步应用。方法参照GenBank提供的基因序列,设计了2对特异性引物分别扩增CELO长纤突蛋白和EDS六邻体蛋白的基因序列,建立检测CELO和EDS的多重PCR方法,考察该方法的特异性和敏感性,并使用该方法检测流感疫苗主种子批病毒是否存在外源性禽腺病毒的污染。结果该多重PCR方法成功扩增得到了两条特异性目的条带,并经测序验证。该方法特异性好,灵敏度显示核酸最低检测量可达10-4μg/mL。使用该方法检测12批次流感疫苗主种子批病毒,外源性禽腺病毒的检测结果均为阴性。结论成功建立鸡胚致死孤儿病毒和鸡减蛋综合症病毒的多重PCR检测方法,灵敏度高,特异性好。在流感疫苗主种子批病毒的外源性禽腺病毒的检测中具有很高的使用价值和应用前景。%Objective To establish multiplex PCR assay for detection of chicken embryo lethal orphan virus (CELO)and egg drop syndrome virus (EDS).Methods According to GenBank gene sequence , two pairs of specific primers designed were amplified CELO long fiber protein and EDS hexon protein gene sequence .The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex PCR were tested .We also use the multiplex PCR to detect exogenous CELO and EDS in influenza virus.Results Two target bands have been successfully amplified and verified by sequencing .The specificity of the method is better , and the sensitivity is 10 -4μg/mL.The results of detecting exogenous CELO and EDS in 12 influenza virus were negative .Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay for detection of CELO and EDS was established successfully , which have good specificity and high sensitivity , and have high value and application prospect for detecting exogenous CELO and EDS in influenza virus .

  16. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  17. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  18. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  19. Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the localization and to compare methods for isolation of minute Ascaridia galli larvae in chicken intestine. Firstly, six 7-week-old layer pullets were orally infected with 2,000 embryonated A. galli eggs and necropsied either at 3, 5 or 7 days post infection...

  20. Anemia of Chronic Disease and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Natalia; Fabisiak, Adam; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    Anemia coexists with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in up to two-thirds of patients, significantly impairing quality of life. The most common types of anemia in patients with IBD are iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease, which often overlap. In most cases, available laboratory tests allow successful diagnosis of iron deficiency, where difficulties appear, recently established indices such as soluble transferrin-ferritin ratio or percentage of hypochromic red cells are used. In this review, we discuss the management of the most common types of anemia in respect of the latest available data. Thus, we provide the mechanisms underlying pathophysiology of these entities; furthermore, we discuss the role of hepcidin in developing anemia in IBD. Next, we present the treatment options for each type of anemia and highlight the importance of individual choice of action. We also focus on newly developed intravenous iron preparations and novel, promising drug candidates targeting hepcidin. Concurrently, we talk about difficulties in differentiating between the true and functional iron deficiency, and discuss tools facilitating the process. Finally, we emphasize the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of anemia in IBD. We conclude that management of anemia in patients with IBD is tricky, and appropriate screening of patients regarding anemia is substantial. PMID:26818422

  1. Acute pancreatitis: Rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sunil; Jain A; Pandit A.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase ...

  2. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not have enough hemoglobin. The body needs certain vitamins, minerals, and nutrients to make enough red blood cells. ... of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals Red blood count and hemoglobin level Reticulocyte count ...

  3. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-12 (meat and dairy), and folic acid (citrus juices, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fortified ... ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ...

  4. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leafy green vegetables, fruits, and dried beans and peas. Folic acid is found in fortified breads, pastas, ... Changes in skin color, making it look gray, yellow or bronze (not caused by sun) Treatment depends ...

  5. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S.; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A.; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Stephen; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data.RESULTS: An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integr...

  6. 鸡贫血病病毒VP2基因在大肠杆菌中的表达及其特性%Expression of Chicken Anaemia Virus(CAV) VP2 Gene in E. coli and It's Biological Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳龙; 秦爱建; 金文杰; 叶建强; 吉荣; 崔治中; 段玉友

    2003-01-01

    将鸡贫血病病毒(chicken anaemia virus,CAV)VP2基因克隆入表达性载体pGEX-5X-3,在大肠杆菌以谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)融合蛋白的形式获得了表达.以此表达产物免疫小鼠,制备抗CAV VP2的多克隆抗体.通过对CAV感染的MSB1细胞作间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)检测,结果为阳性,这表明表达产物保留了CAV相关的抗原特性.本研究为进一步探索CAV VP2的生物学特性奠定了基础.

  7. The cardio-renal anemia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimković Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of anemia in congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease was thought to be insignificant for a long period of time. Recent investigations pointed out that the problem of anemia should be defined in the context of the cardio-renal anemia syndrome. A positive feedback mechanism indicates that cardio-renal anemia syndrome is due to an interaction between congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and anemia. The aim of the study was to present the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic results of the former investigations. Results. The results of the retrospective and prospective controlled trails have shown that management of anemia with subcutaneous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin together with intravenous iron infusion for at least 3-6 months lead to: relief of symptoms (improved NYHA functional class; increased left ventricular ejection fraction; reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; reduced number of rehospitalizations; reduced requirements for usual therapeutic agents (especially diuretics; and improved renal function. Conclusion. In patients with heart and kidney disease anemia should be routinely identified and appropriately treated. Subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin and intravenous iron may significantly improve overall survival and quality of life of these patients. .

  8. Anemia in the Neonate: The Differential Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassin, Michele L; Lapping-Carr, Gabrielle; de Jong, Jill L O

    2015-07-01

    Anemia is a common problem in the neonatal period. Presenting symptoms may suggest numerous possible diagnoses ranging from anemia seen as a normal part of development to anemia due to critical pathology. An illustrative case is presented to highlight the appropriate evaluation of the neonate with significant anemia. Several important features of the evaluation of neonatal anemia are highlighted. The constellation of signs and symptoms that occur in conjunction with the anemia are critical for the evaluation. The evaluation should be performed in a step-wise process that starts by eliminating common causes of anemia. Manual review of the peripheral blood smear with a hematologist can be helpful. PMID:26171704

  9. The Immune Enhancement of Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaRong Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate feasibility of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLS as an immunoadjuvant in chickens. After treating with 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 μg/mL SLS in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation assay of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that the OD570 values of all experimental groups, as well as Con A-stimulated group, were significantly higher than that of the untreated control group. After injection with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg of SLS for 3 consecutive days, chickens were vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV, and the immunoadjuvant effects of SLS were evaluated on the basis of immune organ index, antibody response, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. The results confirmed that SLS could enhance NDV-specific antibody response and increase CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in vivo. Furthermore, SLS could improve NDV-specific antibody response in thiamphenicol-treated chickens. These data indicate that SLS not only can improve humoral immune response but also reverse the immunosuppressive effect of thiamphenicol in chickens.

  10. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  11. Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerull, Sabine; Stern, Martin; Apperley, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    . About half of transplants with data available (39 of 86) were followed by posttransplant immunosuppression. Graft source was bone marrow in the majority of cases (n=77). Transplant practice changed over time with more transplants with conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as peripheral blood...... stem cells performed in later years. Ten year overall survival was 93% with 5 transplant-related deaths. Graft failure occurred in 32% of transplants. Risk of graft failure was significantly increased in transplants without conditioning, and with bone marrow as graft source. Lack of posttransplant...... a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin...

  12. B haplotype influence on the relative efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1994-04-01

    The objectives were to investigate whether or not B haplotypes influence vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) in commercial chickens and to evaluate whether retrospective analysis would detect the influence. This method involved evaluating the B haplotypes of turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-vaccinated sick vs normal chickens from a flock afflicted with MD symptoms. An analysis of the retrospective data disclosed that MD symptoms were present in a higher proportion of B2B19 than B2B21 chickens. A prospective study was then conducted with blood-typed chickens of the strain vaccinated with HVT or HVT + 301B bivalent MD vaccines prior to inoculation of the very virulent Md5 virus. The bivalent vaccine provided better protection than HVT alone, but with either vaccine fewer B2B21 chickens developed MD lesions. We conclude that the B haplotype influence on vaccinal immunity against MD previously demonstrated in B-congenic strains of chickens is also significant in commercial chickens and that the influence can be detected through analysis of B haplotypes in sick vs normal chickens of an affected flock.

  13. Outbreak of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in dairy sheep in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaro, Mario Felipe Alvarez; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; Del Fava, Claudia; de Oliveira, Glenda Ribeiro; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2014-06-10

    In late January 2013, 10 nonpregnant Lacaune dairy ewes raised under extensive husbandry management on a farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presented with the general clinical signs of lethargy, hyporexia, edema of the face, hyperemia of the exposed parts of the skin, mouth lesions, pyrexia, and lameness. Additionally, 2 pregnant ewes died suddenly after the onset of respiratory signs. The complete blood counts and biochemistry analyses showed neutrophilic leukocytosis with monocytosis and reactive lymphocytes, normocytic normochromic anemia and increased aspartate aminotransferase levels. Postmortem examination revealed erosions on the lingual mucosa, bilateral submandibular ganglia infarctions, yellow foamy fluid accumulation in the trachea and bronchial bifurcation, pulmonary congestion, and edema associated with hemorrhagic lesions on the pulmonary artery and heart. The clinical and pathological findings were suggestive of bluetongue. For a molecular and virological diagnosis, tissue samples were analyzed by Bluetongue virus-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and viral isolation was performed in embryonated chicken eggs. For viral typing, positive tissue and egg-isolated samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR using primers and probes specific for the structural VP2 gene in genome segment 2 of all 26 serotypes. There are still no contingency plans for responding to an outbreak of bluetongue disease in Brazil, and this episode emphasizes the need for continuing serological and entomological surveillance programs. Additionally, this report describes the isolation of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in sheep in the Americas. PMID:24916443

  14. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  15. Alleviating anemia and thrombocytopenia in myelofibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Francisco; Correa, Juan-Gonzalo; Hernandez-Boluda, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Anemia and thrombocytopenia are frequent clinical manifestations of myelofibrosis as well as important prognostic factors of the disease. Concerning the treatment of anemia, the first step should be the correction of reversible contributing factors, such as possible iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Then, treatment options include erythropoiesis stimulating agents, androgens, immunomodulating drugs, corticosteroids, and splenectomy. Anemia responses may also be observed in some patients treated with JAK inhibitors. However, most patients eventually fail to such therapies and become transfusion dependent. Some of the aforementioned therapies can also improve thrombocytopenia, but the responses are usually observed in patients with moderate platelet count decrease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the only curative treatment of myelofibrosis, can be an alternative for selected patients with cytopenias who are refractory to conventional therapies. However, for the majority of patients, the management of anemia and severe thrombocytopenia remains an unmet need. PMID:26891375

  16. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency - children ... able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron Slow blood loss over ... bleeding in the digestive tract Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning .

  17. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  18. Effects of heat stress on peripheral T and B lymphocyte profiles and IgG and IgM serum levels in broiler chickens vaccinated for Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; de Paula, Viviane Ferraz; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-10-01

    Multiple factors, such as environment, nutritional status, and disease, induce stress in animals during livestock production. It has been shown that poultry exposed to stressors for prolonged periods had decreases in their performance parameters, mortality and decreased host resistance to pathogenic agents. It seems that early age stress may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify the expression of their genetic potential on growth performance and immunity. This study aimed to discuss the effects of early-age heat stress on the blood lymphocyte phenotypes (B and T lymphocytes) and plasma immunoglobulin levels (IgM and IgG) in chickens vaccinated against paramixovirus of the Newcastle (NC) disease (LaSota strain). For this purpose, 96 male chickens (Cobb) were divided into 4 groups: 1) control (C), 2) heat-stressed (HS), 3) control vaccinated (C/V), and 4) heat-stressed and Vaccinated (HS/V). The NC vaccine was administered twice on experimental day (ED) 7 and ED14, and the heat stress (38 ± 1°C) was applied from ED2 to ED6. The data showed that HS increased the corticosterone serum levels in the HS group compared with the control groups (C and C/V groups). At ED7, increased concentrations of IgM were observed in birds in the HS and HS/V groups compared with C and C/V animals; chickens from the HS/V group presented increased IgG levels compared with those in the birds of the C group. The heat stress shifted the immune cell profile from B-lymphocyte to a T-cytotoxic and T-helper lymphocyte profile, and this immune cell pattern persisted until the end of the study period. It was concluded that heat stress immunomodulated the immune function response of the chickens to the NC disease vaccine challenge. PMID:26362974

  19. 我国地方品种鸡分离到的一个禽白血病病毒新亚群的鉴定%Identification of a New Subgroup of Avian Leukosis Virus Isolated from Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 赵鹏; 崔治中

    2012-01-01

    为探明我国地方品种鸡群禽白血病病毒(Avian leukosis virus,ALV)的特点,通过接种DF-1细胞及细胞培养上清液p27抗原的检测,从芦花鸡中分离得到三株外源性ALV禽白血病病毒,分别是JS11C1、JS11C2和JS11C3,并对其进行亚群鉴定分析.用PCR方法扩增env基因测序,并与已知鸡源各亚群ALV的囊膜蛋白(gp85)作氨基酸同源性比较.这三株ALV的env基因的gp85大小为1 005bp,编码335个氨基酸;env基因的gp37大小为609bp,编码203个氨基酸.三个毒株之间gp85的同源性为91.9%~97.0%.与A、B、C、D和E五个经典亚群在GenBank中已发表的18个毒株的gp85的同源性仅在77.7%~84.6%间,显著低于鸡群中常见的A、B、E各亚群内的同源性范围(分别为88.2%~98.5%,91.6%~98.8%和97.9%~99.4%),而与J亚群参考株的同源性更是只有34.2%~36.5%.上述结果表明,芦花鸡分离到的三株病毒可能是不同于鸡源ALV已知6个亚群的一个新亚群,按国际上对ALV亚群分类的习惯,初步将其定名为K亚群.%In order to clarify Avian leukosis virus(ALV) characteristics from Chinese native chicken breeds, three ALV JS11C1, JS11C2 and JS11C3 were isolated from Chinese native breed "luhua" by inoculation of DF1 cell culture and detection of p27 antigen. Using PCR amplification of env gene, the amplified gp85 genes were analyzed and compared to all six chicken ALV subgroups reported. The gp85 genes of these three viruses were 1 005bp in length and encoded 335 amino acids, and the gp37 genes were 609bp and encoded 203 amino acids. The homology of gp85 among these three isolated strains was 91. 9%-97. 0%. Comparing to 18 stains of subgroup A, B, C, D, E published in GenBank, the homology was only in the range of 77. 7%-84. 6%, significantly lower than the gp85 homology observed within the common chicken subgroups A(88.2%-98. 5%), B (91. 6%-98. 8%), and E(97. 9%-99. 4%). The gp85 homology compared with subgroup J was

  20. Pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in rare anemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Aessopos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare anemias encompass a large and markedly heterogeneous group of nearly 90 different conditions, mostly congenital or genetically determined, that, according to the definition of the European Commission, have a global prevalence of less than 5 per 10,000 individuals. However, the geographical distribution of several of those anemias varies considerably and thus their local prevalence may be significantly higher in certain regions...