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Sample records for chick thermal comfort

  1. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor;

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking into...... account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  2. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  3. Effects of sportswear design on thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria José Araújo Marques; Catarino, André P.; Cardoso, Cidália; Martin, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Several technical developments in the sportswear clothing industry resulted in the use of functional textiles for highly-specialized performances in all kind of sports. This paper reports on an experimental investigation on the effects of garment design in thermo-physiological body comfort, measured in terms of clothing insulation for a specific outdoor sport - rowing. The thermal manikins have been used to measure clothing insulation and to evaluate the thermal comfort. Thermal mani...

  4. Understanding the adaptive approach to thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, M.A. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Christianity and Culture; Nicol, J.F. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Architecture

    1998-10-01

    This paper explains the adaptive approach to thermal comfort, and an adaptive model for thermal comfort is presented. The model is an example of a complex adaptive system (Casti 1996) whose equilibria are determined by the restrictions acting upon it. People`s adaptive actions are generally effective in securing comfort, which occurs at a wide variety of indoor temperatures. These comfort temperatures depend upon the circumstances in which people live, such as the climate and the heating or cooling regime. The temperatures may be estimated from the mean outdoor temperature and the availability of a heating or cooling plant. The evaluation of the parameters of the adaptive model requires cross-sectional surveys to establish current norms and sequential surveys (with and without intervention) to evaluate the rapidity of people`s adaptive actions. Standards for thermal comfort will need revision in the light of the adaptive approach. Implications of the adaptive model for the HVAC industry are noted.

  5. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  6. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  7. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.;

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable to...... vote/percentage people dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  8. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  10. Does variation in clothing make us more thermally comfortable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    In the same room, people will wear different amounts of clothes if there is no strict dress code. Ideally everybody would put on just the right amount to feel thermally comfortable, but that is not always the case. To improve simulations of thermal comfort, an estimate of clothing insulation is...... among people is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and that people do choose their clothing according to thermal preference, but that the distribution of thermal comfort votes is the same....

  11. Adaptive principles for thermal comfort in dwellings: From comfort temperatures to avoiding discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.; Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Many theories on thermal comfort exist and there are many ways to deliver this in an energy efficient way. Both aspects are often studied in a static way and most of these studies only regard one of the aspects, seldom investigating what influence the way of delivering thermal comfort has on the act

  12. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Leen; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300 A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dear, Richard de [Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Hensen, Jan [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady state laboratory experiments. This, however, is not representing the real situation in buildings, especially not when focusing on residential buildings. Therefore, in present analysis, recent reviews and adaptations are considered to extract acceptable temperature ranges and comfort scales. They will be defined in an algorithm, easily implementable in any BES code. The focus is on comfortable temperature levels in the room, more than on the detailed temperature distribution within that room. (author)

  13. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. PMID:23590514

  14. THERMAL COMFORT ZONES FORSTEADY-STATE ENERGY BALANCE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    KAYNAKLI, Ömer; Ümit ÜNVER; Muhsin KILIÇ; Recep YAMANKARADENİZ

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the various thermal comfort parameters including temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, metabolic activity and clothing resistance and their effect to each other are examined. The heat transfer equations given for steady state energy balance between body and environment and the empirical equations which give thermal comfort and physiological control mechanisms of body are used. According to the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, an environment can be assumed comfortable while Pred...

  15. Predicting human thermal comfort in a transient nonuniform thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, J P; Farrington, R B; Bharathan, D; Vlahinos, A; Burke, R; Huizenga, C; Zhang, H

    2004-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a suite of thermal comfort tools to assist in the development of smaller and more efficient climate control systems in automobiles. These tools, which include a 126-segment sweating manikin, a finite element physiological model of the human body, and a psychological model based on human testing, are designed to predict human thermal comfort in transient, nonuniform thermal environments, such as automobiles. The manikin measures the heat loss from the human body in the vehicle environment and sends the heat flux from each segment to the physiological model. The physiological model predicts the body's response to the environment, determines 126-segment skin temperatures, sweat rate, and breathing rate, and transmits the data to the manikin. The psychological model uses temperature data from the physiological model to predict the local and global thermal comfort as a function of local skin and core temperatures and their rates of change. Results of initial integration testing show the thermal response of a manikin segment to transient environmental conditions. PMID:15221399

  16. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature...... review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based...... developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  17. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls

  18. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  19. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.H.; Baharun, A.; Abdul Mannan, M.D.; Abang Adenan, D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  20. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Ibrahim, A. Baharun, M.D. Abdul Mannan, D.A. Abang Adenan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  1. Assessment of thermal comfort in the mosque in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Ibrahim, A. Baharun, Nawi M.N.M., Junaidi E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In hot-humid climate, the mosque should be provided with an acceptable level of thermal comfort in order to seek serenity and focus for worship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the Masjid Al-Muttaqin located in Kota Samarahan, Sarawak. The data were analysed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET index. The analysis shows that although the air velocity in the mosque is acceptable, due to the influence of high air temperature, thermal comfort is not achieved. A retrofit design by adding new materials and installing insulations on the existing roof are proposed and the results show significant improvement of thermal comfort inside the mosque.

  2. Indoor temperatures for optimum thermal comfort and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dear, R.; Arens, E. A.; Candido, C.;

    2014-01-01

    A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue.......A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue....

  3. Improvement of Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Ventilated Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Jensen, J.; Larsen, J.;

    The paper describes the results of laboratory investigations in a mock-up of an office space with the purpose of investigating the impact of different opening strategies on thermal comfort conditions in the occupied zone. The results show that different window opening strategies result in quite...... different airflow and thermal comfort conditions. The conditions are a result of a multivariable impact, and detailed descriptions of the flows involved are complex....

  4. Near-infraed scattering method for fabric thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting behavior of a clothing assembly plays an important role in thermophysiological body comfort. The instruments and methods utilised for testing purposes should adequately quantify wetting parameters of fabric thermal comfort. The surface conductivity method has been used to for moisture management testing in fabrics, but that method cannot give the detailed information for fiber-liquid interaction. With the new near-infrared scattering method, the wetting mechanism is introduced and interpreted through liquid transfer process from an infinite liquid reservoir. Wetting results from two kinds of fabrics show the difference in fabric thermal comfort.

  5. Health and thermal comfort: From WHO guidance to housing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perception was used effectively in the WHO LARES project, showing that self-reported poor health was significantly associated with poor thermal comfort. Tools to inform strategies directed at dealing with cold homes and fuel poverty are considered, including Energy Performance Certificates, Fuel Poverty Indicators, and the English Housing Health and Safety Rating System. Conclusions from a WHO Workshop on Housing, Energy and Thermal Comfort are also summarised. The WHO view of thermal comfort, which is driven by protecting health from both high and low indoor temperatures, should be recognised in energy efficiency, fuel poverty and climate change strategies. While this is a major challenge, it could provide both health gains for individuals, and economic benefits for society. - Highlights: ► WHO guidance on thermal comfort is directed to protecting health in the home environment. ► In particular, the WHO guidance aims to protect the health of the most susceptible and fragile. ► Housing energy efficiency strategies protect health, and attack inequities. ► Housing energy efficiency strategies also have economic benefits for society.

  6. Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.

    2005-06-01

    The objects of this report are to: (1) increase national energy security by reducing fuel use for vehicle climate control systems; (2) show/demonstrate technology that can reduce the fuel used by LD vehicles' ancillary systems; and (3) develop tools to evaluate the effectiveness of energy-efficient systems including--comfort, cost, practicality, ease-of-use, and reliability.

  7. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  8. Simulation of Thermal Comfort of a Residential House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masine Md. Tap

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In hot and humid climates thermal comfort can become a problem to the occupants of many residential buildings especially when they are not equipped with air-conditioning system. This paper presents outcomes of an ongoing research work to investigate thermal comfort level in a naturally ventilated residential house in Malaysia using computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Actual measurements of the temperature distribution, relative humidity and air flow pattern were conducted. CFD simulations on the model of the house allow us to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The thermal comfort in the house was found to be well outside the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the middle of the hall section and rotating at 150 RPM. It was found that the fan produced swirling flow pattern in the hall section resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution inside the house. However, there is no significant improvement in the thermal comfort level in the house. Results of CFD simulations also show that the use of small extractor fans installed on the front and back walls has no significant effects on the thermal comfort level in the house. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers and engineers to further improved the level of thermal comfort in residential houses in hot and humid climates that are naturally ventilated.

  9. Comparison of Thermal Comfort by Radiant Heating and Convective Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Imai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, convective heating with a heat-pump system, which has high energy efficiency, is popular for room heating. However, it is possible that energy savings using convective heating can be further improved using heat pumps that service both occupied and unoccupied spaces. Moreover, convective heating increases vertical temperature gradients in a room; thus, it is hard to say whether occupants are being provided with sufficient thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to compare the thermal comfort provided by both radiant and convective heating systems. In this study, a small office room was modeled, and then temperature and airflow distributions in the room were calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations using ESP-r (Environmental research simulation software. Furthermore, distributions of Standard Effective Temperatures (SET* were calculated using the air temperature distributions obtained from the CFD simulations, which allows us to compare the thermal comfort provided by convective heating with that provided by radiant heating. The results show that radiant heating can provide satisfactory thermal comfort, even when the room air temperature is low. However, thermal comfort also depends on the temperature of blowing air, and blowing air must reach occupied regions; thus, only radiant heating cannot circulate sufficient air. In contrast, convective heating increases vertical temperature gradients in a room. Therefore, rather than using only radiant or convective heating, it may be more effective to combine them efficiently.

  10. Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We review studies of thermal comfort and discuss building energy use implications. • Adaptive comfort models tend to have a wider comfort temperature range. • Higher indoor temperatures would lead to fewer cooling systems and less energy use. • Socio-economic study and post-occupancy evaluation of built environment is desirable. • Important to consider future climate scenarios in heating, cooling and power schemes. - Abstract: Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change

  11. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  12. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  13. Double face: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; de Ruiter, P; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at designing and prototyping an adjustable translucent modular system featuring thermal insulation and thermal absorption in a calibrated manner, which is adjustable according to different heat loads du...

  14. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  15. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona;

    2014-01-01

    thermal comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be...

  16. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often...

  17. Double face: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at de

  18. The Adaptive Thermal Comfort model may not always predict thermal effects on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David Peter; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years," by R.J. de Dear and colleagues.......A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years," by R.J. de Dear and colleagues....

  19. Thermal Comfort While Sitting on Office Chairs – Subjective Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Vlaović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is related to human physiological reactions. In order to maintain a constant internal temperature, the human body must dissipate heat in a warm climate, and prevent heat losses in a cold climate. The overall sensation of comfort accompanies the warmest part of the body in a warm environment and the coldest one in a cold environment. Chair design and clothing may affect the difference in sensitivity between certain parts of the body, that is, they may affect thermal comfort. This research focused on subjective sensation of warmth and moisture while sitting on offi ce chairs. The subjective method of evaluating thermal discomfort is based on ISO 7730:2005 standard, according to which a questionnaire was made for this research. Six subjects took part in the research. They were sitting on five different office chairs as they performed their usual jobs in controlled conditions. From the point of view of the evaluation of the sensation of warmth, all chairs were evaluated neutrally. The sensation under the buttocks and thighs was reported to be somewhat warmer, while the sensation on the back was reported to be somewhat colder, which was affected by the design of the back of the chair. No correlation has been proven between the actual temperature and moisture measurements and subjective evaluations of thermal comfort, in spite of a number of direct links. The use of the present method offers the possibility of further research into this subject, which would prove more thoroughly a correlation between design and construction solutions of office chairs and the comfort perceived by sitting persons.

  20. Building high-accuracy thermal simulation for evaluation of thermal comfort in real houses

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoaison; Makino, Yoshiki; Lim, Azman Osman; TAN, Yasuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential aspect for the control and verification of many smart home services. In this research, we design and implement simulation which models thermal environment of a smart house testbed. Our simulation can be used to evaluate thermal comfort in various conditions of home environment. In order to increase the accuracy of the simulation, we measure thermal-related parameters of the house such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation by the use of sensors and perform p...

  1. The control of human thermal comfort by the smart clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahta I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, human thermal comfort depends on combinations of clothing structure and chemical nature of fibers, external conditions and factors related to wearer. Thermal comfort of a clothing system is associated with thermal balance of body and its thermoregulatory responses to the dynamic interactions with the clothing and the environment, and can be quantified in terms of Met and Clo units. One of the important functions of clothing is to provide adequate thermal comfort for wellness and high performance. To do this research, clothing with an integrated human microclimate regulating electrical system has been developed. The clothing contains: Peltier elements, which provide cooling effect; electronic control system with heat sensor – thermistor, which controls the optimal operating parameters, and energy source. The aim of experiments is to verify, how the cooling system, integrated in the clothes, influences indicators of the human microclimate. For this reason, the experiments of wearing by the appropriate operating conditions are carried out by measuring temperature changes in different locations in space between the body and clothes during activities. The analysis of experimental results reveals the system's operational efficiency as well as the negative impact of non-evaporative materials on the possibility of vapour removal through the garment surface.

  2. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  3. Urban microclimate and thermal comfort modelling: strategies for urban renovation

    OpenAIRE

    Tumini, Irina; Higueras García, Esther; Baereswyl Rada, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The urban microclimate plays an important role in building energy consumption and thermal comfort in outdoor spaces. Nowadays, cities need to increase energy efficiency, reduce pollutant emissions and mitigate the evident lack of sustainability. In light of this, attention has focused on the bioclimatic concepts use in the urban development. However, the speculative unsustainability of the growth model highlights the need to redirect the c...

  4. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (athletic park), named "Serafeio Athletic and Cultural Centre," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  6. Weather and Tourism: Thermal Comfort and Zoological Park Visitor Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Perkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weather events have the potential to greatly impact business operations and profitability, especially in outdoor-oriented economic sectors such as Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure (TRL. Although a substantive body of work focuses on the macroscale impacts of climate change, less is known about how daily weather events influence attendance decisions, particularly relating to the physiological thermal comfort levels of each visitor. To address this imbalance, this paper focuses on ambient thermal environments and visitor behavior at the Phoenix and Atlanta zoos. Daily visitor attendances at each zoo from September 2001 to June 2011, were paired with the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET to help measure the thermal conditions most likely experienced by zoo visitors. PET was calculated using hourly atmospheric variables of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. at each zoological park location and then classified based on thermal comfort categories established by the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. The major findings suggested that in both Phoenix and Atlanta, optimal thermal regimes for peak attendance occurred within “slightly warm” and “warm” PET-based thermal categories. Additionally, visitors seemed to be averse to the most commonly occurring thermal extreme since visitors appeared to avoid the zoo on excessively hot days in Phoenix and excessively cold days in Atlanta. Finally, changes in the daily weather impacted visitor attendance as both zoos experienced peak attendance on days with dynamic changes in the thermal regimes and depressed attendances on days with stagnant thermal regimes. Building a better understanding of how weather events impact visitor demand can help improve our assessments of the potential impacts future climate change may have on tourism.

  7. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  8. Thermal comfort and energy-efficient cooling of nonresidential buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Kalz, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    This book supports HVAC planners in reducing the cooling energy demand, improving the indoor environment and designing more cost-effective building concepts. High performance buildings have shown that it is possible to go clearly beyond the energy requirements of existing legislation and obtaining good thermal comfort. However, there is still a strong uncertainty in day-to-day practice due to the lack of legislative regulations for mixed-mode buildings which are neither only naturally ventilated nor fully air-conditioned, but use a mix of different low-energy cooling techniques. Based on the f

  9. Gender differences in thermal comfort and use of thermostats in everyday thermal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, Sami [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2007-04-15

    Differences in thermal comfort between male and female subjects are generally considered to be small. In this study gender differences in thermal comfort and use of thermostats were examined by a quantitative interview survey with a total of 3094 respondents, and by controlled experiments. The studies were carried out in Finland and considered everyday thermal environments: homes, offices and a university. The results show significant gender differences in thermal comfort, temperature preference, and use of thermostats. Females are less satisfied with room temperatures than males, prefer higher room temperatures than males, and feel both uncomfortably cold and uncomfortably hot more often than males. Although females are more critical of their thermal environments, males use thermostats in households more often than females. (author)

  10. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, Joost van; Hensen, Jan L.M. [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national level, adaptive thermal comfort guidelines come into being, such as in the Netherlands. This paper discusses two implementations of the adaptive comfort model in terms of usability and energy use for moderate maritime climate zones by means of literature study, a case study comprising temperature measurements, and building performance simulation. It is concluded that for moderate climate zones the adaptive model is only applicable during summer months, and can reduce energy for naturally conditioned buildings. However, the adaptive thermal comfort model has very limited application potential for such climates. Additionally we suggest a temperature parameter with a gradual course to replace the mean monthly outdoor air temperature to avoid step changes in optimum comfort temperatures. (author)

  11. Thermal comfort requirements: A study of people with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, L.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Hodder, S.G.

    1999-07-01

    Existing specifications for thermal comfort in built environments are coming under increased criticism for failing to consider the requirements of specific populations. People with physical disabilities are an example of one such population. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort requirements of 32 people with multiple sclerosis. Subjects were exposed to three conditions: 18.5 C, PMV = {minus}1.5, slightly cool to cool; 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral; 29 C, PMV = +1.5, slightly warm to warm. Results indicate that people with multiple sclerosis have a wide range of responses to the three experimental conditions. The actual percentage dissatisfied was much higher than predicted by Fange's (1970) predicted percentage dissatisfied. Their preferred environment is slightly warmer than 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral. A subgroup of the population prefers an environment that is slightly cooler than 23 C. Further work is needed to qualify if their preferred environments match that of PMV+1 and PMV{minus}1 and to identify if any of the factors such as age, duration of disability, and medication affect the actual mean vote.

  12. Desiccant Cooling System for Thermal Comfort: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEMANT PARMAR,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant cooling system (DCS is alternate suitable option against conventional cooling system in humid climates. A typical system combines a dehumidifier that uses dry desiccant wheel, with direct or indirect evaporative systems and a sensible cooling system. DCS is the environmental protection technique for cooling purpose of the building. This system reduces the CFC level in the environment because it restricts the use of conventional refrigerant. In this paper, all the working principles and expected research areashave been discussed. Through detailed literature survey it has been observed that a desiccant cooling system may be a suitable option for thermal comfort in the climate where the humidity is higher. Thedesiccant cooling system (DCS has proven their feasibility and cost saving in the field of air conditioning. This review provides a brief overview on the development of desiccant cooling system in different fields. Finally, concluding remarks regarding further development of desiccant cooling for thermal comfort are also provided. This technology is economically feasible and optimizes with low cost. This review is useful for making opportunities to further research in different areas of desiccant cooling system.

  13. A possible connection between thermal comfort and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2004-05-20

    It is a well-established fact that cardiovascular health requires periodic exercise during which the human body often experiences significant physical discomfort. It is not obvious to the exerciser that the short-term pain and discomfort has a long-term positive health impact. Many cultures have well-established practices that involve exposing the body to periodic thermal discomfort. Scandinavian saunas and American Indian sweat lodges are two examples. Both are believed to promote health and well-being. Vacations often intentionally include significant thermal discomfort as part of the experience (e.g., sunbathing, and downhill skiing). So people often intentionally make themselves thermally uncomfortable yet the entire foundation of providing the thermal environment in our buildings is done to minimize the percentage of people thermally dissatisfied. We must provide an environment that does not negatively impact short-term health and we need to consider productivity but are our current thermal comfort standards too narrowly defined and do these standards actually contribute to longer-term negative health impacts? This paper examines the possibility that the human body thermoregulatory system has a corollary relationship to the cardiovascular system. It explores the possibility that we have an inherent need to exercise our thermoregulatory system. Potential, physiological, sociological and energy ramifications of these possibilities are discussed.

  14. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities.

  15. Differences in thermal comfort between young and elderly people; Verschillen in thermisch comfort tussen jongeren en ouderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellen, L. [Unit Building Physics and Services, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Part of a PhD research has been dedicated to finding out which temperature levels and fluctuations are thermally acceptable in air-conditioned buildings. The physiological response of users has also been examined. Finally, a comparison has been made of the optimal conditions for the thermal comfort of young people and of elderly people [Dutch] Als onderdeel van een promotieonderzoek is onderzocht binnen welke temperatuurniveaus temperatuurfluctuaties in geklimatiseerde gebouwen thermisch acceptabel zijn. Ook is gekeken naar de fysiologische response van gebruikers. Tenslotte is een vergelijking gemaakt voor de optimale condities met betrekking tot thermisch comfort voor jongere en oudere personen.

  16. Evaluating local and overall thermal comfort in buildings using thermal manikins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, E.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation methods of human thermal comfort that are based on whole-body heat balance with its surroundings may not be adequate for evaluations in non-uniform thermal conditions. Under these conditions, the human body's segments may experience a wide range of room physical parameters and the evaluation of the local (segmental) thermal comfort becomes necessary. In this work, subjective measurements of skin temperature were carried out to investigate the human body's local responses due to a step change in the room temperature; and the variability in the body's local temperatures under different indoor conditions and exposures as well as the physiological steady state local temperatures. Then, a multi-segmental model of human thermoregulation was developed based on these findings to predict the local skin temperatures of individuals' body segments with a good accuracy. The model predictability of skin temperature was verified for steady state and dynamic conditions using measured data at uniform neutral, cold and warm as well as different asymmetric thermal conditions. The model showed very good predictability with average absolute deviation ranged from 0.3-0.8 K. The model was then implemented onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'THERMINATOR' to adjust the segmental skin temperature set-points based on the indoor conditions. This new control for the manikin was experimentally validated for the prediction of local and overall thermal comfort using the equivalent temperature measure. THERMINATOR with the new control mode was then employed in the evaluation of localized floor-heating system variants towards maximum energy efficiency. This aimed at illustrating a design strategy using the thermal manikin to find the optimum geometry and surface area of a floor-heater for a single seated person. Furthermore, a psychological comfort model that is based on local skin temperature was adapted for the use with the model of human

  17. The Impact of Air Exchange Effectiveness on Thermal Comfort in an Air-Conditioned Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roonak Daghigh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Impact of air exchange effectiveness on thermal comfort has not been investigated and, therefore, not well understood .Therefore, the influence of air exchange effectiveness on thermal comfort is investigated in this study. Approach: The main objective of this research is to investigate the thermal comfort level of an air-conditioned office room under 14 windows-door opening arrangements as a function of maximum, minimum and mean Air Exchange Effectiveness (AEE, as has not been inquired into already. The tracer gas decay method has been applied during the experimental procedures to estimate air exchange effectiveness, on the basis of room average and local mean age of air. Simultaneously, thermal comfort variables were measured and through these data, the thermal comforts Fanger's indices (PMV and PPD were calculated. Staff answered a survey on their sensation of the indoor climate. Results: Results of 60 survey responses to thermal comfort questions in office and indoor air quality are presented. This study has shown that there are relationship between AEE and thermal comfort and three linear regression equations of PMV versus AEE can be derived for this air-conditioned office. Conclusion: Studies on the effect of air exchange effectiveness on thermal comfort in an office have shown that Thermal comfort is influenced by AEE, which go beyond the six factors which have been taken into account in PMV modeling.

  18. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; de Wit, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, productivity and performance. A dynamic thermophysiological model was used to examine the possibility of simulating human thermal responses and thermal comfort...... temperature corresponding with a neutral thermal sensation (control situation). During the experiments both physiological responses and thermal sensation were measured. Productivity and performance were assessed with a ‘Remote Performance Measurement’ (RPM) method. Physiological and thermal sensation data...

  19. Influence of evapotranspiration on thermal comfort in central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, A.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    In future, more and more people will be exposed to the negative thermal effects of urban climate, which will be exacerbated by predicted climate change. In regard to urban climate studies, it is necessary to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies tailored to the problem area and to include them in the local planning process. Urban green spaces or water bodies could help to mitigate the radiation and air temperature. For this purpose eddy-covariance technique has been carried out in Oberhausen (Germany; 51° N, 6° E) between 15 August 2010 and 14 August 2011 to quantify turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in areas with various types of urban land use. The results show that sensible heat flux (QH) is 20 % higher, latent heat flux (QE) 90 % lower at the urban (URB) site compared to the suburban one (SUB). Furthermore, partition of the turbulent heat fluxes (QH/Q* resp. QE/Q*) clearly depends on plan area density (λP). The human-biometeorological thermal index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), demonstrates that green spaces counteract growing thermal stress on city-dwellers due to improving thermal comfort. Aside from the positive effect of shading, inner-city green spaces can only be effective if an adequate water supply is ensured. Otherwise, the positive thermal effects of green spaces resulting from transpiration will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely, which is confirmed by the measured values. Additional planning recommendations for urban planners within cities located at mid-latitudes derived from measuring results are given.

  20. The effect of different transitional spaces on thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose- This paper focuses on the effect of courtyards, atria and sunspaces on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption for heating and cooling. One of the most important purposes is to understand if certain transitional spaces can reduce the energy consumption of and improve thermal comfort i

  1. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning.The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management?The three stages of the project are: A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gapsResearch into the specific field of urban climatologyApplied research on the broader field of urban planningThe urban climate and adaptation measuresIn the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology, materials and colour

  2. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  3. Using a Zonal Model To Assess the Effect of a Heated Floor on Thermal Comfort Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People s perceptions of indoor air quality and thermal comfort are affected by air speed and temperature. We have extended the three-dimensional zonal model, ZAER, to be able to predict the temperature fields and the air distributions between and within rooms in the case of natural convection. This paper presents an application of the new zonal model dealing with the influence of a heated floor of one room upon the winter thermal comfort of an unconditioned Tunisian dwelling. Coupling ZAER with a thermal comfort model allows the assessment of the thermal quality of the dwelling through the prediction of a comfort indicator. The obtained results show that a heated floor can be a useful component to improve thermal comfort in the Tunisian context, even in another room

  4. Modern Housing Tranquillity in Malaysia from the Aspect of Thermal Comfort for Humid Hot Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharum M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of housing is imperative to enhance the society’s standard of living in this country. The factor of occupant comfort is the main element to indicate whether the housing is successful or not. In this writing, the thermal comfort discussed in only relating to the thermal comfort zone in Malaysia and the results from the study of the internal temperature of modern houses from previous researchers. Results by a few researchers found that modern houses are currently not reaching a good level of thermal comfort to live in and the designs are not capable to resolve the issue of discomfort in the internal environment of the houses in Malaysia. Therefore, thermal comfort is one of the important aspects of research in the development of modern housing because it plays a very important role in enhancing welfare, health and the quality of life or urban society.

  5. Assessment of Thermal Comfort: A Study at Closed and Ventilated Call Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aims of study were to investigate the effects of environmental factors including the human physiology and thermal comfort during the cycle of process works in workplace. Approach: The selected production line was handling the restoration of trouble report. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, wind speed (m sec-1, illuminance (lux and air temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using thermal comfort apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then the thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The thermal comfort assessment of this workplace which is slightly warm following by thermal sensation and likely to be dissatisfied by the occupant. Conclusion: The result indicated that the activity level and clothing more influenced comfort to the occupants.

  6. Perception of the thermal environment in high school and university classrooms: Subjective preferences and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Filippi, Marco; Viazzo, Sara [Department of Energy (DENER), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    This work shows some of the results of a field study about environmental comfort investigations in classrooms. In this project thermal, acoustic, visual and air quality aspects were analysed in a number of classrooms-13 classrooms at four different high schools of the Provincia di Torino and four typical medium-sized university classrooms of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. The investigations were carried out during the heating period. Both field measurements and subjective surveys were performed at the same time during the regular lesson periods. This paper focuses on thermal comfort, which may have a significant effect on the students' performance, in terms of attention, comprehension and learning levels. The measurement campaign consisted in measuring the thermal environment parameters-air temperature, mean radiant temperatures, air relative humidity and air velocity. Through these data, the thermal comfort Fanger's indices (predicted mean vote (PMV), and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD)people) were calculated, the actual people clothing and metabolic rate being known. The subjective survey involved questions on the thermal environmental perception. They basically investigated the thermal environment acceptability and preference. Moreover, a judgement based on the typical seven point thermal sensation scale (Fanger 7-points scale) was also asked. Through the elaboration of the questionnaire data, the actual percentage of dissatisfied (PD) people of the felt thermal environment was evaluated. The judgements about the thermal environment were compared with the results of the field measurements. Moreover, the subjective mean votes were compared with the thermal environment perceptions in terms of acceptability and preference. (author)

  7. A decision-tree-based model for evaluating the thermal comfort of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Assis Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is of great importance in preserving body temperature homeostasis during thermal stress conditions. Although the thermal comfort of horses has been widely studied, there is no report of its relationship with surface temperature (T S. This study aimed to assess the potential of data mining techniques as a tool to associate surface temperature with thermal comfort of horses. T S was obtained using infrared thermography image processing. Physiological and environmental variables were used to define the predicted class, which classified thermal comfort as "comfort" and "discomfort". The variables of armpit, croup, breast and groin T S of horses and the predicted classes were then subjected to a machine learning process. All variables in the dataset were considered relevant for the classification problem and the decision-tree model yielded an accuracy rate of 74 %. The feature selection methods used to reduce computational cost and simplify predictive learning decreased model accuracy to 70 %; however, the model became simpler with easily interpretable rules. For both these selection methods and for the classification using all attributes, armpit and breast T S had a higher power rating for predicting thermal comfort. Data mining techniques show promise in the discovery of new variables associated with the thermal comfort of horses.

  8. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    OpenAIRE

    Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; de Wit, Martin; Loomans, Marcel; Friins, Arjan; Toftum, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, productivity and performance. A dynamic thermophysiological model was used to examine the possibility of simulating human thermal responses and thermal comfort under moderate transient conditions. To examine the influence of a moderate temperature ramp, a climate room set-up with experimental subjects was used. Eight subjects visited the climate room on tw...

  9. The role of environmental and personal variables in influencing thermal comfort indices used in building simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, S

    2013-01-01

    The need to identify variables, which influence human behaviour, has become one of the priorities in the quest to reduce energy demand. Environmental and personal variables, as set out in the thermal comfort models, have long been associated with people’s behaviour by predicting their state of thermal comfort or rather discomfort. The aim of this paper is to explore and to report on the influences of these variables on thermal discomfort indices used in building simulation models. Surprisingl...

  10. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. PMID:23317756

  11. Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homoud, Mohammad S.; Abdou, Adel A.; Budaiwi, Ismail M. [Architectural Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-06-15

    In harsh climatic regions, buildings require air-conditioning in order to provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort. In many situations buildings are over cooled or the HVAC system is kept running for a much longer time than needed. In some other situations thermal comfort is not achieved due to improper operation practices coupled with poor maintenance and even lack it, and consequently inefficient air-conditioning systems. Mosques represent one type of building that is characterized by their unique intermittent operating schedule determined by prayer times, which vary continuously according to the local solar time. This paper presents the results of a study designed to monitor energy use and thermal comfort conditions of a number of mosques in a hot-humid climate so that both energy efficiency and the quality of thermal comfort conditions especially during occupancy periods in such intermittently operated buildings can be assessed accurately. (author)

  12. Analysis of air flow distribution and thermal comfort in a hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Ningbai, Ningbai

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) affects the vehicle mileage and battery durability. Air conditioning is the most energy consuming system after the electric motor in HEVs. Air flow distribution and thermal comfort in an HEV is studied and simulations are performed to investigate the optimum air distribution pattern for providing thermal comfort while maintaining energy efficiency. To acquire a preliminary understanding of the problem, an analytical model is developed for ai...

  13. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  14. CFD Modeling of Thermal Manikin Heat Loss in a Comfort Evaluation Benchmark Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Håkan O.; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    comfort evaluation. The main idea is to focus on people. It is the comfort requirements of occupants that decide what thermal climate that will prevail. It is therefore important to use comfort simulation methods that originate from people, not just temperatures on surfaces and air.......Computer simulated persons (CSPs) today are different in many ways, reflecting various software possibilities and limitations as well as different research interest. Unfortunately, too few of the theories behind thermal manikin simulations are available in the public domain. Many researchers and...

  15. Air flow and thermal comfort simulation studies of wind ventilated classrooms in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.A. [Malaysian Institut of Teknologi, Selangor (Malaysia). Kajian Sains Gunaan; Kannan, K.S. [Technology Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-05-01

    A CFD software called VORTEX is used as a tool to simulate air flow and thermal comfort in naturally wind ventilated classrooms of an educational institution, which are at different locations, have different configurations and slightly differing outdoor environmental conditions. Simulations of the various classrooms are compared to get the most thermally comfortable and uncomfortable naturally ventilated classroom. An analysis of the simulations will be done, taking into consideration, among others, location of inlets and outlets and the sheltering effects of the surrounding built-up environment. Recommendations will then be made on how to improve the ventilation of the least comfortable room, based on hypothetical simulation results. (author)

  16. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  17. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  18. Study on thermal comfort, air quality and energy savings using bioenergy via gasification/combustion for space heating of a broiler house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima F.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: jadir@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard [Leibniz Institut fuer Agrartechnik- ATB, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The annual production of chicken meat is increasing throughout the world and Brazil is the world leader regarding exportation, a prediction indicates about 2.7 millions tons to be exported in 2007. A key to this performance is the low production costs, however, the costs of space heating necessary during the first 3 weeks of the chick's life and is increasing significantly. For this reason, it is always necessary to search for most efficient systems for this purpose. In addition to that, the use of bioenergy is gaining importance since it is renewable and ecologically correct. A close coupled gasification/combustion system, using eucalyptus firewood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or Eucalyptus urophylla) as fuel, was tested with the objective of providing thermal comfort for the birds during their first 3 weeks after birth. An experiment was set up for this purpose in an industrial scale production facility. The results indicated that the gasification/combustion system is viable for space heating for chicks, does not alters significantly the air quality, regarding CO, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} concentration inside poultry house, provides the best thermal comfort as compared to indirect fired furnaces and accounts for a 35% energy savings, leading to lower production costs. (author)

  19. Adaptive thermal comfort for buildings in Portugal based on occupants' thermal perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, L.; Pina Santos, C.; Rebelo, M. [LNEC National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal); Almeida, S. [FCT Foundation for Science and Technology, Lisbon (Portugal); Correia Guedes, M. [IST Higher Technical Inst., Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    The use of air conditioning systems in Portugal has increased in recent years. Most new service buildings are equipped with mechanical air conditioning systems, either due to commercial reasons, productivity, or due to high internal thermal loads, and solar gains through windows. However, a large percentage of older service buildings are still naturally ventilated. In ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort standard, an adaptive model was adopted as an optional method for determining acceptable thermal conditions in naturally conditioned spaces. Recently, Portugal's National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (LNEC) initiated an interdisciplinary research study in this field. The research team of physicists, social scientists, and civil engineers developed better modeling of adaptive thermal strategies. This paper described the adaptive approach that defined indoor thermal comfort requirements applicable to Portuguese buildings. The study focused on assessing, in real use conditions, indoor environments and the response of occupants of office and educational buildings, and homes for the elderly. The results were obtained from 285 field surveys carried out on 40 buildings and a set of 2367 questionnaires completed by occupants. Field surveys assessed and measured the main indoor environmental parameters during summer, winter and mid-season. This paper included the results of the analysis to the occupants' thermal perception and expectation, by relating them to both measured and collected indoor thermal environments and outdoor climate. The relation between the occupants' thermal sensation and preference was analysed for different types of activities, throughout different seasons. Results showed that occupants may tolerate broader temperature ranges than those indicated in current standards, particularly in the heating season. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. An on-the-road experiment into the thermal comfort of car seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Tülin Gündüz; Babalik, Fatih C

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of thermal comfort in an extended road trial study. Automobile seats play an important role in improving the thermal comfort. In the assessment of thermal comfort in autos, in general subjective and objective measurements are used. Testing on the road is very difficult but real traffic conditions affect the comfort level directly, as well as the driver's experience to real conditions. Thus, for such cases real traffic situations should not be neglected in the evaluation of comfort. The aim of this study was to carry out, on an extended road trial study, an evaluation of thermal comfort using human subjects. In the experiments used, the 100% polyester seat cover had three different cover materials, which were velvet, jacquard and micro fiber. All experiments were carried out on a sunny day with ten participants over 1h. They were carried out at air temperatures of 25 degrees C in a Fiat Marea 2004, which had an automatic climate function. Skin temperature at eight points and skin wettedness at two points on the human body were measured during the trials. Participants were required to complete a questionnaire of 15 questions, every 5 min. It can be concluded that there was negligible difference in participants' reported thermal sensation between the three seats. According to objective measurement results, all seat cover materials have the same degree of thermal comfort. On the road the participants feel warmer around their waist than any other area of the body. It was suggested that the effects of real traffic conditions must be accounted for in comfort predictions. PMID:16759628

  1. Research on the Winter Thermal Comfort of Library’ s Atrium Reading Space in Harbin Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Huang; Peng Cui; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    As a transition space, atrium not only organizes traffic, makes the flow line flexible, but also modulates the indoor micro⁃climate. Because of its good sense of space and lighting performance, designers generally set reading space around the atrium. But nowadays, people are more concerned with the external form of the architecture, rather than the thermal comfort conditions of the atrium reading space. This article chooses the universities’ library atrium space of Harbin in typical city in cold regions as the carrier of research, testes the thermal environment of atrium reading space, analyzes the user's subjective feelings of the thermal environment and establishes climate adaptation model applied to library buildings. This paper aims to study on Winter thermal comfort of universities’ library atrium reading space in cold area. Bases on thermal comfort adaptive model, it establishes a reasonable heating methods and design temperature index of indoor thermal environment. Optimum comfort is obtained while achieving building energy efficiency and providing viewers a comfortable reading space.

  2. Thermal performance study and evaluation of comfort temperatures in vernacular buildings of North-East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Atreya, S.K. [Instrument Design and Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Mahapatra, Sadhan [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-02-15

    Solar passive techniques are being used in vernacular buildings throughout the world. Researchers have done extensive study on thermal performance of vernacular buildings in the different parts of the world. Vernacular architecture of North-Eastern India represents the principle of climate-responsive architecture, which still lacks experimental validation and quantitative analysis. Thermal comfort not only makes the occupants comfortable but also governs energy consumption in the building. Detailed field studies on thermal performances of typical traditional vernacular dwellings in different bioclimatic zones have been undertaken. This field study includes detailed survey of 150 vernacular dwellings, field tests and thermal sensation vote of 300 occupants on ASHRAE thermal sensation scale. Field test includes measurement of temperature, humidity, illumination level and building design parameters. Thermal performances of these vernacular dwellings were evaluated for winter, pre-summer, summer/monsoon and pre-winter months of the year 2008. This evaluation is based on 'adaptive approach', which is the outcome of the field studies and is now part of ASHRAE standard 55/2004 for predicting comfortable temperature of naturally ventilated buildings. This study also tried to find out the range of comfort temperature in these vernacular buildings for different season of the year. It has been found that these vernacular dwellings perform quite satisfactorily except in the winter months and the occupants feel comfortable in a wider range of temperature. (author)

  3. Effective Ventilation Parameters and Thermal Comfort Study of Air-conditioned Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roonak Daghigh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents objective and subjective studies of thermal comfort levels and ventilation characteristics of two air-conditioned postgraduate study offices. The observations were performed at the offices of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, in University Putra Malaysia. Thermal comfort variables were measured while the students answered a survey on their sensation of the indoor climate. Concurrently, tracer gas analysis, based on concentration decay method, is employed to determine air exchange rate, age of air and air exchange effectiveness. During the air conditioner is working, the study offices had not conditions within the comfort zone, of ASHRAE standard 55 causing occupants to report cold thermal sensations and the objective data analysis showed that the offices were uncomfortable. The thermal neutralities were significantly higher that proposed by ASHRAE Standard 55:1992. The monitored air exchange rates are indicated that the provisions of outside air for ventilation based on design occupancy are adequate for these two study offices. In addition, questionnaires were completed by the students in order to provide a subjective assessment of thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Finally, the outcomes of over 30 surveys for each office responses to the thermal comfort questions are presented and discussed.

  4. A lining for the thermal comfort of trekking boots - experimental and numerical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Manuela; Arezes, P.; Leão, Celina Pinto; S. F. C. F. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a study on the design and development of functional shoe linings that are thermally comfortable is presented. The comfort of foot wear, in this case, trekking boots, that is perceived by the user greatly depends on the ability of the boot to maintain the foot surface in an equilibrium state in terms of thermo-physiological comfort (Schols et al., 2004). This is related to the capacity of removing the moisture that results from transpiration away from the foot surface. With thes...

  5. Assessing Thermal Comfort Indices In Line With The Architectural Design Compatible With The Climate In Babolsar

    OpenAIRE

    KAMYABI, Saeid; DABBAGHIAN, Rouha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Today, the impact of climatic characteristics and weather conditions on construction and housing cannot be overlooked. Considering climatic conditions and characteristics, examining the effect of these elements on architecture and its interactive relationship with buildings are inevitable. This study examined the thermal comfort indices and corresponding climatic factors in Babolsar.In order to determine the comfort conditions in buildings of Babolsar, this research has been conduct...

  6. Thermal comfort analysis of building assisted with Photo Voltaic Trombe wall

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Kashif; Habib Khairul; Thirumalaiswamy Nagarajan; Kareem M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW) on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. ...

  7. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    It is often discussed if a person prefers a low air temperature (ta) and a high mean radiant temperature (tr), vice-versa or it does not matter as long as the operative temperature is acceptable. One of the hypotheses is that it does not matter for thermal comfort but for perceived air quality, a...... lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...

  8. Improving thermal comfort of high-temperature environment of heading face through dehumidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-qiao; ZOU Zu-yun; CHEN Shi-qiang; LI Yi-qun

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal environment of high-temperature heading face,moisture content of supply air is reduced by dehumidification, and the relative humidity of environment air of the heading face is also decreased. First, according to the coefficient of performance of dehumidifier, the capacity of dehumidification was calculated. Second, in the engineering example of the heading face, quantitative changes of WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were compared between with dehumidification and without dehumidification. Based on WBGT standards, the thermal comfort of high-temperature environment of heading face was evaluated between with dehumidification and without handling. Reducing the relative humidity of airflow through dehumidification, the thermal comfort of a high-temperature environment of heading face can improve greatly. Even if dry bulb temperature of airflow is not decreased, the thermal comfort of heading face environment is also improved to some extent.

  9. The significance of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET in outdoor thermal comfort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Deb

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET to evaluate the thermal component of the outdoor microclimate is highlighted here.The increase in urbanization is loading urban areas with complex networks of built environments and human activity. The changes and developments in the built environment invariably affect the microclimate. The changed microclimate has various affects on the built environment and in turn on their inhabitants, like effect on health, increased energy consumption in buildings, increased awareness for design for vegetation and landscapes etc. Worldwide, there have been many initiatives to study these changing microclimates. One of the factors that is inevitably altered and is highly relevant to human well being is thermal comfort. Unlike a conditioned indoor environment, outdoor climatic conditions vary widely, and so the thermal comfort of people in an outdoor, semioutdoor setting is influenced by many factors. This article highlights a series of studies that are concerned with evaluation of thermal comfort in an outdoor environment.

  10. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  11. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  12. Evaluating Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Conditioned Office in a Temperate Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in an office that uses natural ventilation as the main conditioning strategy; the office is located in Quito-Ecuador. The performance of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 and the traditional PMV model are compared with reports of thermal environment satisfaction surveys presented simultaneously to all occupants of the office to determine which of the two comfort models is most suitable to evaluate the thermal environment. The results indicate that office occupants have developed some degree of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the city where the office is located (which only demands heating operation, and tend to accept and even prefer lower operative temperatures than those considered optimum by applying the PMV model. This is an indication that occupants of naturally conditioned buildings are usually able to match their comfort temperature to their normal environment. Therefore, the application of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 seems like the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally conditioned buildings, because it takes into consideration the adaptive principle that indicates that if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people tend to react in ways which restore their comfort.

  13. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%

  14. Joint energy demand and thermal comfort optimization in photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy efficient operation of photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids. • Optimized energy demand for a block of heterogeneous buildings with different sizes. • Multiobjective optimization: matching demand and supply taking into account thermal comfort. • Intelligent control mechanism for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning units. • Optimization of energy consumption and thermal comfort at the aggregate microgrid level. - Abstract: Electrical smart microgrids equipped with small-scale renewable-energy generation systems are emerging progressively as an alternative or an enhancement to the central electrical grid: due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources, appropriate algorithms are required to integrate these two typologies of grids and, in particular, to perform efficiently dynamic energy demand and distributed generation management, while guaranteeing satisfactory thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents a novel control algorithm for joint energy demand and thermal comfort optimization in photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids. Energy demand shaping is achieved via an intelligent control mechanism for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning units. The intelligent control mechanism takes into account the available solar energy, the building dynamics and the thermal comfort of the buildings’ occupants. The control design is accomplished in a simulation-based fashion using an energy simulation model, developed in EnergyPlus, of an interconnected microgrid. Rather than focusing only on how each building behaves individually, the optimization algorithm employs a central controller that allows interaction among the buildings of the microgrid. The control objective is to optimize the aggregate microgrid performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimization algorithm efficiently integrates the microgrid with the photovoltaic system that provides free electric energy: in

  15. Thermal comfort investigation on a naturally ventilated two- storey residential house in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, N. A.; Khairuddin, M. H.; Rosli, M. F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a case study to investigate the human thermal comfort on a naturally ventilated two-storey residential house in Malaysia. Three parameters were investigated in this study, namely the air temperature, air velocity and air humidity. These parameters were measured using the appropriate measuring device to obtain the actual data and compared with simulation results. The level of thermal comfort in the house was found to be poor as the parameters measured are over the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. Simulation on the model of the house was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code, FLUENT to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The error between these two sets of data was acceptable and thus the simulation used in this study was validated. Comparison was also made in the CFD simulation to see the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the house and without ceiling fan. The level of thermal comfort was poor in both cases as it did not satisfy the standards set by ASHRAE but more uniform temperature distribution inside the house was found when the ceiling fan was turned on. The thermal comfort level became critical in the afternoon as during this period, the house receives direct sunlight which causes the temperature inside the house to increase. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help to improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers to further improve the level of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated residential houses.

  16. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  17. Thermal sensation and comfort with transient metabolic rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Dear, R. d.;

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perceptions and preferences of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities (20%, 40%, 60% relative work load) and durations (3-30 min) imposed on subjects that alternated between sedentary activity and exercise on a treadmill. The thermal...... environment was held constant at a temperature corresponding to PMV=0 at sedentary activity. Even low activity changes of short duration (1 min at 20% relative work load) affected thermal perceptions. However, after circa 15 min of constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady...

  18. Influence of duration of thermal comfort provision on heating behavior of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the permanent dilemma whether residential buildings using district heating should be heated continually or discontinuously, we evaluated how the yearly heating load and the peak heating load of a small building in Serbia depend on the duration of thermal comfort provision. Using HTB2 software, a product of the Welsh School of Architecture, it was found that an increase in the duration of thermal comfort provision in the building from 16 h to 24 h increases the yearly heating load by 20%, reduces the peak heating load by up to 40% and may increase the number of new customers served with the same heating plant by up to 40%

  19. Comfort limits for subjects exposed to asymmetrical thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milone, A.; Moncada Lo Giudice, G. (Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Energetica ed Applicazioni di Fisica Rome Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine experimentally the limit of the thermal asymmetric field at which individuals can be exposed without considering the environment umconfortable, starting from a condition of thermal neutrality. This condition of thermal neutrality that is considered necessary to let the individual find the environment confortable, may not be sufficient because consideration should be given to parameters such as clothing, air speed and mean radiant temperature. However, these parameters are seemingly unrelevant when the single variables agree whith Fanger's equation. The limit, determined by tests made on sixteen people, is supported by a mathematical analysis using Fanger's equation.

  20. Analysis of human thermal comfort and its tendencies in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Akos; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the fact that the evaluation of the thermal conditions in the urban areas is extremely important and timely, in Budapest (capital of Hungary) very few studies were performed in this direction until now. The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences and changes of the thermal comfort conditions in the last half century (1961-2010) by comparing measurements of two meteorological stations located in different environments of Budapest: one in the central urban area (Local Climate Zone 2 - 'compact midrise') and the other in the suburbs (between Local Climate Zones 6 - 'open lowrise' and A - 'dense trees'). The thermal comfort was characterized by two human bioclimatological comfort indices, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), for four characteristic times of the day in the examined period. Then the thermal comfort differences between the stations according to two climatic normal periods (1961-1990 and 1981-2010), and the tendencies detected among the periods were also under investigation. For the last decade, 2001-2010, hourly-resolution investigations were carried out. The results indicate that the central area is affected by a higher degree of hot stress and less cold stress. Additionally, the warm stress has become more frequent, however, the cold heat load decreased in both examined area at each time.

  1. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  2. Thermal-Acoustic Comfort Index for Workers of Poultry Houses Using Fuzzy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Schiassi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-acoustic comfort is considered an essential factor for the performance of industrial activities. As well as harm the health of the workers, environments outside the adequate conditions provoke losses in productivity. The objective of this work was to develop a system capable of evaluating and classifying the working environment in poultry houses. A working regime of 8 hours per day in a poultry house was simulated and the results provide support for the classification of the comfort level based on different climate and noise conditions. Two input variables were used: wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT and noise level (dB, and the correspondent output variable was the human welfare index (HWI. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is a promising technique for the determination of the level of thermal comfort endured by poultry house workers, capable of assisting in making decisions on control of the working environment.

  3. Thermal comfort of diving dry suit with the use of the warp-knitted fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfeldova, I.; Hes, L.; Annayeva, M.

    2016-07-01

    Achievement of a good level of thermal comfort of under-suits for dry suit diving which enable also the required mobility of the diver in water is inevitable not only for the scuba sport and commercial diving people but also for safety and activities of people who make research under water. The aim of this work is to verify whether selected knitted structures (which are not waterproof) can substitute the currently used textile materials (nonwovens). This dry-suit innovation is intended to increase the properties which correspond to the perception of thermal comfort of the diver in water. To achieve this objective, the Alambeta thermal tester was used in the study for experimental determination of thermal resistance of spacer warp knitted fabric at varying contact pressure. The studied textiles were expected to be very suitable for the intended application due to their low compressibility which yields relatively high thickness a hence increased thermal insulation.

  4. Fuzzy control system for thermal and visual comfort in building

    OpenAIRE

    Krainer, Aleš; Košir, Mitja; Kristl, Živa; Trobec Lah, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    In the era of informational and technological breakthrough, the automatically controlled living and working environment is expected to become a commonly used service. This paper deals with dynamically controlled thermal and illumination responses of built environment in real-time conditions. The aim is to harmonize thermal and optical behaviour of a building by coordinating energy flows that pass through the transparent part of the envelope. For this purpose, a test chamber with an opening on...

  5. Building energy efficiency and thermal comfort in tropical climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, A.; Lauret, P.; Garde, F.; Boyer, H. [Laboratoire de Physique du Batiment et des Systemes, Universite de La Reunion, Saint-Pierre, Ile de La Reunion (France)

    2006-07-01

    The paper deals with the optimization of building energy efficiency in tropical climates by reducing the period of air-conditioning thanks to natural ventilation and a better bioclimatic design. A bioclimatic approach to designing comfortable buildings in hot and humid tropical regions requires, firstly, some preliminary, important work on the building envelope to limit the energy contributions, and secondly, an airflow optimization based on the analysis of natural ventilation airflow networks. For the first step, tools such as nodal or zonal models have been largely implemented in building energy codes to evaluate energy transport between indoor and outdoor. For the second step, the assessment of air velocities, in three dimensions and in a large space, can only be performed through the use of detailed models such as with CFD. A new modelling approach based on the derivation of a new quantity - i.e. the well-ventilated percentage of a living space is proposed. The well-ventilated percentage of a space allows a time analysis of the air motion behaviour of the building in its environment. These percentages can be over a period such as 1 day, a season or a year. Twelve living spaces with different configuration of openings have been studied to compare the performance of ventilation function of the opening distribution. Results and discussion are presented in the paper. This method is helpful for an architect to design the rooms according to their use, and their environment. Finally, the developed models can be used in building projects to estimate the period of the natural ventilation and to reduce the energy consumption due to air-conditioning. (author)

  6. The Evaluation of Thermal Comfort on Primary Schools in Hot-Humid Climates: A Case Study for Antalya

    OpenAIRE

    Sılay Emir

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThermal comfort provides undoubtedly a great contribution to sustainability. Thermal comfort of classrooms has a direct impact on both learning and energy conservation through a careful temperature control. This study is aimed to emphasize economic, environmental sustainability in schools.Urbanisation and modernisation have led to spend an essential part of people’s lives in indoor spaces. Targeted climatic comfort conditions do not change very much despite the fact that significant c...

  7. Thermal comfort of seated occupants in rooms with personalized ventilation combined with mixing or displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, L.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim;

    2004-01-01

    The performance of two personalized ventilation systems combined with mixing or displacement ventilation was studied under different conditions in regard to thermal comfort of seated occupants. The cooling performance of personalized ventilation was found to be independent of room air distribution...

  8. Field study of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in gymnasium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧; 甘晓爱; 马飞

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in a medium-sized mechanically ventilated gymnasium in Beijing,a field study was carried out. PHOENICS,one of the CFD software,was chosen to simulate the distribution of the indicators of indoor air in the gymnasium to check the air-conditioning parameters reasonable or not. And there was a questionnaire for audiences and staff about the acceptance and satisfaction of the thermal comfort,simultaneously,some environmental parameters were monitored. Then an experiment was carried out in gymnasium with the plate sedimentation to the biological aerosol in the air. Finally,the thermal comfort and IAQ in the gymnasium were assessed based on the results of above questionnaire survey and measurements. The results show that most parameters of the environmental are within the standard limits of thermal comfort and IAQ in the monitored period,and the biological contaminants initially come from human beings. The main species in the gymnasium are streptobacillus,coccus,cladosporium,penicillium and neurospora.

  9. Contribution of Portuguese Vernacular Building Strategies to Indoor Thermal Comfort and Occupants’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernandes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar passive strategies that have been developed in vernacular architecture from different regions are a response to specific climate effects. These strategies are usually simple, low-tech and have low potential environmental impact. For this reason, several studies highlight them as having potential to reduce the demands of non-renewable energy for buildings operation. In this paper, the climatic contrast between northern and southern parts of mainland Portugal is presented, namely the regions of Beira Alta and Alentejo. Additionally, it discusses the contribution of different climate-responsive strategies developed in vernacular architecture from both regions to assure thermal comfort conditions. In Beira Alta, the use of glazed balconies as a strategy to capture solar gains is usual, while in Alentejo the focus is on passive cooling strategies. To understand the effectiveness of these strategies, thermal performances and comfort conditions of two case studies were evaluated based on the adaptive comfort model. Field tests included measurement of hygrothermal parameters and surveys on occupants’ thermal sensation. From the results, it has been found that the case studies have shown a good thermal performance by passive means alone and that the occupants feel comfortable, except during winter where there is the need to use simple heating systems.

  10. A Conceptual Review on Residential Thermal Comfort in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Harimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the era of increasingly expensive fuel and with the theoretical complication and the limitation of comfort prediction in naturally ventilated buildings based on thermal balance approach, researchers were motivated to go beyond heat balance approach to predict occupants’ thermal comfort using statistical approach known by adaptive models. The most established recognized model was developed mostly from the worldwide database recorded in office buildings. This poses validity problem when the model is applied for residential buildings. From a practical point of view using this model for the determination of neutral temperature in residences is likely to leads to errors in prediction which in turns are likely to have detrimental effect on occupants’ satisfaction, not to mention the potential effect in terms of energy consumption. This paper presents a conceptual review on indoor thermal comfort based on heat balance and adaptive models. The validity of international thermal comfort standards for residential buildings for neutral temperature prediction specifically in the hot-humid tropics is addressed. The need of database from field studies in residential buildings is emphasized.

  11. Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; Lichtenbelt, Wouter van Marken; Loomans, Marcel;

    2010-01-01

    thermal condition differ between young adults and elderly. There is a lack of studies that describe the effect of aging on thermal comfort and productivity during a moderate temperature drift. In this study, the effect of a moderate temperature drift on physiological responses, thermal comfort, and......Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum......, temperature drift: first 4 h: +2 K/h, last 4 h: –2 K/h. The results indicate that thermal sensation of the elderly was, in general, 0.5 scale units lower in comparison with their younger counterparts. Furthermore, the elderly showed more distal vasoconstriction during both conditions. Nevertheless, TS of the...

  12. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated apartments in summer: Findings from a field study in Hyderabad, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, School of Planning and Architecture, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-03-15

    There is little thermal comfort research in residential environments reported from India. Energy consumption in Indian residential buildings is one of the highest, increasing at a phenomenal rate. Indian standards advocate two narrow ranges of temperatures for all building and climate types. In this context, a field study in summer and monsoon was conducted following Class-II protocols, for three months in 2008, in naturally ventilated apartment buildings in Hyderabad. Over a 100 subjects involved, giving 3962 datasets. In May, most of the subjects were uncomfortable, preferring a temperature on the cooler side of the neutrality, despite accepting their thermal environments. Thermal sensation, preference and acceptance improved in June and July as temperature receded. Humidity did not affect comfort sensation much, as summer was hot and dry. Conversely, increase in humidity adversely affected the thermal comfort in June. Adaptive use of controls resulted in moderate air movement indoors, adequate for sweat evaporation most of the time. The subjects used traditional ensembles and slowed down their activities adaptively to restore thermal comfort. Clothing adaptation was found to be impeded by many socio-cultural and economic aspects. The comfort band (voting within -1 and +1) based on the regression analysis was found to be 26-32.45 C with the neutral temperature at 29.23 C. This is way above the limits (23-26 C) set by Indian standards. The PMV was always found to be higher than the actual sensation vote. These findings have far reaching energy implications in a developing country like India. (author)

  13. Fuzzy control system for thermal and visual comfort in building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristl, Ziva; Kosir, Mitja; Trobec Lah, Mateja; Krainer, Ales [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair for Buildings and Constructional Complexes, University of Ljubljana, Jamova cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-04-15

    In the era of informational and technological breakthrough, the automatically controlled living and working environment is expected to become a commonly used service. This paper deals with dynamically controlled thermal and illumination responses of built environment in real-time conditions. The aim is to harmonize thermal and optical behaviour of a building by coordinating energy flows that pass through the transparent part of the envelope. For this purpose, a test chamber with an opening on the southern side was built. Changeable geometry of the opening is achieved by the automated external roller blind. A fuzzy control system enables the positioning of the shading device according to the desired indoor set points and the outdoor conditions. Through the experiments, the fuzzy controllers were tuned and gradually improved. Some sets of the experiments are presented here to illustrate the process. (author)

  14. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  15. Field experiments on thermal comfort in university dormitories in Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈美兰; 李百战; 刘红; 章文洁; 李文杰; 许孟楠

    2009-01-01

    A field study on thermal comfort was conducted in university dormitories in Chongqing,China,which was transverse with monthly from August 2008 to April 2009. A total of 1 572 returned questionnaires were collected. Thermal comfort variables were measured,at the same time students answered a survey on their indoor climate sensation. The thermal environment parameters,i.e.,indoor air temperature,air relative humidity,air velocity and outdoor air temperature were measured. The subjective survey investigated thermal sensation and preference using subjective scales. Objective data analysis shows that the indoor environments in university dormitories in Chongqing cannot meet 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55. The ranges of accepted temperature are 21.5?28.5 ℃ in summer and 14.1?23.4 ℃ in winter. The preferred temperature is 22.8 ℃. It is observed that during summer season people prefer somewhat cooler condition than neutral,but in the winter season people prefer somewhat warmer condition than neutral. The relationship between air movement preference and thermal sensation indicates that even without a cooling requirement related to thermal comfort,people appear to welcome air movement.

  16. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  17. Characterization of human thermal comfort in urban areas of brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental studies were conducted aiming to characterize the thermal conditions in urban areas of the Brazilian semiarid for identifying the level of human thermal comfort in urban areas of the municipalities of Mossoró-RN, Serra Talhada-PE, Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA. The results showed that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to human thermal discomfort index (DIT. Both the wet and dry seasons showed up an uncomfortable condition in Mossoró on May 15th and on 23rd, 2008 (rural area and on May 25rd, 2008 (urban area. By applying Thom's equation for obtaining the DIT, it was observed that the urban areas reported thermal comfort conditions always inferior to those observed in the rural areas. The results indicate conditions of partial comfort for the all areas surveyed. However, the incidence of human thermal discomfort related to the minimum, average and maximum air temperatures are, probably associated to the formation of urban heat islands. In addition, the afforestation is an effective mechanism of mitigating the adverse effects of these structures with better quality of life to the population. Therefore, it can be stated that the Brazilian semiarid region has specific urban climate, which is influenced by the design characteristics of the urban structure and buildings.

  18. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  19. Experimental research on thermal comfort in the university classroom of regular semesters in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4∼23.3 .deg. C and 17.5∼29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17∼25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases

  20. Thermal Comfort in Waiting Room at Railway Station in Cold Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei-wu; CHEN Qian-zhou; ZHOU Jie-min; SHI Xiang-nan; LI Li-qing; WANG Chao; CHEN Zhi-ya

    2009-01-01

    A field study and analysis about the thermal comfort was carried out in the waiting room at Bei-jing West Rail Station in Chinese cold region.Passengers'TSV(thermal sense vote) was obtained using statisti-cal method on the basis of more than 1200 questionnaires.The linear regression between TSV and indoor tem-perature indicates that thermal neutral temperature is 25.2℃.According to the percentage of satisfaction a-mong all passengers under different indoor temperatures,the acceptable temperature range in the waiting room is 24.2~30.2℃.It is also found that passengers'temporary stay should be taken into consideration for the ther-mal comlort analysis.Passengers'TSV is not a constant value after they enter the waiting room.In fact,△TSV increases as passengers are waiting for the train.and the growing rate is dependent on indoor-outdoor tempera-ture difference.The greater the temperature difference,the faster △TSV increases.At last, a linear regressionbetween indoor comfortable temperature and outdoor temperature was generated as the adaptive comfort model.

  1. Finger temperature as a predictor of thermal comfort for sedentary passengers in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria;

    2009-01-01

    .1°C. A total of 68 subjects were exposed to each of the three conditions. The subjects completed questionnaires to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. Objective physiological measurements that...... were made included finger temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to show that mean finger temperature is a good predictor of mean thermal vote (MTV) on the seven-point scale of thermal sensation. The results indicate that women and younger subjects have slightly colder fingers....

  2. Thermally activated building systems in office buildings: impact of control strategy on energy performance and thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Sourbron, Maarten; Helsen, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    At the Science Park Arenberg site in Leuven (Belgium) two new office buildings equipped with thermally activated building systems (TABS) to cover the cooling load and the base heating load, are constructed. A ground coupled heat pump/direct cooling (HP/DC) system supplies heat and cold to the TABS, while a gas boiler/chiller combination feeds the air handling units. This paper evaluates the impact of the TABS control strategy on both energy consumption and thermal comfort. Furthermore, con...

  3. Investigation on the Temporal Surface Thermal Conditions for Thermal Comfort Researches Inside A Vehicle Cabin Under Summer Season Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Wencan; Liu Jun

    2016-01-01

    With the proposes of improving occupant's thermal comfort and reducing the air conditioning power consumption, the present research carried out a comprehensive study on the surface thermal conductions and their influence parameters. A numerical model was built considering the transient conduction, convective and radiation heat transfer inside a vehicle cabin. For more accurate simulation of the radiation heat transfer behaviors, the radiation was considered into two spectral bands (short wave...

  4. The analysis of thermal comfort requirements through the simulation of an occupied building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellier, F; Cordier, A; Monchoux, F

    1994-05-01

    Building simulation usually focuses on the study of physical indoor parameters, but we must not forget the main aim of a house: to provide comfort to the occupants. This study was undertaken in order to build a complete tool to model thermal behaviour that will enable the prediction of thermal sensations of humans in a real environment. A human thermoregulation model was added to TRNSYS, a building simulation program. For our purposes, improvements had to be made to the original physiological model, by refining the calculation of all heat exchanges with the environment and adding a representation of clothes. This paper briefly describes the program, its modifications, and compares its results with experimental ones. An example of potential use is given, which points out the usefulness of such models in seeking the best solutions to reach optimal environmental conditions for global, and specially local comfort, of building occupants. PMID:8206050

  5. Optimization Method for Indoor Thermal Comfort Based on Interactive Numerical Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to implement the optimal design of the indoor thermal comfort based on the numerical modeling method, the numerical calculation platform is combined seamlessly with the data-processing platform, and an interactive numerical calculation platform which includes the functions of numerical simulation and optimization is established. The artificial neural network (ANN) and the greedy strategy are introduced into the hill-climbing pattern heuristic search process, and the optimizing search direction can be predicted by using small samples; when searching along the direction using the greedy strategy, the optimal values can be quickly approached. Therefore, excessive external calling of the numerical modeling process can be avoided,and the optimization time is decreased obviously. The experimental results indicate that the satisfied output parameters of air conditioning can be quickly given out based on the interactive numerical calculation platform and the improved search method, and the optimization for indoor thermal comfort can be completed.

  6. Comfort and performance impact of personal control over thermal environment in summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerstra, Atze C.; te Kulve, Marije; Toftum, Jørn;

    2015-01-01

    Field studies suggest that the availability of adjustable thermostats, operable windows and other controls has a positive impact on comfort, the incidence of building related symptoms and productivity. This laboratory study was designed to further investigate how having or not having control over...... the thermal environment affects human responses to the indoor environment.The study was conducted in summer in a field laboratory that was kept at 28°C. A total of 23 subjects were exposed twice for about 2.5h. During the first session (A) subjects were able to fine-tune their local thermal...... identical to those recorded during the first session. Thus, each subject was exposed to two customized conditions with identical exposure, only different from a psychological point of view.During the two sessions identical questionnaires and performance tests were used to evaluate subjects' comfort, SBS...

  7. Thermal comfort analysis of a low temperature waste energy recovery system. SIECHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Martin, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Rey Martinez, F.J.; Velasco Gomez, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The use of a recovery device is justified in terms of energy savings and environmental concerns. But it is clear that the use of a recovery system also has to lead to controlling indoor environmental quality, nowadays a priority concern. In this article, experimental research has been carried out whose aim is to study the thermal comfort provided by a combined recovery equipment (SIECHP), consisting of a ceramic semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC) and a heat pipe device (HP) to recover energy at low temperature in air-conditioning systems. To characterize this device empirically in terms of thermal comfort (TC), Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV), draught rate, and vertical air temperature difference were used in this study as the TC criteria. (author)

  8. Influence of Urban Microclimate on Air-Conditioning Energy Needs and Indoor Thermal Comfort in Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Chi Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term climate measurement was implemented in the third largest city of Taiwan, for the check of accuracy of morphing approach on generating the hourly data of urban local climate. Based on observed and morphed meteorological data, building energy simulation software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the cooling energy consumption of an air-conditioned typical flat and the thermal comfort level of a naturally ventilated typical flat. The simulated results were used to quantitatively discuss the effect of urban microclimate on the energy consumption as well as thermal comfort of residential buildings. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for city planning and energy management divisions to study urban sustainability strategies in the future.

  9. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  10. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Rongxiang Zhang; Xiaodong Chu; Wen Zhang; Yutian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Air conditioners have great potential to participate in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a control strategy to facilitate the active participation of air conditioners. For each air conditioner, a decentralized control law is designed to adjust its temperature set point in response to the system frequency deviation. The decentralized control law accounts for the user’s thermal comfort that is evaluated by a fuzzy algorithm. The aggregation of air conditioners’ response is c...

  11. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  12. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  13. Analysis of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in a mechanically ventilated theatre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavgic, M.; Mumovic, D.; Young, A. [The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, England (United Kingdom); Stevanovic, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences - Vinca, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (RS)

    2008-07-01

    Theatres are the most complex of all auditorium structures environmentally. They usually have high heat loads, which are of a transient nature as audiences come and go, and from lighting which changes from scene to scene, and they generally have full or nearly full occupancy. Theatres also need to perform well acoustically, both for the spoken word and for music, and as sound amplification is less used than in other auditoria, background noise control is critically important. All these factors place constraints on the ventilation design, and if this is poor, it can lead to the deterioration of indoor air quality and thermal comfort. To analyse the level of indoor air quality and thermal comfort in a typical medium-sized mechanically ventilated theatre, and to identify where improvements could typically be made, a comprehensive post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out on a theatre in Belgrade. The evaluation, based on the results of monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, CO{sub 2}, air speed and heat flux) and modelling (CFD), as well as the assessment of comfort and health as perceived by occupants, has shown that for most of the monitored period the environmental parameters were within the standard limits of thermal comfort and IAQ. However, two important issues were identified, which should be borne in mind by theatre designers in the future. First, the calculated ventilation rates showed that the theatre was over-ventilated, which will have serious consequences for its energy consumption, and secondly, the displacement ventilation arrangement employed led to higher than expected complaints of cold discomfort, probably due to cold draughts around the occupants' feet. (author)

  14. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  15. Suitability of different comfort indices for the prediction of thermal conditions in tree-covered outdoor spaces in arid cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Angélica; Correa, Erica Norma

    2015-10-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort is one of the most influential factors in the habitability of a space. Thermal level is defined not only by climate variables but also by the adaptation of people to the environment. This study presents a comparison between inductive and deductive thermal comfort models, contrasted with subjective reports, in order to identify which of the models can be used to most correctly predict thermal comfort in tree-covered outdoor spaces of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area, an intensely forested and open city located in an arid zone. Interviews and microclimatic measurements were carried out in winter 2010 and in summer 2011. Six widely used indices were selected according to different levels of complexity: the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), Vinje's Comfort Index (PE), Thermal Sensation Index (TS), the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the COMFA model's energy balance (S), and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that the predictive models evaluated show percentages of predictive ability lower than 25 %. Despite this low indicator, inductive methods are adequate for obtaining a diagnosis of the degree and frequency in which a space is comfortable or not whereas deductive methods are recommended to influence urban design strategies. In addition, it is necessary to develop local models to evaluate perceived thermal comfort more adequately. This type of tool is very useful in the design and evaluation of the thermal conditions in outdoor spaces, based not only to climatic criteria but also subjective sensations.

  16. CFD simulations of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated primary school classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Žana Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Thermal Comfort is to specify the combinations of indoor space environment and personal factors that will produce thermal environment conditions acceptable to 80% or more of the occupants within a space. Naturally ventilated indoors has a very complex air movement, which depends on numerous variables such as: outdoor interaction, intensity of infiltration, the number of openings, the thermal inertia of walls, occupant behaviors, etc. The most important mechanism for naturally ventilated indoors is the intensity of infiltration and thermal buoyancy mechanism. In this study the objective was to determine indicators of thermal comfort for children, by the CFD model based on experimental measurements with modification on turbulent and radiant heat transfer mathematical model. The case study was selected on school children aged 8 and 9 years in primary school „France Prešern“, Belgrade. The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between the indoor environment and the subjective responses. Also there was analysis of infiltration and stack effect based on meterological data on site. The main parameters that were investigated are: operative temperature, radiant temperature, concentration of CO2 and air velocity. The new correction of turbulence and radiative heat transfer models has been validated by comparison with experimental data using additional statistical indicators. It was found that both turbulence model correct and the new radiative model of nontransparent media have a significant influence on CFD data set accuracy.

  17. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  18. An analysis on spatial variation of urban human thermal comfort in Hangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wu; ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Ren-chao

    2004-01-01

    Urban human thermal comfort (UHTC) is affected for interacting of weather condition and underlyingsurface framework of urban area. Urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference VegetationIndex(NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by ERDAS IMAGEsoftware using 1991 and 1999 Landsat TM images data. Reference to the relational standard of assessing humanthermal comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, air temperature and relative humidityvariation of different land types of underlying surface were inversed. By choosing discomfort index as an indictor, thespatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of UHTC were estimated and mapped on a middlescale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou. The main characteristics of UHTC spatial variation from 1991 to 1999 wererevealed using a GIS-based calculation model. The variation mechanism were analyzed and discussed from theviewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  19. Assessment of Outdoor Thermal Comfort and Wind Characteristics at Three Different Locations in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanipah Mohd Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and rapid growth in construction have led to the problems of global warming and urban heat island throughout the world. In order to reduce these problems particularly in hot and humid climatic region, a research on current level of outdoor thermal comfort and wind characteristics based on the local weather conditions around Malaysia should be conducted. This paper reports on the analysis of outdoor thermal comfort level at hottest temperatures and wind characteristics at three locations in Peninsular Malaysia by using hourly climatic data recorded by Malaysian Meteorological Department (MetMalaysia. The level of outdoor thermal comfort was assessed based on the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI. The results showed extreme heat stress conditions have occurred at Alor Setar, Kuantan, and Subang with UTCI values of 51.2°C, 49.7°C, and 49.0°C respectively taking into account only temperature data from the year 2012 to 2014. However, for 20 years data from 1994 to 2014, the calculated UTCI also showed extreme heat stress conditions with their respective values of 49.6°C, 43.8°C, and 49.7°C for Alor Setar, Kuantan, and Subang respectively. Meanwhile, the hourly mean wind speed for three years data at Alor Setar, Kuantan, and Subang, were 1.70m/s, 1.69m/s, and 1.63m/s respectively. The highest mean wind speed of 11.6m/s was observed at Subang, while no wind movement (i.e. 0m/s was considered to be the lowest hourly wind speed for all three locations. The observed prevailing wind direction for all the three locations was from the north (0°. It can be concluded that Peninsular Malaysia is generally facing extreme heat stress problem due to unfavourable climatic conditions.

  20. Impact of indoor thermal comfort on physiological parameters of human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁; 张瑜; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    With the living standards gradually improved,the buildings with safe,comfortable,healthy indoor thermal environment would be the ideal pursuit. But to create the preferable indoor thermal environment,it is necessary to research physiological influence of indoor thermal environment on human body. So a typical region of hot-humid climate in Chongqing,China,was considered as the object to study physiological indexes of human body. And the indoor thermal environment parameters and physiological indexes of human body were the main measurements. 20 volunteer students were organized to take part in the experiments in the laboratory during this summer. And two methods,physical measuring and questionnaire investigation,were used in the experiments. The results show that the increase in indoor air temperature reduces the uncomfortable feeling of air draft. Indoor air temperature has visible effects on MCS (motor nerve conduction speed),SCS (sensory nerve conduction speed),HR (heart rate),the ECG (electrocardiogram)-QT segment and SSEP (short somatosensory evoked potential)-latent period of N9. Therefore,a safe,comfortable and healthful indoor environment can be created by considering these factors.

  1. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  2. Examination of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated hostel using PMV-PPD model and field survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLANIPEKUN Emmanuel Abiodun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD indices for thermal comfort quality assessment in naturally ventilated (NV buildings in warm-humid climate has been observed to lead to overestimation of occupants` comfort and dissatisfaction levels. The thermal comfort quality in a naturally ventilated hostel located in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife was determined using PMV and PPD indices. The measured indoor air temperature and relative humidity were 28.1-34oC and 30.8%-75.5%. The subjective assessments showed that more than 80% of the respondents were comfortable (PD ˂ 20% while the PPD index predicted that 58% of the occupants were not comfortable. The calculated PMV index on the average was +1.63. There was no correspondence between the thermal conditions predicted by PMV-PPD index and actual comfort vote. Fanger`s PMV-PPD model cannot be used to predict indoor climate in the study area as it overestimated occupants` comfort and dissatisfaction levels.

  3. Thermal comfort in urban spaces: impact of vegetation growth - Case study: Piazza della Scienza, Milan, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picot, X. [Architected.p.l.g.-Ma ster E.P.F. Lausanne. Architecture et Developement Durable, St. Baldoph. (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports on a study on the evolutionary impact of vegetation in a newly built square in Milan designed by V. Gregotti. The aim of the work is to evaluate the impact of vegetation growth on users' comfort. The methodology adopted involves: sets of field measures (air and radiant temperature, wind velocity and relative humidity); a simplified thermal comfort evaluation with the energy budget method COMFA; and a scenario for the vegetation growth. When trees become adult we can observe different phenomena. The shading effect under an aged tree canopy clearly shows a reduction of the absorbed radiation by users, generating an energy budget very close to comfort (under 50 W/m{sup 2}) even with a high air temperature. In the case of points exposed to direct sunlight all day long, tree growth reveals two phenomena of the global radiation absorbed by a user: (1) reduction, by the tree screening effect, of absorption of the diffuse solar global radiation, and (2) increase, by the elevation of the objects viewed in the sky hemisphere, in absorption of the terrestrial radiation. (author)

  4. The effects of gender, acclimation state, the opportunity to adjust clothing and physical disability on requirements for thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, K.C. [Human Thermal Environments Laboratory, Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    A programme of laboratory studies into thermal comfort requirements is presented. Two studies used groups of 16 subjects over a range of conditions (warm to cool) to investigate the effects of gender over 3 hours exposures in simulated living room/office environments. It was found that for identical levels of clothing and activity, there were only small differences in the thermal comfort responses of male and female subjects for neutral and slightly warm conditions. For cool conditions, female subjects tended to be cooler than males. An experiment to investigate the effects of heat acclimation on thermal comfort requirements involved six male subjects providing thermal comfort responses in neutral and slightly warm environments over 2 days. They then carried out an acclimatization program over 4 days, for 2 hours per day, exercising in a hot (45 {sup o}C, 40% relative humidity) environment. Thermal comfort responses were then recorded in two sessions over 2 days in identical conditions to the pre-acclimation session. It was found that changes in thermal comfort responses were small and likely to be of little practical significance. An investigation into the behaviour of people to maintain thermal comfort by adjusting their clothing was conducted using eight male and eight female subjects. Seated subjects reduced or increased their clothing level by using a wardrobe of clothing that was familiar to them. It was found that subjects can adjust their clothing to maintain thermal comfort, but within limits. Upper limits (clothing off) will be determined by modesty and acceptability. Lower limits (clothing on) will be determined by clothing design and acceptability. A low air temperature limit of 18 {sup o}C in freely available clothing may provide a working hypothesis. A laboratory study of thermal comfort requirements for people with physical disabilities compared responses with those of people without physical disabilities. It was found that there are few group

  5. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned mosques in the dry desert climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-ajmi, Farraj F. [Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2010-11-15

    In Kuwait, as in most countries with a typical dry desert climate, the summer season is long with a mean daily maximum temperature of 45 C. Centralized air-conditioning, which is generally deployed from the beginning of April to the end of October, can have tremendous impact on the amount of electrical energy utilized to mechanically control the internal environment in mosque buildings. The indoor air temperature settings for all types of air-conditioned buildings and mosque buildings in particular, are often calculated based on the analytical model of ASHRAE 55-2004 and ISO 7730. However, a field study was conducted in six air-conditioned mosque buildings during the summers of 2007 to investigate indoor climate and prayers thermal comfort in state of Kuwait. The paper presents statistical data about the indoor environmental conditions in Kuwait mosque buildings, together with an analysis of prayer thermal comfort sensations for a total of 140 subjects providing 140 sets of physical measurements and subjective questionnaires were used to collect data. Results show that the neutral temperature (T{sub n}) of the prayers is found to be 26.1 C, while that for PMV is 23.3 C. Discrepancy of these values is in fact about 2.8 C higher than those predicted by PMV model. Therefore, thermal comfort temperature in Kuwait cannot directly correlate with ISO 7730 and ASHRAE 55-2004 standards. Findings from this study should be considered when designing air conditioning for mosque buildings. This knowledge can contribute towards the development of future energy-related design codes for Kuwait. (author)

  6. Evaluation of thermal comfort in university classrooms through objective approach and subjective preference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Maria Anna; Liuzzi, Stefania; Stefanizzi, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Assessing thermal comfort becomes more relevant when the aim is to maximise learning and productivity performances, as typically occurs in offices and schools. However, if, in the offices, the Fanger model well represents the thermal occupant response, then on the contrary, in schools, adaptive mechanisms significantly influence the occupants' thermal preference. In this study, an experimental approach was performed in the Polytechnic University of Bari, during the first days of March, in free running conditions. First, the results of questionnaires were compared according to the application of the Fanger model and the adaptive model; second, using a subjective scale, a complete analysis was performed on thermal preference in terms of acceptability, neutrality and preference, with particular focus on the influence of gender. The user possibility to control the indoor plant system produced a significant impact on the thermal sensation and the acceptability of the thermal environment. Gender was also demonstrated to greatly influence the thermal judgement of the thermal environment when an outdoor cold climate occurs. PMID:25683538

  7. The Evaluation of Thermal Comfort on Primary Schools in Hot-Humid Climates: A Case Study for Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sılay Emir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermal comfort provides undoubtedly a great contribution to sustainability. Thermal comfort of classrooms has a direct impact on both learning and energy conservation through a careful temperature control. This study is aimed to emphasize economic, environmental sustainability in schools.Urbanisation and modernisation have led to spend an essential part of people’s lives in indoor spaces. Targeted climatic comfort conditions do not change very much despite the fact that significant change of external climatic conditions depending on climate zones and periods during the year. Therefore, this topic has a great importance in terms of keeping at maximum level of expected performance of architectural structure and carrying positive samples to future.Temperatures that might cause thermal discomfort starts in May for Antalya. After selecting a primary school in Antalya dominated by hot-humid Mediterranean climate conditions, questionnaire prepared according to Fanger’s 7-point sensation scale was conducted on 7th and 8th grade students. The questionnaire was implemented on 74 students (41 male and 33 female. At the end of the research, thermal comfort data in primary school classrooms was obtained according to thermal comfort variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, activity level, air speed, clothing choice, gender, age. The level of thermal comfort of the students and thermal environment conditions of the classes was determined.As a result of obtained data, PMV (predicted mean vote and PDD (predicted percentage dissatisfied were identified. According to ASHRAE 55 Standard, examined classrooms were evaluated.  Key Words: Thermal Comfort, Sustainable Schools, Hot-Humid Climates

  8. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: III - thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal comfort of broilers reared under two lighting programs (almost continuous and intermittent in broiler houses with yellow or blue lateral curtains. The experiment was carried out from June 24, 2004 until May 12, 2005. Six consecutive flocks were housed in four 12 × 10 m broilers houses internally divided into four pens of 200 birds each. Six flocks were raised on the same litter. The registration of data was accomplished at 3-hour intervals, for 24 hours twice a week. In the center of each pen and outside the house, dry and wet bulb temperatures, black globe temperature, and air velocity were collected. Based on the data collected at each time, air temperature (AT (ºC, black globe humidity temperature index (BGHTI, radiant thermal load (RTL (W/m², and relative air humidity (RH were determined. Harmonic analysis was used to estimate m, R, and f parameters. In general, the best results in terms of thermal comfort for the birds were found when near-continuous lighting program and yellow curtain were used.

  9. Thermal Comfort Evaluation of a Heat Pump System using Induced-air Supply Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jiazhen; Xu, Jian; Aute, Vikrant; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Traditional heat pump systems supply conditioned air to space at certain temperatures such as, in summer, about 16°C. When the supply-air temperature drops too low, most occupants tend to feel uncomfortable. On the other hand, a certain amount of dehumidification has to be carried out and sometimes, the velocity of supply-air has to be high which in turn creates a draught. This paper introduces a new air supply method to reduce fan power consumption as well as to improve thermal comfort of oc...

  10. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: III - thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu; Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu; Arlei Coldebella; Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch; Doralice Pedroso de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal comfort of broilers reared under two lighting programs (almost continuous and intermittent) in broiler houses with yellow or blue lateral curtains. The experiment was carried out from June 24, 2004 until May 12, 2005. Six consecutive flocks were housed in four 12 × 10 m broilers houses internally divided into four pens of 200 birds each. Six flocks were raised on the same litter. The registration of data was accomplished at 3-hour i...

  11. Indoor thermal comfort studies based on physiological parameter measurement and questionnaire investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jie; CHEN Liang; LI Bai-zhan; CHEN Lu

    2006-01-01

    Physiological parameters of people and enact assessment standard of indoor thermal environment that are appropriate to our national conditions were explored from the perspective of physiology. From December 2005 to January 2006, nerve conduction velocities and skin temperatures of 20 healthy students were tested with questionnaire investigation. The results show that the nerve conduction velocities as well as skin temperatures present an obvious decline trend in a continuous draught, and that the nerve conduction velocities and skin temperatures have a definite linear relationship. Draught velocity is an important factor in winter that affects body comfort, and the subjects are sensitive to air velocity.

  12. Visitors' perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at the Royal Botanic Garden Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort studies have mainly examined the perception of local residents, and there has been little work on how those conditions are perceived differently by tourists, especially tourists of diverse origins. This issue is important because it will improve the application of thermal indices in predicting the thermal perception of tourists. This study aims to compare the differences in thermal perception and preferences between local and overseas visitors to the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) in Melbourne during summer. An 8-day survey was conducted in February 2014 at four sites in the garden (n = 2198), including 2 days with maximum temperature exceeding 40 °C. The survey results were compared with data from four weather stations adjacent to the survey locations. One survey location, `Fern Gully', has a misting system and visitors perceived the Fern Gully to be cooler than other survey locations. As the apparent temperature exceeded 32.4 °C, visitors perceived the environment as being `warm' or `hot'. At `hot' conditions, 36.8 % of European visitors voted for no change to the thermal conditions, which is considerably higher than the response from Australian visitors (12.2 %) and Chinese visitors (7.5 %). Study results suggest that overseas tourists have different comfort perception and preferences compared to local Australians in hot weather based at least in part on expectations. Understanding the differences in visitors' thermal perception is important to improve the garden design. It can also lead to better tour planning and marketing to potential visitors from different countries.

  13. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  14. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians. (letter)

  15. On the use of bioclimatic architecture principles in order to improve thermal comfort conditions in outdoor spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaitani, N.; Mihalakakou, G. [Department of Environment and Natural Resources Management, University of Ioannina, 30 100 Agrinion (Greece); Santamouris, M. [Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of Physics, Division of Applied Physics, University of Athens, University Campus, Build. PHYS-V, Athens, GR 15784 (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The present paper describes a process for designing and applying several techniques based on bioclimatic architecture criteria and on passive cooling and energy conservation principles in order to improve the thermal comfort conditions in an outdoor space location located in the Great Athens area. For that reason, the thermal comfort conditions in 12 different outdoor space points in the experimented location have been calculated using two different thermal comfort bioclimatic indices developed to be used for outdoor spaces. The used indices were the following: (a) 'Comfa', which is based on estimating the energy budget of a person in an outdoor environment and (b) 'thermal sensation', based on the satisfaction or dissatisfaction sensation under the prevailing climatic conditions of the outdoor spaces. Calculations were performed during the summer period and two different scenarios of the constructed space parameters have been considered. The first scenario consists of a conventionally constructed space, while the second one includes various architectural improvements according to the bioclimatic design principles. The two bioclimatic indicators were used for calculating the outdoor thermal comfort conditions in the above-mentioned outdoor space locations for both scenarios and the effect of the bioclimatic design architectural improvements on the human thermal comfort sensation was presented and analysed. (author)

  16. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  17. Thermal Comfort Assessment-A Study Toward Workersâ Satisfaction in a Low Energy Office Building

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nafiz Shaharon; Juliana Jalaludin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The government of Malaysia has raised their concerns towards the issue of workers comfort and workspace quality in a Low Energy Office (LEO) building. New energy efficient building concepts and technologies require a revision of comfort standards, to create a suitable thermal condition in avoiding occupant dissatisfaction, adverse effect on their productivity and overall building performance. Approach: Assessment was conducted using Babuc-A (Portable air quality monitor) an...

  18. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  19. A model of human physiology and comfort for assessing complex thermal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, C.; Zhang Hui; Arens, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Environmental Design Research

    2001-07-01

    The Berkeley Comfort Model is based on the Stolwijk model of human thermal regulation but includes several significant improvements. Our new model allows an unlimited body segment (compared to six in the Stolwijk model). Each segment is modeled as four body layers (core, muscle, fat, and skin tissues) and a clothing layer. Physiological mechanisms such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, sweating, and metabolic heat production are explicitly considered. Convection, conduction (such as to a car seat or other surface in contact with any part of the body) and radiation between the body and the environment are treated independently. The model is capable of predicting human physiological response to transient, non-uniform thermal environments. This paper describes the physiological algorithms as well as the implementation of the model. (author)

  20. Improvement of outdoor thermal comfort for a residential development in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souradeep Gupta, Prashant Anand, Shashwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With more urbanization in an island country of limited land area like Singapore, Urban heat island (UHI is becoming a widely recognized phenomenon which is causing outdoor thermal discomfort to pedestrians and also causes high energy consumption by buildings. For a prospective residential development in Singapore, computational fluid dynamics simulation and temperature mapping have been conducted to highlight the urban parameters that should be considered to mitigate the adverse effects of UHI effect. Simulation shows higher day time and night time temperature at zones with exposed wall surfaces and pavements due to high sky view factor and higher storage of heat. Creation of more openness on ground and planting trees in such exposed spaces shows reduction in maximum temperature during day by about 2.2 ºC with increase in wind velocity as well. Improvement of outdoor thermal comfort from warm to neutral has been obtained with improved orientation of buildings and introduction of urban greenery.

  1. 非均匀环境下人体热舒适研究进展%Current State of Research on Thermal Comfort in Non-uniform Thermal Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国梁; 章慧颖; 连之伟; 冯劲梅; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    非均匀环境热舒适已成为当前研究的热点。从非均匀环境下的局部热感觉、局部热感觉对整体热感觉的影响、生理参数用于热舒适分析与评价、非均匀热环境热舒适评价方法四个方面对非均匀环境的热舒适研究进行了综述,分析了当前研究中存在的一些问题,探讨了今后研究方向。%Thermal comfort in non-uniform thermal environment is one of the popular topics in thermal comfort research. Literature are reviewed on the thermal comfort of non-uniform thermal environment through four topics: the relationship between local environmental parameters and local thermal sensation, the effect of local thermal sensation on overall thermal sensation, the application of physiological parameters in therlml comfort analysis and evaluation, the evaluation of thermal comfort in non-uniform thermal environment. Finally the existing problems and the future research directions are outlined.

  2. Helicopter pilot suits for offshore application. A survey of thermal comfort and ergonomic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, C A; Mekjavic, I B

    1987-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the existing problems associated with helicopter pilot survival suits currently in use. A survey was conducted of helicopter pilots from both Canadian commercial and military disciplines. Pilots commented on eight different types of survival suits. Reduced thermal comfort as well as lack of ventilation were the two most common criticisms of the pilot suits. The 'greenhouse' effect, common to helicopter cockpits, results in hot working ambients both in summer and winter. The air cooling mechanisms employed in summer may cause a 'chilling' effect following an on-ground stand-by where cockpit temperatures may reach 40 degrees C. Thermal stress may also be induced with high cockpit temperatures caused by the sun's radiation in winter and summer. Suit design was another area considered. 72% and 86% of military and commercial pilots respectively felt their freedom of movement was hindered by their survival suits. Certain designs were considered more hazardous than others with regard to clips and hooks catching switches on the control panel. Difficulty in donning suits appeared to be a universal problem irrespective of type of suit used. Lack of comfort and movement in addition to thermal stress may lead to reduced time to fatigue and, thus, occurrence of errors and accidents. The results of this survey reflect the inadequacies of the helicopter pilot survival suits presently in use. It is suggested that evaluation of these suits be made on the basis of their ventilation capabilities, ergonomic design and thermal properties in a variety of ambient environments. PMID:15676618

  3. An Open Source “Smart Lamp” for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called “Smart Lamp”, useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment.

  4. An Open Source “Smart Lamp” for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called “Smart Lamp”, useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  5. Numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple three-storey atrium building and thermal comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation and thermal comfort evaluation in a simple three-storey atrium building as a part of the passive ventilation strategy was undertaken using a validated Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. The Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) modeling approach with the SST-k–ω turbulence model and the discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM) was used for the numerical investigations. The steady-state governing equations were solved using a commercial solver FLUENT©. Various flow situations of the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in the building during day and night time were examined. The numerical results obtained for the airflow rates, airflow patterns and temperature distributions inside the building are presented in this paper. Using the numerical results, the well-known thermal comfort indices PMV (predicted mean vote) and PPD (predicted percentage of dissatisfied) were calculated for the evaluation of the thermal comfort conditions in the occupied regions of the building. It was noticed that thermal conditions prevailing in the occupied areas of the building as a result of using the buoyancy-driven ventilation were mostly in comfort zone. From the study of the night time ventilation, it was found that hot water (80 °C) circulation (heated by solar collectors during daytime) along the chimney walls during night time and heat sources present in the building can be useful in inducing night ventilation airflows in the building as a part of the passive ventilation strategy. -- Highlights: • A simple three-storey atrium building. • Numerical modeling of buoyancy-driven ventilation flow in the building. • Effect of solar intensity and geographical location on ventilation. • CFD predictions were used to calculate thermal comfort indices. • Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions for the occupants

  6. Thermal comfort trends and variability in the Croatian and Slovenian mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaninovic, K. [Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Matzarakis, A. [Univ. of Freiburg, Meteorological Inst. (Germany); Cegnar, T. [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Meteorological Office, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-04-15

    This paper deals with the climatic and bioclimatic conditions, trends and variability in the mountainous areas of Croatia and Slovenia. Two mountain meteorological observatories were chosen: Zavizan in the Croatian Dinaric Alps and Kredarica in the Slovenian Julian Alps. Both have the same monitoring protocol and similar instruments. The station's natural environment remained unchanged since 1955. Therefore, the data of both observatories are extremely valuable for studying changes in sensitive mountain ecosystems in Croatia and Slovenia. Data from the period 1955-2004 were used to assess mountain climatic and bioclimatic variability and trends in both countries. The analysis of the bioclimatic conditions has been carried out using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is based on the human energy balance models. The prevailing thermal sensation at both stations is very cold, varying from very cold winters to cold and cool summers. Results of the trend analysis indicate a significant increase in the thermal bioclimate index PET in both regions, mainly caused by rising air temperature, especially in spring and summer. The progressive trend test analysis indicated the beginning of positive PET trend in the 1980s - in 1981 on Zavizan and in 1988 on Kredarica. In spite of the considerable increase in thermal comfort in the last 50 years, the bioclimate conditions stayed within the range of the same class of thermal perception. (orig.)

  7. Fuzzy Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Residential Buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; NIU Tian-cai; LIU Jia-ping; XIAO Yong-qiang

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the differences between the human body thermal sensation in naturally ventilat-ed space and that in air-conditioned space,the fuzzy evaluation model was adopted in the research of thermal sensation in naturally ventilated space.Based on the questionnaires and field measurements,the membership functions were presented by the statistic of the covering frequency to the fuzzy subset.Dry-bulb temperature was taken as the only independent variable for membership functions.The maximum values of membership grades are all at 0.5 or so, which is a distinction character on thermal comfort of naturally ventihted space.By the cal-culating resultS of membership grades value to different fuzzy evaluation subsets,the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)was obtained.Furthermore,energy coefficient(Ea) was introduced to calculate the energy consump-tion,and the prediction methods of residential building energy consumption were also discussed.Finally,the importance of evaluation model of thermal sense is shown through the energy consumption prediction in a specificresidential building.

  8. Effects of window size and thermal mass on building comfort using an intelligent ventilation controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Roche, P. [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela). Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno; Milne, M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    2004-10-01

    A prototype microcomputer-controlled thermostat was developed that can manage airflow according to cooling the needs in a building and the resources in the environment. This intelligent control system measures both indoor and outdoor temperature and uses decision rules to control a whole-house fan, in addition to the furnace and air conditioner. No such residential thermostat is currently commercially available. This paper presents the controller strategy that optimizes cooling with outdoor air. This paper also quantifies the effects of modifying the amount of thermal mass and the window area on indoor comfort when using this controller. These test confirm that smaller windows and more mass performed better than larger windows and less mass, and that higher volumes of controlled ventilation outperformed fixed ventilation rates. (Author)

  9. A new dynamic sweating hotplate system for steady-state and dynamic thermal comfort measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses design details and measurement principles of a dynamic sweating hotplate system used for both steady-state thermal and water vapor resistance and dynamic water vapor transmission rate measurements. Dynamic and steady-state transfer measurements were carried out by separate systems in preceding studies. Water vapor resistance and dynamic water vapor transmission rate values were determined according to the new principles put forward in this study. Relationships between properties obtained by the new system and standard permeability (water vapor and air) parameters were determined for different types of fabrics used for sports clothing. The materials and physical/constructional properties of the investigated fabrics varied in a wide range as the aim was to determine if the developed system could differentiate their comfort performances. According to the results, water vapor resistance is significantly correlated with fabric weight and water vapor resistance is the best in differentiating the water vapor permeability characteristics of the fabrics among other transfer properties

  10. The influence of park size and form on micro climate and thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; Chi, Xiaoli; Müller, Felix; Zhang, Huiwen

    2016-04-01

    The population of urban areas will increase in the next decades and it leads to higher fraction of sealed areas, which will increase the urban heat island intensity. In addition, climate model projections also show that the frequency and the intensity of heat waves and the related heat stress will be higher in the future. Urban Parks are the best key to mitigate the urban heat island and to minimize the local climate change. Due to the lack of free spaces which can be converted to green spaces, this study investigates the influence of urban park forms on the micro climate and thermal comfort. In this study, a central big park has been compared to different numbers of small parks in terms of the cooling effect and thermal comfort. Five different park forms with the same total size have been considered. The results show that the park cooling effect depends not only on the park form, but also on the arrangement of the vegetation inside the park and wind speed and direction. Grassy areas (with 10 and 50 Cm grass), shrubs and hedges as well as trees with small and big canopies have been considered for the simulation. ENVI-MET and Rayman models have been used to simulate the cooling effect, cooled area size, PET and UTCI, respectively. The results for a hot day in Berlin on three different times during day and night will be shown and compared to each other. The effects of Sky view factor and soil humidity (irrigation) have also been discussed.

  11. Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control for thermal comfort in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control is proposed. • An anticipative control mechanism is implemented by using fuzzy theory. • Novel thermal analysis program including solar irradiation as a factor is developed. • The proposed controller solves over-heating and under-heating thermal problems. • Solar energy compensation method is applied to compensate for the solar energy. - Abstract: In this paper, an advanced on–off control method based on fuzzy logic is proposed for maintaining thermal comfort in residential buildings. Due to the time-lag of the control systems and the late building thermal response, an anticipative control mechanism is required to reduce energy loss and thermal discomfort. The proposed controller is implemented based on an on–off controller combined with a fuzzy algorithm. On–off control was chosen over other conventional control methods because of its structural simplicity. However, because conventional on–off control has a fixed operating range and a limited ability for improvements in control performance, fuzzy theory can be applied to overcome these limitations. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based solar energy compensation algorithm can be applied to the proposed controller to compensate for the energy gained from solar radiation according to the time of day. Simulations were conducted to compare the proposed controller with a conventional on–off controller under identical external conditions such as outdoor temperature and solar energy; these simulations were carried out by using a previously reported thermal analysis program that was modified to consider such external conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted in a residential building called Green Home Plus, in which hydronic radiant floor heating is used; in these experiments, the proposed system performed better than a system employing conventional on–off control methods

  12. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort under Thermal Environment Ramp Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇赟喆; 涂光备; 孙琳

    2004-01-01

    Set points of the indoor air temperature and relative humidity in short-term staying location were studied. In this condition, the thermal reaction of human body varied with the ramp changes of the environmental thermal parameters.The change rules of about 60 subjects'thermal reaction to the ramp change of environment were surveyed, and the effect of air movement on the thermal reaction during transient condition was considered by using a questionnaire. With the experimental results and research findings under stable condition, a way to set environmental parameters of short-time staying location was recommended.

  13. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. PMID:25626476

  14. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2015-12-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg-1), specific cost (0.75 R kg-1), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day-1), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg-1; 1.03 R kg-1; 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day-1, and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  15. The control of indoor thermal comfort conditions: introducing a fuzzy adaptive controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvino, F.; Gennusa, M. La; Rizzo, G.; Scaccianoce, G. [Universita di Palermo (Italy). Dept. of Energy and Environmental Researches

    2004-02-01

    The control and the monitoring of indoor thermal conditions represents a pre-eminent task with the aim of ensuring suitable working and living spaces to people. Especially in industrialised countries, in fact, several rules and standards have been recently released in order of providing technicians with suitable design tools and effective indexes and parameters for the checking of the indoor microclimate. Among them, predicted mean vote (PMV) index is often adopted for assessing the thermal comfort conditions of thermal moderate environments. Unfortunately, the PMV index is characterised by non-linear features, which could determine some difficulties when monitoring and controlling HVAC equipment. In order of overcoming these problems, a fuzzy control for HVAC system is here described. It represents a new simple approach, focused on the application of an adaptive fuzzy controller that avoids the modelling of indoor and outdoor environments. After a brief description of the method, some simulation results are presented. A simplified application, referring to a room belonging to a university building, is finally reported. (author)

  16. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg(-1)), specific cost (0.75 R$ kg(-1)), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day(-1)), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg(-1); 1.03 R$ kg(-1); 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day(-1), and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat. PMID:26712531

  17. THE THERMAL COMFORT IN THE SURFACE PUBLIC TRANSPORT FROM BUCHAREST DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. MORCOTEŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort during the summer period inside the surface public transport from Bucharest. The studies of human biometeorology are few at national level and the existing ones target especially housing or office buildings. This paper aims instead the surface public transport, represented by three categories of vehicles (bus, trolleybus and tram, from a city with over two million passengers per day with this transportation type. The study covers the warm season of the year, because this is the period with the most intense thermal discomfort, due to the excessive daytime heating of the air inside the transport vehicles. This paper is based on the expeditionary measurements undertaken inside seven vehicle models, selected depending on their share in the public transport fleet. A certain transport route was selected for each of those models, and the measurements were performed in certain days, depending on their meteorological characteristics. The study revealed that the construction features of the analyzed vehicles are decisive for the thermal discomfort level of passengers.

  18. Effect of Set-point Variation on Thermal Comfort and Energy Use in a Plus-energy Dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    When designing buildings and space conditioning systems, the occupant thermal comfort, health, and productivity are the main criteria to satisfy. However, this should be achieved with the most energy-efficient space conditioning systems (heating, cooling, and ventilation). Control strategy, set...... thermally active building systems (TABS), temperatures are allowed to drift within the comfort zone, while in spaces with air-conditioning, temperatures in a narrower interval typically are aimed at. This behavior of radiant systems provides certain advantages regarding energy use, since the temperatures......-points, and control dead-bands have a direct effect on the thermal environment in and the energy use of a building. The thermal environment in and the energy use of a building are associated with the thermal mass of the building and the control strategy, including set-points and control dead-bands. With...

  19. Evaluation of thermal comfort and human health using Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI Case Study: Kurdistan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Fallah Ghalhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessing  human bioclimatic is foundation for many programs and plans, especially in the field of healthcare. In this study, human thermal comfort and its relationship with the incidence of diseases were investigated in Kurdistan province. Materials and Method: The daily data of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and cloudiness between the years 1995-2014 were used. In the First step, Tmrt parameter was calculated in the Ray Man software environment. Then, UTCI index values were calculated using Bioklima software. In the final step, the climatic comfort zones were drawn in the ArcMap software. Results: It was found that the UTCI values change from 20 to -23. Bijar and Zarrineh stations have the highest cold stress conditions. The calculated values showed that severe cold stress conditions prevail in most parts of the province almost throughout the year. The correlation coefficient values showed that the highest correlation with the height was observed in the cold months of the year (December- February. The results of UTCI zoning also showed that the central parts of the province consistent with the higher altitude areas had severe stress conditions. Conclusion: The research showed that the province is faced with moderate to severe stresses in terms of human stress conditions. In the cold periods of the year, it will be more severe and more cold conditions are experienced in high places.

  20. Investigation on the Temporal Surface Thermal Conditions for Thermal Comfort Researches Inside A Vehicle Cabin Under Summer Season Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proposes of improving occupant's thermal comfort and reducing the air conditioning power consumption, the present research carried out a comprehensive study on the surface thermal conductions and their influence parameters. A numerical model was built considering the transient conduction, convective and radiation heat transfer inside a vehicle cabin. For more accurate simulation of the radiation heat transfer behaviors, the radiation was considered into two spectral bands (short wave and long wave radiation, and the solar radiation was calculated by two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse solar radiation. An experiment was conducted to validate the numerical approach, showing a good agreement with the surface temperature. The surface thermal conditions were numerically simulated. The results show that the solar radiation is the most important factor in determining the internal surface thermal conditions. Effects of the window glass properties and the car body surface conditions were investigated. The numerical calculation results indicate that reducing the transitivity of window glass can effectively reduce the internal surface temperature. And the reflectivity of the vehicle cabin also has an important influence on the surface temperature, however, it's not so obvious as comparison to the window glass.

  1. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  2. Influence of Three Dynamic Predictive Clothing Insulation Models on Building Energy Use, HVAC Sizing and Thermal Comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang Ho Lee; Stefano Schiavon

    2014-01-01

    In building energy simulation, indoor thermal comfort condition, energy use and equipment size are typically calculated based on the assumption that the clothing insulation is equal to a constant value of 0.5 clo during the cooling season and 1.0 clo during the heating season. The assumption is not reflected in practice and thus it may lead to errors. In reality, occupants frequently adjust their clothing depending on the thermal conditions, as opposed to the assumption of constant clothing ...

  3. Thermal Comfort Assessment-A Study Toward Workers’ Satisfaction in a Low Energy Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nafiz Shaharon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The government of Malaysia has raised their concerns towards the issue of workers comfort and workspace quality in a Low Energy Office (LEO building. New energy efficient building concepts and technologies require a revision of comfort standards, to create a suitable thermal condition in avoiding occupant dissatisfaction, adverse effect on their productivity and overall building performance. Approach: Assessment was conducted using Babuc-A (Portable air quality monitor and sets of questionnaire adapted from ASHRAE-2004 were 99 respondents selected using a stratified random sampling. Results: This study shows that the thermal comfort zone temperature was identified to be within the range of 21.6-23.6°C and relative humidity of 42-54%. Conclusion: The results suggested that the thermal condition was in the acceptable range of ISO7730 and a lower room temperature was preferred by Malaysian in an office environment compared with the temperature criteria cited in ASHRAE-55. To create an optimum comfortable workplace, temperature between 20-26°C and relative humidity between 40-60% must be maintained. Adequate ventilation must be provided at the minimum rate of 10 l/s of fresh air per person for general office space or every 10 m2 of floor space.

  4. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  5. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated indoor environment in hot and humid climate zone in P. R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文杰; 李百战; 许孟楠; 景胜蓝

    2009-01-01

    To identify human thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings,the research based on both subjective and objective data was carried out in Chongqing,P. R. China. The characteristics of subjects’ clothing regulation function,changes of actual mean thermal comfort vote (AMV) varying with time and acceptable operative temperature in natural conditions were analyzed. In addition,the indicator actual mean vote-actual percentage dissatisfied (AMV-APD) was used to study the actual dissatisfaction with thermal environment. The results indicate that regulative ability by changing clothing under natural ventilated conditions is very significant but limited simultaneously,about 1.7 ℃ per 0.1 clo. Under naturally ventilated conditions,people may have an acceptable operative temperature of 16-28 ℃. Based on the AMV-APD,the actual minimum percentage dissatisfied can reach 4% at AMV of -0.36.

  6. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment: effect on thermal comfort and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Duszyk, Marcin; Krejcirikova, Barbora;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on thermal comfort and perceived air quality reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels...... comfort compared to without cooling. The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The improvement...... and (4) two radiant panels with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (p<0,05) improved subjects’ thermal...

  7. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  8. Human thermal comfort antithesis in the context of the Mediterranean tourism potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis N.; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Polychroni, Iliana

    2016-04-01

    Weather and climate information are determinative factors in the decision of a touristic destination. The evaluation of the thermal, aesthetical and physical components of the climate is considered an issue of high importance in order to assess the climatic tourism potential. Mediterranean is an endowed region with respect to its temperate climate and impressive landscapes over the coastal environment and numerous islands. However, the harmony of the natural beauty is interrupted by extreme weather phenomena, such as heat and cold waves, heavy rains and stormy conditions. Thus, it is very important to know the seasonal behavior of the climate for touristic activities and recreation. Towards this objective we evaluated the antithesis in the human thermal perception as well as the sultriness, stormy, foggy, sunny and rainy days recorded in specific Greek touristic destinations against respective competitive Mediterranean resorts. Daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloudiness and precipitation, were acquired from the most well-known touristic sites over the Mediterranean for the period 1970 to present. These variables were used on one hand to estimate the human thermal burden, by means of the thermal index of Physiologically Equivalent temperature (PET) and on the other hand to interpret the physical and aesthetic components of the tourism potential, by utilizing specific thresholds of the initial and derived variables in order to quantify in a simple and friendly way the environmental footprint on desired touristic destinations. The findings of this research shed light on the climate information for tourism in Greece against Mediterranean destinations. Greek resorts, especially in the Aegean Islands appear to be more ideal with respect to thermal comfort against resorts at the western and central Mediterranean, where the heat stress within the summer season seems to be an intolerable pressure on humans. This could

  9. Adaptive parameters and thermal comfort of postpartum ewes fed on concentrate supplementation in grazing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronne-von Ribeiro da Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis evaluated adaptive parameters and thermal comfort of postpartum ewes fed on concentrate supplementation in grazing system. Thirty lactating pluriparous sheep, 16 Santa Inês (SI and 14 Morada Nova (MN were used. Physiological parameters such as respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR and rectal temperature (RT were measured, in that order, with the animals at rest in the morning (6:00-7:00 am and in the afternoon (1:00-2:00 pm, respectively, every seven days, with 10 samples. A significant effect (p < 0.05 for RR and HR was reported in the strain. Similar behavior was reported for RR between the breeds where MN sheep had high adaptability. Supplementation levels of 0.5 and 1.5% influenced (p < 0.05 RR which was stronger in the sheep that received the highest supplementation level, possibly due to calorie increase in the diet. However, HR and RT parameters did not differ within the breed due to supplementation. HR was higher between the breeds for SI sheep at 0.5%. Results show that concentrated supplementation affected the respiratory rate of ewes in the postpartum period, with higher calorie increment at 1.5% level and superiority for Santa Inês ewes. Greater adaptability of Morada Nova sheep has been indicated when fed on concentrated diet in grazing system.

  10. Modelling thermal comfort of visitors at urban squares in hot and arid climate using NN-ARX soft computing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminia, Shahab; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Piri, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Kasra; Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Petković, Dalibor; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Visitors utilize the urban space based on their thermal perception and thermal environment. The thermal adaptation engages the user's behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects. These aspects play critical roles in user's ability to assess the thermal environments. Previous studies have rarely addressed the effects of identified factors such as gender, age and locality on outdoor thermal comfort, particularly in hot, dry climate. This study investigated the thermal comfort of visitors at two city squares in Iran based on their demographics as well as the role of thermal environment. Assessing the thermal comfort required taking physical measurement and questionnaire survey. In this study, a non-linear model known as the neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NN-ARX) was employed. Five indices of physiological equivalent temperature (PET), predicted mean vote (PMV), standard effective temperature (SET), thermal sensation votes (TSVs) and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) were trained and tested using the NN-ARX. Then, the results were compared to the artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The findings showed the superiority of the NN-ARX over the ANN and the ANFIS. For the NN-ARX model, the statistical indicators of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.53 and 0.36 for the PET, 1.28 and 0.71 for the PMV, 2.59 and 1.99 for the SET, 0.29 and 0.08 for the TSV and finally 0.19 and 0.04 for the T mrt.

  11. An investigation into thermal comfort and residential thermal environment in an intertropical sub-Saharan Africa region: Field study report during the Harmattan season in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on thermal comfort have attracted authors for years throughout the world and the most important findings are now the basis of international thermal comfort standards. There is little information available concerning occupant comfort and residential thermal environment in the intertropical sub-Saharan Africa. Thus the purpose for this study is to conduct a field study on comfort and residential thermal environments in a typical intertropical climatic region. A field survey has been conducted during the Harmattan season in two cities from the two climatic regions of Cameroon concerned by that wind. Specific study objectives were to evaluate and characterize some thermal perceptions of occupants in their residence, compare observed and predicted percent of dissatisfied, and discern differences between the study area and other climate zones where similar studies have been performed. It was found that the thermoneutral temperatures in both climatic regions range from 24.69 deg. C to 27.32 deg. C and, in traditional living room, it differs from that of modern living room with approximately 1 deg. C.

  12. 载人飞船密封舱热舒适性评价%Thermal Comfort Assessment in Manned Spaceship Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新刚; 满广龙; 范宇峰

    2014-01-01

    结合在轨飞行数据,采用PMV-PPD模型对载人飞船密封舱热舒适性进行了评估,基于在轨飞行数据计算了载人飞船PMV值,分析了密封舱空气温度、湿度以及舱内壁温度对热舒适性的影响。同时针对目前载人飞船实际情况,提出了通过提高舱壁辐射温度改善密封舱热舒适性的方法,可为后续的载人航天器特别是载人飞船密封舱在热控设计中提高热舒适性提供参考。%Based on flight data , thermal comfort of the airtight cabin in manned spaceship was as-sessed using PMV-PPD model.The effects of cabin temperature , humidity and wall temperature on thermal comfort were presented in detail .To improve thermal comfort in manned spaceship cabin , a method of raising cabin wall temperature was suggested , which provided a reference for thermal de-sign of manned spaceship .

  13. Evaluation of Human Thermal Comfort in Outdoor Environment%室外环境人体热舒适评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔚巍; 邓启红; 连之伟

    2012-01-01

      The factors influencing outdoor thermal comfort were introduced. And the limitations of existing evaluation models were analyzed. Further, a new evaluation model of outdoor thermal comfort, thermal physiological - adaptation model, was proposed. The model can provide an important basis for predicting and evaluating human thermal comfort in various outdoor environments.%  介绍了室外人体热舒适的影响因素,并分析了现有室外人体热舒适评价方法的局限性。在此基础上提出了一个能更全面合理地反映室外热舒适机理的新评价模型:“热生理-适应”模型。这一新评价模型的建立将为准确评价及预测不同室外环境下人体的热舒适奠定理论基础

  14. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions — Gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; de Wit, M.H.;

    2012-01-01

    thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20–29years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During...... the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females...... the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not...

  15. Improvement of Thermal Comfort Conditions in an Urban Space (Case Study: The Square of Independence, Sétif, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Ballout

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies all around the world were conducted on the phenomenon of the urban heat island, and referring to the results obtained, one of the most important factors that influence this phenomenon is the mineralization of the cities which means the reducing of evaporative urban surfaces, replacing vegetation and wetlands with concrete and asphalt. The use of vegetation and water can change the urban environment and improve comfort, thus reduce the heat island. The trees act as a mask to the sun, wind, and sound, and also as a source of humidity which reduces air temperature and surrounding surfaces. Water also acts as a buffer to noise; it is also a source of moisture and regulates temperature not to mention the psychological effect on humans. Our main objective in this paper is to determine the impact of vegetation, ponds and fountains on the urban microclimate in general and on the thermal comfort of people along the Independence square in the Algerian city of Sétif, which is a semi-arid climate, in particularly. In order to reach this objective, a comparative study between different scenarios has been done; the use of the Envi-met program enabled us to model the urban environment of the Independence Square and to study the possibility of improving the conditions of comfort by adding an amount of vegetation and water ponds. After studying the results obtained (temperature, relative humidity, PMV and PPD indicators, the efficiency of the additions we've made on the square was confirmed and this is what helped us to confirm our assumptions regarding the terms of comfort in the studied site, and in the end we are trying to develop recommendations and solutions which may contribute to improve the conditions for greater comfort in the Independence square. Keywords: microclimate, vegetation, water ponds, simulation, Envi-Met software, comfort.

  16. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker;

    2015-01-01

    solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within a...

  17. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  18. Assessing energy and thermal comfort of different low-energy cooling concepts for non-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Impact of five cooling technologies are simulated in six European climate zones with Trnsys 17. • The ventilation strategies reduce the cooling energy need even in South Europe climate. • Constant ventilation controller can lead to a poor cooling performance. • Comparing radiant strategies with air conditioning scenario, the energy saving is predicted to within 5–35%. - Abstract: Energy consumption for cooling is growing dramatically. In the last years, electricity peak consumption grew significantly, switching from winter to summer in many EU countries. This is endangering the stability of electricity grids. This article outlines a comprehensive analysis of an office building performances in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort (in accordance with static – ISO 7730:2005 – and adaptive thermal comfort criteria – EN 15251:2007 –) related to different cooling concepts in six different European climate zones. The work is based on a series of dynamic simulations carried out in the Trnsys 17 environment for a typical office building. The simulation study was accomplished for five cooling technologies: natural ventilation (NV), mechanical night ventilation (MV), fan-coils (FC), suspended ceiling panels (SCP), and concrete core conditioning (CCC) applied in Stockholm, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Milan, Rome, and Palermo. Under this premise, the authors propose a methodology for the evaluation of the cooling concepts taking into account both, thermal comfort and energy consumption

  19. The Indoor Thermal Comfort Zone of Evaporative Cooling and Building Environment%蒸发冷却与建筑环境室内热舒适区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏青; 黄翔; 殷清海

    2013-01-01

    首先通过概述《采暖通风与空气调节设计规范》中定义的舒适性空调所使用的通用热舒适区,提出并分析了扩展热舒适区(我们一般也称为可以被人体接受的热舒适区),即可接受热舒适区。其次,就蒸发冷却空调技术与扩展热舒适区(可接受热舒适区)进行讨论。最后阐述了扩展热舒适区(可接受热舒适区)对扩大蒸发冷却应用范围及节能减排所具有的现实和深远的意义。%This paper summarize the general thermal comfort zone in used comfort air conditioning that defined in《the heating and ventilation and air conditioning design standard》, puts forward and analyses the extended thermal comfort zone, we generally known as the thermal comfort zone that can be accepted by the human body, namely the acceptable thermal comfort zone. Secondly, on the evaporative air conditioning technology and extended thermal comfort zone (acceptable thermal comfort zone) are discussed. At last the paper elaborates the extended thermal comfort zone (acceptable thermal comfort zone) plays a realistic and profound significance role in expand the application range and energy saving.

  20. Case study. Health hazards of automotive repair mechanics: thermal and lighting comfort, particulate matter and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupa, G

    2013-01-01

    An indoor environmental quality survey was conducted in a small private automotive repair shop during May 2009 (hot season) and February 2010 (cold season). It was established that the detached building, which is naturally ventilated and lit, had all the advantages of the temperate local climate. It provided a satisfactory microclimatic working environment, concerning the thermal and the lighting comfort, without excessive energy consumption for air-conditioning or lighting. Indoor number concentrations of particulate matter (PM) were monitored during both seasons. Their size distributions were strongly affected by the indoor activities and the air exchange rate of the building. During working hours, the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) number concentration ratio was 31 for PM0.3-1 in the hot season and 69 for the cold season. However I/O PM1-10 number concentration ratios were similar, 33 and 32 respectively, between the two seasons. The estimated indoor mass concentration of PM10 for the two seasons was on average 0.68 mg m(-3) and 1.19 mg m(-3), i.e., 22 and 36 times higher than outdoors, during the hot and the cold seasons, respectively. This is indicative that indoor air pollution may adversely affect mechanics' health. Noise levels were highly variable and the average LEX, 8 h of 69.3 dB(A) was below the European Union exposure limit value 87db (A). Noise originated from the use of manual hammers, the revving up of engines, and the closing of car doors or hoods. Octave band analysis indicated that the prevailing noise frequencies were in the area of the maximum ear sensitivity. PMID:23984679

  1. The influence of the summer sea breeze on thermal comfort in Funchal (Madeira). A contribution to tourism and urban planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Antonio; Lopes, Sergio; Joao Alcoforado, Maria [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro der Estudos Geograficos; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    Tourism plays a crucial role for the development of coastal areas. Despite the mildness of Madeira's climate, very hot days can occur during summer, a situation to which most tourists from northern Europe (the majority of foreign tourists) are poorly adapted. As sea breezes strongly contribute to moderate heat stress in urban environments, their influence on the thermal comfort on the island has been studied. Sea breezes occurred on 84 % of the days during the period under study (May to October 2006). They usually start around 09:30 h and end after 22:00 h, with an average duration of about 12:50 hours and a mean velocity of 2.9 m/s. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) was used to evaluate the thermal comfort of a sample of days during the summer of 2006. It was concluded that most of the sites in the city are ''slightly comfortable'' during normal days with sea breeze, but only shore sites and the highest green areas offer some comfort during hot days. Inside the city, the thermal perception is generally ''hot'' and strong heat stress can occur. As sea breezes are important to mitigate heat stress, some basic guidelines were presented: urban planners should take advantage of this wind system avoiding dense construction near the shoreline that would act as a barrier to the renewal of the air inside the city. In terms of tourism, planners and local authorities should provide solutions to mitigate the negative effects during hot periods, creating a system to warn and relocate more vulnerable tourists to places near the shore line, to the mountains, to gardens and air-conditioned buildings. In combination with other components (beauty of the island, gastronomy, cultural values and safety), climate information can be a factor of attractiveness to tourists. (orig.)

  2. Annual Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort of Autonomously Heated and Cooled Office Chairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chin, Justin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Doug [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Energy use in offices buildings is largely driven by air conditioning demands. But the optimal temperature is not the same for all building occupants, leading to the infamous thermostat war. And many occupants have independently overcome building comfort weaknesses with their own space heaters or fans. NREL tested is a customized office chair that automatically heats and cools the occupant along the seat and chair back according to the occupants' personal preferences. This product is shown to deliver markedly better comfort at room temperatures well above typical office cooling setpoints. Experimental subjects reported satisfaction in these elevated air temperatures, partly because the chair's cooling effect was tuned to their own individual needs. Simulation of the chair in office buildings around the U.S. shows that energy can be saved everywhere, with impacts varying due to the climate. Total building HVAC energy savings exceeded 10% in hot-dry climate zones. Due to high product cost, simple payback for the chair we studied is beyond the expected chair life. We then understood the need to establish cost-performance targets for comfort delivery packages. NREL derived several hypothetical energy/cost/comfort targets for personal comfort product systems. In some climate regions around the U.S., these show the potential for office building HVAC energy savings in excess of 20%. This report documents this research, providing an overview of the research team's methods and results while also identifying areas for future research building upon the findings.

  3. 空调房间舒适温度及热舒适性参数的计算研究%Formulation Research on the Comfort Temperature and Thermal Comfort Parameters in Air-conditioned buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季英; 蔡玲玲; 杨学宾; 张玉; 夏新乾; 姬寓; 黄徐中

    2011-01-01

    分析讨论了影响人体热舒适性的舒适温度以及热舒适性指标的定义及公式表达。热舒适性参数涉及预测平均热舒适度,自适应预测平均热舒适度,热感觉舒适度,热接受度等指标。空调房间舒适温度可采用平均室外温度简化计算,也可考虑室内温度的影响。热舒适性参数通常为室内温度以及中性温度的函数。当然,也可以考虑热感觉舒适度以及热接受度等与预测平均热舒适度之间的函数关系。分析结果表明,对于不同的建筑类型及气候区域,函数关系式中的系数取值不同。建立针对特定区域的室内温度及热舒适性标准具有极其重要的意义。%The definition and formulation of comfort temperature and thermal comfort parameters for human thermal accept-ability are discussed in this study.The thermal comfort parameters include predicted mean vote,adaptive predicted mean vote,thermal sensation vote,and thermal acceptability.The room comfort temperature can be simply calculated by the mean outdoor air temperature and/or indoor air temperature.The thermal comfort parameter is usually a function of indoor operative temperature and neutral temperature.Also,the relation between thermal comfort and thermal sensation vote or thermal acceptability can be applied.The results show that,for different building types or climatic regions,the coefficient assignments in the function are quite different.It is meaningful to explore an available formulation to express the indoor thermal comfort in a specific region or zone.

  4. Experimental determination about thermal comfort conditions in buildings; Determinacion experimental de las condiciones de confort termico en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)]. E-mail: agj@xanum.uam.mx; jgc@correo.azc.uam.mx; hrp@xanum.uam.mx

    2006-04-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal comfort importance in a building. And the influence it exerts on quality of life as well as the efficiency of people work activities. There are comments about some models which better help to estimate the recommended temperature levels. The experimental evaluation results from a Mexico City population sampler are presented. This work was done in a Controlled Environment Laboratory; the obtained outcomes proved the preferences occupants exceed the comfort zone greatest limit accepted in the reference international standards. The meaning of this conclusion is thermal comfort can be reached with higher temperatures and consequently an energy consumption and an environment impact decrease. [Spanish] En este trabajo se analiza la importancia que tiene el confort termico en la calidad de vida de las personas que ocupan una edificacion y en la eficiencia de sus actividades. Se comentan algunos modelos con los cuales se estiman los niveles de temperatura recomendados y se presentan los resultados de una evaluacion experimental realizada en un Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado con una muestra de la poblacion del Distrito Federal. Los resultados que se obtuvieron demuestran que los ocupantes tienen preferencias que rebasan el limite superior de la zona de confort comunmente aceptada en los estandares internacionales de referencia. Esto quiere decir que el confort puede lograrse con mayores temperaturas, lo que se traduce en menor consumo de energia y menor impacto en el ambiente.

  5. Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Chi, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal comfort and its changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau over the last 50 years have been evaluated by using the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and a more complete tourism climate picture is presented by the Climate-Tourism-Information Scheme (CTIS). The results show that PET classes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover six out of the nine-point thermal sensation scale — very cold, cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm — and cold stress is prevailing throughout the year. A small number of slightly cool/warm and neutral days occur in summer months. There occur no warm, hot and very hot days. The frequency of PET classes varies among regions, depending on their altitude/latitude conditions. Xining, Lhasa and Yushu are the top three cities in terms of thermal favorability. With global warming, annual cumulative number of thermally favorable days has been increasing, and that of cold stress has been reducing. The change is more obvious in lower elevation than that in higher elevation regions. The improving thermal comfort in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau might be a glad tiding for local communities and tourists. Besides PET, CTIS can provide a number of additional bioclimatic information related to tourism and recreational activities. CTIS for Lhasa and Xining shows that sunshine is plentiful all the year round, and windy days occur frequently from late January to early May. This is a useful bioclimatic information for tourism authorities, travel agencies, resorts and tourists.

  6. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  7. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker;

    2015-01-01

    window areas lead to reductions in space heating demand. Furthermore, windows in south-oriented rooms have to be carefully designed to prevent overheating. Design options for prevention of overheating, however, correspond well with options for low space heating demand. Glazings with solar control coating......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large...

  8. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  9. Individual thermal profiles as a basis for comfort improvement in space and other environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.; Dancisak, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    , depending on their size and tissue mass content. The design of individual thermal profiles is feasible for better comfort of astronauts on long-duration missions and personnel in other extreme environments.

  10. A method for assessing thermal comfort of shoes using a "sweating" foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, E.H.M.; Eijnde, W.A.J. van den; Heus, R.

    2004-01-01

    The conclusion is that our device for measuring water vapour absorption under different climatic conditions is very consistent, but in future we aim to connect the foot temperature simulation model with a measuring device in order to be able to measure the dynamic comfort of footwear.

  11. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  12. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  13. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  14. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P exercise (cycling and running). The combined 5-min mean variation of the {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} RMSE was 1.5°C, with separate cycling and running giving RMSE of 1.4°C and 1.6°C, respectively, and no significant difference in residuals. Subjects' actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes displayed significant strong rank correlation with budget scores calculated using both measured and predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} ( r s = 0.507 and 0.517, respectively, P strength of ATS of subjects as compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  15. Modeling Thermal Comfort and Optimizing Local Renewal Strategies—A Case Study of Dazhimen Neighborhood in Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Peng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling thermal comfort provides quantitative evidence and parameters for effective and efficient urban planning, design, and building construction particularly in a dense and narrow inner city, which has become one of many concerns for sustainable urban development. This paper aims to develop geometric and mathematical models of wind and thermal comfort and use them to examine the impacts of six small-scale renewal strategies on the wind and thermal environment at pedestrian level in Dazhimen neighborhood, Wuhan, which is a typical case study of urban renewal project in a mega-city. The key parameters such as the solar radiation, natural convection, relative humidity, ambient crosswind have been incorporated into the mathematical models by using user-defined-function (UDF method. Detailed temperature and velocity distributions under different strategies have been compared for the optimization of local renewal strategies. It is concluded that five rules generated from the simulation results can provide guidance for building demolition and reconstruction in a neighborhood and there is no need of large-scale demolition. Particularly, combining the local demolition and city virescence can both improve the air ventilation and decrease the temperature level in the study area.

  16. Operative temperature and thermal comfort in the sun - Implementation and verification of a model for IDA ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line; Grozman, Grigori; Heiselberg, Per Kvols;

    2015-01-01

    model is carried out by comparing simulation results with fullscale measurements of a team office located in Oslo (59N10E). The measurements were conducted during mid-March and April 2013. The results indicate that the new MRT model might contribute to considerable improvements in prediction of thermal...... comfort of persons affected by direct solar radiation. This may further have implications on the predicted energy use and design of the façade, since e.g. an enlarged need for local cooling or use of dynamic solar shading might be discovered....

  17. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabanskis A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  19. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s-1), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m-2. Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  20. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  1. Thermal comfort requirements in hot dry regions with special reference to Riyadh Part 2: for Friday prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science

    1996-01-01

    This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Design and optimization of personalized ventilation for overall improvement of thermal comfort, air quality, and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Ian Dominic

    This paper presents a simple and repeatable CFD-based method that can accurately predict the optimal operating conditions of personalized ventilation systems. In contrast to previous studies, the optimal performance of the PV system includes the influences of various operation characteristics (supply air velocity, PV flow rate, PV temperature, PV distance from face, turbulence intensity, relative humidity, central system flow rate, central system temperature, central system type, and PV on/off operation) on three critical performance factors: thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy savings. This method is able to predict more achievable and comprehensive operating performance of PV systems. It is found for the computer perimeter grill air terminal device that supply temperatures, central flow rate, and PV flow rate are the most influential factors on performance in terms of thermal comfort, IAQ, and energy. Using the Taguchi design of experiment and optimal performance prediction method, the computer perimeter grill personalized ventilation system is optimized in conjunction with under-floor and overhead central systems, separately.

  3. Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

  4. Analysis of the thermal comfort and impact properties of the neoprene-spacer fabric structure for preventing the joint damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a new structure consisting of perforated Neoprene foam attached to the spacer fabric and also compares the properties of thermal and moisture comfort and impact properties of this structure in comparison with Neoprene foam. Methods: In order to measure the factors related to the samples lateral pressure behavior, a tensile tester was used. A uniform pressure is applied to the samples and a force - displacement curve is obtained. The test continues until the maximum compression force is reached to 50 N. The area under the curve is much greater; more energy is absorbed during the impact. In order to investigate the dynamic heat and moisture transfer of fabrics, an experimental apparatus was developed. This device made the simulation of sweating of human body possible and consisted of a controlled environmental chamber, sweating guarded hot plate, and data acquisition system. Results: The findings show that the Neoprene-spacer fabric structure represents higher toughness values compared to other samples (P ≤ 0.001. Neoprene-spacer fabric structure (A3 has higher rate of moisture transport than conventional Neoprene foam; because of undesirable comfort characteristics in Neoprene. Conclusions: Results of the tests indicate full advantage of the new structure compared with the Neoprene foam for use in orthopedic textiles (P ≤ 0.001.

  5. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  6. Designing for an imagined user: Provision for thermal comfort in energy-efficient extra-care housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarded as one solution to the problem of how to enable older people to retain their independence, extra-care housing, where each resident has their own self-contained dwelling and access to communal facilities and to care, has received extensive funding in recent years. Implicit in the concept of specialist housing is the notion of ‘special’ occupants, imagined older people. Adopting a socio-technical approach, this paper considers how ideas about ageing inform those aspects of extra-care-housing-design that relate to thermal comfort. The paper draws on semi-structured interviews with 13 people involved in the design, development and management of UK-based extra-care housing. Participants characterised imagined occupants as vulnerable to cold, at risk from fuel poverty and liable to be burned by hot surfaces or fall from high windows. These user representations were reportedly inscribed into the design of extra-care housing schemes through the inclusion of building features such as communal heating, under-floor heating, restricted window opening and heated corridors. The utilisation of stereotypical user representations of older people raises questions, given that older people's thermal comfort needs can be highly diverse. The paper explores the implications for energy demand. -- Highlights: •Explores the factors that condition energy demand in older people's housing. •Considers how user representations are scripted into building design. •Older occupants characterised as vulnerable to cold and having low incomes. •These user representations affect selection of thermal technologies. •Priority given to keeping occupants warm, leading to possible risk of overheating

  7. Influence of Three Dynamic Predictive Clothing Insulation Models on Building Energy Use, HVAC Sizing and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Ho Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In building energy simulation, indoor thermal comfort condition, energy use and equipment size are typically calculated based on the assumption that the clothing insulation is equal to a constant value of 0.5 clo during the cooling season and 1.0 clo during the heating season. The assumption is not reflected in practice and thus it may lead to errors. In reality, occupants frequently adjust their clothing depending on the thermal conditions, as opposed to the assumption of constant clothing values above, indicating that the clothing insulation variation should be captured in building simulation software to obtain more reliable and accurate results. In this study, the impact of three newly developed dynamic clothing insulation models on the building simulation is quantitatively assessed using the detailed whole-building energy simulation program, EnergyPlus version 6.0. The results showed that when the heating ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC is controlled based on indoor temperature the dynamic clothing models do not affect indoor operative temperatures, energy consumption and equipment sizing. When the HVAC is controlled based on the PMV model the use of a fixed clothing insulation during the cooling (0.5 clo and heating (1.0 clo season leads to the incorrect estimation of the indoor operative temperatures, energy consumption and equipment sizing. The dynamic clothing models significantly (p < 0.0001 improve the ability of energy simulation tools to assess thermal comfort. The authors recommend that the dynamic clothing models should be implemented in dynamic building energy simulation software such as EnergyPlus.

  8. 基于用户学习的智能动态热舒适控制系统%Intelligent Dynamic Thermal Comfort Control System with Users' Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 张庆范; 段培永

    2011-01-01

    Considering the fact that the static thermal environment is unfavorable to the human' s health since it can reduce the ability of human' s heat adaptation, and the dynamic thermal environment is favorable to the human' s health as it is similar to the natural environment. A dynamical thermal comfortable control system for the inhabited environment was proposed based on users' learning. The thermal comfort Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index was the control aim of the system. The fuzzy learning algorithm of personal thermal comfort zone was proposed, which modified the personal thermal comfort zone on line to meet the needs of different humans. The dynamical thermal comfort control strategy was proposed based on computational experiments. The dynamical thermal comfort zone included comfort zone and energy saving zone, which changed periodically. The experiment results demonstrated that this method could meet the human' s thermal comfort need and reduce the energy consumption, and is favorable to the human' s health.%静态的热环境易造成人体热适应能力降低,对健康不利.动态的热环境与自然环境相似更有利于用户的健康.提出一种基于用户学习的智能动态热舒适控制系统,在该系统中采用PMV(Predicted Mean Vote)作为控制目标,为了满足不同用户的需要提出个人热舒适区模糊学习算法,可根据个人偏好在线修改个人热舒适区;在计算实验的基础上提出动态热舒适控制策略,动态热舒适区包括舒适区和节能区,在动态热舒适控制中舒适区和节能区周期性交替变化.实验结果表明,该方法即满足用户的热舒适性需求,与静态热舒适控制相比节能效果明显,且对用户的健康有利.

  9. Cockpit human thermal-comfort modeling and environ-ment evaluation%驾驶舱人体热舒适性建模及环境评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红军; 马占元; 张晓燕; 铁彦清

    2014-01-01

    建立人体热舒适性模型,通过RadTherm平台实现人体热舒适性模型和驾驶舱环境的对接。对驾驶舱环境进行数值模拟,得到驾驶舱内气流组织形式,其速度场和温度场作为人体热舒适性模型的输入。驾驶舱环境数值模拟结果与人体热舒适性评估结果相互验证,共同评价驾驶舱环境的优劣。研究结果表明,通过数值模拟得到的驾驶舱环境评估结果和通过人体热舒适性模型得到的驾驶员热舒适性评估结果准确、有效,具有较高的工程应用价值。%It establishes human thermal-comfort model, realizes the combination of human thermal-comfort model and cockpit environment through RadTherm plat. Obtaining the flow field of cockpit through numerical calculation and the velocity filed and the temperature filed are provided for human thermal-comfort model as import conditions. The numerical calculation results of cockpit environment and human thermal-comfort evaluation validate and integrate together to evalu-ate cockpit environment. Research proves that the cockpit environment evaluation through numerical calculation and the pilot thermal-comfort evaluation through human thermal-comfort model are correct, valid and have a higher engineering application value.

  10. Integration of eaves and shading devices for improving the thermal comfort in a multi-zone building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddam Muhammad Abdalkhalaq Chuayb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach to the description and modelling of multi-zone buildings in Saharan climate. Therefore, nodal method was used to apprehend thermo-aeraulic behavior of air subjected to varied solicitations. A coupling was made between equations proposed by P. Rumianowski and some equations of a building thermal energy model found in the TRNSYS user manual. Runge-Kutta fourth order numerical method was used to solve the obtained system of differential equations. Theses results show that proper design of passive houses in an arid region is based on the control of direct solar gains, temperatures and specific humidities. According to the compactness index, the insersion of solar shading and eaves can provide improved thermo-aeraulic comfort.

  11. Simulation of energy use, human thermal comfort and office work performance in buildings with moderately drifting operative temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.;

    2011-01-01

    Annual primary energy use in a central module of an office building consisting of two offices separated with a corridor was estimated by means of dynamic computer simulations. The simulations were conducted for conventional all-air VAV ventilation system and thermo active building system (TABS......) supplemented with CAV ventilation. Simulations comprised moderate, hot–dry and hot–humid climate. Heavy and light wall construction and two orientations of the building (east–west and north–south) were considered. Besides the energy use, also capability of examined systems to keep a certain level of thermal...... comfort was examined. The results showed that with the moderate climate, the TABS decreased the primary energy use by about 16% as compared with the VAV. With hot–humid climate, the portion of the primary energy saved by TABS was ca. 50% even with the supply air dehumidification taken into account. The...

  12. Transient thermal sensation and comfort resulting from adjustment of clothing insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole;

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the transient effects on human thermal responses of clothing adjustments. Two different levels of activity were tested, and the temperature was set to result in a warm or cool thermal sensation at each activity level. The subjects (12 females and 12 males) wore identical...... uniforms and were asked to take off or don a part of the uniform after they had adapted to the experimental conditions for more than 20 minutes. The results showed that the thermal sensation votes responded immediately to the adjustment of clothing insulation and reached a new steady-state level within 5...

  13. Field survey of occupants thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchurov, G.; Naidenov, K.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2002-01-01

    Field survey of occupants´ response to the thermal environment in eight office buildings with displacement ventilation was performed. The response of 227 occupants (94 males and 133 females) was collected and analysed. A neutral thermal sensation was reported by 37% of the occupants, and between...... slightly cool and slightly warm by more than 85% of the occupants. The occupants´ thermal sensation was close to the predictions by the PMV index. About 24% of the surveyed occupants complained that they were daily bothered by draught mainly at lower leg. Presence of draught discomfort was verified even...

  14. A scenario of human thermal comfort in Mexico City for 2CO{sub 2} conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, Ernesto [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Tejeda, Adalberto [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Applying the concept of effective temperature (ET), a scenario of human bioclimatic conditions for Mexico City is presented by using results from both GCM regional predictions for CO{sub 2} doubling and temperature trend projections from an urban station. Current and future bioclimatic maps for Mexico City and their conurbation are presented. Current environmental conditions will likely change toward a warmer atmosphere due to both the urbanization process and global greenhouse effect. The impact on the population will be more important during the warm season (March- May) when the bioclimate of the city will likely shift away from current neutrality to the next comfort scale category (ET 24-27 Celsius degrees) of warm conditions covering most of the capital city. [Spanish] A partir de la aplicacion del concepto de temperatura efectiva (ET) se presenta un escenario de las condiciones de bioclima humano para la Ciudad de Mexico y zona conurbada para la segunda mitad del proximo siglo. Se usaron resultados de predicciones regionales de modelos de circulacion general (GCM) para una duplicacion del CO{sub 2} y tambien las tendencias de temperatura de una estacion urbana. Se muestran mapas de las condiciones actuales y futuras de confort termico. La combinacion del efecto invernadero y la urbanizacion, muy probablemente impacten en la poblacion principalmente en la estacion calida (marzo a mayo), cuando se pase de la categoria de confort actual a la inmediata superior (ET 24-27 Celsius degrees) en la mayor parte de la capital del pais.

  15. Infrared reflector based on liquid crystal polymers and its impact on thermal comfort conditions in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Roberz, Franziska; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dick J.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.

    2014-10-01

    There has been a huge increase in the global demand of energy over the last few years. One of the main contributors to energy consumption in buildings, cars, greenhouses and indoor spaces is the cooling devices needed to maintain the indoor temperature at comfortable levels. To reduce the energy used by cooling devices, we need improved light control in transparent building elements, such as windows. Infrared (IR) reflectors applied to the windows for rejection of infrared light would be very attractive, especially if they do not affect light in the visible region. A method to selectively and precisely control infrared transmission is via the use of cholesteric liquid crystal (Ch-LC) polymer reflectors. Ch-LCs, also known as chiral-nematic LCs, reflect circularly polarized light as a result of their self-organizing molecular helices. The pitch of the helix in these networks determines the wavelength of reflection. In contrast to existing alternatives, they are characterized by a very sharp cut-off between the transmissive and the reflective state enabling exact tailoring of the heat reflection. In this article we have focused on fabrication of infrared reflectors using Ch-LCs and a computational model was used to predict the energy savings of this IR-reflector in an office building in Abu Dhabi which indicated that 6 % energy savings can be realized.

  16. Effect of age, gender, economic group and tenure on thermal comfort: A field study in residential buildings in hot and dry climate with seasonal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi; Rao, Kavita Daryani [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption in Indian residential buildings is one of the highest and is increasing phenomenally. Indian standards specify comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings across the nation. However, thermal comfort research in India is very limited. A field study in naturally ventilated apartments was done in 2008, during the summer and monsoon seasons in Hyderabad in composite climate. This survey involved over 100 subjects, giving 3962 datasets. They were analysed under different groups: age, gender, economic group and tenure. Age, gender and tenure correlated weakly with thermal comfort. However, thermal acceptance of women, older subjects and owner-subjects was higher. Economic level of the subjects showed significant effect on the thermal sensation, preference, acceptance and neutrality. The comfort band for lowest economic group was found to be 27.3-33.1 C with the neutral temperature at 30.2 C. This is way above the standard. This finding has far reaching energy implications on building and HVAC systems design and practice. Occupants' responses for other environmental parameters often depended on their thermal sensation, often resulting in a near normal distribution. The subjects displayed acoustic and olfactory obliviousness due to habituation, resulting in higher satisfaction and acceptance. (author)

  17. Our experience in the evaluation of the thermal comfort during the space flight and in the simulated space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, L

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the mathematical modelling the effects of hypogravity on the heat output by the spontaneous convection. The theoretical considerations were completed by the experiments "HEAT EXCHANGE 1" performed on the biosatellite "KOSMOS 936". In the second experiment "HEAT EXCHANGE 2" accomplished on the board of the space laboratory "SALYUT 6" was studied the effect of the microgravity on the thermal state of a man during the space flight. Direct measurement in weightlessness prowed the capacity of the developed electric dynamic katathermometer to check directly the effect of the microgravity on the heat output by the spontaneous convection. The role of the heat partition impairment's in man as by the microgravity, so by the inadequate forced convection are clearly expressed in changes of the skin temperature and the subjective feeling of the cosmonaut's thermal comfort. The experimental extension of the elaborated methods for the flexible adjustment of the thermal environment to the actual physiological needs of man and suggestions for the further investigation are outlined. PMID:11537122

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERMAL COMFORT OF DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS IN SANA’A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmed Alhaddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the impact of alternative building material envelope systems on the overall thermal performance of four selected materials used in Sana’a, Yemen. These systems included adobe, brick, stone and concrete block. After thorough on-site investigation and data collection, the information, along with regional weather data were input into the Ecotect energy simulation software for thermal performance evaluation. The objective was to search for affordable and energy-efficient construction techniques suitable for settlements and incorporating traditional cultural values in a arid upland region characterized by cold winters and warm, dry summers. This was pursued by analyzing temperature and measurements within buildings constructed from a variety of traditional and modern materials. The thermal behavior and comfort, the patterns of energy use and the appropriateness of the different building techniques and materials are analyzed, compared and discussed. We demonstrate how a building envelope reacts to outdoor conditions through graphic illustration and show ways in which the research can be extended by the creation of simulations using Ecotect software. This research contributes to the promotion of passive and low energy architecture towards a sustainable future.

  19. Energy-efficient and cost-effective use of district heating bypass for improving the thermal comfort in bathrooms in low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    example considered 10-35% lower than in the traditional “intermittent bypass” case; secondly, it can be used to increase the thermal comfort outside the heating-season in bathrooms through floor heating, without causing overheating. It is important that the building design foresees the use of shading...... utilization of the bypass in bathroom floor heating is a cost-effective solution, both for the DH utilities (reduced heat loss from the DH network and higher revenues), the end-users (improved thermal comfort) and the society (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions)....... floor heating to increase the users’ comfort; its techno-economic analysis, including the modelling of the in-house space heating system; the effect of the bypass to the DH network. Some conclusions were derived. First, the “continuous bypass” guarantees low heat losses in the service pipe, in the...

  20. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  1. Prediction model of thermal-wet comfort of knitted garments%针织服装热湿舒适性预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于瑶; 钱晓明

    2011-01-01

    在服装热湿舒适性研究领域中,首次提出从纤维原料到纱线再到面料最后到服装的整体研究系统.选取针织面料作为研究对象,从服装舒适性角度出发,研究了针织面料性能与服装热湿舒适性之间的关系.在此基础上,对织物的基本性能、风格、舒适性能及服装舒适性能进行了测试.通过测试,分析出纤维原料、纱线线密度、织物组织结构这3个变量对服装热湿舒适性的影响程度.运用多种数学统计方法,建立了服装热湿舒适性的预测模型.%In the field of garment thermal-wet comfort study, for the first time an integrative study system is proposed, which covers fiber-yarn-fabric-garment. This paper takes knitted fabrics as the object of study, with focuses on the relationship between the performance of knitted fabrics and thermal-wet comfort of their garment. On this basis, the basic performance, style, comfort of the fabrics and comfort of the garment are tested. According to experimental results, the effect of fibers, linear density of yarn, and fabric texture on the thermal-wet comfort of garment is worked out. By methods of math-statistics, a prediction model of garment thermal-wet comfort is developed.

  2. 基于舒适度条件下的船舶空调研究%Research by Using Thermal Comfort to Evaluate Air Conditioning of Ship Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冉冉; 刘红敏

    2016-01-01

    Marine cabin air-conditioning comfort research is the the crew as the core,in the comfortable thermal environment,can ensure that staff work efficiency and quality of life.Theoretical analyzing the thermal comfort eval-uation index and its operation mode,and discusses the factors that affect the PMV-PPD.Considering the particu-larity of the ship,analyzed the vibration,rocking and noise impact on comfort and various environmental parameters on the effect of comfort and puts forward some vibration,noise elimination measure.%船舶空调舒适度的研究是以船上人员为核心,在舒适的热环境下,可以保证工作人员的工作效率和生活品质。文章理论分析了热舒适度的评价指标及其运算方式,并讨论了影响PMV-PPD的各种因素。考虑到船舶的特殊性,重点分析了振动、摇摆和噪音对舒适度的影响和各环境参数对舒适度的影响并提出了一些减振,消噪的措施。

  3. Study of indoor thermal comfort under dynamic conditions%动态条件下室内热舒适问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王善聪; 狄育慧

    2012-01-01

    分析了动态条件下室内风速、温度、湿度对热舒适度的影响.对动态热舒适的研究主要集中在风速大小和频率变化上;通过现场测试和计算比较了PMV和PD指标在动态条件下对热舒适的评价和适用性,认为PD指标更适合评价动态热舒适.%The impact of indoor wind speed, temperature, humidity on thermal comfort under dynamic conditions were analyzed,and the dynamic thermal comfort research focuses on changes in wind speed and frequency. Through field testing and calculation,the indicators of PMV and PD were compared under dynamic conditions in the evaluation of thermal comfort and applicability. It is considered that PD is more suitable for evaluation of dynamic thermal comfort.

  4. Seat headrest-incorporated personalized ventilation: Thermal comfort and inhaled air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Ivanova, T.; Stefanova, G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of personalized ventilation with seat headrest-mounted air supply terminal devices (ATD), named seat headrest personalized ventilation (SHPV), was studied. Physical measurements using a breathing thermal manikin were taken to identify its ability to provide clean air to inhalation...... occupants are seated most of the time, e.g. theatres, vehicle compartments, etc. © 2011 ....

  5. Thermal comfort characteristics of some selected building materials in the regional setting of Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Fasogbon

    2015-07-01

    3 with cast concrete gave the most satisfactory performance in terms of thermal comfort; however, building model 1 with mud bricks also gave a satisfactory performance close to that of model 3. The study concludes that building model 1 with mud bricks roofed with Asbestos is the best building model in terms of thermal comfort and affordability. The study also concluded that developing model 1 (mud bricks in the regional setting of Ile-Ife will go a long way to developing people’s sustainably.

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF AIR VELOCITY AND MOVEMENT ON THE THERMAL COMFORT INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KAYNAKLI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heat loss from various parts of human body, generated sweat mass and skin wetness depends on this are determined and their effect on thermal comfort are investigated. In the model human body is examined as divided into 16 parts and heat and mass transfer from each parts is simulated, as air flow velocity over the surface and thermal and evaporation resistance of clothing are accounted for the model. After checking the validity of the model (in comparison with results as an experimental study heat transfer coefficients, sensible and latent heat loss, skin wetness and variations of predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD are investigated for various air velocities, air temperatures and clothing groups. It is included that, average skin wetness decreases with increasing air velocity and sensible and latent heat losses increase due to the increase in heat transfer coefficient with increasing air velocity. However increase in sensible heat loss is more than latent heat loss. The most sensitive parameter to the air velocity is PPD.

  7. Thermal Comfort in Simulated Office Environment with Four Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Mustakallio, Panu; Kolencíková, Sona;

    2013-01-01

    with overhead mixing ventilation (MVRC). Whole body thermal sensation (TS) and whole body TS acceptability under the four systems in a simulated office room for one hour exposure were collected. The simulated two-man office (4.12 x 4.20 x 2.89 m, L x W x H) was kept at 26 oC room air temperature......Experiments with 24 human subjects in a simulated office with four cooling systems were performed. The systems were: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with integrated radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with overhead mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted radiant cooling panels...... to “neutral” compared to male, whose votes were closer to the “slightly warm” thermal sensation. The whole body TS acceptability was rated close to ''clearly acceptable'' (EN 15251-2007) and was independent of subject's gender for all tested systems....

  8. Thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness in an office room with radiant floor cooling and displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela;

    2016-01-01

    The influence of displacement ventilation and a cooled floor on indoor climate in the cooling season were experimentally studied in a room representing an office with a shaded window, occupied by two simulated employees. The aim was to investigate whether the combination of these two systems can...... conditions, varying the nominal air change rate from 4.5h-1 down to 1.5h-1. Contaminant removal and mean-age-of-air measurements were performed to characterize the ventilation effectiveness and air velocity; air and operative temperature profiles were measured, together with thermal manikin equivalent...... temperatures, to evaluate the thermal environment. The combined system was able to achieve good ventilation effectiveness close to a heat source, so that in the occupant's breathing zone the ventilation effectiveness was significantly better than for ideal mixing, even at a nominal air change rate as low as 1...

  9. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.;

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution...... source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature....

  10. Definition of occupant behaviour patterns with respect to ventilation: An approach to the summer thermal comfort of apartments from the real estate market in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas Pino, Felipe; PLEA 2011 - 27th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture: Architecture & Sustainable Development

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between occupant behaviour and the thermal performance of dwellings. At the same time, some aspects of this behaviour, especially with respect to natural ventilation, constitute some of the most important sources of uncertainty in the field of building energy simulations. A survey about perception of thermal comfort and occupant behaviour was carried out in Santiago de Chile during December 2009 and January 2010 in a pilot case stud...

  11. Strategies for improving thermal performance and visual comfort in office buildings of Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Gómez, Waldo; Encinas Pino, Felipe; Pino, Alan; Otarola, Roberto; PLEA 2011 - 27th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture: Architecture & Sustainable Development

    2011-01-01

    Overheating, high cooling energy demand and glare are recurrent problems in office buildings in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Santiago (33°S) presents a Mediterranean climate, with a high temperature oscillation between day and night during cooling period. Valparaiso (33°S), by the coast, shows lower temperature fluctuation compared with Santiago. In order to evaluate impact on thermal and lighting performance of office buildings of these cities, a sensitivity study has been made. Variation...

  12. To Investigate the Seat of Thermal Comfort and Its Evaluation Method%座椅的热舒适性及其评价方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹤; 林金国; 李吉庆

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了座椅温湿度条件对人体舒适性的影响,阐述了座椅材料的导热性、透湿性和透气性等热舒适性能及国内外相关研究进展,概述了座椅热舒适性的几种评价方法,提出了座椅热舒适性研究方面存在的问题和展望。%This paper analyzes the effects of temperature and humidity conditions seat on human comfort. And then it describes the research progress of thermal comfort seat material properties of thermal conductivity, moisture permeability and permeability, such as at home and abroad. As well as it outlines several thermal comfort seat evaluation methods. At last, it raises the question of the existence of comfort and prospects research hot seat.

  13. Analysis of the PMV thermal comfort model and its index%关于 PMV 热舒适模型及指标的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伊洁; 刘何清; 高黎颖; 刘天宇

    2016-01-01

    PMV 热舒适模型是目前应用最为广泛的室内热舒适评价模型,但其适用范围及“负荷偏离值”的确定观点不一;Fanger 热舒适方程是 PMV 热舒适模型的基础,但其适用条件及“热中性”平衡存在异议。作者通过对现有文献的分析,提出了对 PMV 热舒适模型“负荷偏离值”计算的见解及适用范围;通过分析 Fanger 等学者自“人体热平衡方程”到“Fanger热舒适方程”的演化与简化过程,提出了对 Fanger“热中性”状态的新认识;并分析了可能引起 PMV 指标误差的因素。%The PMV thermal comfort model is the most widely used indoor thermal comfort evaluation model.However,reading its scope of application and the determination of load deviation value,people have different views.Fanger thermal comfort equation is the basis of the PMV thermal comfort model,but there are different voices about its applicable condition and thermal neutral equilibrium situation.Through the analysis of other scholars’literature understanding,this paper puts forward the load deviation value calculation of the PMV thermal comfort model insights and applicable scope;by analyzing the evolution process,that is from the human body heat balance equation to Fanger thermal comfort equation,and the simplification process put forward by such scholars as Fanger,the paper puts forward the new understanding of Fanger thermal neutral state,and analyzes the possible causes of the error of the PMV index.

  14. The Effects of Set-Points and Dead-Bands of the HVAC System on the Energy Consumption and Occupant Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    A building is a complex system where many components interact with each other therefore the control system plays a key role regarding the energy consumption and the occupant thermal comfort. This study is concerned with a detached, one-storey, single family, energy-plus house. It is equipped with a...... ground heat exchanger, a ground coupled heat pump, embedded pipes in the floor and in the ceiling, a ventilation system (mechanical and natural), a domestic hot water tank and photovoltaic/thermal panels on the roof. Preliminary evaluations showed that for Madrid, change of indoor set-point in cooling...... effects of the set-points and dead-bands of different components on the energy consumption together with the occupant thermal comfort. Evaluations are carried out with TRNSYS for Copenhagen and Madrid in order to compare climatic effects....

  15. Transition Season Thermal Comfort Analysis of Kunming Railway Station%昆明火车站过渡季节热舒适性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 邓志辉

    2012-01-01

    在过渡季节,如何评价火车站候车室内的人体热舒适性是研究的内容。针对昆明火车站的过渡季节的候车室内的热舒适性进行分析探讨。评价该自然通风方式能否达到人体舒适性指标以及调研乘客对候车室内热环境的主观感受。利用热舒适仪器测试和使用问卷调查相结合的方式对候车室内的热环境进行综合评价,并提出建设性意见。%In transition season, how to evaluate human thermal environment of the station waiting room is the contents of this study. The content of the article is transition season thermal comfort of Kunming railway station. Evaluate the natural ventilation mode and whether it could meet comfort index, and research passenger's subjective feeling on indoor thermal environment. Use thermal comfort testing equipment and surveys to value thermal environment of waiting room comprehensively, and put forward constructive ideas.

  16. Numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple atrium building and its effect on the thermal comfort conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study use of solar-assisted buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple atrium building is explored numerically with particular emphasis on the thermal comfort conditions in the building. Initially various geometric configurations of the atrium space were considered in order to investigate airflows and temperature distributions in the building using a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) modelling approach with the SST-k–ω turbulence model and the Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) was used for the investigations. The steady-state governing equations were solved using a commercial CFD solver FLUENT©. From the numerical results obtained, it was noted that an atrium space integrated with a solar chimney would be a relatively better option to be used in an atrium building. In the geometry selected, the performance of the building in response to various changes in design parameters was investigated. The produced airflows and temperature distributions were then used to evaluate indoor thermal comfort conditions in terms of the thermal comfort indices, i.e. the well-known predicted mean vote (PMV) index, its modifications especially for natural ventilation, predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) index and Percent dissatisfied (PD) factor due to draft. It was found that the thermal conditions in the occupied areas of the building developed as a result of the use of solar-assisted buoyancy-driven ventilation for the particular values of the design parameters selected are mostly in the comfortable zone. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to reliable thermal comfort predictions, while the effect of various design variables on the performance of the building is easily recognized. - Highlights: ► Numerical investigations were carried for the use of buoyancy-driven displacement ventilation in a simple atrium building. ► Effect of various atrium configurations

  17. Implementation of human thermal comfort information in Köppen-Geiger climate classification—the example of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) is accepted and applied worldwide. The climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort (HTC) conditions or air humidity (AH) conditions directly, because they are originally based on climatic effects on vegetation, instead of that on human body directly. In addition, HTC is driven by meteorological parameters together. Thus, the objective of this study is to preliminarily implement the HTC information and the AH information in KGC. Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been chosen as the HTC index, and vapour pressure (VP) is for the quantification of AH conditions. In this preliminary study, 12 Chinese cities in total have been taken into account as the assumed representatives of 11 climate types. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-h resolution in 2000-2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been applied to calculate PET within the same time period. Each climate type has been described by frequencies of PET and frequencies of VP. For example, the Aw (Sanya) has the most frequent occurrence of thermally stressful conditions compared to other climate types: PET in 22 % points in time of the year was above 35 °C. The driest AH conditions existed in Dwc (Lhasa) and Dfb (Urumqi) with VP rarely above 18 hPa in the wettest month. Implementation of the HTC information and the additional AH information in each climate type of KGC can be helpful for the topics of human health, energy consumption, tourism, as well as urban planning.

  18. 儿童热舒适研究现状及展望%Present Research Situation and Prospect of Thermal Comfort for Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思芸; 杨李宁; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    Children's thermal comfort research is related to children's physical and mental health development. In view of the present research situation, thermal comfort model was summarized to improve the research method for children, as well as the evaluation index of adaptive model. Based on the difference of thermal sensation and adaptive temperature between children and adults, the two type of testing are analyzed. Furthermore, prospect of thermal comfort for children are also recommended.%儿童的热舒适研究涉及儿童身心的健康发展。针对目前的研究现状,总结了适合儿童的热舒适研究模型的完善方法以及评价指标的适应性问题。基于儿童的实际热感觉与适宜性温度与成人的差异,分析了适应儿童的两种测试方式,并提出了以后儿童热舒适的研究方向。

  19. Thermal comfort and IAQ assessment of under-floor air distribution system integrated with personalized ventilation in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort with personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system was explored through human response study. The hypothesis was that cold draught at feet can be reduced when relatively warm air is supplied by...... the results obtained reveal improved acceptability of perceived air quality and improved thermal sensation with PV-UFAD in comparison with the reference case of UFAD alone or mixing ventilation with ceiling supply diffuser. The local thermal sensation at the feet was also improved when warmer UFAD...

  20. Assessment Of Long-Term Visual And Thermal Comfort And Energy Performance In Open-Space Offices With Different Shading Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Atzeri, Anna Maria; Cappelletti, Francesca; Gasparella, Andrea; Shen, Hui; Tzempelikos, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    Solar radiation plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting and affects thermal and visual comfort conditions. Additionally, for the occupants of confined spaces, daylight strongly affects not only the human performance but also the general well-being, both from a psychological and physiological point of view. On the other hand, large windows on building façades may facilitate the entry of daylight and solar heat gains, increasing the ris...

  1. Distribution of projected area factors exhibited by occupants of a tertiary institutional building in the hot-humid tropics for thermal comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the factors that affect the thermal comfort levels of occupants of a built environment is the amount of heat exchange they engage in with the short-wave radiation originating from the sun. In quantifying this phenomenon, it is necessary to determine the projected area factors between an occupant and the geometrical location of the sun. This paper presents the projected area factors of an occupant of a tertiary institutional building exposed to short-wave radiation from the sun at different hours of a day throughout a year. It is seen that, for the current case studied, the months June and July show the highest projected area factors among all 12 months. This suggests that it is within these months that the interaction between an occupant and the radiant heat from the sun is greatest. An example of how the projected area factors can be used in thermal comfort evaluation is also presented incorporating actual measured irradiance values over a period of time. Such analysis and the information it provides allows for a more detailed investigation of the thermal comfort levels of a built environment in relation to fenestration design and can be coupled with day lighting analysis in virtue of a sustainable built environment. (author)

  2. Assessment Framework of Building Facade in Optimizing Indoor Thermal Comfort of Green Building Index (GBI Certified Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tharim Asniza Hamimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the construction industry has seen a new trend in the development of “green” or “sustainable” construction concept around the world with vast support from prominent organization, together with the introduction of sustainable building codes. The establishment of green building certification systems worldwide is seen as one of the most efforts in the emerging green building movement. In order to support the development of the “green” and “sustainable” concept in Malaysia, Green Building Index (GBI was launched by the government on 21 May 2009 that created to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness of environmental issues. However, the construction industry seems to have focused only on findings the “right mechanism” for an environmentally sustainable “final result” in order for the building to be certified as green with the lacking of continuous assessment on the building performance after the certifications. This study is purposely conducted to investigate the performance of various rated Green Building Index (GBI Non-Residential New Construction office buildings and the influence on Indoor Thermal Comfort (ITC of the selected buildings. The aim is to develop an assessment framework for optimum green building architectural façade to be used for office buildings in Malaysia as well as to analyse the occupants’ perception, satisfaction and performance in the selected Green Building Index (GBI rated office indoor environment. This research is still in its infancy; therefore the paper is focused on research aims, research scope and methodology, and expected deliverables for the proposed research.

  3. Subjective Thermal Comfort Evaluation Study of Lhasa Traditional Building%拉萨传统藏式建筑主观热舒适评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凌江; 兰兵; 达娃扎西

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates occupants' subject thermal comfort of Lhasa traditional buildings by questionnaire investigation including thermal, humidity and velocity parameters, According to the result of investigation, most of respondents feel satisfied with the thermal environment in traditional buildings although it could not meet the ASHARE standard. The main reason lies in the thermal adaptation of local people, which is analyzed in the paper. The paper concludes that thermal comfort has both properties of differences and dynamics which could be a new view of thermal comfort research.%该文通过问卷访谈的方式对拉萨市传统藏式建筑居民的主观热舒适评价进行了调研,包括热湿感觉,室内风速的主要因素进行了分析,并提出主观热舒适具有差异性和动态性两种属性,为具有独特气候和地域特征等环境要素以及总体热舒适评价等.调查数据表明,虽然拉萨传市传统藏式建筑室内热环境不能达到ASHARE标准,但是居民总体热舒适满意程度较高,说明当地居民的热适应起到主导作用,该文对影响受访者的热适应地区的热舒适研究提供一个新的视角.

  4. The Effects of Set-Points and Dead-Bands of the HVAC System on the Energy Consumption and Occupant Thermal Comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    A building is a complex system where many components interact with each other therefore the control system plays a key role regarding the energy consumption and the occupant thermal comfort.This study is concerned with a detached, one-storey, single family, energy-plus house. It is equipped with a ground heat exchanger, a ground coupled heat pump, embedded pipes in the floor and in the ceiling, a ventilation system (mechanical and natural), a domestic hot water tank and photovoltaic/thermal p...

  5. Índice fuzzy de conforto térmico para frangos de corte Thermal comfort fuzzy index for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. do Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa de conforto térmico na avicultura moderna é importante para que sistemas de climatização possam ser acionados no tempo correto, diminuindo perdas e aumentando rendimentos. Embora a literatura corrente apresente alguns índices de conforto térmico, que são aplicados para essa estimativa, estes são baseados apenas em condições do ambiente térmico e não consideram fatores importantes inerentes aos animais, tais como genética e capacidade de aclimatação, provendo, geralmente, uma estimativa inadequada do conforto térmico das aves. Este trabalho desenvolveu o Índice Fuzzy de Conforto Térmico (IFCT, com o intuito de estimar o conforto térmico de frangos de corte, considerando que o mecanismo usado pelas aves para perda de calor em ambientes fora da zona termoneutra é a vasodilatação periférica, que aumenta a temperatura superficial, e que pode ser usada como indicador do estado de conforto. O IFCT foi desenvolvido a partir de dois experimentos, que proporcionaram 108 cenários ambientais diferentes. Foram usadas imagens termográficas infravermelhas, para o registro dos dados de temperaturas superficiais das penas e da pele, e o grau de empenamento das aves. Para os mesmos cenários de ambiente térmico observados nos experimentos, foram comparados os resultados obtidos usando o IFCT e o Índice de Temperatura e Umidade (ITU. Os resultados validaram o IFCT para a estimativa do conforto térmico de frangos de corte, sendo específico na estimativa de condições de perigo térmico, usual em alojamentos em países de clima tropical. Essa característica é desejável em modelos que estimem o bem-estar térmico de frangos de corte, pois situações classificadas como perigo acarretam no dispêndio de recursos para evitar perdas produtivas.Estimating thermal comfort in modern poultry production is important that acclimatization systems can be triggered at appropriate time reducing losses and increasing yield. Although

  6. Analysis of the indices of thermal comfort for the conditions of the Mexican Republic; Analisis de los indices de confort termico para las condiciones de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Freixanet, Victor; Rodriguez Viqueira, Manuel [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The objective of this article is to analyze different indices of thermal comfort for the Mexican Republic. Among them the Fanger (PMV and PPD) physiological methods of comfort and the new effective temperature index are included. The standard effective temperature (SET), as well as the adaptive methods of Humphreys and Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear and Brager. A comparative analysis is done of the different indices through thematic maps determined by interpolation, using a climatic data base of 700 cities obtained from the observatories and stations of the National Meteorological Service. This article pretends to establish general criteria of the thermal comfort to later define design strategies for each one of the climatic regions of the Mexican Republic. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es analizar distintos indices de confort termico para la Republica Mexicana. Entre ellos se incluyen los metodos fisiologicos de confort de Fanger (PMV y PPD), el indice de nueva temperatura efectiva. La temperatura efectiva estandar (SET), asi como los metodos adaptativos de Humphreys y Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear y Brager. Se hace un analisis comparativo de los distintos indices a traves de mapas tematicos determinados por interpolacion, usando una base de datos climaticos de 700 ciudades obtenidos de los observatorios y estaciones del Servicio Meteorologico Nacional. Este articulo presenta establecer criterios generales del confort termico para posteriormente definir estrategias de diseno para cada una de las regiones climaticas de la Republica Mexicana.

  7. Thermal Comfort Analysis of Natural Ventilation for An Auditorium%某大礼堂自然通风热舒适性分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南旭; 钱华; 郑晓红; 梁文清

    2013-01-01

    Natural ventilation can improve the indoor air quality and thermal comfort with building energy saving mode in specific weather condition. It analyzed in theory that the flow rate, ventilation path and thermal comfort feelings of people in a thermal ventilation au-ditorium building in a university, which was built in the 1930s. The results showed that owing to the thermal effect, the height of the neutral level without obvious changes and steady air flow can be achieved, as well as the high flow rate, well indoor thermal comfort and air quality in non-extreme weather. With the help of modern technology, some classical architectural design concept is still able to modern energy-efficient buildings reference.%  科学合理地利用自然通风可提高室内空气品质、减少建筑能耗,并能保证一定的热舒适性。理论分析了自然通风热压作用下某大学建于20世纪30年代大礼堂的通风量、通风路径和人体热舒适性情况。结果表明,热压作用下的中和面高度变化较小,气流流向稳定,在非极端气候下,通风量大,室内的热舒适性及空气品质良好。一些经典建筑的设计理念在现代技术的帮助下,依然能够为现代节能建筑所参考。

  8. A Thermal Comfort Field Survey in Railway Station Waiting Room in Summer%火车站候车厅夏季热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子龙; 狄育慧; 江春阳; 刘颖

    2014-01-01

    对西安火车站候车厅室内热环境舒适度进行了现场调查和分析。结果表明,候车厅内平均空气温度较高,人们的热感觉普遍偏热。夏季实测热中性温度27.1℃,期望温度27.68℃,80%可接受的热舒适温度范围为24.45~30.6℃,比ASHRAE标准规定的舒适区温度范围要宽的多。分析得到的热中性温度和热舒适温度范围可为火车站改扩建在暖通空调系统的节能设计方面提供一定的参考。%Investigates and analyses the indoor thermal comfort of the Xi'an station waiting room.The results showed that the indoor average air temperature was high , the slant generally feel was hot.The tested neutral temperature was 27.1℃and the preferred temperature was 27.68℃, 80%acceptable comfortable temperature range was 24.45 ~30.6℃, it was wider than the comfort temperature zone in ASHRAE 55 standard.The range of neutral temperature and thermal comfort temperature from the analysis can provide certain reference to the energy saving in railway sta -tion reconstruction of HVAC systems.

  9. 适用于井下矿工热舒适性的评价方法%Evaluation Method Applying to Miner Thermal Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志权

    2012-01-01

    By establishing the mathematical model of body thermal equilibrium, the paper analyzed the relevant factors which affect min- er thermal comfort. It is thought that the skin average temperature is determinant to control the heat exchange between body and environ- ment. Taking three representative miners in Dongtan coal mine working face for example, the PMV and PPD values are calculated when the miners are in different positions. Miner thermal comfort is evaluated by the corresponding thermal sensation.%通过建立人体热平衡的数学模型,分析了影响井下矿工热舒适性的相关因素,认为皮肤平均温度是控制人体与环境热交换的决定因素。以东滩煤矿工作面内3位有代表性的矿工为例,计算矿工在不同位置处的尸My和尸PD值,利用其对应的热感觉评价矿工的热舒适性。

  10. Study on Energy Design Factors of Air Conditioning Based on Thermal Comfort%热舒适空调的能量设计因子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 刘光复; 张雷; 周丹

    2014-01-01

    为确定热舒适需求与空调节能设计过程中的关键能量设计要素之间的关联性,提出了一种基于热舒适的空调能量设计因子提取及其重要度计算方法。在热舒适空调节能设计过程框架的基础上,建立了基于热舒适需求的功能质量屋,并将热舒适性转化为空调功能及权重等设计信息;分析功能的能量特性,针对与能耗相关的功能,给出了能量设计因子提取策略,以及能量设计因子对热舒适及能耗综合影响程度量化方法。以家用空调为例,提取了基于热舒适的能量设计因子,对容积效率和传热系数两项耦合因子进行了分解,并对整体层能量设计因子的热舒适性及能耗的影响系数进行计算,按综合影响系数由大到小排序,结果为压缩机功率、系统控制方式、通风量和换热量。%In order to determining the relevance between thermal comfort and key energy design elements during energy-saving design process,the method of extracting energy design factors of air conditioning and calculating its weight is proposed. The house of quality based on thermal comfort is built with the energy-saving design frame. The thermal comfort requirements are converted to function and weight of air conditioning. The energy characteristic of the function is analyzed,and the extract means of energy design factors is provided based on the relation of functions with energy. The method of calculating influence degree of energy design factors on thermal comfort and energy consumption is also put forward. Taking the household air conditioning as a case study,the energy design factors based on thermal comfort are extracted. Two coupled factors,volume efficiency and heat transfer coefficient,are decoupled,and the influence coefficient of energy design factors on thermal comfort and energy consumption in overall layer are calculated. The comprehensive influence coefficient in descending order is

  11. Energy-efficient and cost-effective use of district heating bypass for improving the thermal comfort in bathrooms in low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    The bypass is cause of energy inefficiency in District Heating (DH) systems, particularly in low heat density building areas. This paper deals with: a) the modelling of bypass strategies in service pipes supplying low-energy buildings; b) the description of the use of the bypass flow in bathroom...... example considered 10-35% lower than in the traditional “intermittent bypass” case; secondly, it can be used to increase the thermal comfort outside the heating-season in bathrooms through floor heating, without causing overheating. It is important that the building design foresees the use of shading...

  12. Additional income with open chimneys and stove. Nostalgia, romanticism and thermal comfort; Zusatzgeschaeft mit Oefen und Kaminen. Nostalgisch-romantische Gefuehle und behagliche Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G. [Buderus Heiztechnik GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Stoves and open fireplaces are coming into fashion again with the trend towards nostalgia and design awareness. Further, wood-fuelled chimneys and stoves are viewed as romantic, and they also provide high thermal comfort. Heating systems experts can get additional income from this trend. (orig.) [German] Kamine und Oefen sind bei vielen Hausbesitzern und Bauherrn wieder in Mode. Dieser Trend ist zum einen Teil eines gestiegenen Nostalgie- und Designbewusstseins. Zum anderen gelten vor allem holzbefeuerte Kamine und Oefen als romantisch und ihre Waerme aufgrund des hohen Strahlungsanteils als behaglich. Fuer den aktiven Heizungsfachhandwerker laesst sich aus dieser Modestroemung ein lukratives Zusatzgeschaeft ableiten. (orig.)

  13. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam......, radiant floor, wall and ceiling) have been compared for a typical office room, both numerically and experimentally. From the steady-state numerical analysis and the full-scale experiments, it has been observed that the difference between the two types of terminals is mainly due to changes in the...... back losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different...

  14. Analysis of the Thermal Comfort and Impact Properties of the Neoprene-Spacer Fabric Structure for Preventing the Joint Damages

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ghorbani; Hossein Hasani; Homa Rafeian; Batool Hashemibeni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a...

  15. Analysis of the thermal comfort and impact properties of the neoprene-spacer fabric structure for preventing the joint damages

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ghorbani; Hossein Hasani; Homa Rafeian; Batool Hashemibeni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a...

  16. Effects of thermal, personal and behavioural factors on the physiological strain, thermal comfort and productivity of Australian shearers in hot weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, R T; Budd, G M

    1995-07-01

    Multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of factors that are commonly expected to influence strain and productivity in a hot workplace. Forty-three men were studied throughout 54 man-days of shearing sheep and pressing wool bales, in air temperatures 19-41 degrees C and Wet-bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) 16-29 degrees C; 43% of the observations of WBGT exceeded 26.7 degrees C, the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for the subjects' work rate of 400 W. Subjects were men of age 18-59 years, fat-free mass 44-77 kg, and body fat content 11-26%, who had drunk an estimated 0-207 g alcohol the previous evening. Afternoon mean values of rectal temperature (Tre) exceeded 38.0 degrees C (maximum 38.4 degrees C) in 4 of the 15 observations made when WBGT > TLV, and in none of those made when WBGT productive. Age was not associated with any measured response. All factors together explained barely half the observed variation in Tre and thermal comfort, and almost none of the variation in productivity. The findings highlight the uncertainty inherent in attempts to define safe limits for occupational heat stress; they show how such uncertainty could restrict the usefulness in the shearing industry of the current heat-stress guidelines; and they demonstrate the effectiveness of the behavioural responses that permit shearers to perform sustained strenuous work in a hot environment without excessive physiological strain. PMID:7635127

  17. A new tool for prediction and analysis of thermal comfort in steady and transient states; Un nouvel outil pour la prediction et l'analyse du confort thermique en regime permanent et variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megri, A.Ch. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Civil and Architectural Engineering Dept., Chicago, Illinois (United States); Megri, A.F. [Centre Universitaire de Tebessa, Dept. d' Electronique (Algeria); El Naqa, I. [Washington Univ., School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Achard, G. [Universite de Savoie, Lab. Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de L' Environnement (LOCIE) - ESIGEC, 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2006-02-15

    Thermal comfort is influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. This paper proposes the use of support vector machine (SVM) learning for automated prediction of human thermal comfort in steady and transient states. The SVM is an artificial intelligent approach that could capture the input/output mapping from the given data. Support vector machines were developed based on the Structural Risk Minimization principle. Different sets of representative experimental environmental factors that affect a homogenous person's thermal balance were used for training the SVM machine. The SVM is a very efficient, fast, and accurate technique to identify thermal comfort. This technique permits the determination of thermal comfort indices for different sub-categories of people; sick and elderly, in extreme climatic conditions, when the experimental data for such sub-category are available. The experimental data has been used for the learning and testing processes. The results show a good correlation between SVM predicted values and those obtained from conventional thermal comfort, such as Fanger and Gagge models. The 'trained machine' with representative data could be used easily and effectively in comparison with other conventional estimation methods of different indices. (author)

  18. Re-adaptation of Malay House Thermal Comfort Design Elements into Modern Building Elements – Case Study of Selangor Traditional Malay House & Low Energy Building in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayahtuljamilah Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Malay house is one of the richest components of Malay’s cultural heritage in Malaysia. Generally, the traditional Malay house is a reflection of the Malay community’s way of living. With greater global awareness of the environment and a renewed perspective on contemporary Malaysian architecture, architects and designers are once again looking for tropical solutions in building design. One of the main characteristics of traditional Malay house is that they are designed with a deep understanding and respect for nature, but this design-with-nature approach is no longer found in the modern buildings. The purpose is therefore to study the thermal comfort design elements such as building orientation, interior layout space, natural ventilation and lighting, window designs, and stack effect on the roof design. The investigation was carried out through observations, interviews and some research visits. A comprehensive research was accomplished on the adaptation of Malay house architecture elements with selected the Selangor traditional Malay house as the key study and one modern building which is the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology & Water (MEGTW building, Putrajaya. This study attempts to have recorded information for those who are interested and for the future generation because the traditional Malay house was evolved by the Malays over generations, adapting to their needs, culture and environment. This study is crucial to revive the awareness in the understanding and appreciation of the technique of thermal comfort design elements of traditional Malay house adapted into modern building design.

  19. Indoor Thermal Comfort Analysis of Centralized Control Room in Thermal Power Plant%火力发电厂集中控制室室内热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪明龙; 张英俊; 刘明涛; 盛帮明; 黄艺

    2014-01-01

    There are some deficiencies about staff comfort on air conditioning design of the centralized control room in China thermal power plants .Combined thermal comfort with the actual situation in power plant ,the influence of indoor temperature ,in-door humidity and wind speed of working area on the thermal comfort of centralized control room has been studied by the PMV -PPD evaluation indicators .Found that the electric power industry standard DL/T 5035-2004 provisions on the centralized control room indoor winter and summer air conditioning system design parameters failed to fully consider the indoor thermal comfort .Rea-sonable suggestions were given and provided the reference for the design personnel .%目前我国火力发电厂集中控制室空调设计在人员舒适性方面考虑不足。从热舒适角度出发,结合电厂实际情况,采用PMV-PPD评价指标探讨温度、湿度及工作区风速3个因素对集控室内热舒适性的影响。发现现行电力行业标准DL/T 5035-2004中关于集控室室内冬、夏季空调系统设计参数的规定未能充分考虑室内人员的热舒适性,并给出合理建议,为设计人员提供参考。

  20. 厦门高校教室冬季热环境测试及热舒适预测%Thermal environment measurement and thermal comfort prediction for university classrooms in Xiamen in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶求华; 李莉

    2012-01-01

    To examine human's thermal sensation in the non-air-conditioned environment in winter, performs field test in a university classroom in Xiamen. Measures indoor and outdoor thermal comfort parameters and obtains the thermal response samples from the objects by means of questionnaires. Analyses the samples, and concludes that the thermal neutral temperature and the thermal preferred temperature is 19.3 °C and 19.4 °C respectively. Considering the impact of temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, velocity and clothing thermal resistance on thermal comfort of sedentary slight activity, establishes a thermal comfort prediction equation under the non-air-conditioned condition by nonlinear regression using the MATLAB software. The results from the equation have higher correlation with that of thermal comfort votes and it reflects the variation of human thermal sensation in non-air-conditioned environment in winter to a larger extent.%为考察冬季非空调环境下人体热感觉,对厦门某高校教室的热舒适度进行了现场测试.在测量室内外热舒适参数的同时,通过问卷调查得到了人体热反应样本.分析样本得出厦门高校教室冬季非空调工况下人体热中性温度和热期望温度分别为19.3和19.4℃.综合考虑温度、相对湿度、平均辐射温度、风速及服装热阻对坐姿轻度活动状态人体的热舒适影响,使用MATLAB软件进行非线性回归,得到非空调工况下热舒适预测方程.该预测方程与实测得到的人体热舒适投票两者结果有较高相关度,同时较大程度上反映了冬季非空调环境下人体热感觉的变异.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF INDOOR THERMAL COMFORT AND AIR CONDITIONING ENERGRY CONSUMPTION IN SUMMER NANNING%南宁夏季室内热舒适与空调能耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立星; 卢苇; 陈洪杰

    2011-01-01

    Based on the test data and questionnaire,the indoor thermal comfort of Nanning region in summer was analyzed, and the influence of indoor thermal comfort on energy consumption of air - conditioning system was discussed according to the Effective Temperature ET *. The local residents' acceptable temperature and relative humidity range of indoor thermal comfort were obtained, and the change relation of air - conditioning system energy consumption and thermal comfort were given. The results show that the indoor temperature is a dominating factor affecting local residents' thermal comfort and the air conditioning system energy consumption when determining the indoor parameters since the relative humidity has little cordribution in this region.%以问卷调查和实测数据为基础,采用新有效温度ET*探讨了南宁地区夏季室内热舒适性及其对空调能耗的影响.得到当地居民可接受的室内热舒适温湿度范围;并给出空调能耗与当地热舒适要求的变化关系.该地区在确定室内参数时不必过多关注相对湿度,主要考虑室内温度对人体热舒适性和空调能耗的影响.

  2. 船舶舱室内热舒适性参数的选取%The determination of thermal comfort parameters in ship chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世忠; 周爱民; 施红旗; 卜锋斌

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the health of cabin crew and to improve their work efficiency,it is necessary to establish the thermal comfort conditions for cabin crew. In this paper, based on the analysis of thermal comfort standard and surveying the real ship thermal sensation on the survey crew, finds that the current standard is not completely applicable to ship chambers, and systematically compares and analyses the relationship between the temperature and humidity to satisfactory thermal sensation vote under variety of activities. The temperature and humidity parameters are given to meet the various parts of the ship cabin. These parameters can be a design basis for cabin air conditioning system.%为保证船舶舱室乘员的身体健康,提高其工作效率,需建立船舶舱室乘员热舒适性的温湿度环境条件.在相关热舒适性标准分析研究的基础上,通过对实船热环境测试以及对船员热感觉的问卷调查,分析总结了不同活动状态下船员的热感觉投票值与微小环境温湿度的变化规律,给出了船舶舱室内各工作部位能满足船舶舱室乘员热舒适的温湿度参数控制范围,为船舶舱室的空调系统设计提供了依据.

  3. 病人新陈代谢及其对热环境舒适性评价的影响%Thermal Comfort of The Patients and Its Influence about Evaluating of Thermal Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余健; 张华玲

    2015-01-01

    关于健康人热舒适的研究有很多,而针对病人热舒适的研究却较少。已有的研究认为病人的新陈代谢机制和健康人不同,而Fanger的PMV热舒适平衡方程中包括了新陈代谢率等参数。选择可以较准确预测病人新陈代谢率的Ireton-Jones公式及ISO77302005推荐的健康人新陈代谢率,分别对300份冬季病房现场实测样本对象,计算受访者新陈代谢、PMV值与热中性温度,并对计算结果进行了对比分析。%There are lots of researches about the thermal comfort of the healthy person, but less research about the thermal comfort of the patients in the wards. Existing research considering the metabolic mechanism is different between healthy person and the patients. The thermal comfort equation has metabolic rate and other parameters. The paper intend to forecast the PMV values of 300 winter field measurement samples which were calculated by using the different metabolic rate value, from Ireton-Jones equation and ISO7730 2005, and making analysis and comparison.

  4. Residential building thermal environment test and thermal comfort investigation in Kunming area in summer%昆明地区夏季居住建筑室内热环境测试及热舒适调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 罗会龙; 高亚锋; 李百战; 王永乔

    2011-01-01

    对昆明市200户住宅夏季室内热环境参数进行了实测,并进行了现场问卷调查.分析了室内温度、相对湿度、风速、人员服装热阻的分布频率,统计得出了昆明地区住宅夏季室内热环境及人体热舒适的基本情况,并分析了室内热环境改善措施.调查发现,昆明市居民夏季普遍通过开窗进行自然通风以降低室内温度,在非空调条件下约有90%的居民的热感觉在舒适范围内.%Tests indoor thermal environment parameters in two hundred residences, and conducts a questionnaire investigation. Analyses the distribution frequencies of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and occupant clothes thermal resistance. Obtains the situation of indoor thermal environment and human thermal comfort. Analyses the measures for improving indoor thermal environment. The investigation results show that the residents universally make use of natural ventilation to lower indoor temperature through opening windows, and thermal sense of about 90 percent of residents is in the range of comfort in the condition without air conditioning.

  5. 机动卫生装备舱室空气质量与人体热舒适性关系的评价与分析%Evaluation for Human Thermal Comfort and Compartment Air Quality of Mobile Medical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琛; 徐新喜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To master and improve the compartment air quality of mobile medical equipment and ensure human thermal comfort in compartment. Methods The Grey Correlation Grade Method was applied to evaluate the thermal comfort of the wounded and medical personnel under high temperature and high humidity condition when air-condition had worked 30min and 60min. Results The thermal comfort grade of human in compartment was 'uncomfortable' at the beginning. The thermal comfort grade of human in compartment was best comfortable' and 'comfortable' at 30min. The thermal comfort was improved at 60min. Besides, the thermal comfort of the recumbent wounded was better than standing medical personnel and the seating wounded. Conclousion The Grey Correlation Grade Method is suitable to evaluate and analyze the human thermal comfort and compartment air quality of mobile medical equipment.%目的:控制和改善机动卫生装备的舱室空气质量,保障舱室内人员的热舒适性.方法:运用灰色关联度方法研究某急救车舱室在高温高温条件下开启制冷空调30min和60 min时舱室内伤病员和医护人员的热舒适性.结果:初始条件下舱室内人体热舒适性为“不舒适”等级:30 min时伤病员和医护人员的热舒适性等级达到“最舒适”和“舒适”等级;60min时热舒适性进一步提高:卧姿伤病员的热舒适性优于坐姿伤病员和站姿医护人员的热舒适性.结论:灰色关联度法能较好地应用于机动卫生装备舱室空气质量与人体热舒适性的评价与分析.

  6. IMPACT ON THE APPLICATION OF INSULATION IN BUILDINGS TO ACHIEVE THERMAL COMFORT (A CASE STUDY: LAUSER OFFICE BUILDING IN BANDA ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Purnama Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the results of research studies on the impact of the use of insulation in buildings, reducing solar radiation on buildings to improve indoor comfort by applying the Principles of radiation reduction in buildings naturally using insulation application that serves as an insulator against the building materials, use of thermal insulation in particular mounted on the roof of the building and the walls are located on second floor and the third floor Lauser office building, Calculate the cooling load for each room that was on second floor and the third floor based on the geographical location or position of the building, climate data, building material data , and the intensity of the spatial characteristics which include lighting, solar radiation, user activity and electrical appliances being used. The calculation is done with the help of Ecotech v.5, 2011. The location and position on the third floor of a building with a flat roof cast concrete, so that the heat absorbed by the platform, and two times greater than the amount of heat radiation is absorbed by the material in the direction of the light falling the sun is at an angle <30°C. The simulation results on the building with the addition of thermal insulation on all walls and the roof of the inside of the foam material ultrafolmadehid, without changing the model building and similar activities in accordance with the existing condition and the condition of the room using the air conditioner at a temperature of 18-26°C, indicating a decrease in cooling load signifinikan in any space reaches 40% of the total cooling load required on the lauser office building. Comparing the simulation results Ecotech temperature v.5 2011 with field measurements as a validation of the simulation results in order to achieve thermal comfort in buildings and can menggurangi use energy consumption in buildings and can be used as a reference in planning space-based conditioning systems energy efficient.

  7. A numerical approach to evaluating what percentage of a living space is well-ventilated, for the assessment of thermal comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Bastide, Alain; Garde, François; Boyer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    A bioclimatic approach to designing comfortable buildings in hot and humid tropical regions requires, firstly, some preliminary, important work on the building envelope to limit the energy contributions, and secondly, an airflow optimization of the building. For the first step, tools such as nodal or zonal models have been largely implemented. For the second step, the assessment of air velocities, in three dimensions and in a large space, can only be performed through the use of detailed models such as with CFD. This paper deals with the improvement of thermal comfort by ventilating around the occupants. For this purpose, the average velocity coefficient definition is modified to be adapted to CFD and the areas involving movement or the living spaces. We propose a new approach based on the derivation of a new quantity: the well-ventilated percentage of a living space. The well-ventilated percentage of a space allows a time analysis of the aeraulic behaviour of the building in its environment. These percentage...

  8. Thermal comfort in low energy buildings. Pt. 2. summery conditions. Planning guides for architects and specialist planners; Thermische Behaglichkeit im Niedrigenergiehaus. T. 2. Sommerliche Verhaeltnisse. Planungsleitfaden fuer Architekten und Fachplaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolfgang; Felsmann, Clemens; Gritzki, Ralf; Perschk, Alf; Roesler, Markus; Abdel Fattah, Annina [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Hartmann, Thomas [ITG Institut fuer Technische Gebaeudeausruestung Dresden - Forschung und Anwendung GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Within the contribution under consideration, the German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the thermal comfort in low energy buildings under special consideration of summary conditions. After the presentation of an overview of variants, the chapter 'Fundamentals' consists of contributions to thermal comfort, methodical remarks, boundary conditions, uncooled rooms, precooling and full cooling. Other chapters of this contribution are concerned to heat protection and masses in building materials; shading and proportion of windows area; systems engineering.

  9. Thermal comfort indices in individual shelters for dairy calves with different types of roofs Ambiente térmico no interior de abrigos individuais para bezerros com a utilização de diferentes tipos de coberturas

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia C. de F Fonseca; de Almeida, Eduardo A.; Roberta Passini

    2011-01-01

    Among the building materials used in rural facilities, roofs are noteworthy for being largely responsible for thermal comfort, influencing the thermal balance within the shelter. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of roof on the Enthalpy (H), Thermal Load of Radiation (TLR), and Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index (BGHI) in individual shelters for dairy calves. The design was completely randomized with three treatments: Z - zinc tile, AC - asbestos-cement tile and ACW - asbesto...

  10. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  11. Investigation on thermal comfort response space and energy saving potential of summer air-conditioning system%夏季空调热舒适响应空间及节能潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍静; 文充; 曾礼强

    2012-01-01

    Air-conditioning system as the power system user side of one high-power electrical equipment,heavy use of air conditioning system in summer has become the cause power shortage in the peak power one of the reasons. Paper to meet the requirements of human thermal comfort under the premise of air through the simulation of thermal comfort equation,established a comfortable air-conditioning system of space environment parameters and establish the parameters on the extent of comfort index. Through constructs the room cold load computation analysis to the air conditioning,confirmed the air-conditioning system to hare certain energy conservation potential in the thermal comfortable environment parameter space. Provide evidence for energy efficient operation of air conditioning system.%在满足人体热舒适要求的前提下,通过对空调热舒适方程的仿真分析,建立了空调系统环境参数的舒适空间,确立各参数对舒适性指标的影响程度;通过对空调建筑房间冷负荷计算分析,验证了空调系统在热舒适环境参数空间内存在一定节能潜力.

  12. An online controller redesign based fault-tolerant strategy for thermal comfort in a multi-zone building

    OpenAIRE

    Yamé, Joseph Julien; Jain, Tushar; Sauter, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) boxes are used in multi-zone buildings, which varies the volume of constant temperature air separately supplied by an air-handling unit to meet challenging thermal load demands of individual zones. A fault appearing in the VAV damper severely affects the control performance and consequently, the energy efficiency of the overall system. To address this issue, we present a novel online redesign based fault-tolerant control strategy in this paper for a VAV thermal syste...

  13. Study on Indoor Thermal Comfort Temperature Adjustment with Consideration of Energy-saving Benefit%兼顾节能效益的建筑室内热舒适温度调整研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志恒; 张明媛; 袁永博

    2016-01-01

    各气候区居民对室内热舒适的要求随其穿着习惯、对热环境的适应能力等而异,采暖或制冷温度应有所差别,然而现有建筑节能设计标准按统一标准提供室温控制建议。采用ISO7730的PMV热舒适模型分析各气候区的合理参数,计算得到室内热舒适温度,并通过与实测值比较验证理论计算的合理性;在此基础上,分别计算按既有统一室温建议与热舒适温度控温的热舒适性和能耗,提出冬季适当提高采暖温度以提升热舒适度、夏季适当提高制冷温度以实现热舒适度和节能双赢的调整建议。%Residents of each climate zone have different requirements for indoor thermal comfort due to different wearing habits and the ability to adapt to the thermal environment,but the existing standards offer the same room temperature control suggestions. The paper uses the PMV thermal comfort model of ISO7730 to analyze the reasonable parameters of each climate zone,calculate the indoor thermal comfort temperature,and verify the rationality of theoretical calculation by comparison with the measured values. On this basis,calculates thermal comfort and energy consumption by existing room temperature suggestions and thermal comfort temperature control,finds that increase heating temperature in winter to improve the thermal comfort and increase refrigeration temperature in summer to achieve the thermal comfort are win-win situation.

  14. Numerical study on the effects of aspect ratio and orientation of an urban street canyon on outdoor thermal comfort in hot and dry climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali-Toudert, Fazia; Mayer, Helmut [Meteorological Institute, University of Freiburg,Werderring 10, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street design, i.e. aspect ratio (or height-to-width ratio, H/W) and solar orientation, towards the development of a comfortable micro climate at street level for pedestrians. The investigation is carried out by using the three-dimensional numerical model ENVI-met, which simulates the microclimatic changes within urban environments in a high spatial and temporal resolution. Model calculations are run for a typical summer day in Ghardaia, Algeria (32.40{sup o}N, 3.80{sup o}E, 469ma.s.l.), a region characterized by a hot and dry climate. Symmetrical urban canyons, with various height-to-width ratios (i.e. H/W=0.5, 1, 2 and 4) and different solar orientations (i.e. E-W, N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE), have been studied. Special emphasis is placed on a human bio-meteorological assessment of these microclimates by using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The results show contrasting patterns of thermal comfort between shallow and deep urban streets as well as between the various orientations studied. A comparison of all case studies reveals that the time and period of day during which extreme heat stress occurs, as well as the spatial distribution of PETs at street level, depend strongly on aspect ratio and street orientation. This is crucial since it will directly influence the design choices in relation to street usage, e.g. streets planned exclusively for pedestrian use or including motor traffic, and also the time of frequentation of urban spaces. Both investigated urban factors can mitigate extreme heat stress if appropriately combined. The solar access indoors has been briefly discussed as an additional criterion in designing the street by including winter needs for solar energy. (author)

  15. 室内计算参数的确定与舒适和节能的关系%Relationship among indoor design conditions determination, thermal comfort and energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欣; 朱能; 田喆; 丁研

    2012-01-01

    确定室内计算参数应综合考虑舒适性和节能.依据热舒适理论计算了符合我国国情的热舒适区范围,并讨论了风速、相对湿度等参数对舒适区范围的影响;利用建筑能耗计算软件分析了室内计算参数对建筑能耗的影响.通过调研了解了目前室内计算参数的实际应用情况;建议冬季供暖室内计算温度范围定为18~24℃,而对于舒适性空调,则建议根据建筑对热舒适的需求,分级给出室内计算参数.%Comfort and energy efficiency should be comprehensively taken into consideration when determining indoor design conditions. Based on the thermal comfort theory, works out the thermal comfort zone which is in accord with China's national conditions. Discusses the effect of air speed, relative humidity and other parameters on the comfort zone range. Analyses the influence of indoor design conditions on building energy consumption with an energy consumption calculation software. Obtains current practical application of indoor design conditions through investigation. Suggests that the indoor design temperature range is 18 ℃to 24 ℃ when heating in winter. For the comfort air conditioning, proposes that the indoor design conditions should be given in a graded way according to the indoor thermal comfort requirements.

  16. Field study of thermal comfort and preferences in air-conditioned offices in Chongqing,P. R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小磊; 刘红; 袁杰; 谈美兰

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale field survey to measure indoor environmental parameters such as air temperature,air velocity and relative humidity was conducted in Chongqing,P. R. China,a city in a hot summer and cold winter zone. Subjective questionnaires and the ASHRAE seven-point thermal sensation scale were used to evaluate thermal,humidity and velocity sensations. Probability methods were employed to calculate the preferred temperatures. The results show that the preferred temperatures are 25.1 ℃ in summer and 21.1 ℃ in winter,respectively. Based on a comparison of the difference between neutral and preferred temperatures,it is proposed that human temperature sensitivity influences preferred temperature.

  17. Experiments on Thermal Comfort and Modern Architecture: The Contributions of André Missenard and Le Corbusier

    OpenAIRE

    Requena-Ruiz, Ignacio; Siret, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    International audience The early scientific researches into the thermo-regulative response of the human body during the 1920s and the 1930s normalized thermal condi- tions in working and educational environments to improve user’s perfor- mance. The European and American contexts of housing promotion and industrial development during post-war extended this approach to different environments.Geographers, physiologists and engineers encouraged manufactured in- door atmospheres that could over...

  18. The Measurement of Thermal Comfort in Beijing Settlements Public Space in Summer%北京住区公共空间夏季热舒适度实测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉洁; 杨红

    2012-01-01

    从住区公共空间和人体热舒适角度入手,对北京不同档次住区的公共空间夏季热舒适度进行了实地测试,发现目前北京部分住区公共空间热舒适状况不佳,利用率低,造成土地等资源的浪费。基于此现状,通过大量的资料收集以及实验数据综合分析,提出营造舒适住区公共空间小气候的设计对策。%From the angles of settlements public space and human thermal comfort,author measures the summer thermal comfort in different grades settlements public space of Beijing,and discovers the thermal comfort is poor,the use of the public space is low,all these lead to the waste of the land resources.Based on this situation,through a large number of data collection and comprehensive analysis of experimental data,author proposes to create a comfortable microclimate settlements public space design countermeasures.

  19. Rural Residential Thermal Environment and Human Thermal Comfort in Central Shaanxi%关中地区乡村住宅热环境与人体热舒适研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳丽; 何梅

    2015-01-01

    为全面了解关中地区乡村住宅热环境状况和人体热舒适度,对该地区216户乡村住宅热环境与居民热舒适进行了现场问卷调查,实测了传统典型乡村住宅的冬夏季室内温度。结果表明,2层室内热环境较差,1层的厦房、客厅和卧室温度变化特性基本一致,但是卧室由于直接接受太阳光照射,冬季热环境较好,夏季卧室温度则稍高于客厅温度;根据 ISO 7730标准和我国标准,该地区乡村住宅冬季室内舒适温度区间分别为13.9~20.8℃、12.3~22.5℃,夏季室内舒适温度区间分别为24.7~28.0℃、23.9~28.8℃;总体上,关中地区村民对冬季室内热感觉及满意度的分布频率低于对夏季室内热感觉及满意度的分布频率。因此,关中地区乡村住宅节能设计应以冬季保温为主,兼顾夏季防热。%In order to understand the rural residential thermal environment and human thermal comfort degree in Central Shaanxi, the thermal environment and human thermal comfort of 216 residents were conducted by spot field investigation in this area, and the indoor temperature of traditional typical rural residence was measured in winter and summer. The results showed that, the two-story indoor thermal environment was poor, the temperature variation characteristics of the side house, drawing room and bedroom on the first floor were basically identical, but the thermal environment of the bedroom was better in winter due to the direct sunlight, and the temperature of the bedroom in summer was slightly higher than the temperature of the drawing room. According to ISO 7730 standards and standards in China, this region’s rural residential indoor comfort temperature ranged from 13.9 ℃~20.8 ℃, 12.3 ℃~22.5 ℃ in winter, and indoor comfort temperature ranged from 24.7 ℃ ~28.0 ℃ , 23.9 ℃ ~28.8 ℃ in summer. Overall, the distribution frequency of the indoor thermal sensation and satisfaction in winter

  20. Comfortable bodies: sedentary affects

    OpenAIRE

    David Bissell

    2008-01-01

    Whilst to be comfortable is often equated with conservatism and complacency, this paper considers the various and often complex configurations of comfort as a desirable corporeal sensibility. Subsequently, this paper considers what corporeal comfort as an affective sensibility is and can do to theorisations of the sedentary body. The sensibility of corporeal comfort induced through the relationality between bodies and proximate objects is explored to trace through some of the affectual circul...

  1. Simulation of thermal comfort in natural ventilated rooms based on wind velocity compensation%基于风速补偿的自然通风房间热舒适性模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵羽; 袁东立; 谢飞

    2012-01-01

    为获得自然通风奈件下室内的热舒适评价方法,利用Fluent软件,根据杭州市典型室外气象参数确定边界条件,模拟居住建筑室外绕流场、室内通风场和温度场的分布规律;运用基于风速补偿的热适应性评价模型分析室内热舒适状况,并将此法与PMV模型结果对比,表明前者定义舒适的阈值较小,且正向偏离较大,后者则能较好反映自然通风房间的热环境.%Determining the boundary conditions on the basis of typical outdoor climatic parameters in Hangzhou, simulates outdoor air flow field and indoor ventilation field and temperature field in residential buildings by means of the Fluent software to obtain a thermal comfort evaluation method for indoor natural ventilation. Analyses indoor thermal comfort by the thermal adaptability evaluation model based on wind velocity compensation. Comparing the evaluating result of the method with that of PMV model, the result indicates that the thermal comfort threshold value by the former is less and the forward deviation is larger, and the latter can better reflect the thermal environment in natural ventilated rooms.

  2. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in the lecture room with 4-way cassette air-conditioner and mixing ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed the experimental and the numerical studies on thermal comfort (TC) and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the lecture room with cooling loads when the operating conditions are changed. Predicted mean vote (PMV) value and CO2 concentration of the lecture room were measured and compared to the numerical results. Both of them showed a reasonable agreement with each other and then we applied the numerical model to analyze TC and IAQ for a couple of different operating conditions. From the results we found that the increment of the discharge angle of 4-way cassette air-conditioner makes uniformity of TC worse, but rarely affects IAQ. It turned out that TC and IAQ are hardly affected by the variation of the discharge airflow. Finally TC was merely affected by the increment of the ventilation rate, but when the ventilation rate is more than 800m3/h, the average CO2 concentration can be satisfied with the standard limits of Japanese in our case studies. (author)

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Thermal and Moisture Comfortableness of Fabric for Firefighter Protective Clothing%消防服用织物材料热湿舒适性综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆政昆; 张和平; 黄冬梅; 程旭东; 杨晖

    2012-01-01

    为提高消防服的热湿舒适性能,减少消防员在灭火救援过程中的热应激反应,基于现有消防服用织物材料的物性参数和单项热湿舒适性指标,采用多元回归分析的方法综合评价消防服各层材料的热湿舒适性能,研究各外层材料的单项热湿舒适性指标与物性参数之间的关系.结果表明:以黑色芳砜伦为外层材料、Goretex为防水透气层材料、Nomex针刺毡为隔热层材料、Nomex/FR-VISCOSE(50% Nomex,50%阻燃黏胶)为舒适层材料的消防服热湿舒适性最好,并得出织物的吸湿速率常数、透湿率和干燥率与物性参数之间的显著多元回归模型.%For the sake of improving the thermal-moisture comfortableness of firefighter protective clothing (FPC) and reducing the heat stress response by firefighters in fire fighting and rescue processes,the thermal-moisture comfortableness of each fabric was evaluated comprehensively and the relationship between the physical parameters and individual thermal-moisture comfortableness was studied using the multiple regression analysis method. The results indicate that the thermal-moisture comfortableness of the items of FPC with the PSA (Polysulfonamide) fabric as the outer shell,Goretex as the moisture barrier layer, Nomex needle punched fiber as thermal barrier layer and Nomex /FR-VISCOSE (50% Nomex, 50% flame retardant viscose) as comfort layer is the best of all. Multiple regression mathematical models were built for moisture absorption rate, surface density, and the water vapour transmission rate. The thermal-moisture comfortableness of items of FPC can be effectively evaluated and analized using the comprehensive evaluation system.

  4. The Research on the Principle of Sports Shoes' Thermal-humidity Transfer and Comfort%运动鞋鞋腔热湿传递及热湿舒适感产生机理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 原竞杰

    2014-01-01

    随着人们生活水平的提高和消费观念的转变,舒适性能已经成为消费者选购运动鞋时一个非常重要的指标。尤其热湿舒适性在穿着舒适性中的地位愈来愈重要。运动鞋鞋腔热湿舒适性是指脚、运动鞋和外界环境之间生物热力学的综合平衡,包括心理满意度的热平衡和湿平衡。鞋腔微气候环境的热湿传递遵循一定的规律。本论文主要从湿热平衡及热湿传递理论等方面探讨运动鞋在穿着过程中的热湿传递机理,并从心理因素上分析人产生热舒适感与湿舒适感的原因所在。%With the improvement of people's living standard and the transformation of their consumption idea, comfort has become a very important index in choosing sports shoes. Thermal-wet comfortableness, which is getting more and more important in deciding the comfortableness of sports shoes, is the satisfactory bio-thermodynamic equilibrium among feet, shoes and the outside environment, including thermal equilibri-um and wet equilibrium.The article research the thermal-humidity transfer principle of sports shoes’micro-climate environment from thermal-humidity balance and transfer theory, and analysis the reason of thermal-humidity comfort of sports on psychological factors.

  5. Research On Ecological Landscape Design Method Based On Thermal Comfort In Urban Square%基于城市广场热舒适的生态设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪琛; 杨柳

    2012-01-01

    A good landscape design means a lot to the improvement of thermal environment in urban square and enhancement of people’s feeling of thermal comfort. Focusing on the North Square of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, a typical urban square in Xi’an, this paper, taking the method of spot test and questionnaire survey, has investigated and analyzed thermal comfort in summer and its influencing factors, and has put forward some key points for ecological design with hope of attaining comfortable thermal environment in urban square.%良好的景观设计对改善城市广场热环境质量,提高人的热舒适有重要的作用。本文选择西安典型城市广场——大雁塔北广场作为研究对象,采用现场测试和问卷调查的研究方法,调查、分析了夏季的热舒适性及影响因素,并从不同方面提出了自己的一些生态设计要点,以期得到舒适的城市广场热环境。

  6. Research by Using Physiological Parameters to Evaluate Air Conditioning Thermal Comfort of Ship Cabin%基于生理参数的船舶舱室空调热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳强; 刘红敏; 杜留洋

    2015-01-01

    船舶空调舱室热舒适性是影响船员工作效率和生活品质的重要因素。文章分析了影响空调舱室热舒适性的诸多因素,讨论了PMV-PPD指标的作用及其运算方法。综述了国内外基于生理参数的人体热舒适现状,提出运用现场问卷调查与客观生理参数测量相结合的研究方法,来确定适合针对船舶特殊环境的热舒适标准。指出生理指标在评价工作效率和人体健康方面具有重要价值。%Thermal comfort of air-conditioned marine cabin is the important impact factor of the crew working effi-ciency and quality of life .Influence factors of thermal comfort of air -conditioned marine cabin are analyzed and dis-cussed the role of PMV-PPD index and method of operation .Reviews the research status of using physiological in-dex to evaluate human thermal comfort .Put forward the research method combined with field survey and objective physiological parameters measurement to determine the suitable standard of thermal comfort for the special environ -ment of the ship.Points out that the physiological index has great effects on evaluating human work efficiency and long-term health.

  7. Modelling the dynamics of domestic low-temperature heat pump heating systems for improved performance and thermal comfort : a systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sakellari, Dimitra

    2005-01-01

    The present environmental concerns and the rising human requirement for solutions with better comfort and lower costs have resulted in an increased awareness for the energy use in the built environment. Technical advances in building structural systems and materials, heating and other comfort-providing systems and controlling strategies all lead to the integration of building technology with the function of buildings and the aesthetics. Therefore, in the process of improving the performance o...

  8. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van R.P.; Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate lim

  9. Thermal Comfort Evaluation for Human Body in Mines Based on Uncertainty Measurement Theory%基于未确知测度理论的矿井人体热舒适性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夕兵; 王希然; 董陇军; 孙飞飞

    2013-01-01

    Based on the uncertainty measurement theory, a thermal comfort level evaluation model for human body in mines is established. With the thermal environment of mines and the special features of human body in mind, ten factors that would influence the thermal comfort of human body are identified, and the uncertainty measurement function is formulated based on the in-situ data and investigation results. The uncertainty influencing factors in the thermal comfort evaluation are determined by qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively. The entropy weight theory is used to calculate the index weight of these factors and the credibility degree recognition criteria are established to determine the levels. The thermal comfort evaluation is made. This model is used to evaluate the six different stages of a certain copper mine. The results show that the calculation results are consistent with the empirical values of investigations, therefore, the uncertainty measurement method is reasonable and can be applied to the practical engineering. In different depths of mines, different cooling standards should be established for the thermal comfort.%基于未确知测度理论,建立了矿井人体热舒适性等级评价模型.从矿井热环境和人体自身因素出发,考虑了影响人体热舒适性的10项因素,根据实测数据和调查结果建立各影响因素的未确知测度函数.该模型针对矿井人体热舒适评价中的诸多不确定性影响因素,根据实际情况,分别对其进行定性、定量分析,并利用熵权理论计算各影响因素的指标权重,依照置信度识别准则进行等级判定,最后得出人体矿井热舒适性的评价结果.将该方法用于某高温铜矿6个不同中段的热舒适性评价,并与实际调查结果进行对比.结果表明,计算结果与实际情况吻合较好,可见该方法科学合理,可以在实际工程中推广应用.不同深度的矿井热舒适性不同,应采取不同的降温标准.

  10. Cancer Patients Caregivers Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Araújo Lamino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study, carried out at the outpatient clinic of an oncology hospital. Data were collected from 88 caregivers of cancer patients using the Caregiver General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ to assess the caregivers’ comfort. The caregivers’ GCQ score mean was 203.9; better comfort scores was associated with age, care time and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients’ physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers’ spirituality. 203.9; better comfort scores were associated with age of the caregiver and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients’ physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers’ spirituality. Caregivers, who didn’t have a paid job or leisure’s activities showed a worse GCQ. The GCQ scale can help to identify factors that interfere in caregivers’ comfort, as well as needs that can be modified through health professionals’ interventions.

  11. Numerical Simulation Research on Thermal Comfort of CRCP and Desktop Task Air-conditioning System%顶棚辐射桌面送风舒适性数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹双华; 王乐恒; 李敏思; 楼志亮

    2013-01-01

    以人体周围的环境温度、风速和PMV值为指标,对顶棚辐射条件下的桌面送风热舒适性进行了数值模拟研究.以某一会议室为例,通过模拟确定了满足人体舒适性的桌面送风温度与速度参数.结果表明,顶棚辐射桌面送风时,在合理的送风参数下均能满足人体舒适性要求.%Taking the temperature, velocity and PMV of human environment as standard, human thermal comfort was researched for desktop task air-conditioning system combined with Ceiling Radiant Cooling Plate (CRCP). The reasonable parameters got, which could satisfy human thermal comfort at the conference room through numerical simulation. The results showed that the reasonable combination of the supply air temperature and velocity could satisfy human comfort requirements.

  12. 太阳能炕的蓄热特性研究及其对睡眠热舒适度的影响%Study on thermal storage performance of solar KANG and thermal comfort for sleeping environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江清阳; 何伟; 季杰; 魏蔚

    2012-01-01

    According to the traditional fire KANG characteristics, a solar heating system named solar KANG was proposed and a theoretical study of solar KANG system was presented. Experiments of the solar KANG system were conducted and experimental tests were performed. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experiment results. Based on the validated model and real time meteorological data of Hefei, thermal comfort in sleeping environments and indoor thermal environments were studied when the solar KANG system was in operation in winter. Results show that indoor air temperature varies between 8 ℃ to 15 ℃ when outdoor temperature is about 0 ℃C and KANG surface temperature is no more than 35 ℃. After stopping heating at 21 o'clock at night, sleeping environments can be kept at the comfortable range of 28. 5 ℃ to 34 ℃ with thermal energy stored in KANG releasing gradually. Solar contribution rate is about 34. 5%.%结合北方传统火炕的特点,建立了与太阳能热水系统结合的太阳能炕理论模型,并搭建太阳能炕系统实验台,进行了实验测试,模拟计算结果与实验测试结果吻合较好.依据通过实验验证的模型,采用合肥实测的气象数据,分析了太阳能炕系统在冬天工作时对睡眠热舒适度和室内热环境的影响.结果显示:在室外平均温度0℃左右和炕面温度不超过35℃的条件下,室内空气温度维持在8~15℃之间,在晚上21点太阳能热水系统对炕停止加热后,人所处的睡眠环境能保持在28.5~34℃的热舒适温度区间,太阳能贡献率为34.5%.

  13. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  14. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  15. 风口侧上置置换通风的热舒适性实验研究%Experimental Study on Thermal Comfort of the Displacement Ventilation with High Sidewall Outlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇祥; 吕建

    2014-01-01

    A small office is set as the experimental model. Five contrasted working conditions are used for the experiment, the comparison between numerical and experimental results shows good agreement. The thermal comfort of displacement ventilation with high sidewall outlet is analyzed. Results shows that the displacement ventilation with sidewall outlet has a greater load affordability under the design condi-tions. And both the sense of blowing, blowing temperature and indoor head vertical temperature difference are to satisfy the human body thermal comfort. Displacement ventilation with high sidewall outlet can also formed the same good thermal stratification as traditional displacement ventilation. And it can satisfy the thermal comfort of human body very well, and has the characteristics of the displacement ventilation sys-tem.%以小型办公室为实验模型,采用了5组对比工况进行了实验,并将实验值与模拟值进行了比较,结果二者吻合较好。分析了侧墙上置风口置换通风的热舒适性。结果表明风口侧上置置换通风在各设计工况下,其负荷承担能力要大于传统置换通风,并且不论是吹风感、吹风温度还是室内头脚垂直温差都满足人体热舒适。这也证实风口上置置换通风与传统置换通风一样,可以在室内形成良好的热力分层现象,并且其能很好地满足人体的热舒适性需求,具有置换通风系统的特性。

  16. Leverage of Behavioural Patterns of Window Opening and Heating Set Point Adjustments on Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; D'Oca, Simona; Fabi, Valentina;

    2014-01-01

    , which do not necessarily reflect reality accurately. The pursuit of a comfort condition in indoor environment is a result of complex correlation between different parameters and users' personal sensitivity. As a consequence, a need for always more accurate statistical occupant behaviour models...

  17. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  18. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    permissible humidity level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin......Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The...

  19. Field study on indoor thermal comfort of shopping malls in hot summer and warm winter zone%夏热冬暖地区商场冬季室内热舒适研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利文; 闫军威; 周璇; 冯家亮

    2015-01-01

    以广州某大型综合商场为研究对象,采用问卷调查和现场测试相结合的方式,对商场冬季室内热舒适性进行了调查研究,并对调查测试结果进行了统计回归分析。研究结果显示:商场冬季室内实测热中性温度为19.4℃,90%满意度热舒适温度范围为16.1~22.7℃;而根据 PMV 计算得到的室内热中性温度为16.8℃,90%满意度热舒适温度范围为13.3~20.4℃;PMV 模型预测的热感觉比现场问卷调查得到的平均热感觉MTS 要高,与实际感觉存在一定偏差。基于实测热舒适数据,进一步分析了室内热中性温度与室外空气温度的相关性,确立了商场冬季室内热中性温度与室外空气温度的近似线性关系,建立了商场冬季室内热舒适气候适应性模型。%Taking a large integrated shopping mall in Guangzhou as the research object,carries out the indoor thermal comfort research through the questionnaires and field measurement in winter.Conducts a statistical regression analysis on the survey data.The results show that the measured thermal neutral temperature of the mall in winter is 19.4 ℃,and the thermal comfort temperature which meets a satisfaction degree of 90% ranges from 16.1 ℃ to 22.7 ℃.Meanwhile,the indoor thermal neutral temperature calculated by PMV model is 16.8 ℃,and the thermal comfort temperature which meets a satisfaction degree of 90% ranges from 13.3 ℃ to 20.4 ℃.The thermal sensation predicted by the PMV model is much higher than the actual thermal feeling.Based on the survey data,analyses the correlation between the indoor thermal neutral temperature and outdoor air temperature, and establishes the approximate linear relationship between the mall's indoor thermal neutral temperature and outdoor air temperature.Sets up a winter thermal comfort climate adaptation model for the shopping mall.

  20. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT IN MALAYSIAN URBAN HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaik-Wah Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, terraced houses have been rapidly constructed since 50 years ago and account for 44% of the existing urban housings. However, these houses have very limited use of natural ventilation and daylighting due to openings with small window-to-floor ratio. The deep plan design causes gloomy indoor spaces, low air change rate and poor indoor air quality. Studies showed that indoor environments have major impact on occupants’ well-being. Thereby this study evaluates the effects of indoor comforts on occupants’ perceived health in Malaysian typical terraced houses. Survey of terraced houses in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was conducted using questionnaire. Various terraced houses were studied to identify the critical comfort and health issues in terraced housing. The relationships among occupants’ perceived comforts, health and behavior were studied. The variance of types of terraced house was also analyzed. The findings demonstrated significant linear relationships between indoor comfort and health. However, occupants’ behavior did not give significant impact on thermal comfort. This study concludes that it is very essential to improve indoor comfort in Malaysian typical terraced houses through tropical design strategies to enhance occupants’ well-being.

  1. Comparação de vários materiais de cobertura através de índices de conforto térmico Comparison of various roof coating materials through thermal comfort indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Sevegnani

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento térmico de diferentes materiais de cobertura foi estudado através dos índices de conforto. Para as condições de verão, estudou-se o efeito do índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU e da Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR no interior de abrigos. As telhas de fibra transparente, alumínio e zinco foram os mais recentes materiais inseridos neste projeto. Além delas, foram estudados os comportamentos das telhas de barro, cimento amianto e térmica. Para a avaliação dos índices de conforto foram registrados: temperatura máxima e mínima, velocidade do vento, umidade relativa e temperatura de globo negro. Concluiu-se que: a telha de barro continuou sendo a mais eficiente e a telha de fibra transparente a de menor eficiência térmica e as demais apresentaram um comportamento intermediário.The thermal behaviour of different roof coating materials was studied through the thermal comfort index. For summer condictions the effect of the Globe and Humidity Index (ITGU and the Radiant Thermal Load (CTR were used to study the interior of shelters. Fiberglass, aluminum and zinc tiles were more recently introduced in this project. Other tested materials were clay, asbestos, cement and thermal tiles. To evaluate the comfort index the following measurements were performed: maximum and minimum temperatures, wind velocity, relative humidity and "black globe" temperature. The conclusions were: clay tiles continue being the most efficient and fiberglass tiles the least thermal efficient, and other tiles had an intermediate behaviour.

  2. Europa Passage, Hamburg. Pumps ensure thermal comfort at all levels; Die Europa Passage in Hamburg. Pumpen sorgen fuer Komfort auf allen Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teders, Klaus

    2009-07-01

    The Europa Passage at Hamburg is a new shopping mall located directly on the Binnenalster river. It was constructed in 2006 and has 30,000 m{sup 2} of shop floor on five levels, which makes it one of Germany's biggest shopping malls. It is frequented every day by up to 40,000 visitors and more than 50,000 visitors on saturdays. In order to ensure optimum comfort even in peak times, the passage is equipped with state-of-the-art technical facilities. Energy-efficient pumps ensure reliable supply of all technical facilities. (orig.)

  3. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables, av

  4. 非采暖空调环境下人体热反应的时变特征分析%Time-varying characteristics of people's responses to thermal comfort in free-running environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百战; 雷丹妮; 刘红; 谈美兰

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the time-varying characteristics of people's responses to thermal comfort in free-running environment, a physiological experiment was conducted in a free-running building in four seasons, and the subjects were all healthy college students. Sensory nerve conduction velocity (vsc), skin temperature of measuring point (tskin) and thermal environmental parameters were tested; the subjective thermal sensation questionnaires were filled out by subjects simultaneously. The results show that in a certain season, vsc, tskin and people's whole thermal sensation votes (TSV) have the same changing trend with time; in winter and transition seasons (Spring and Autumn), vsc and tskin show a declining trend to be a stable value, but with largest decrement in winter. While in summer, vsc and tskin only fluctuate within a narrow range. For TSV and local thermal sensation votes (TSVlocal), they all have significant time-varying characteristics in winter and fluctuate with comfort range in summer and transition seasons. This demonstrates that the retention time is also an important factor that affects human thermal comfort from both physiological and psychological aspects especially in cold environment. The results provide a better design to control the indoor thermal environment for the occupants' health and comfort, and determine the measuring time of physical parameters on the basis of the time needed for stability.%为了分析非采暖空调环境下人体热反应的时变特征,以在校健康大学生为受试对象,在全年4个季节里开展人体热舒适生理实验测试,记录主要热环境参数,研究人体客观生理指标感觉神经传导速度(vSC)、测点皮肤温度(tskin)、整体热感觉投票(TSV)以及局部热感觉投票(TSVlocal)随停留时间变化的响应过程.研究结果表明:在同一季节里,vSC,tskin和TSV的时变特征具有一致性;在冬季和过渡季节(春季和秋季),vSC和tskin随停留时间的延长呈下

  5. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  6. 哈尔滨地区冬季农宅热舒适现场调查%Field survey on indoor thermal comfort in rural houses around Harbin in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭俊; 绳晓会; 任静; 吉玉辰

    2014-01-01

    对哈尔滨近郊2个村10户农宅的冬季室内热环境与居民的热舒适进行了现场调查。结果显示,冬季农宅的平均室温为12.3℃,但热环境可接受率高达92%;农民的热中性作业温度为14.4℃,90%可接受的作业温度下限为8.8℃;农民通过行为调节、心理期望等适应偏冷的热环境,导致其热中性温度与可接受的温度较低。对于分散式农宅,建议采用传统的火炕分散供暖方式。建议采用作业温度作为严寒地区冬季农宅室内热舒适的评价指标。%Conducts a field study on thermal environment and thermal comfort in ten rural houses in two villages around Harbin.The results show that the average indoor air temperature is 12.3 ℃,but the thermal acceptability can reach to 92%.The thermal neutral operative temperature is 14.4 ℃,and the lower limit of acceptable operative temperature is 8.8 ℃.The peasants get accustomed to the thermal environment by behavioral adjustment and psychological acclimatization,etc.Their thermal neutral temperature and acceptable temperature are comparatively low.For decentralized rural houses,suggests the traditional heating mode by the Chinese Kang.Suggests using the operative temperature as the evaluation index of indoor thermal comfort for rural houses in severe cold zone in winter.

  7. Investigation on the effectiveness of various methods of information dissemination aiming at a change of occupant behaviour related to thermal comfort and exergy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These days the number of projects trying to urge a change in the occupant's behaviour towards a sustainable one is increasing. However, still less is known about the effect of such measures. This paper describes the findings of two investigations, a field measurement and an Internet-based survey, both including the dissemination of information about strategies for a high level of comfort without much energy usage. The focus was on the ability to quantify the effect of such measures on the heating and cooling behaviour. As a result, those who participated in a workshop were more likely to change their behaviour than those who received an information brochure only; whether this was due to the method employed or the type of participants could not be ascertained. However, the workshop participants reduced their cooling device usage by up to 16%. The concept of exergy was used to show how this reduction affects the exergy consumption of the cooling device, because it enables us to consider the qualitative aspect of energy as a quantity to be calculated. This showed that the exergy consumed by the workshop group was reduced by up to 20% comparing their behaviour before and after the information dissemination. - Research Highlights: → Data collection through field measurement and an Internet-based survey. → Both surveys included the distribution of information about strategies for a high level of comfort without much energy usage. → Logistic regression analysis in order to quantify the effect of such knowledge transfer measures on the heating and cooling behaviour. → Those participating in the workshop reduced their cooling device usage by up to 20% compared to a control group. → As constraints, time limitations and tediousness are identified.

  8. Estimativa das condições de conforto térmico para avicultura de postura usando a teoria dos conjuntos Fuzzy Estimated thermal comfort condition for layers according to Fuzzy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique L. de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi utilizada uma ferramenta matemática promissora na análise de sistemas e/ou processos, particularmente na área de produção animal. Essa ferramenta é a desenvolvida segundo a abordagem da teoria dos Conjuntos Fuzzy e, neste caso específico, permitiu a análise da composição das variáveis climáticas independentes, como temperatura de bulbo seco e umidade relativa do ar, que influenciam na variável dependente denominada conforto térmico das aves. Foi realizada a construção de regras baseadas na intuição humana, segundo o conhecimento de especialistas da área, a partir do que é possível simular cenários distintos para o suporte à decisão de construção de galpões para abrigo a animais. Neste trabalho, foi estimado o conforto térmico para alojamento de aves poedeiras em produção. Os resultados foram analisados, usando-se o ambiente de computação científica MATLAB 6.5, o que pode ser realizado iterativamente a cada cenário gerado. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se analisar as condições de conforto para distintas composições das variáveis de entrada.In this research a promising mathematical tool in system's analysis and/or process particularly in the area of Animal Production was used. Such tool was developed according to Fuzzy theory which in this specific case allows analyzing the composition of independent climatic variables, such as temperature and humidity that may influence the dependent variable named bird's thermal comfort. It was necessary to build up rules based on human intuition according to experts in this area, from which was possible to simulate distinct scenarios for supporting the decision of the construction of animal's housing. In this research thermal comfort for layer's housing in production were considered. The results were analyzed using the scientific computer environment of MATLAB 6.5, which could be done iteratively for each generated scenario. Based on the results

  9. Thermal comfort in reduced models of broilers' houses, under different types of roofing materials Conforto térmico em modelos reduzidos de galpões para frangos de corte, utilizando-se de diferentes tipos de coberturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. de Almeida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was developed to evaluate the use of different types of roofing materials regularly used in poultry houses. Measurements of thermal comfort were made through the use of techniques such as the Black Globe and Humidity Index (BGHI, the Thermal Heat Load (THL and Enthalpy (H. Conducted in the State University of Goiás, during the months of April and May, 2011, the experiment was composed of five different treatments: AC - Asbestos cement tiles, BA -Bamboo tiles, BAP - Bamboo tiles painted in white, FB -Vegetable fiber tiles and bitumen, FBP -Vegetable fiber tiles and bitumen painted in white. The experiment consisted in 15 repetitions, which were considered the different days of measurements taken. Throughout the studied period, the time of the day considered the least comfortable was the one observed at 2:00pm, and the coverage of vegetable fiber and bitumen showed the highest value of BGHI (84.1 when compared to other types of coverage, characterizing a situation of lower thermal comfort, and no difference was found for THL and H on treatments in the studied region.Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes tipos de coberturas em instalações para aves, por meio do Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro e Umidade (ITGU, Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR e Entalpia (H. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, entre os meses de abril e maio de 2011, sendo composto por cinco tratamentos (coberturas: CA -Telha de cimento-amianto; BA -Telha de bambu; BAP -Telha de bambu pintada de branco; FB -Telha de fibra vegetal e betume; FBP -Telha de fibra vegetal e betume pintada de branco, com 15 repetições, sendo as repetições os dias de medição. Dentre os horários estudados, o considerado menos confortável foi às 14h, sendo que a cobertura de fibra vegetal e betume foi a que apresentou maior valor de ITGU (84,1 quando comparada às demais coberturas, caracterizando uma situação de menor

  10. Static and Dynamic Sensory Comfort of Knit Underwear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-ling; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper relationships have been investigated between overall comfort estimate and five main factors on nine knit underwear at (29±2)℃ and relative humidity, (85±2)% .The values of thermal and moisture comfort rise obviously,yet the values of roughness, softness and tightness are near the static values after finishing movement. The analysis shows that the overall estimation has the negative correlation with the thermal and moisture comfort and the positive correlation with the roughness and softness under static state. After movement the effects on overall estimate of thermal and moisture increase. Oppositely, the effects of roughness and softness decrease. Overall estimation has positive correlation with tightness at static. But it has no evident effect on overall comfort after movement and 5-minute-rest according to this experiment. The relationships between tightness and thermal, moisture, roughness,softness were also discussed in this paper.

  11. Comfort can Boost Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace doesn't call for NASA scientists or a big budget. From setting the right temperature in the office to providing chairs with back support and lights that minimize eyestrain, CPA firms that attend to staff comfort and health are rewarded with greater productivity and job loyalty. There are basic principles to follow in setting up a work environment correctly.

  12. 广州某高校教室冬季热环境现场量测与评估分析%The surveying and evaluation of the winter classroom thermal comfort of an university in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李久芳; 吕宁

    2012-01-01

    The college classroom is one the most frequent used place for teachers and students therefore it is of great necessary for all college staff and students to conduct a study about how to improve the classroom internal environment by analyzing the thermal comfort issue. In this research, methods of field testing, and survey are taken place aiming a specific teaching building of SCUT to analyze how different factors influence the ther- mal indicators as PMV Indoor the PPD temperature and humidity. This research would be considered an reference for understanding and improving winter indoor thermal comfort of southern colleges and universities classrooms.%高校教室是广大师生接触最频繁、最密切的室内环境之一,因此研究教室室内的热舒适度、改善教室内空气环境和质量,创造健康舒适的室内环境对提高广大师生的身心健康具有重要意义。本文采用现场测试、问卷调查等方式对广州市华南理工大学某教学楼教室的热舒适度进行研究,得出室内通风状况、人员密度等因素对室内PMV、PPD、温度和湿度等指标的影响规律,对了解和改善南方地区高校教室冬季室内热环境有参考价值。

  13. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating...

  14. Avian maternal response to chick distress

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; C. J. Nicol

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s interva...

  15. Do chimpanzees build comfortable nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Pruetz, Jill D; Hansell, Mike H

    2007-08-01

    Nests built by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were studied at the Fongoli research site in southeastern Senegal from January 2004-May 2004 to investigate the role of comfort in nest building behavior by relating measures of nest comfort and building effort. Nest comfort across zones of the nest surface were compared with construction effort for 25 nests. Several variables of nest comfort were assessed: (1) physical discomfort, (2) visible discomfort, and (3) softness. Physical discomfort was used as a representative measure of nest discomfort. Building effort was measured by (1) construction force, (2) complexity, and (3) added material. Spearman rank correlations compared Effort and Comfort measures for both whole nests and central versus edge zones. The results show that construction force and complexity do not influence comfort of the nest as a whole. Greater Construction force correlates with more nest edge discomfort, yet the central area shows no difference. More complex nests do result in a more comfortable central area in the nest. Nests built with greater force may result in more discomfort, whereas complexity may allow chimpanzees to maintain comfort in a central area for sleep. Chimpanzees may place additional leaves or twigs over hard branches, protruding from the nest surface after construction, to increase comfort of the central nest area. Functions of chimpanzee nest building are likely to be several, but these results suggest comfort is a factor in nest building behavior. PMID:17358021

  16. Modelamiento del Ambiente Térmico y Aéreo de un Galpón de Presión Negativa Tipo Túnel para Pollitos / Modeling of the Thermal Environments in Shed Negative Pressure Tunnel Type of Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Osorio Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La optimización de los procesos productivos tiene granimportancia en el mundo actual debido al continuo desarrollo y avance. Con la finalidad de evaluar el desempeño productivo en el sector avícola, se hace necesaria la adecuación del ambiente interno de las instalaciones avícolas con técnicas que atiendan las exigencias de confort térmico con mayor eficiencia energética. En este trabajo, se evaluó el ambiente térmico interno de un galpón de presión negativa tipo túnel durante la primera fase de crecimiento de pollos de engorde. La evaluación de comportamiento térmico en este período fue realizada utilizando la dinámica de fluidos computacionales (CFD. El modelo computacional demostró ser una herramienta eficaz para el entendimiento y mejora de diseños bioclimáticos de ambientes internos de galpones avícolas. / The optimization of production processes hasgreat importance in the world due to the development andadvancement. In order to evaluate the productive performance in poultry production, it becomes necessary the indoor environmental adequacy of the poultry buildings by technologies that attend the requirements of thermal comfort with major energy efficiency. This study evaluated the thermal environment of a domestic shed of negative pressure tunnel type, during the first growth phase of broilers. The evaluation of the thermal behavior model during this period was made using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The computational model proved to be an effective tool forunderstanding and improving of bioclimatic designs of indoorenvironments to create this kind of sheds.

  17. Energy Performance And Long-Term Evaluation Of Internal Thermal Comfort Of An Office Building With Different Kinds Of Glazing Systems And Window Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Francesca; Gasparella, Andrea; Pernigotto, Giovanni; Romagnoni, Piercarlo

    2012-01-01

    Although the presence of large window surfaces could be preferable during the heating season when solar gains through the glazed components can overcome heating losses from the same surfaces, during the cooling season more attention has to be paid in order to limit the inlet of solar radiation which causes the increment of cooling load. Generally the optimal tradeoff for energy optimization, as already underlined in a previous paper by the authors, is using low thermal transmittance and high ...

  18. 车站高大空间空调系统气流组织与热舒适性分析%Air Distribution and Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioning System in a Large Space Building of Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常远; 刘泽勤

    2014-01-01

    兼顾人体热舒适和建筑节能的要求,对目前车站高大空间空调气流组织的数值模拟研究报道进行对比分析。分析结果显示,人们对高大空间建筑室内热舒适要求高于居住建筑和办公建筑;从满足人体热舒适角度出发,空调送风加地板辐射供冷方案适于夏季满员工况,地板辐射供热加空调加湿方案适用于冬季满员工况;高大空间的空调系统适宜采用上送上回的送风方式,其温度场和速度场均优于上送下回的空调送风方式;在高大空间内设置分层空调系统将在一定程度上降低空调能耗,且分层空调中送风速度对分层界面的位置影响较大,送风温差对高大空间分层空调的温度分布和流场分布有较大影响。%The numerical simulation of air distribution of air conditioning in larger space of current railway stations are studied with consideration to requirements of both human thermal comfort and building energy efficiency. The analysis shows that, the indoor thermal comfort requirements of human body in large space building are more than that in residential buildings and office buildings. The scheme of the air con-ditioning supply air plus radiant floor cooling is suitable for the full working conditions in summer from the viewpoint of satisfying the human thermal comfort, and the scheme of the floor radiant heating plus air con-ditioning humidification is suitable for the full working conditions in winter. The air supply mode of upper supply top return is suitable for air conditioning system in large space buildings, and the temperature field and velocity field of this mode were superior to the mode of upper supply bottom return. The stratified air conditioning systems installed in large space could reduce the energy consumption of the air conditioning system to a certain extent, the velocity of supply air in the stratified air conditioning system has greater in-fluence on the position

  19. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    climate and technology. This thesis' basic point of departure is the triangular problematic between building design with standardized indoor climate, energy costs and inhabitants' behaviors. By convention sustainable buildings are developed to relatively seal inside building features and occupants from...... the outdoor. This can be seen, for instance, in 'tight' low-energy buildings that host indoor climate products, which are often controlled by automated systems, to deliver optimal comfort conditions (i.e. temperature, humidity, air quality, noise, and light) to occupants. Buildings' indoor climate is...... designed according to international building codes and standards, which are being based on engineering scientists' controlled experiments, classfiication and analysis. Since the last two decades, scholars from a diverse range of disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, adaptive engineering...

  20. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  1. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  2. Zona de conforto térmico de ovinos da raça Santa Inês com base nas respostas fisiológicas Thermal comfort zone of Santa Ines sheep based on physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Eustáquio Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estabelecer a zona de conforto térmico para ovinos da raça Santa Inês por meio da comparação das respostas fisiológicas em diferentes opções de temperatura em câmara bioclimática. O experimento teve duração de 71 dias e foi conduzido utilizando-se sete borregas da raça Santa Inês por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram as faixas de temperatura de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40°C, com três repetições (dias de exposição e cinco dias de intervalo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado. Os dados meteorológicos coletados foram temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de bulbo úmido e temperatura de globo negro e os fisiológicos, frequência respiratória, frequência cardíaca, temperatura retal, temperatura timpânica, taxa de sudação e pressão arterial. Os mecanismos fisiológicos de dissipação de calor mostraram-se eficientes em manter a homeotermia dos animais em todas as temperaturas avaliadas. A temperatura de 25°C pode ser considerada a zona de conforto térmico para borregas da raça Santa Inês em ambiente com umidade relativa de 65%.The objective was to establish the thermal comfort zone for Santa Ines sheep by comparing the physiological responses at different options of temperatures in bioclimatic chamber. The experiment lasted 71 days and was conducted with the use of seven Santa Ines lambs per treatment. The treatments were temperature ranges of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC with tree replicates (exposure days and a five-day interval. The experimental design was completely randomized. Meteorological data collected were: dry bulb temperature; wet bulb temperature and black globe temperature. Physiological data analyzed were: respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, tympanic temperature, sweating rate and blood pressure. The physiological mechanisms of heat dissipation are shown to be effective in maintaining the homeothermy of the animals studied at all

  3. The impact of tree species selection on the thermal comfort of urban canyons in arid zones: The case of Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban vegetation is known worldwide to be a strategy for mitigating urban heat islands. This study evaluates how the energy balance of an urban canyon is affected by different combinations of urban morphology, tree species features, and building density. The thermal behaviors of 16 urban canyons, 16, 20 and 30m in width, located in areas of high and low building density, with three predominant types of tree species in the city were monitored in summer, in addition to one tree-free case. The COMFA energy balance model was used to assess the degree of habitability of open spaces. The results show that the appropriate selection of tree species is the key to maximizing the energy efficiency and habitability of urban spaces in areas of low building density in the city.

  4. Thermal comfort zone study based on equivalent temperature under task air conditioning system%基于等效温度的工位空调环境下热舒适区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雨婷; 端木琳; 金权

    2016-01-01

    针对工位送风空调形式营造的非均匀热环境,利用等效温度指标对人体的局部和整体热感觉进行了评价。在准办公室环境对受试者进行了人体热反应实验,得到了不同刺激工况下人体各部位的热感觉和等效温度值,对比分析后发现:刺激部位等效温度值与非刺激部位等效温度值出现明显的分离现象;刺激温度和风速是影响刺激部位等效温度值的重要因素。由热感觉投票值与等效温度值的散点图发现,二者有很好的线性关系,通过拟合得到了适用于工位送风非均匀环境的等效温度舒适区范围。%Evaluates the local and overall thermal sensation using equivalent temperature index in the non-uniform thermal environment of task air conditioning system.Conducts the human thermal test in a mockup office, and obtains the data of local sensation and equivalent temperatures under different stimulating conditions.The results show that there is an obvious separation phenomenon between the equivalent temperature of stimulating site and that of non stimulating sites.The air temperature and velocity are the important factors to affect the equivalent temperature of the stimulating site.From the scatter plot, finds a good linear relationship between human thermal sensation vote and equivalent temperature.Obtains the equivalent temperature comfort zone for the non-uniform thermal environment with task air conditioning through the fitting method.

  5. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  6. New climate zones in Germany - will they change the specifications for thermal comfort?; Neue Klimazonen in Deutschland, Aenderung der Regeln fuer thermische Behaglichkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, K. [Hermann-Rietschel-Inst. fuer Heizungs- und Klimatechnik, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The contribution discusses the new DIN 4108, No. 2/A1 regulation for thermal insulation of uncooled buildings in the summer season. One problem is the lack of a clear distinction from buildings with space HVAC systems. Instead, three new climate zones are proposed for Germany: A cool, temperate and hot zone in the summer season. This raises the danger that the new classification will be used as a basis for deciding for or against the installation of space HVAC systems. Further, there is another problem: In the hot climate zone, a temperature of more than 27 degrees centigrade is considered acceptable in 10 percent of the utilisation period, i.e. about 200 h per annum. In light-construction buildings, air temperatures of up to 31.5 degrees centigrade may occur with this specification. This is unacceptable for persons with normal clothing (0.8 clo) living or working in such buildings. [German] Im Zusammenhang mit der Normung fuer sommerlichen Waermeschutz wird eine Neuauflage der DIN 4 108 Blatt 2/A1{sup 1} herausgebracht. Es handelt sich um Regeln fuer den sommerlichen Waermeschutz fuer Gebaeude ohne Kuehlung. Sie soll aber auch fuer Gebaeude mit RLT-Anlagen angewendet werden. Es entsteht das Problem der Abgrenzung zu Gebaeuden mit RLT-Anlagen. Die Norm sagt dazu leider nichts. Weil es trotz sommerlichen Waermeschutzes nicht moeglich ist, in allen Faellen ohne Kuehlung geltende Behaglichkeitsforderungen, zu erfuellen, wurde ein neuer Weg eingeschlagen. Es wurden drei neue Klimazonen in Deutschland vorgeschlagen: Eine sommerkuehle, eine gemaessigte und eine sommerheisse Zone. Es besteht nun eine grosse Gefahr, dass diese neue Aufteilung erstens zum Entscheidungskriterium fuer oder gegen RLT-Anlagen verwendet und zweitens angenommen wird, dass bei Erfuellung der Anforderungen thermische Behaglichkeit erreicht wird. In der sommerheissen Klimazone wird zugelassen, dass in 10% der Nutzungszeit, das sind ungefaehr 200 h im Jahr, eine Temperatur von 27 C ueberschritten

  7. Review of Thermal Comfort Based on PMV/PPD in Cabins of Vessels%基于PMV/PPD的船舶舱室热舒适探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄珊珊; 吴经纬; 刘红敏

    2011-01-01

    对某1000t巡逻船各舱室内的最佳温度加以估计。适当的修正陆上人员穿着和活动的规则和标准,调查了该巡逻船的各种人为因素。驾驶室一年四季总的服装热阻分别为0.097,0.079,0.096,0.130 m2℃/W,生活区一年四季总的服装热阻分别为0.067,0.059,0.084,0.101m2℃/W。培训室的新陈代谢率为228.04 W/m2,机舱室和辅机室的高于100 W/m2。驾驶室和居住区的新陈代谢率分别为78.14和44.45 W/m2。基于人为因素,驾驶室和居住区的最佳温度分别为23℃和29℃。因此,基于PMV-PPD设计的空调系统可以节省6℃的能量。%This study has focused on the evaluation of the optimal temperature in each cabin of one maritime patrol vessel.We aptly modified the inland indoor items and criteria of clothing and activities,and then investigated the human factors in the cabins of the maritime patrol vessel.The total thermal resistance of clothing in the wheelhouse was 0.097,0.079,0.096 and 0.130 m2℃/W and that for the accommodation areas was 0.067,0.059,0.084,and 0.101m2℃/W in spring,summer,fall,and winter,respectively.The metabolic rate was 228.04 W/m2 in the training room and above 100 W/m2 in the engine room and auxiliary machine room.In the wheelhouse and accommodation,the metabolic rate was 78.14 and 44.45 W/m2,respectively.Based on human factors,the optimum temperature was 23℃ in the wheelhouse and 29℃ in the accommodation.Therefore,6℃ of energy can be saved in case of PMV/PPD-based air conditioning.

  8. Generation of ride comfort index

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Solano, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to obtain a ride comfort index of a vehicle. This parameter shall be representative of the vibration received by the human body during the ride. The comfort, as we understand, is the sensation which comes from vehicle dynamics and not from the luxury cabin. Initially the comfort evaluation of the cars was done subjectively. The driver-tester exposed his own feelings when he tested the car on a random circuit and compared with other vehicles that he tes...

  9. Simulation of thermal-radiating wall with hot water coils partly paved and the influence of installed area size on thermal comfort%局部铺设热水盘管墙体辐射系统模拟及铺设面积对热舒适的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉倩; 徐斌

    2015-01-01

    针对墙体辐射供暖系统进行了模拟计算,提出局部铺设热水盘管的构想.利用 Fluent 进行模拟计算,分析了非稳态下的墙体热流密度、平均温度和温度场分布,并对不同铺设面积的居室热舒适性进行了分析.计算结果表明,在进出水温差为5℃、热水流量是0.3 m3・ h -1且管间距为250 mm 的前提下,局部铺设墙体热水盘管的铺设面积占全部铺设的2/3时,室内便能达到人体热舒适要求,此时平均期望满意度(PMV)为-0.28,期望不满意度(PPD)为7%;局部铺设的铺设面积占全部铺设的5/6时,室内热环境最舒适,PM V 为+0.14,PPD 为5%;当全部铺设时热舒适度反而下降了,此时 PMV 为+0.5,PPD 为10%.局部铺设相对于整面铺设可节约材料,并在保证人体热舒适的前提下有效节能.%The wall radiating heating system was studied ,and a conception of hot water coils partly paved in the wall is presented .A heat transfer model was established to simulate the thermal performance of the wall by Fluent .The average heat flux ,temperature and temperature distribution of the thermal‐radiating wall under unsteady conditions were analyzed . The influence of installed area size on indoor thermal comfort was also analyzed .The results show that when the temperature difference between inlet and outlet water is 5 ℃ ,rate of flow is 0.3 m3 ・ h - 1 ,tube spacing is 250 mm ,and the area of partly paved coils is 2/3 of the fully paved area ,PM V(predicted mean vote) is - 0.28 ,PPD(predicted percentage of dissatisfied) is 7% ,the values are in the range of thermal comfort ;when the proportion reaches to 5/6 ,PMV is + 0.14 and PPD is 5% ,the indoor thermal environment is the most comfortable ;while when the wall is fully paved ,PMV is + 0.5 and PPD is 10% ,indoor thermal comfort is reduced .The wall with hot water coil partly paved can economize on materials in comparison with

  10. Nocturnal thermal comfort in facilities for growing swines Conforto térmico noturno em instalações para suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sarubbi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In most of Brazilian pig farms, the environmental acclimatization systems run manually. For night and early morning periods, this practice isn't appropriate, because, in general, there are not employees available to run these manual systems. This research aimed to compare the bioclimatic profile of two differently constructed facilities to the external environment, considering the period from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. during the spring, in order to show that night and early morning temperatures do not coincides with growing pig's thermoneutral zone. For this reason, acclimatization must be also carried out at these periods. It was analyzed the dry bulb temperature, relative air humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI and enthalpy data of the sheds and external areas. Under the studied conditions, it was possible to conclude that the constructively appropriate shed appeared to be less influenced by the external environment, allowing better thermal control for growing pigs. Further research must be conducted to verify if automatic cooling systems is needed during night and early morning.Em grande parte das granjas de suínos no Brasil, os sistemas para climatização do ambiente funcionam com acionamento manual. Para os períodos matutino e noturno, esta prática não é adequada, uma vez que, nestes períodos, em geral, não há funcionários disponíveis para o acionamento destes sistemas. Por meio deste trabalho, objetivou-se comparar o perfil bioclimático de duas instalações construtivamente diferentes entre si e com o ambiente externo, considerando o período de 18 às 6h, durante a primavera, a fim de verificar que as condições de conforto térmico da noite e da madrugada podem apresentar-se fora do desejado para suínos em crescimento, e que, por esta razão, a climatização deve ser realizada também nestes períodos. Foram analisados a temperatura de bulbo seco, a umidade relativa do ar, o Índice de Temperatura e Umidade e a entalpia nos

  11. More Comfortable,More Fashionable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dow XLATM Elastic Fibers Leads the Trend Denim Today, when people are pursuing a free and comfortable life, fashionable style is no more the only criteria when choosing clothes. Whether the garment allows a great range of motion, whether

  12. Thermal comfort indices in individual shelters for dairy calves with different types of roofs Ambiente térmico no interior de abrigos individuais para bezerros com a utilização de diferentes tipos de coberturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. de F Fonseca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the building materials used in rural facilities, roofs are noteworthy for being largely responsible for thermal comfort, influencing the thermal balance within the shelter. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of roof on the Enthalpy (H, Thermal Load of Radiation (TLR, and Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index (BGHI in individual shelters for dairy calves. The design was completely randomized with three treatments: Z - zinc tile, AC - asbestos-cement tile and ACW - asbestos-cement tile painted white on the upper side. The averages were compared by the Scott Knott test at 1% probability. The results showed no statistical difference between treatments (PDentre os materiais de construção utilizados nas instalações rurais, merecem destaque as coberturas, pois são grandes responsáveis pelo conforto térmico, influenciando no balanço térmico no interior das instalações. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência das coberturas sobre a entalpia (H, Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR e no Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro e Umidade (ITGU, em abrigos individuais para bezerros leiteiros. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos: Z - telha de zinco; CA - telha de cimento amianto, e CAB - telha de cimento amianto pintada de branco na face superior. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott Knott, a 1% de probabilidade. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos (P<0,01 e o ambiente externo, para a H. Para a CTR, houve diferença estatística entre todos os tratamentos, em que CAB demonstrou menor CTR, 489,28 W m-², seguido do tratamento CA, 506,72 W m-², e Z com maior valor de CTR, 523,55 W m-². Para o ITGU, observaram-se menores valores para CAB (76,8 e CA (77,4, diferindo-se, significativamente do Z, que obteve maior valor (81,6. As telhas com pintura branca em sua face superior promoveram menor CTR e menor ITGU, favorecendo o ambiente térmico da

  13. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, van de, J.; Wagenberg, van, A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B; Brand, van den, MGJ Mark

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival ...

  14. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting. PMID:24547668

  15. Indoor Thermal Comfort: The Behavioral Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Barkenbus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of how indoor temperature settings have changed over time in the United States based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS. It is shown that Americans have moderately raised indoor temperature settings during the heating season over the past thirty years. It is also shown that most Americans keep their homes relatively cool in the summertime and are generally averse to implementing temperature setbacks. It is revealed that occupants in lower-income homes tend to set their thermostats higher in winter than other income groups, but that the most intense cooling tends to take place in both low-income and high-income homes. As expected, renters tend to heat and cool more intensively than homeowners. Getting Americans to change their temperature settings in order to save energy is not easy even though it comes with the promise of financial savings. The use of programmable thermostats thus far has proved unsuccessful. Greater utilization of social marketing to achieve energy savings is suggested, as well as a renewed effort on the part of electricity suppliers to work more closely with homeowners as part of the rollout of the “smart grid”.

  16. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    Results of simulations carried out on four different buildings with common windows, commercial low-energy windows and xerogel windows are presented. The results are the annual energy consumption for space heating and the indoor air temperature level....

  17. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2006-04-15

    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  18. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    insulated buildings (R > 5 m2.K/W). In case of single-storey building with a low level of insulation, the effectiveness of radiant terminals is lower due to the larger back losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding...... based on both radiation and convection. Radiant terminals have the advantage of making use of low grade sources (i.e. low temperature heating and high temperature cooling), thus decreasing the primary energy consumption of buildings. But there is a lack of knowledge on the heat transfer from the...... beam. The higher the air change rate and the warmer the outdoor air, the larger the savings achieved with a radiant cooling terminals. Therefore radiant terminals have a large potential of energy savings for buildings with high ventilation rates (e.g. shop, train station, industrial storage). Among...

  19. Thermal conditioning during the first week on performance, heart morphology and carcass yield of broilers submitted to heat stress - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18707

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eduardo dos Santos Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of thermal conditioning during the first week, and to verify the effect of this, upon the heat challenge by the end of the productive period on performance, heart morphology and carcass yield. A total of 980 Ross male broiler chicks randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design with 4 treatment and 8 replications totaling 32 experimental units. The treatments consisted of different temperature ranges in the first week of life: thermal comfort temperature, temperature below the comfort zone, temperature above the comfort zone and thermal oscillation. At 35 days of age four replicates of each treatment were submitted or not to heat stress in last week's rearing (27 and 32°C. Animals submitted to thermal conditioning in the first week of life showed no adaptation to heat capable of increasing production and carcass characteristics when submitted to chronic heat stress during the final rearing period. Metabolic disorders such as ascites syndrome and sudden death syndrome can occur in both broilers reared above the temperature of thermal comfort in the first week, as those submitted to heat stress from 35 days of age, considering the heart morphometric analysis performed on these birds.  

  20. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments......, influence the perception of comfort. To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visual environment and air quality) predominantly determine overall comfort and whether other factors unrelated to the...... by 52,980 building occupants. The results of the literature survey showed that thermal, acoustic and visual environments and air quality all influenced evaluation of the overall indoor environment and that thermal comfort was ranked in the majority of cases to be of slightly greater importance for...

  1. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and ac

  2. 天津地区既有办公建筑冬季室内采暖舒适阈值研究%INDOOR THERMAL COMFORT AND HEATING TEMPERATURE SETPOINT THRESHOLD RESEARCH FOR OFFICE BUILDING IN TIANJIN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓彦彬; 刘刚; 林晨怡

    2014-01-01

    本文针对提高办公环境舒适性与减少建筑能源消耗问题,选取了天津市区内7栋既有办公建筑进行冬季室内环境舒适度调研,通过仪器测量和人员主观问卷发放两种手段收集典型办公室室内环境参数和室内人员对办公环境的主观评价数据。室内舒适模型研究方面,以操作温度top为研究变量,建立主观热感觉(mTSV)适应性模型,与平均预测投票模型(mPMV)进行对比分析。研究室内空气设计温度变化时对单位空调面积冬季建筑采暖期能耗E的影响规律。研究还发现mTSV适应性模型90%满意率的冬季建筑能耗,比现有同满意率水平的设计标准冬季建筑能耗节能5%,具有节能潜力,因此该研究为地方室内环境设计标准的修订提供了依据。%To improve office rooms’ indoor environment and reduce energy consumption, this paper represent a research on indoor thermal comfort of 7 typical of ice building in Tianjin at winter. The field study and basic data col ection was done with two methods: indoor environment parameters testing and sending questionnaires. After that,according to the linear relationship between TSV(Thermal Sensation Vote) and top (operate temperature), an adapted mean Thermal Sensation Vote (mTSV) model was established to discuss the deviation between mTSV and mPMV. The low limit of indoor air temperatures(tamin)were calculated, based on dif erent levels of PPD(Predicted Percent Dissatisfied):25%, 10% and 5%. A typical ofifce building, which was set according to Tianjin’s public building energy saving design standard, was utilized to run several energy simulations to test the E (energy consumption) variation based on dif erent tamin. The results show that there was a strong quadratic term relationship between the E and tamin. And we can cut almost 5%of energy consumption without sacriifcing the level of indoor environment satisfaction by reducing heating design

  3. Avaliação do conforto térmico e desempenho de frangos de corte sob regime de criação diferenciado Evaluation of thermal comfort and performance of broiler chickens under different housing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar três sistemas de criação para frangos de corte industrial, visando caracterizar o ambiente térmico e o desempenho animal. O experimento foi realizado no decorrer de 42 dias, desenvolvido em módulos de produção, divididos em 15 boxes com 10 aves por box, submetidas a três sistemas de criação: semi-confinado com 3 m² por ave de área de piquete (SC 3, semi-confinado com 6 m² por ave de área de piquete (SC 6 e confinamento total (CONF. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC em parcelas subdivididas e médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey (P This research was conducted to evaluate three housing systems for broiler chicken production, aiming to characterize thermal environment and animal performance. The experiment was conducted over 42 days, developed in production modules, divided in 15 boxes with 10 birds per box, and submitted to three housing systems: semi-confined with 3 m² per broiler of paddock area (SC 3, semi-confined with 6 m² per broiler of paddock area (SC 6 and total confinement (CONF. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD, in split plots, with the means compared through the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The meteorological variables and comfort indices indicated the system of accommodation SC 3 as the one that allowed the better natural conditioning heat to the birds, presenting the average values of 25.4 °C, 69.9 kJ kg-1 and 75.7 for dry bulb temperature (Tbs, enthalpy (h and black globe humidity index (ITGU, respectively. Physiological parameters respiratory rate (mov min-1 and cloacal temperature (°C had mean values more appropriate to birds subjected to the accommodation system SC 3. The housing systems promote significant changes in performance of broiler chicken in relation to feed consumption (CR and body weight (PC in housing systems SC 3 and CONF, compared with SC 6, which presented performance losses.

  4. Numerical Simulation Study of theA320 Aircraft Cabin Thermal Comfort%A320飞机客舱热舒适性的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家泉; 梁小贝; 陈维兴; 李宗帅

    2015-01-01

    By the application of CFD method ,the three-dimensional model of A 320 aircraft in the first class cabin and the hu-man body was established .Analysis was carried out on the flow field inside the cabin .The simulation analyses the temperature field,velocity field at different supply air speed .The thermal comfort evaluation in the cabin is on the basis of Air Diffusion Per-formance Index .It is collected the temperature and wind speed value at the human head ’ s height on the six cross section near the body to calculate the cabin ’ s.The calculation results were tracing point and non -linear curve fitting ,and it is concluded that the cabin’ s as a function against the velocity of air supply outlet ,providing theoretical basis for the cabin air conditioning control .%应用CFD方法建立了A320飞机头等客舱内环境和人体的三维模型,对客舱内流场进行仿真分析,分析了在不同送风速度时的温度场、速度场。以客舱内的空气分布特性指标( Air Diffusion Performance Index ,ADPI)作为热舒适评价依据。在靠近人体附近的6个横截面上,采集人体头部高度的温度值和风速值,由这些采集到的数据计算客舱内的。计算不同送风速度下客舱内的,对计算结果进行描点和非线性曲线拟合,得出客舱内与送风口速度的函数关系,为客舱空调控制提供理论依据。

  5. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  6. Indoor Building Fuzzy Control of Energy and Comfort Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the fuzzy inference system controllers. They are employed in order to control actuator systems for thermal, visual and indoor air quality power consumption. The implementation of the Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC system, allows an stochastic interval range of comfort index as susceptible to human body, achieving numerous power demand values for the actuator operations. The potential benefit of the automated smart building are high-level comfort, improved device efficiency, environment friendliness and reduced energy consumption as well as cost. The simulation results are shown describing the behavourial relation for each control parameter with the power consumption.

  7. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  8. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  9. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  10. Avaliação do conforto térmico no aprendizado: estudo de caso sobre influência na atenção e memória Evaluation of thermal comfort in learning: study case about the influence in attention and memorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Concepción Batiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O conforto térmico, cujo avaliação é um processo de caráter psicofisiológico, busca adaptar o ambiente para que este ofereça melhores condições de saúde, segurança, rendimento e bem-estar. Este artigo verifica a relação entre conforto térmico na sala de aula universitária e o rendimento da atenção e da memória dos estudantes. Métodos de avaliação objetivos e subjetivos foram aplicados nessa verificação, como o questionário baseado no modelo proposto por Batiz e Goedert, o teste das figuras de Rey e o cálculo do PMV e PPD pelas expressões de Fanger. Constatou-se uma coincidência da ordem de 90,9% entre o PMV calculado pelas equações de Fanger e a avaliação subjetiva medida pela aplicação do questionário, demonstrando que o questionário é uma ferramenta efetiva para avaliação do conforto térmico. Constatou-se que 70% dos avaliados obtiveram resultados positivos no teste de atenção e memória. Todos os alunos que estavam em condição de conforto apresentaram resultados positivos.Thermal comfort is a psycho-physiological phenomenon that looks to environmental adaptations to provide better health conditions, and levels of safety, performance and comfort. This article examines the relationship between thermal comfort in university classrooms with students' attention and recall performance. Objective and subjective evaluation methods were applied, such as a questionnaire based on the proposed model by Batiz and Goedert, Figure of Rey Method and Fanger Method. It was observed that there is a 90.9 per cent coincidence between the PMV calculated and the subjective value measured. It shows that the questionnaire is an effective tool for evaluating thermal comfort. It was observed that 70 per cent of the students evaluated manifested a positive output in attention and memory tests. Positive results were obtained in the test by students in comfortable conditions.

  11. Chick embryo fibroblasts produce two forms of hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Orkin, RW; Toole, BP

    1980-01-01

    Cultured chick embryo fibroblasts derived from skin and skeletal muscle exhibit hyaluronidase activity both associated with the cell layer and secreted into the medium. Although both forms of the enzyme have a number of similar characteristics (R.W. Orkin and B.P. Toole, 1980, J. Biol. CHem. 255), they differ in thermal stability at neutral pH and in behavior on ion-exchange chromatography. Both forms of the enzyme are equally stable at acidic pH for long intervals, but the cell-associated hy...

  12. Níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina para leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico Net energy and ractopamine levels for finishing gilts under thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina em dietas para leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico. Foram utilizadas 40 leitoas com peso inicial de 67,4 ± 3,4 kg, distribuídas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 × 4, composto de dois níveis de ractopamina, 0 e 20 ppm, em combinação aos níveis de energia líquida de 2.300; 2.424; 2.548 e 2.668 kcal/kg de ração, com cinco repetições, considerando cada animal uma unidade experimental. O período experimental teve duração de 28 dias. A temperatura do ar, a umidade relativa, a temperatura de globo negro e o índice de temperatura de globo e umidade foram de 21,5 ± 2,8ºC, 91,7 ± 6,8%, 21,7 ± 2,9ºC e 70,1 ± 3,7, respectivamente. Houve interação entre níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina, uma vez que a inclusão de 20 ppm de ractopamina em dietas contendo 2.668 kcal de energia líquida/kg de ração ocasionou redução da espessura de toucinho e aumento da porcentagem de carne magra e do índice de bonificação de carcaças. A inclusão de 20 ppm de ractopamina proporcionou aumento do ganho diário de peso e melhora na conversão alimentar, proporcionando maior peso de carcaça quente e aumentando a quantidade de carne magra nas carcaças. Dietas suplementadas com 20 ppm de ractopamina melhoram o desempenho e aumentam a produção de carne em leitoas em terminação. A ractopamina é ineficiente em reduzir a deposição de gordura e aumentar o percentual de carne magra na carcaça de leitoas alimentadas com dietas contendo baixa concentração de energia. O nível de 2.300 kcal de energia líquida/kg de ração atende à exigência nutricional de leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico.This research was conducted to evaluate the net energy and ractopamine levels in the diet of finishing gilts kept under thermal comfort conditions. Forty gilts were used, with initial weight of 67.4 ± 3.4 kg, distributed in a

  13. Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    environmental conditions influencing comfort in the built environment were surveyed: thermal, visual and acoustic, as well as air quality. The literature was surveyed to determine which of these conditions were ranked by building users as being the most important determinants of comfort. The survey also...... air quality. Thermal comfort is ranked by building occupants to be of greater importance compared with visual and acoustic comfort and good air quality. It also seems to influence to a higher degree the overall satisfaction with indoor environmental quality compared with the impact of other indoor......The present paper shows the results of a literature survey aimed at exploring how the indoor environment in buildings affects human comfort. The survey was made to gather data that can be useful when new concepts of controlling the indoor environment are developed. The following indoor...

  14. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sliva,, D.

    2010-01-01

    (temperature increase by 4 K at the target area) above the room air temperature decreased the draught discomfort, improved subjects' thermal comfort and only slightly decreased the perceived air quality. Elevated velocity and temperature of the localized airflow caused an increase of nose dryness intensity and...... number of eye irritation reports. Results suggest that increasing the temperature of the air locally supplied to the breathing zone by only a few degrees above the room air temperature will improve occupants' thermal comfort and will diminish draught discomfort. This strategy will extend the...... supplied with a constant velocity of 0.4 m/s by means of personalized ventilation towards the face of the subjects. The airflow at 21 °C decreased the subjects' thermal sensation and increased draught discomfort, but improved slightly the perceived air quality. Heating of the supplied air by 6 K...

  15. Comfortability of a Team in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    S, Lakshmi Prabha; Janakiraman, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    There are many indexes (measures or metrics) in Social Network Analysis (SNA), like density, cohesion, etc. We have defined a new SNA index called "comfortability". In this paper, core comfortable team of a social network is defined based on graph theoretic concepts and some of their structural properties are analyzed. Comfortability is one of the important attributes (characteristics) for a successful team work. So, it is necessary to find a comfortable and successful team in any given socia...

  16. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  17. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The...... respiratory model predicts discomfort as a function of the driving forces for heat loss from the respiratory tract, namely the air temperature and humidity of the surrounding air. An upper humidity limit based on a relative skin humidity of 0.54, corresponding to 20% dissatisfied, results in a maximum...

  18. Effect of different combinations of air temperature and airflow velocity on human comfort and work efficiency under the same thermal sensation environment%相同热感觉条件下不同环境温度与风速组合对人体舒适性及工作效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔惟霖; 欧阳沁; 余娟; 曹国光; 李敏; 朱颖心

    2013-01-01

    在人工气候室中,利用不同的温度和风速组合营造使受试者热感觉(TSV)相同的环境,进行主观投票和模拟打字,考察相同TSV条件下不同环境温度与风速组合对人体舒适性及工作效率的影响.结果表明,在偏热的环境下,气流可以显著地改善人体的热感觉和热舒适;在TSV相同的情况下,高温、吹风的环境与低温、无风环境相比,受试者的热舒适度和对环境的可接受度差异不大,工作效率没有显著性差异.适当调高室内设定温度并辅以气流的调节,可保持人员的热感觉水平处于舒适状态,而且不会导致工作效率降低.%Abstract Creating the same thermal sensation environment using different combinations of air temperature and airflow velocity in a climate chamber,through the questionnaires and the tests of simulating typing work,studies the influence of different combinations of air temperature and airflow velocity on the comfort and work efficiency of the subjects.The results show that in warmer environment,airflow could improve thermal sensation and comfort significantly.When thermal sensation is the same,compared with lower temperature and still air,the thermal comfort,environmental acceptability and work efficiency of the subjects show no significant difference in an environment with higher temperature and airflow rate.It proves that a higher temperature environment with airflow is capable of maintaining acceptable comfort and good work efficiency in offices.

  19. Edge shape and comfort of rigid lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Hood, D

    1988-08-01

    One of the main factors determining the comfort of a rigid contact lens is the shape of the edge. The comfort of four different contact lens edge shapes was assessed with four unadapted subjects in a randomized masked trial. Lenses with well rounded anterior edge profiles were found to be significantly more comfortable than lenses with square anterior edges. There was no significant difference in subjective comfort between a rounded and square posterior edge profile. The results suggest that the interaction of the edge with the eyelid is more important in determining comfort than edge effects on the cornea, when lenses are fitted according to a corneal alignment philosophy. PMID:3177585

  20. Investigación sobre el confort térmico en taquillas, en aparcamientos de superficie, en Lisboa Investigation on thermal comfort in lockers in a car parking in Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélder Silva

    2011-12-01

    existencia de valores, en el ámbito estimativo, preferencia, aceptación y tolerancia de los trabajadores con el ambiente térmico en su puesto de trabajo, así como en el análisis de los insatisfechos con el modelo de pronóstico de confort que muestran un ambiente térmico no adecuado a la actividad desarrollada. Este estudio reveló que esta tendencia es más marcada en invierno. Obtuvimos resultados de las variables ambientales fuera de los valores límites legales y normativos, como es el caso de la temperatura ambiente y humedad relativa, así como correlaciones o evidencias de consecuencia donde interviene la variable temperatura operativa, temperatura radiante media y temperatura media exterior. El uso del modelo de pronóstico de confort, en condiciones idénticas a las definidas en el estudio, debe de ser utilizado con alguna reserva, especialmente en invierno. En ambientes de trabajo, con reducido número de trabajadores y con condiciones idénticas, se aconseja el uso de evaluaciones de confort térmico a través de métodos subjetivos, como el definido por la norma ISO 10551 (2001.At the present moment the definition of thermic comfort conditions is a developing theme in the international community, although this area of knowledge is incipient in Portugal. Nowadays, this topic is considered critical to the welfare, health and productivity of occupants of buildings. This study was based on the hypothesis that a model of thermic comfort could be applied to the job of clerk in a car park in Lisbon or if the model of subjective analysis would be more suitable for areas already occupied. On the other hand, we aimed to assess whether there are significant differences in the application of both models during summer and winter, as well as analyze possible correlations between a number a variables. Based on a bibliographic reviews, we created a questionnaire for subjective evaluation of thermic comfort and support for variables in the prediction model of comfort. We

  1. Avaliação dos índices de conforto térmico, parâmetros fisiológicos e gradiente térmico de ovinos nativos Assessment of thermal comfort indexes, physiological parameters and thermal gradient of native sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyla L. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar os índices de conforto térmico em instalações para ovinos, analisar os parâmetros fisiológicos e o gradiente térmico de quatro grupos genéticos, na região semiárida paraibana. Foram utilizados 40 animais, dez por grupo genético, que foram: Cariri, Morada Nova, Barriga Negra e Cara Curta, todas fêmeas, alojadas aleatoriamente em quatro apriscos. Os índices ambientais dentro das instalações, principalmente das 11 às 15 h, ficaram acima da zona de conforto térmico para ovinos adultos, com exceção da umidade relativa do ar, que ficou com média diária de 67,5%. A temperatura retal dos animais esteve dentro da faixa normal, sendo o grupo genético Morada Nova o que apresentou menor valor (38,6 ºC. A frequência respiratória dos animais em cada grupo genético ficou acima do valor recomendado, porém o Morada Nova apresentou o menor valor (43,5 mov min-1; em contrapartida, o Cariri e o Barriga Negra apresentaram os maiores valores (48,0 e 47,3 mov min-1, respectivamente. Os animais com pelagem mais escura e de maior porte, como os da raça Cariri, apresentaram maior gradiente térmico entre a temperatura do ar e a temperatura superficial. Os animais apresentaram alto índice de tolerância ao calor, ou seja, bem adaptados ao ambiente tropical, podendo o grupo genético Cariri ser caracterizado como o menos adaptado e o Morada Nova considerado o mais bem adaptado às condições experimentais.The objective of this research was to determine the thermal comfort indexes for sheep raising installations, analyze the physiological parameters and the thermal gradient of four sheep genetic groups in the semi-arid region of the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty animals were used, being ten individuals per genetic group; the groups were: 'Cariri', 'Morada Nova', 'Barriga Negra' and 'Cara Curta'. All of them females and randomly housed in four adequate installations. The environmental indexes inside

  2. Tecnology innovation related to comfort on commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M; Ferrero, D

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article is to show the Iveco activity in terms of comfort improvement in all its product Portfolio, focusing on innovation research and realization of tools to get better the life of the driver on commercial vehicles. Comfort related to the ergonomics, thermal, vibrational comfort and after-treatment system in order to improve the life of driver and passengers. It is to remember that Commercial vehicles have different use from a car. For example an heavy truck cabin is not only a place where to drive 8 hours a day, but it is at the same time, an office, a place where to eat, where to sleep and to have a rest. The effort in the last 10 years of Iveco is to improve the comfort of the life of the drivers, utilizing continuous research in standards and innovative systems in order to increase the security and life improvement, focusing also on worldwide legislation as a partner in European committees for health and safety. PMID:23213810

  3. Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banan K. Al-Baggou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2 on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67% and H2O2-treated (15-59% chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66% and H2O2-treated (15-30% chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of

  4. Winter Indoor Thermal Comfort and Its Influence on Energy Consumption of Air-conditioning System of Office Buildings in Nanning%南宁地区办公建筑冬季室内热舒适性及其对空调能耗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立星; 卢苇; 陈洪杰

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,according to the questionnaire and field test,the winter indoor thermal comfort of office buildings in Nanning was analyzed with the index of standard effective temperature ( SET), and the results were compared with those of other domestic regions. The results indicated that 80% people felt comfortable when the temperature ranged from 14. 4℃ to 23. 7 ℃ in SET, and the neutral temperature of thermal sensation was 19℃ in SET. The local residents were less sensitive to thermal environment than those in other domestic regiong. Furthermore, in the residents' acceptable range of indoor thermal comfort, air-conditioning system energy consumption increased with the rising of SET. In addition,if the neutral temperature was taken as the indoor design parameter and was compared with the specified value in national and local standards, the air-conditioning system energy consumption in Nanning would decrease by 6. 4% .%本文以问卷调查和现场测试数据为基础,采用标准有效温度SET探讨了南宁地区办公建筑冬季室内热舒适性,并与国内其它地区的研究进行了比较.研究发现,满意率为80%时的热舒适范围为14.4~23.7℃/SET,热感觉中性温度为19℃/SET;居民对热环境的敏感度较国内其它地区低;在当地居民可接受的室内热舒适范围内,空调能耗随SET的升高而增大;若以热中性温度为室内计算参数,与采用国家和地方标准规定值相比,南宁地区空调系统能耗将降低6.4%.

  5. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  6. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.; Johner, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4Tech S., Lausanne (Switzerland); Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Oliveira Fernandes, E. De [IDMEC-FUEP, Porto (Portugal); Mueller, B. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Aizlewood, C. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a checklist during a walk-through survey. Occupant questionnaires were used to determine satisfaction about comfort (thermal visual, acoustical and indoor air quality (IAQ)) and their health (Sick Building Syndrome and allergies). Building-averaged collected data are compared, looking for correlations between building characteristics on one hand, and perceived comfort and health on the other hand. Strong correlations are found between perceived IAQ, thermal, acoustic and lighting comfort, confirming results from other studies. Significant correlations between the perceived comfort and building related symptoms were also found, comfortable and healthier buildings being well distinct from uncomfortable ones. Differences of perceived comfort or health between low- and high-energy buildings show that it is possible to design buildings that are healthy, comfortable and energy efficient. (author)

  7. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Sedmera, David; Luptáková, L.; Mazenský, D.; Danko, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2012), s. 1312-1318. ISSN 1093-4529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Bendiocarb * central nervous system * chick embryo * liver * toxicity Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2012

  8. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Corinne Mandin; Célina Roda; Serena Fossati; Yvonne de Kluizenaar; Paolo Carrer; Sani Dimitroulopoulou; Victor G. Mihucz; Tamás Szigeti; Otto Hänninen; Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern...

  9. Comfort conditions in a bioclimatic building; Condiciones de confort en un edificio bioclimatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monne, C.; Turegano, J. A.

    2004-07-01

    In the present article we show the conditions of comfort reached in the residence of Proyecto Hombre (Turegano y Monne, 1996), designed under bioclimatic concepts, this using the study of the temperatures and relative humidity measured in the building during a period of one year. In the carried out study we distinguish the behaviour of each zone of the building, considering every period of the year, indicating the high level of comfort reached and the obtained thermal stability. (Author)

  10. Índices de conforto térmico e respostas fisiológicas de bezerros da raça holandesa em bezerreiros individuais com diferentes coberturas Thermal comfort indexes and physiological responses of holstein calves in individual houses with different roofings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Y. Kawabata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência de abrigos para bezerros, a partir de índices de conforto térmico (carga térmica radiante, índice de temperatura de globo e umidade e índice de globo negro, pela comparação entre abrigos cobertos por telha de cimento-amianto e telha de cimento- celulose. O experimento foi implantado num sistema de abrigos convencionais, tipo boxe, com cinco tratamentos: telhados de cimento-amianto, cimento-celulose, cimento-celulose pintado de branco e telhado duplo de cimento-celulose, todos expostos ao sol, e telhado de cimento-celulose em área sombreada. Foram realizadas cinco repetições (um bezerro por repetição, de setembro a novembro de 2002, em Pirassununga - SP. As variáveis fisiológicas registradas foram freqüência respiratória e temperatura retal. Os abrigos expostos ao sol e com telha de cimento-amianto apresentaram os índices menos satisfatórios quanto ao conforto térmico animal, em relação aos demais abrigos ao sol. Os abrigos com telhas de cimento-celulose e em área sombreada apresentaram os melhores índices de conforto térmico animal. Os resultados das variáveis fisiológicas foram melhores para o tratamento posicionado à sombra. Encontrou-se relação entre os resultados de conforto térmico e os fisiológicos, em especial para a freqüência respiratória.This work was focused in the efficiency of housing for calves, based on thermal comfort indexes (radiant thermal load, black globe humidity index and black globe index. It was compared animal housing covered with commercial corrugated sheets produced with asbestos cement and cellulose cement tiles. The experiment was carried out in a system of conventional housing, box type, with five treatments: roofs with asbestos cement tiles, cellulose cement tiles, cellulose cement painted tiles and double layer of cement cellulose tiles, all of them exposed to the sunlight and cement cellulose roof under shade. The experiment involved five

  11. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2005-05-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

  12. The relationship between seat pressure and comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Tan, T.K.; Morsch, F.

    2003-01-01

    Comfort van auto's en autostoelen is lastig te voorspellen. Door te zoeken naar een relatie tussen zitdruk en houding kan een voorspelling gemaakt worden: er is een zekere relatie gevonden tussen comfort, zitdruk en houding. Deze vinding kan gebruikt worden voor comfortvoorspellingen.

  13. The relationship between seat pressure and comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Tomorrow driver comfort will become more and more important for car manufacturers in distinguishing themselves from others. Today, comfort can only be assessed and tested very late in the design and construction process (often using prototypes). Potentially, biomechanic software provides a solution

  14. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality, and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index, and building characteristics (office type and building’s location. Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  15. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  16. Auralization studies on talker comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica; Torres, Rendell R.

    2003-10-01

    Although much research has focused on determining optimal acoustical environments for students in classrooms, relatively little has addressed the classroom as an acoustical workspace for teachers, who may suffer from stress and vocal strain due in part to poor acoustical environments. Although the primary problem is typically the background noise level (whether due to ventilation or students), it is also interesting to study systematically how controlling early reflections may improve the audible ``room response'' at the teacher's speaking location without inordinately increasing the reverberant level of the background noise. Moreover, the room response at the talker's position may help reduce the perceived need to strain the voice, as long as the reflections are not so delayed as to be disturbing. In this study approximately ten configurations of absorptive and reflective surfaces in a ``typical-sized'' classroom are auralized in real time. For each room condition, subjects rate the ``talker comfort'' in terms of perceived loudness of their speech, possible disturbance from echoes or increased background noise, and other factors. The primary descriptive physical parameter is essentially the relative amplitude and delay of clusters of early reflections, which are not always well characterized by the classical room-acoustics descriptors. Initial results of the modeling and subject testing will be presented.

  17. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  18. ComfortPower - System improvements and long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Catator has previously developed a novel heating system abbreviated ComfortPower in a RandD-programme supported by Catator, Swedish Gas Centre (SGC), Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), Skanska, Nibe and Alfa Laval. The ComfortPower unit comprises a multi fuel reformer system tied to a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEM) and a heat pump system. Since the residual heat from the fuel cell system can be utilized in a very effective way, it is possible to reach high thermal efficiencies. Indeed, the thermal efficiency in the unit has previously been shown to reach values as high as 175 - 200 % based on the lower heating value of the fuel. In addition to heat, ComfortPower can supply comfort cooling and surplus electricity. This project phase has focused on the following elements: 1. System improvements to further enhance the efficiency with existing fuel cell (HT-PEM). 2. System simplifications (e.g. DC-compressor system) to manage issues with start-up currents. 3. Tests with biogas qualities (various levels of CO{sub 2}) and biogas/air. 4. Long-term test with biogas quality (upgraded biogas). 5. Additional tests with liquid fuels (alcohols and diesel). 6. Map the need for cooling and heating in various applications. 7. Investigate how ComfortPower can reduce the primary energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. 8. Study the possibility with a SOFC-based system with internal reforming. It was found that the Optiformer technology can be used to derive a suitable reformate gas for the HT-PEM unit from a wide range of fuels. Even if operation with fuel gases is the natural choice in most cases, it is possible also to use alcohols and other liquid fuels (e.g. in Campus applications). The heat pump system was equipped with a 24 V DC-compressor provided by Nibe. The compressor could be directly powered by the accumulator system and start-up currents, harmful to the inverter, could be avoided. Some improvements were made on the

  19. New comfort index during combined conditions of moderate low ambient temperature and traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Human Living System Design; Horikoshi, T. [Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-03-01

    This study's aim is to propose a new comfort index for indicating the combined effect of cold and noise stress on the human state of mind. Twenty-two male students were exposed to twenty combined conditions involving four operative temperature levels and five noise levels. The subjects reported their sensations regarding each combined condition. The results show that the auditory condition significantly affected the hot sensation as well as the noise sensation, and that the thermal condition also significantly affected the noise sensation. Both temperature and noise affected obviously the universal comfort and discomfort sensations. Consequently, two kinds of equi-comfort charts were derived. One of the charts, which represents the equal universal comfort sensation derived from the combination of thermal and auditory comfort sensation, demonstrates the exclusivity of the combined effects. The other chart indicates temperature and noise levels in order to quantitatively evaluate the combined effect of cold and noisy conditions based on the experimental results. This chart can reasonably predict human comfort sensations within this experimental condition. (author)

  20. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  1. Acoustics and vibration comfort; Akustik und Schwingungskomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penne, Filip; Mueller, Torsten [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Akustik und Schwingungskomfort fuer die mittlere und grosse Modellreihe

    2008-11-15

    With the new BMW 7 Series, BMW is continuing its success story in the luxury class. Within the BMW product portfolio, the 7 Series is the pinnacle in terms of vehicle dynamics, fuel consumption and comfort. This unique combination of efficient dynamics on one hand and an extremely convincing level of comfort on the other hand comprises the character of this automobile. Vehicle acoustics and vibration comfort make a significant contribution towards the overall impression of ''sheer driving pleasure''. (orig.)

  2. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  3. CHICK PEAS EFFICIENCY IN HENS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Karapetyan A. K.; Kornilova E. V.; Struk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of the chick peas use instead of sunflower cake, in feeding young and adult livestock hens-layers of the cross "Hajseks brown". The researches were carried out in the JSC "Agrofirm Vostok" of the Nikolayevskiy district in the Volgograd region. The sunflower cake replacement with legumes - chickpeas as the part of the experimental animal fodder for young and adult livestock hens-layers had a positive influence on productivity, physiological state of the birds,...

  4. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  5. Total Wear Comfort Index as an Objective Parameter for Characterization of Overall Wearability of Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of physical comfort experienced by awearer under a given environmental condition isgreatly influenced by the tactile, thermal andmoisture transport properties of the fabric. An indepthstudy carried out to understand fabric handleand wear comfort in relation to fiber, yarn and fabricstructural parameter is presented in this paper. Theresults obtained from this study provide an invaluableinsight into engineering of required quality featuresinto the cotton fabrics so as to provide optimum wearcomfort. A comprehensive grading indexincorporating the transport attributes (air permeabilityand moisture and thermal transport of the fabric hasbeen derived to grade end use efficiency of the fabricjuxtaposing with fabric hand, which would finallydecide the overall quality of the apparel fabric.

  6. Optimization of Air Distribution with Orthogonal Test and Thermal Comfort Analysis in Commercial Aircraft Cabin%基于正交试验法的大型客机座舱气流组织优化及热舒适性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贺江; 吴尘

    2013-01-01

    A comfortable environment of commercial aircraft cabin is important for the market competitiveness of Chinese-made airplanes and a good air distribution can ensure the comfort. One of breakthroughs for China is the op-timization of air distribution for a certain airplane. This investigation first validated a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program with the experimental data of airflow and air temperature from MD-82, and 18 air supply schemes were designed with orthogonal test as well. Then the validated CFD program was used to calculate the air distributions of the 18 air supply schemes, and vertical temperature difference and local velocity were used to evaluate the perform-ance. Finally, the thermal comfort of the best air supply scheme was evaluated. The results showed that the unsteady RNG k-εmodel could predict the airflow in aircraft cabin with reasonable precision. The most important factor for air distribution of the cabin was the velocity of inlets which were located near the luggage rack, while the angles of air-flow from the inlets near ceiling had little impact on air distribution. The thermal comfort of the optimized air supply scheme was good with the predicted mean vote (PMV) of about -0.2.%  大型客机座舱的舒适性研究对我国自主研发的大型客机的市场竞争力具有重要意义.良好的气流组织是座舱舒适性的重要保证,而开展针对具体机型的气流组织优化研究是我国发展大型客机的突破点之一.为此,首先用真实 MD-82客机座舱的气流和温度的试验数据验证了计算流体力学(CFD)模型,同时依据正交试验法安排了18个送风方案;然后用验证的 CFD 模型对18个送风方案进行了数值模拟,以座舱内垂直温差及局部风速为试验指标对其进行了评价,得出了试验中的最佳送风方案;最后对得出的最佳送风方案进行了热舒适性分析.研究结果表明,所采用的非定常 RNG k-ε模型能

  7. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  8. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...... respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...

  9. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  10. Influência de diferentes materiais de cobertura no conforto térmico de instalações para frangos de corte no oeste paulista Influence of roof material on thermal comfort in broiler housings in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo da influência de diferentes materiais de cobertura no conforto térmico de instalações destinadas à criação de frangos de corte. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Câmpus Experimental da UNESP de Dracena - SP. Quatro protótipos em escala real foram construídos, com área de 28 m² cada, cobertos com telha reciclada à base de embalagens longa vida, telha cerâmica, telha cerâmica pintada de branco e telha de fibrocimento. Os dados foram coletados durante o período de inverno de 2007, totalizando 90 dias. Com esses dados, foram calculados os índices de conforto térmico Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR e a variável ambiental (Ta. Uma análise estatística por inferência e descritiva foi realizada com os valores do índice de conforto térmico e da variável ambiental. Com os resultados obtidos, é possível afirmar que a telha reciclada apresentou índices de conforto térmico semelhantes àqueles encontrados para as telhas cerâmicas. O protótipo coberto com telha de fibrocimento apresentou os maiores índices, e o coberto com telha cerâmica branca, os menores índices de conforto térmico. No entanto para o período de inverno e para os horários avaliados, todas as instalações apresentaram índices de conforto térmico fora da zona de termoneutralidade do frango de corte.This paper presents a different roof tiles influence study on the thermal comfort for broiler housings. The research was conducted at UNESP's Experimental Campus at Dracena, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Four prototypes in real scale were built, each with an area of 28 m². The prototype was covered with roof tiles made of recycled long-life packing material, ceramic tiles, ceramic tiles painted with white coating, and fiber/cement tiles. Temperatures inside the structures were recorded in the winter 2007 over a 90-day period. The results obtained indicated that recycled tile thermal behavior was similar to ceramic tiles. However for

  11. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient (R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  12. Estimation of some comfort parameters for sleeping environments in dry-tropical sub-Saharan Africa region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermal comfort in sleeping environments in the sub-Saharan Africa is presented. ► Comfort charts for the dry-tropical regions were established. ► Total insulation values for bedding systems range between 0.81 clo and 0.94 clo. ► Thermoneutral operative temperature ranges between 29.5 °C and 31.7 °C. ► Thermoneutral air temperature ranges between 27.1 °C and 29.6 °C. - Abstract: A human being spends approximately one-third of his/her life in sleep. For an efficient and peaceful rest, he/she therefore needs some level of comfort. This includes acceptable environmental parameters as well as suitable bedding systems. While the theories of thermal comfort in workplaces at daytime are currently well established, research on thermal comfort for sleeping environment at night is limited. Further studies in relation with sleep are needed. This paper presents an investigation on thermal comfort in sleeping environments in the sub-Saharan Africa region. The comfort equation used is based on the energy balance of the human body derived from Fanger’s comfort model. Comfort charts for the dry-tropical sub-Saharan Africa region were established using indoor climatic conditions collected over five years in Ouagadougou (12°22′N, 1°32′W). Results obtained show that the suitable monthly total insulation values for bedding systems in the dry-tropical regions range between 0.81 clo and 0.94 clo. The thermoneutral operative temperature range between 29 °C and 32 °C, while the thermoneutral air temperature range between 27 °C and 30 °C.

  13. Nomogram technique for designing buildings thar are thermally comfortable in summer; Nomogrammverfahren fuer die Planung von Massnahmen zum sommerlichen Waermeschutz. Raumtemperatur 26 C und nur selten waermer - sind Test-Referenzjahre zum Nachweis geeignet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaust, G. [ITA Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Technische Akustik Weimar mbH, Weimar-Legefeld (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    German Standard DIN 4108 ''thermal protection and energy economy in buildings'', part 2: ''Minimum requirements for thermal insulation'', defines minimum requirements for the design of buildings under summer conditions. While the current DIN 4108 specifies limits for the internal temperature depending on the climatic region, due to the complexity of the interrelationships no technique for calculating the room temperature is provided. In order to enable designers to estimate the room temperature during the early design stages with relatively little effort to ensure a robust design, a nomogram technique for dimensioning thermal protection under summer conditions is presented that takes into account all relevant parameters influencing the room temperature. These parameters are explained. The procedure for dimensioning thermal protection under summer conditions is illustrated by means of an example. (orig.) [German] In DIN 4108 Teil 2 ''Waermeschutz- und Energie-Einsparung in Gebaeuden, Mindestanforderungen an den Waermeschutz'' werden Mindestanforderungen an den sommerlichen Waermeschutz von Gebaeuden gestellt. Zwar werden nach der gueltigen DIN 4108 fuer die Innentemperatur in Abhaengigkeit von der Klimaregion Grenzwerte benannt, der rechnerische Nachweis der Raumtemperatur wird wegen der Komplexitaet der Zusammenhaenge jedoch nicht gefuehrt. Damit auch im Sinne von Planungssicherheit die Raumtemperatur bereits waehrend der Vorplanung mit verhaeltnismaessig geringem Aufwand vom Planer abgeschaetzt werden kann, wird an dieser Stelle ein Nomogrammverfahren zur Bemessung des sommerlichen Waermeschutzes vorgestellt, das alle wesentlichen, die Raumtemperatur beeinflussenden Groessen beruecksichtigt. Diese Groessen werden erlaeutert. Ein Beispiel verdeutlicht die Verfahrensweise zur Bemessung des sommerlichen Waermeschutzes. (orig.)

  14. Measuring the style of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the distribution of the hundred most frequent function words of two novelistic genres (chick lit and literature) gives insight into the genre styles. The results shows that the literary style is more descriptive and informational, whereas the style of the chick-lit

  15. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples

  16. Existence of Comfortable Team in some Special Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    S, Lakshmi Prabha; Janakiraman, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Comfortability is one of the important attributes (characteristics) for a successful team work in any organization. It is necessary to find a comfortable and successful team in any given social network. We have introduced "comfortability" as a new SNA index. Comfortable team exists only in some social networks. In this paper, we analyze the existence of comfortable team in product graphs, such as strong product and Lexicographic product of two given graphs.

  17. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englemann, P. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  18. Comfort Temperatures for the Low-Income Group in a Hot-Humid Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsandrie, Y.; Kurvers, S.R.; Bokel, R.M.J.; Van der Linden, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The results presented in this paper are part of the doctoral research that is being done at Delft University of Technology, Netherlands. One of the main objectives is to find the level of thermal comfort accepted by people from the low-income group in Surakarta, Indonesia. Personal aspects (gender a

  19. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether. PMID:6711983

  20. Índíces de conforto térmico e concentração de gases em galpões avícolas no semiárido Paraibano Indices of thermal comfort and gases concentration in broilers houses in the semiarid region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar os índices de conforto térmico e a concentração de gases no interior de galpões avícolas e suas influencias sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte comercias, em condições de verão, na região semiárida paraibana. Utilizaram-se dois aviários, um coberto com telha de cerâmica e outro coberto com telha de fibrocimento. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre a temperatura ambiente (TA, umidade relativa do ar (UR, temperatura da água de bebida (Tágua e da cama entre os galpões, sendo que os valores médios de TA (das 8h às 17h e UR (das 10h às 16h podem ser considerados fora do limite da zona de termoneutralidade recomendada para frangos de corte, como também a Tágua, no período diurno, ficou acima dos limites recomendados, que é de 24 ºC. Nenhum dos aviários apresentou concentrações de gases que oferecesse insalubridade para as aves e para os trabalhadores. Apesar de a Tágua e de os índices de conforto térmico, nos horários mais quentes do dia, estarem elevados, os índices produtivos ficaram dentro do estabelecido pela indústria avícola brasileira.The aim of this research is to determine the thermal comfort index, the concentration of gases inside the poultry houses and their influence on the performance of commercial broiler chickens, located in the Paraiba's semiarid region, in summer conditions. It was used two poultry houses, one of them covered with a ceramic roof and the other covered with fibrous cement roof. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between ambient temperature (AT, relative humidity (RH and temperature of the drinking water (Twater and the chicken litter between the warehouses, but the values average of AT (from 08:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and RH (from10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. can be considered outside the boundary of the comfort zone recommended for chicken broilers, but also the Twater was above the recommended limits

  1. Ventilação natural como estratégia para o conforto térmico em edificações Natural ventilation as a strategy for thermal comfort in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henor Artur de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma circulação natural de ar adequada dentro de um ambiente construído, além de auxiliar na diminuição do gradiente térmico, contribui para a renovação do ar interno. Este, dependendo do perfil de ocupação do ambiente, pode ser prejudicial à saúde. Uma circulação natural pode se constituir em uma alternativa eficiente na redução do consumo de energia no condicionamento de edificações. Nesse trabalho, estuda-se a ventilação natural, dirigida pela ação combinada das forças do vento e térmicas num ambiente. Avalia-se a eficiência da ventilação unilateral e cruzada, utilizando-se o método numérico de elementos finitos, por meio do software ANSYS. O modelo numérico é utilizado na determinação dos efeitos das forças do vento e das forças térmicas combinadas, obtendo-se o fluxo de ar e a distribuição de temperatura dentro do ambiente. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com resultados de modelos empíricos, observando-se que a eficiência da ventilação cruzada fica em torno de 3,5 vezes maior do que a ventilação unilateral, aumentando os vórtices no fluxo de ar no interior do ambiente.Appropriate natural air circulation within a structure reduces the thermal gradient, and contributes towards internal air renewal. This latter is important because, depending on the profile of occupation of the environment, the lack of this process can be harmful to the health. This type of circulation is an efficient alternative for the reduction of the consumption of energy in the conditioning of buildings. In this research, we studied natural ventilation, driven by the combined action of the forces of wind and thermals. The efficiency of the single sided and cross natural ventilation is evaluated, using the numerical method of the finite elements with the software ANSYS. The numeric model is used to determine the effects of the force of the winds and the combined thermal forces, resulting in the airflow and the temperature

  2. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  3. Comfort temperatures inside low-cost housing : case : six warm climate cities in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Azpeitia, G. [Colima Univ., Colima (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture and Design; Bojorquez, G.; Romero, R. [Autonomic Univ. of Baja California, Mexicali (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture and Design; Ruiz, P. [Autonomic Univ. of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture; Ochoa, J. [Sonora Univ., Hermosillo (Mexico). School of Architecture; Perez, M. [Autonomic Univ. of Yucatan, Merida (Mexico). Faculty of Engineering; Resendiz, O. [Autonomic Univ. of Baja California Sur, La Paz (Mexico). Dept. of Fishing Engineering; Llamas, A. [Autonomic Univ. of Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    Mexico's National Council for Housing and National Council for Science and Technology supported a research project on the thermal comfort and energy savings in low-cost housing in Mexico. The objective was to establish thermal comfort models and provide reliable diagnostic tools for architectural designers of low-cost housing. Another objective was to promote energy savings through the adjustment of operative temperatures in air conditioning equipment. The approach of the research was an adaptive one in order to evaluate the thermal sensation of individuals in their own habitat; allow the integral study of both physiological and psychological reactions; and consider the individuals as proactive occupants, in search of their thermal comfort. The results of a field study developed according to the adaptive approach principles were presented in this paper. The survey was carried out from 2006 to 2007 in low-cost housing units in 6 Mexican cities with warm climates. In all cases, the houses were naturally ventilated. The measuring periods were determined according to the climatic characteristics of each city. The results of the field study demonstrated the importance of having standards of thermal comfort specific to each location, which must be defined through the direct response of individuals and in the environment in which they perform their daily activities. The results also showed that in hot climates, acclimated people may find comfort in temperatures around 30 degrees C during the warmest seasons. Therefore, reducing the operating temperatures of air conditioning in such conditions represents a huge opportunity for saving electricity. 16 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  5. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  6. Questionnaire survey on factors influencing comfort with indoor environmental quality in Danish housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey in Danish homes investigated the factors that influence occupants’ comfort. The questionnaire contained questions on inhabitants’ behaviour, their knowledge as regards building systems designed for controlling the indoor environment and the ways in which they achieve comfort....... A total of 2499 questionnaires were sent to inhabitants of the most common types of housing in Denmark; 645 persons replied (response rate of 26%). The results show that the main indoor environmental parameters (visual, acoustic and thermal conditions, and air quality) are considered by occupants to...

  7. Effects of diffuser airflow minima on occupant comfort, air mixing, and building energy use (RP-1515)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Hoyt, Tyler;

    2015-01-01

    . However, there has long been concern whether comfort and room air mixing are maintained under low flows through diffusers, and this concern has prompted variable air volume minima to be typically set at 20%-50% of maximum. RP 1515 evaluated occupants' thermal comfort and air quality satisfaction in...... operating buildings under both conventional and reduced minimum variable air volume flow set-points, and measured the air diffusion performance index and air change effectiveness for typical diffuser types in the laboratory. The hypotheses were that lowered flow operation would not significantly reduce...

  8. Comfort During Digital Rectal Examination - Patient Preference*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziki Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sex and age of the physician performing the digital rectal examination (DRE procedure is one of the parameters influencing patients’ comfort. It is postulated that the stress related to DRE during admission to the surgical ward may affect the compliance.

  9. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort......Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants. This...

  10. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  11. Comfort as a precondition for energy reduction. Building Future; Comfort als voorwaarde voor energiereductie. Building Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsboom, W.; De Geus, A.; Opstelten, I.

    2009-05-15

    Can energy reduction in buildings be separated from comfort and productivity? If energy reduction leads to discomfort, users are often inventive enough to find solutions that solve the problem but increase energy use. One example is the installation of an air conditioning unit bought at the do it yourself shop (DIY) to solve overheating complaints in dwellings. Comfort and productivity can also lead to opportunities, though. [mk]. [Dutch] Kan energiereductie in gebouwen worden losgezien van comfort en productiviteit? Als energiereductie leidt tot discomfort zijn gebruikers vaak inventief genoeg dit teniet te doen door ingrepen die vaak leiden tot meer energiegebruik. Een voorbeeld is het plaatsen van airconditioning uit de bouwmarkt bij oververhittingsklachten van woningen. Comfort en productiviteit kunnen echter ook leiden tot kansen.

  12. Effect of Various Ring Yarns on Fabric Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort performance of woven structures made of various types of ring spun yarns like carded, combed, and compact spun yarns has been reported in the present study. Carded, combed, and compact spun yarns are entirely different in structure in terms of fibre migration inside the yarn body, level of free space inside the yarn, number of hairs, and length of hairs on yarn surfaces. In this study, 197 dtex and 144 dtex (30s Ne and 40s Ne ring spun combed yarns are used as a warp. The same cotton mixing was used to manufacture 30s Ne and 40s Ne carded, combed, and compact yarns. Both 30s and 40s Ne linear density yarns were prepared by all three carded, combed, and compact yarn manufacturing routes. The structure of fibre strand in filling yarn has a great impact on comfort related properties, that is, thermal conductivity, , air permeability, wicking, and moisture vapour permeability.

  13. Assessing occupant comfort in an iconic sustainable education building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The building that houses the Mirvac School of Sustainable Development at Bond University is the first educational building to achieve a six Green Star rating from the Green Building Council of Australia. It has won numerous awards since opening in August 2008 including being judged the RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Sustainable Building of 2009. After more than two years in use a post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out to assess the performance of the building from the viewpoint of the users; both resident staff and transient students. Results for factors such as lighting, thermal comfort, noise and air quality. were compared to benchmarks established by the Usable Buildings Trust. The evaluation also assessed the occupants’ perceptions of the building’s impact on their own productivity. Users generally find the building provides a comfortable work environment although a number of areas of performance were noted as posing some concerns. These included intrusive noise in some parts of the building and some issues with glare in daylit teaching spaces. Such concerns were found to be in accord with the results of previous studies and they highlight some recurrent problems in “green” buildings designed to maximise the use of natural ventilation and natural light. These design challenges and how occupant satisfaction is to be measured and benchmarked are also discussed in the context of this comparative building study.

  14. Interaction of human and chick DNA repair functions in UV-irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum-chick erythrocyte heterokaryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion of chick erythrocytes with human primary fibroblasts results in the formation of heterokaryons in which the inactive chick nuclei become reactivated. The expression of chick DNA repair functions was investigated by the analysis of the DNA repair capacity after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of such heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick erythrocytes with normal human or xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells of complementation groups A, B, C and D. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in normal human nuclei in these heterokaryons is suppressed during the first 2-4 days after fusion. The extent and duration of this suppression is positively correlated with the number of chick nuclei in the heterokaryons. Suppression is absent in heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chicken embryonic fibroblasts with XP cells (complementation group A and C). Restoration of DNA repair synthesis is found after fusion in XP nuclei of all complementation groups studied. It occurs rapidly in XP group A nuclei, starting one day after fusion and reaching near normal human levels after 5-8 days. In nuceli of the B, C and D group increased levels of UDS are found 5 days after fusion. At 8 days after fusion the UDS level is about 50% of that found in normal human nuclei. The pattern of UDS observed in the chick nuclei parallels that of the human counterpart in the fusion. In heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick fibroblasts with XP group C cells UDS remains at the level of chick cells. These suggest that reactivation of chick erythrocyte nuclei results in expression of repair functions which are able to complement the defects in the XP complementation groups A, B, C and D

  15. Specification of germ layer identity in the chick gastrula

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Qin; Matsumoto Kiyoshi; Chapman Susan C; Schoenwolf Gary C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chick definitive endoderm is an important source of signals that pattern the early embryo forming a central structure around which the body plan is constructed. Although the origin of definitive endoderm has been mapped in the chick, arising principally from rostral streak at elongating streak stages, it is not known when this layer first becomes fully committed to its germ layer fate, an important issue to resolve in light of its critical role in subsequent patterning of ...

  16. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  17. Calculation of Level of Comfort of the Micro-Climate in Buildings During the Estimation of the Energy-Saving Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prorokova, M. V.; Bukhmirov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the method of valuation of comfort of microclimate of residen-tial, public and administrative buildings. The method is based on calculation of the coefficient of thermal comfort of a person in the room. Further amendments are introduced to the asym-metry of the thermal radiation, radiation cooling and air quality. The method serves as the basis for a computer program.

  18. Calculation of Level of Comfort of the Micro-Climate in Buildings During the Estimation of the Energy-Saving Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Prorokova M.V.; Bukhmirov V.V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the method of valuation of comfort of microclimate of residen-tial, public and administrative buildings. The method is based on calculation of the coefficient of thermal comfort of a person in the room. Further amendments are introduced to the asym-metry of the thermal radiation, radiation cooling and air quality. The method serves as the basis for a computer program.

  19. The Comfort of Knitted Fabric as Affected by its Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried to investigate the effect of various knitted fabric structure on its comfort related properties. It was observed that, all comfort properties of knitted fabric have direct relation to its structure. The plain knitted fabric was found best for optimum comfort. (author)

  20. Domotics. Comfortable and energy efficient?; Domotica. Comfortabel en energiezuinig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wolferen, H.; Hendriksen, L.; Traversari, R. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    Insight is given into the added value of domotics (home automation) in the handling and control of comfort installations, focusing on comfort and energy consumption. Costs are indicated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de toegevoegde waarde van domotica bij de bediening en regeling van comfortinstallaties. Hierbij wordt de meeste aandacht gegeven aan comfort en energiegebruik. De kosten worden alleen indicatief besproken.

  1. COMFORT PROVIDING SYSTEMS IN SPACES WITH ACOUTIC INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz KLEKOT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High capacities of currently available devices for sound registering and processing have generated a need for sound insulated spaces dedicated to exchange of confidential information. In such spaces, preventing propagation of vibroacoustic signals both by the way of air and construction elements entails complete insulation of the room. In order to meet this requirement, proper chemical composition of air and stabilized temperature conditions have to be guaranteed. The paper discusses questions related to the process of solving the task of providing thermal comfort and satisfying air quality in a room for confidential discussions. It presents prototype solutions of installations dedicated to stabilize human-friendly conditions inside a modular chamber provided with acoustic insulation.

  2. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, M. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Brager, G. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Arens, E. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Bauman, F. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Benton, C. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' integrates an infrared occupancy sensor, door switch, radiant temperature sensor, and control logic to optimize room conditions while 'learning' about the occupant's preferred comfort zone. This paper focuses on how the joint requirements of the guests and the hotel management guided the design of the 'comfortstat' for increased occupant satisfaction and lower energy use in the hotel. The concepts are completely generic and could be applied to the design of comfort systems for other types of short-term occupancy. We present control logic flowcharts and typical examples of the action of the hotel 'comfortstat' in response to data received from the physical environment and/or human input. (orig./GL)

  3. Urban thermal diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KoenSTEEMERS; MarylisRAMOS; MariaSINOU

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the interrelationships between urban form, microclimate and thermal comfort. It draws on recent research of monitoring, surveying and modelling urban thermal characteristics and proposes a method of mapping urban diversity. Because the urban context provides a rich and varied environment that influences the way we use urban spaces (movement, sequence, activity) and how we feel in them (stimulation, thermal comfort), the aim here is to highlight the notion of diversity. Thus thermal diversity is used as a measure of the urban environment, rather than more conventional spatially or temporally fixed average values.

  4. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    OpenAIRE

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-01-01

    During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of the...

  5. CFD modeling of airflow for indoor comfort in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humid tropical environments air movement is a common means to achieving indoor thermal comfort. In many locations closer to the equator, breezes are weaker and less reliable. Whatever the source of air movement it is important to quantity its potential in terms of the percentage of time the air movement will be available and the likely speed of the air movement in occupied zone of a building. It is also important to establish appropriate thermal comfort criteria with respect to air temperature, humidity and air movement. There are a number of techniques for modeling air movement inside naturally ventilated buildings. Boundary layer wind tunnels provide an opportunity to both measure and visually observe such airflow through model building. It is important to model adjacent buildings and any significant landscaping features that will influence outdoor airflow patterns. Such studies are relatively expensive. The recent availability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software for personal computers offers an alternative method for modeling air movement inside naturally ventilated buildings. Very expensive versions of this software have been available for large computers and work stations for many years but they have only recently become available for smaller computers. There are some features of such software that should be compared before purchasing a copy or a license. This paper discusses such features in detail. It is important in the case of natural ventilation that adjacent buildings and any significant landscaping features that will influence outdoor airflow patterns are included in the modeling. This paper also stresses the importance of calibrating the CFD software output against some physical measurements or wind tunnel modeling to ensure that the CFD results are realistic

  6. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  7. Effect of Environmental Comfort Factors in Enclosed Transitional Space toward Work Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi J. Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The investigated area in this study was the enclosed lift lobby, which distinguishes itself as a unique form of region categorized under building transitional spaces. Such region may act upon on the work performance of occupants, as occupants are sensitive towards the conditions of immediate surroundings. The objective of this study was to investigate the occupants’ perceptions of environmental comfort in the enclosed transitional region with identification of current thermal, visual and acoustic conditions, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions towards work performance. Approach: This survey was performed using both objective and subjective assessments, where comfort related parameters were measured using electronic sensors and the outcomes were analyzed concurrently with results from questionnaire. Results: The results showed that thermal comfort prevails over other two parameters in defining human comfort in the enclosed building area and presumed by most respondents to have more significant impact on work performance. Besides, the environmental factors of the enclosed transitional space exert different level of influences towards work productivity of building occupants. Conclusion: It was necessary to maintain the environmental conditions in the enclosed transitional space, similar to the commonly occupied areas within a building. Further investigation on the individual behavior of occupants in the enclosed region of a building was suggested.

  8. Desiccant Cooling System for Thermal Comfort: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    HEMANT PARMAR; D.A. HINDOLIYA

    2011-01-01

    Desiccant cooling system (DCS) is alternate suitable option against conventional cooling system in humid climates. A typical system combines a dehumidifier that uses dry desiccant wheel, with direct or indirect evaporative systems and a sensible cooling system. DCS is the environmental protection technique for cooling purpose of the building. This system reduces the CFC level in the environment because it restricts the use of conventional refrigerant. In this paper, all the working principles...

  9. Instrumentation for thermal comfort measurements: The globe thermometer

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, Marc

    1987-01-01

    Globe thermometers of varying size and composition were compared in terms of response time and accuracy in predicting mean radiant temperature. It was found that larger globes (150mm) were most accurate but that much smaller globes (38mm) had significantly faster response times while sacrificing little in accuracy.

  10. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

  11. Improving PAQ and comfort conditions in Spanish office buildings with passive climate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P.M. Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M, Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.:15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Some researchers have demonstrated that passive moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic structures has the potential to moderate variations of indoor air relative humidity and, thus, to improve comfort and PAQ [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air 2002; 12: 243-51; Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. Espoo 2001. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 431.200p+app 91p]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions and, as a consequence of this, in comfort conditions and PAQ. In a previous paper [Orosa JA, Baalina A. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time. Building and Environment 2008], we analysed the influence of permeable and impermeable materials on indoor air conditions, during the unoccupied period, in 25 office buildings in different seasons. Results obtained lead us to conclude that real coverings such as permeable, semi-permeable and impermeable types, present different behavioural patterns in indoor air conditions. Furthermore, we concluded that an absorbent structure will moderate relative humidity indoors. In this paper, we study this indoor relative humidity effect on local thermal discomfort, due to decreased respiratory cooling, and indoor ambience acceptability for the early hours of morning applying PD and Acc models [Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits for indoor air humidity to avoid uncomfortably humid skin. Energy and buildings 1998; 28: 1-13; Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits of air humidity for preventing warm respiratory discomfort. Energy and Buildings 1998; 28: 15-23] such as that proposed by Simonson et al. [The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air

  12. Strategies for Sustainable Comfort in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    It is possible within some decades to achieve environmental sustainability in the building sector and at the same time provide a comfortable and healthy life for all Europeans as well as leaving that option open for other people in the world.Buildings are charcterized by having the longest lifetime...... these goals include phasing out all use of electricity for space heating and for hot water supply. Furthermore building codes should require new buildings to be very well insulated, 30-40 cm mineral wool, for instance, and low energy windows. Similar codes, although not always as strict, should be...

  13. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  14. Hypoxia adaptation and hemoglobin mutation in Tibetan chick embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU; Xiao; LI; Ning; LIAN; Linsheng; YAN; Dawei; ZHANG; Hao

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan chick lives at high altitudes between 2600 and 4200 m with a high hatchability and low land breeds survive rarely with a hatchability of 3.0% under hypoxia of simulated 4200 m. Under hypoxia of whole 21 d, the hatchability of Tibetan chick and Recessive White Feather broiler differed with a greatest disparity from day 4 to 11 and also significantly in other stages except from day 1 to 3. Hypoxia in each stage did not reduce significantly survival rate of this stage except hatchability. These two results indicated that the hypoxia in the early stage had an adverse effect on the later stage. All exons encoding chick hemoglobins were sequenced to analyze gene polymorphism. The functional mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu, related with hypoxia, was found in αD globin chain and the mutation frequency increased with increased altitude. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, the population with higher mutation frequency had a higher hatchability. The automated homology model building was carried out using crystal structure coordinates of chick HbD. The results indicated that the substitution Met-32(B13)-Leu provides a more hydrophobic environment which leads to higher stability of heme and oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The occurrence of the mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu is related to the origin of Tibetan chick.

  15. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  16. Glutamine synthetase and glutamyltransferase in developing chick and rat tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzfeld, A.; Raper, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Concomitant determination of ..gamma..-glutamine-hydroxylamine-glutamyltransferase (GT) and ..gamma..-glutamyl hydroxamate synthetase (GS) activities in chick retina, brain and liver between the 13th day of incubation and a day after hatching showed that while both activities increased late in incubation, in neural tissues their rises were not simultaneous throughout development; in liver both activities were already high on the 14th day of incubation and changed in parallel thereafter. GS and GT activities could be evoked prematurely in all three tissues by cortisol, but GT activity showed higher responses to the hormone. GT and GS were separable by differential solubilization in chick liver but not in retina of chick or rat. The wide spread of the ratios of GT : GS activities in homogenates of a number of chick and rat tissues (1 : 1 to 73 : 1) indicates that the GS reaction is not catalyzed by the same protein that catalyzes the GT reactions. Relative amounts of GT(T) (free of GS activity) and of variants of GS (with different competences to catalyze the GT reaction) may govern the changes between the two activities during development and their distribution among different adult tissues in chick and rat.

  17. Wind flows impact on pedestrian comfort study in a Joint Development Zone project

    OpenAIRE

    BIGORRE, Célie

    2015-01-01

    Passive gains are becoming essentials with the introduction of new buildings thermal regulations. To optimize such gains, districts ground plan have to be based not only on urban consideration, but on bioclimatic considerations as well. Bioclimatism first purpose is to take advantage of the local climate and modify it if needed to obtain as much passive gains as possible for the building performance and interior comfort to be improved. The second one is to create a good exterior climate and p...

  18. Whom are We Comforting? An Analysis of Comfort Medications Delivered to Dying Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janvier, Annie; Meadow, William; Leuthner, Steven R.; Andrews, Bree; Lagatta, Joanne; Bos, Arend; Lane, Laura; Verhagen, A. A. Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the use of end-of-life comfort medications or neuromuscular blockers (NMBs) in culturally different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Study design Review of medical files of newborns > 22 weeks gestation who died in the delivery room or the NICU during 12 months in four NI

  19. [Effect of various furniture covering fabrics on heat regulation and comfort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, M; Stidl, H G; Kundi, M; Haider, M

    1982-08-01

    The effects of three different materials for furniture fabrics (wool, polyacrylonitrile and Skai) on thermophysiological parameters and comfort were studied. In a laboratory design male, middle aged subjects were tested three times for three hours in a climate chamber, being exposed to internal and external thermal strains as well as to stress inducing situations. The outcome of this research suggests an essential influence of the structure of the tested materials but only small influences by the kind of fibres. The test situation "Skai" induced markedly different effects on skin temperature, skin moisture level and self rated thermal comfort as compared to both textile materials: A high sweat secretion followed by a continuously increasing moisture accumulation could be observed, especially for areas of the body surface which were tight contact with the material. Simultaneously a distinct skin temperature decrease at the back was found, which can be interpreted as a consequence of a high heat conduction due to the material itself as well as by sweat vaporization when the back was lifted from the backrest. The differences between the natural fibre- and synthetic fibre materials were generally small and occurred merely under heat stress conditions, where a pronounced reactivity of skin temperatures, skin moisture and heart rate could be observed testing the synthetic textile material. Being asked about thermal comfort, the subjects attributed their ratings to uncomfortable room climate conditions rather than to properties of the materials on which they were seated. PMID:7148203

  20. Generalization of visual regularities in newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolin, Chiara; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of learning and generalization of visual regularities in a newborn organism is provided in the present research. Domestic chicks have been trained to discriminate visual triplets of simultaneously presented shapes, implementing AAB versus ABA (Experiment 1), AAB versus ABB and AAB versus BAA (Experiment 2). Chicks distinguished pattern-following and pattern-violating novel test triplets in all comparisons, showing no preference for repetition-based patterns. The animals generalized to novel instances even when the patterns compared were not discriminable by the presence or absence of reduplicated elements or by symmetry (e.g., AAB vs. ABB). These findings represent the first evidence of learning and generalization of regularities at the onset of life in an animal model, revealing intriguing differences with respect to human newborns and infants. Extensive prior experience seems to be unnecessary to drive the process, suggesting that chicks are predisposed to detect patterns characterizing the visual world. PMID:27287627

  1. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  2. Modeling Daily Feed Intake of Four Strains of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gheisari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast growth rate is one of the main characteristics of broiler chicks which emanate from their high appetite. Probably it is right to say that broilers appetite depends on energy concentration of the diet but the optimum energy concentration of the diet is still highly disputable. Therefore taking into the account chick's real energy requirements, considering physiological and environmental changes relative to the values exhibited in chick's requirements tables seems to be a viable strategy for optimizing the production costs. Poultry nutritionists have been trying to make an accurate estimation of bird's energy requirements using statistical models. Energy models estimate energy considering different influential factors on bird's energy requirements. But since these estimative models express energy requirements as kcal day-1, it seems essential to know the amount of chick daily feed intake in different stages of growth which can help to formulate diets with optimum energy levels. Also, FI models can be applied in quantitative and qualitative feed restriction programs in order to assign optimum feed allocation. Considering the importance of an accurate estimation of birds daily feed intake and its impact on making these estimative models more practical, this study aimed at using four quadric regression models estimating daily feed intake relative to chick's daily body weight according to the data provided by Ross 308, Cobb 500, Arbor Acres and Lohmannn performance tables. The results led to the definition of four quadric regression models with a high coefficient of determination (R2. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a high correlation between daily feed intake and daily body weight changes in the foregoing strains of broiler chicks.

  3. Immunization of young chicks using graded dose of wild strain of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Kimbita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Eimeria tenella was isolated and utilized for immunization studies. Its optimal sporulation was attained at room temperature 24-25 °C after 24-48 h. Two groups of chicks were immunized by dosing a graded dose of five oocysts/chick/day for 6 days followed by 50 oocysts/chick/day for 7 days. A third group was not immunized and served as a negative control. Immunized chicks gained mass at the same rate as unimmunized ones, but when challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick, mass gains declined in the unimmunized group. The growth rate of immunized chicks was not affected by challenge (P > 0.05. Upon challenge, unimmunized chicks produced significantly more oocysts than immunized chicks (P < 0.005. Immunized chicks withstood a challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick without developing any clinical signs whereas the unimmunized chicks developed typical clinical signs of coccidiosis. Unimmunized chicks had significantly more severe lesions in the caecum than any other group (P > 0.005 and also produced significantly more oocysts than any other group (P > 0.005.

  4. CREATION OF A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT IN PREMISES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH ACCOUNT FOR ARCHITECTURAL, ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saltykov Ivan Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    The author provides his multiple-factor approach to the assessment and creation of a comfortable indoor environment with account for architectural, engineering and ecological parameters. Architectural parameters include indoor space arrangement, color solutions, etc. The engineering approach contemplates favorable acoustic, thermal, humidity and lighting conditions. Nowadays, the problem of the indoor microclimate is resolvable through the assessment of its conditions and furth...

  5. Individual thermal control in the workplace : cellular vs open plan offices : Norwegian and British case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Salome Sally

    2014-01-01

    This research is based on the challenge in the field of thermal comfort between the steady state and adaptive comfort theories. It challenges the concept of standard ‘comfort zone’ and investigates the application of ‘adaptive opportunity’ in the workplace. The research question is: ‘Does thermal control improve user satisfaction in cellular and open plan offices? Norwegian vs. British practices’. Currently, centrally controlled thermal systems are replacing individual thermal ...

  6. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  7. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  8. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  9. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van

    1971-01-01

    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  10. Indicators of functional differentiation of the chick embryonic kidney

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Zdeňka; Ujec, Evžen; Jirsová, Z.; Maňáková, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2002), s. 847-860. ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/98/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Chick embryo * Mesonephros * Glomerular filtration Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.274, year: 2002

  11. HOT WATER COMFORT TEST PROCEDURE FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS: PROPOSAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out.......A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out....

  12. The Digital Divide in Classrooms: Teacher Technology Comfort and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornisch, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A disconnect exists between students' comfort with using technology for learning and teachers' comfort in using technology for teaching. Students report the desire for more engaging technology-based assignments. Teachers cite multiple reasons for their hesitancy to use technology in their teaching. The current study investigates whether…

  13. Multi factor approach of the housing comfort. AMACH Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphe, L.; Arja, R.; Brejon, P.; Lopez-Lasso, N.

    1990-12-31

    The AMACH project (multi actor approach of housing comfort) aims at integrating the evaluation of housing, acoustic, visual and spatial comfort when a housing building is being designed. The project includes the decision process and the optimization responses in regard of the different constraints. (TEC). 1 tab., ills.

  14. Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Aries, M.; Dommelen, P. van

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that building, social and personal factors can influence one's perceived health and comfort. The aim of the underlying study was to get a better understanding of the relationships between these factors and perceived comfort. Self-administered questionnaires from 5732 resp

  15. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  16. Thermo-physiological comfort of soft-shell back protectors under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, Francesca; Ferri, Ada; Moncalero, Matteo; Colonna, Martino

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate thermo-physiological comfort of three back protectors identifying design features affecting heat loss and moisture management. Five volunteers tested the back protectors in a climatic chamber during an intermittent physical activity. Heart rate, average skin temperature, sweat production, microclimate temperature and humidity have been monitored during the test. The sources of heat losses have been identified using infrared thermography and the participants answered a questionnaire to express their subjective sensations associated with their thermo-physiological condition. The results have shown that locally torso skin temperature and microclimate depended on the type of back protector, whose design allowed different extent of perspiration and thermal insulation. Coupling physiological measurements with the questionnaire, it was found that overall comfort was dependent more on skin wetness than skin temperature: the participants preferred the back protector with the highest level of ventilation through the shell and the lowest level of microclimate humidity. PMID:27184322

  17. Advanced air distribution: Improving health and comfort while reducing energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    -quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing the......Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high....... The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air...

  18. Assessment of daytime physiologic comfort, its perception and coping strategies among people in tertiary institutions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyenike Mary Eludoyin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate understanding of the extreme thermal condition is as important as that of the averages for planners and policy makers. A significant knowledge gap exists in the physiologic comfort in many developing countries, particularly in the tropical region where thermal stress can pose significant threat to life because of inadequate infrastructure. This study examines the hourly variations in the physiologic comfort of Nigeria using the effective temperature, temperature–humidity and relative strain indices (ETI, THI and RSI, respectively. It also examines the perceptions of a selected sample of Nigerians, and their coping strategies to extreme conditions of cold and heat stress. The results showed that physiologic comfort in Nigeria exhibits variations across the different latitudinal locations; shows seasonal variations and is affected by local geography. Perception of the comfortable climate exhibits variation based on the latitudinal location of the respondents but the coping strategies vary with the wealth of individuals. The study showed that physiologic discomfort is severe in many parts of Nigeria (especially in the climate regions outside the montane climate but the infrastructure to cope with the thermal stress is either poorly known or unaffordable for the majority of the people.

  19. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf

    2012-11-15

    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  20. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  1. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO2 and comfort assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO2 concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO2 concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants

  2. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  3. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, M; Brager, G. S.; Arens, Edward A; Bauman, Fred; Benton, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' design grew out of a study of thermal control in a luxury hotel in San Francisco, California, USA. Hotel guests frequently arrive from widely disparate climates and have high expectation so of the thermal environment. Their short-term occupancy (for periods ranging from one day ...

  4. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  5. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  6. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  7. Evaluation of local thermal discomfort in a classroom equipped with cross flow ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, E. Z. E.; Lucio, M. M. J. R.; Vicente, V. D. S. R.; Rosão, Vitor

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the local thermal discomfort level in a classroom equipped with cross ventilation, for a typical moderate summer day in Portugal. Three different ventilation configurations based on window and door opening were considered. In each, the thermal comfort, air quality and acoustical comfort conditions were also evaluated. This experimental study was made in the South of Portugal, exposed to a Mediterranean climate. Thermal comfort was based on the PMV index, t...

  8. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1-14C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  9. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  10. Evaluation of vitamin E against deltamethrin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, U; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, K S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Kalakumar, B

    2003-10-01

    Deltamethrin toxicity was studied in broilers and vitamin E was evaluated for therapeutic management. Day old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 chicks in each. Group 1 was maintained as control for 6 wks, group 2 was fed on deltamethrin (100 mg/kg feed) for 6 wks and group 3 was fed on deltamethrin for the first 4 wks and during the subsequent 2 wks with vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed) with out deltamethrin. Weekly body weights, feed conversion ratio, glutathione (GSH) concentration and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were significantly (P biomarkers were increased significantly (P feed is useful in treating accidental toxicity. PMID:15266958

  11. Physiological and comfort effects of a commercial "cooling cap" worn under protective helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, P J; Bishop, P A; Green, J M; Richardson, M T; Lomax, R G; Casaru, C; Curtner-Smith, M

    2009-08-01

    Ballistic protective helmets can impair heat dissipation. A cooling device in the helmet (cooling pad, CP) could help prevent heat problems in military personnel and potentially enhance comfort. This study examined the effects of CP on rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, percent change in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, rating of perceived exertion, and other subjective measures while performing light work in a hot environment. It was hypothesized that the CP would act as an insulator to the head, which would not positively affect any physiological variable but could positively affect wearer subjective comfort or temperature. Participants performed a work protocol for approximately 2 hr. A ballistic vest, slacks, short-sleeved button-up shirt, and a ballistic helmet (one trial with CP and one trial without) were worn. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no differences (p > 0.05) between wearing and not wearing the CP for any physiological parameter. However, participants perceived the CP as cooler (p = 0.002). Other trends in perceptual data such as thermal strain and helmet comfort indicated the CP felt cooler. However, based on forehead temperature and participant comments, the CP lost its cooling ability relatively quickly (within approximately 30 min). PMID:19412861

  12. The Mind Through Chick Eyes : Memory, Cognition and Anticipation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Toshiya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Aoki, Naoya; Yanagihara, Shin

    2003-01-01

    To understand the animal mind, we have to reconstruct how animals recognize the external world through their own eyes. For the reconstruction to be realistic, explanations must be made both in their proximate causes (brain mechanisms) as well as ultimate causes (evolutionary backgrounds). Here, we review recent advances in the behavioral, psychological, and system-neuroscience studies accomplished using the domestic chick as subjects. Diverse behavioral paradigms are compared (such as filial ...

  13. Formation of Youth Identity in Indonesian Islamic Chick Lit

    OpenAIRE

    Novita Dewi

    2011-01-01

    This paper is to argue that literature studies may help reveal the formation of young Indonesian female Muslim identity by looking at the books they read and write. It will particularly discuss two popular Islamic Chick Lit Santri Semelekete [Funky Islamic Boarding School Girl] (2005) by Ma’rifatun Baroroh and Jilbab Britney Spears: Catatan Harian Sabrina [Britney Spears’ Headscarf: Sabrina’s Diary] (2004) by Herlinatiens. The first part of the discussion will examine some external aspects su...

  14. Paddy Straw as an Alternate Bedding Material for Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Burning of agricultural residues especially paddy straw is now recognized as a major source of environmental concern in India. Burning of huge quantities of paddy straw annually leads to emission of obnoxious gases thus causing adverse impacts on, health of human, animal and bird population. This practice can be discouraged through its utilization as an alternate litter material to commonly used paddy husk which is now available at costly prices because of its use in different industries thus raising the cost of broiler production. This was evaluated through the experiment during winter season conducted on broiler chicks. Broiler chicks (n=144 were distributed into three treatment groups, each having 4 replicates of 12 chicks with equal sex and ratio and average group weight, and reared up to 42 days of age under similar conditions of housing and management except the variation in litter material. Paddy husk (PH, unchopped paddy straw (UPS and chopped paddy straw (CPS were used as different litter materials. The growth parameters tested in the experiment were body weight, weight gain, FCR, PER, EER and carcass characteristics (viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts. The litter type had no significant effect on body weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and EER among all the treatments. The average body weight at 42 days of age was 1939, 1947 and 1960 g, respectively in PH, CPS, UCPS groups. The bedding type had no significant effect and no influence on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass, so it was concluded that paddy straw can be used as good bedding material for broiler chicks.

  15. Microarray analysis of normal and abnormal chick ventricular myocardial development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Eliška; Peševski, Živorad; Dealmeida, A.C.; Mrug, M.; Fresco, V.M.; Argraves, W.S.; Barth, J.L.; Cui, X.; Sedmera, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S137-S144. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * gene chip array * hypoplastic left heart syndrome * hemodynamics * gene expression Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  16. SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway in chick intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unidirectional influx of 36Cl- into isolated chick epithelial cells is 30% inhibited by 300 μM SITS. Characteristics of the SITS-sensitive flux pathway were examined in terms of sensitivity to changes in membrane potential and intracellular pH. Potential dependence was evaluated using unidirectional influx of [14C]tetraphenylphosphonium ([14C]-TPP+) as a qualitative sensor of diffusion potentials created by experimentally imposed gradients of CL-. Steady-state distribution of [14C]methylamine ([14C]MA) was used to examine for Cl--dependent changes in intracellular pH. Imposed Na+ gradients, but not Cl- gradients, induce changes in [14C]MA distribution. SITS does not alter the [14C]MA distribution observed in cells with imposed gradients of Na+ and Cl-. Both results suggest that inhibition of Cl- influx. However, if relative permeabilities for ion pairs via conductance pathways are compared, it can be shown that SITS causes a marked reduction of PCl relative to either PNa or PK. SITS also inhibits electrically induced influx of [14C]TPP+ or [14C]α-methylglucoside driven by imposed Cl- influx can be blocked by SITS. These observations are all consistent with a SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway associated with the plasma membrane of chick intestinal cells. No Cl--OH- exchange capability can be detected for chick intestinal cells

  17. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chen, Jian-Long; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26177723

  18. Numerical abstraction in young domestic chicks (Gallus gallus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rugani

    Full Text Available In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals.

  19. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter;

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  20. Ride comfort evaluation and suspension design using axiomatic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a theoretical formulation based on the axiomatic design (AD) approach to suspension systems for improving both ride comfort and static design factors (SDFs) of passenger vehicles. This approach was adapted to the kinematic design of suspension systems to create a decoupled or less coupled relationship between the functional requirements (FRs) and design parameters (DPs). SDFs related to wheel alignment and ride comfort are selected for FRs and suspension hardpoint positions are chosen for common DPs. A flexible commercial vehicle body model is used to mathematically express SDFs by defining the performance index and analyzing the dynamic characteristics for ride comfort evaluation. The sensitivity matrices are defined between the FRs and DPs. The SDF design sequences are proposed by using these matrices with the vehicle model. This study improves both ride comfort and SDFs by properly designing the kinematic DPs