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Sample records for chick embryo muscle

  1. Developmental changes of Insulin-like growth factors in the liver and muscle of chick embryos.

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    Liu, Yanli; Guo, Wei; Pu, Zhenyu; Li, Xueyuan; Lei, Xinyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors ( IGFS: ) are synthesized in tissues and play an important role in embryonic development of avian via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. In the study, mRNA expression of IGFs were detected by real-time PCR in the muscle and liver from d 10 to 20 of chick embryo ( E10: to E20: ). Methylation of IGF1 promoter in the muscle was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR as well as IGF2 promoter in the liver. These results showed that there was obviously IGF1 expression in liver at E19 and E20. The higher IGF1 expression in muscle was found during E15 to E18 with the peak on E17, and then declined. Correspondingly, the lowest methylation level of IGF1 promoter was detectable on the same embryonic d 17. Expression of IGF2 in muscle increased gradually during embryonic growth and showed higher level in the later stages (E17 to E20) when IGF1 expression began to decrease. IGF2 expression in liver reached the first peak on E14, then declined but gradually elevated from E17. IGF2 promoter methylation in liver showed gradual decline on d 12, 15, 17 and 19 of incubation, meanwhile IGF2 expression of liver increased gradually. These results suggested that IGF1 and IGF2 might separately be more important for muscle and liver growth in chick embryonic development. Variation of IGFs expression during the incubation might be concerned with the methylation of gene promoter. The profile of IGFs expression in chick embryonic tissues may be meaningful for understanding organ growth and embryonic development in chick.

  2. Toxicity of metal mixtures to chick embryos

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    Birge, W.J.; Roberts, O.W.; Black, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    The toxic effects of mercury/selenium and certain other metal mixtures on the chick embryo are examined to determine whether antagonistic, additive or synergistic interactions occur. White Plymouth Rock chicken eggs were treated by yolk injection with cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, zinc chloride and sodium selenate. Test aliquots were injected prior to incubation using the needle track procedure. Using a sample size of 200, percent survival was determined as hatchability of experimental eggs/controls. Metal mixtures used included mercury/cadmium, mercury/selenium, mercury/zinc, cadmium/selenium, and cadmium/zinc. Except for mercury/selenium, all other metal mixtures gave actual values that were within 5% of those for additive toxic effects. Actual hatchability frequencies for test concentrations of mercury/selenium indicated a moderate degree of synergism. Results indicate that the strong mercury/selenium synergism which affects embryonic development in the carp does not apply for the chick embryo; that most two-way combinations of cadmium, mercury, selenium and zinc exert purely additive effects on chick hatchability; and that these metal mixtures give no discernible antagonistic interactions which affect survival of chick embryos. (MFB)

  3. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  4. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  5. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van

    1971-01-01

    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  6. A Chick Embryo in-Vitro Model of Knee Morphogenesis

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    Edward K. Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this feasibility study, a mechanically loaded in-vitro tissue culture model of joint morphogenesis using the isolated lower extremity of the 8 day old chick embryo was developed to assess the effects of mechanical loading on joint morphogenesis. Methods: The developed in-vitro system allows controlled flexion and extension of the chick embryonic knee with a range of motion of 20 degrees from a resting position of 90-100 degrees of flexion. Joint morphogenesis at 2, 3, 4 and 7 days of culture was assessed by histology and micro MRI in 4 specimen types: undisturbed in-ovo control embryos, in-ovo paralyzed embryos, in-vitro unloaded limb cultures, and in-vitro loaded limb cultures. Relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG concentration across the joint was assessed with an MRI technique referred to as dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage where T1 is proportional to glycosaminoglycan concentration. Results: Average T1 over the entire tissue image for the normal control (IC knee was 480 msec; for the 4 day loaded specimen average T1 was 354 msec; and for the 7 day loaded specimens T1 was 393 msec. The 4 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 279 msec while the 7 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 224 msec. The higher T1 values in loaded than unloaded specimens suggest that more glycosaminoglycan is produced in the loaded culture than in the unloaded preparation. Conclusion: Isolated limb tissue cultures under flexion-extension load can be viable and exhibit more progression of joint differentiation and glycosaminoglycan production than similarly cultured but unloaded specimens. However, when compared with controls consisting of intact undisturbed embryos in-ovo , the isolated loaded limbs in culture do not demonstrate equivalent amounts of absolute growth or joint differentiation.

  7. IN VIVO TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES IN CHICK EMBRYO

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    Chandrapragasam Vani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Silica is one of the most effective stored seedand food grain protecting pesticide agent, usedfor ages Silica nanoparticles are hard and strong andresistant to brittle fracture under an imposed stress. The aim of our study is to synthesize and evaluate the toxicity of silica nanoparticles at various concentrations using chick embryo, as it serves as a bridging model between in vivo and ex vivo studies. Silica nanoparticles of 70 nm sizewith concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 PPM were injected in vivo and incubated for 19 days as per IACUC guidelines. The study was carried out on dissected chick embryo after the 19th day of incubation. Vital tissues such as liver and heart tissues were subjected to toxicity assays. Biochemical assay of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were assessed. The results showed a decreased level of MDA (Malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid Peroxidation, whereas increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were observed. Therefore silica nanoparticles may be used as a pesticide and also as a biomaterial for therapeutic application in the field of medicine.

  8. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

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    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  9. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

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    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

  10. The effects of solcoseryl on the growth and multiplication of chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated "in vitro".

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    Brasseur, R; De Paermentier, F

    1979-01-01

    The action of Solcoseryl, a free protein extract of calf blood, was studied on chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro. Solcoseryl stimulates the permitotic DNA synthesis and increases the number of mitoses.,

  11. Chick embryo proliferation studies using EdU labeling.

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    Warren, Michelle; Puskarczyk, Karolina; Chapman, Susan C

    2009-04-01

    Cell proliferation studies are an important experimental tool. The most commonly used thymidine analogues, tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label cells during S-phase. Both methods have significant drawbacks: low sensitivity in the case of tritiated thymidine and a denaturation step during BrdU detection that destroys most cellular epitopes, requiring careful optimization. The antibody against BrdU is also large and tissue penetration can be difficult. EdU (5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) is closely chemically related to BrdU, with detection achieved by a copper catalyzed reaction requiring a small fluorescently conjugated azide. Cell cultures, flow cytometry and high throughput studies using EdU-labeled cells is exceptionally fast and does not require denaturation or antibodies. We have developed a tissue-labeling technique in chick embryos using EdU. Following EdU chemistry to detect proliferating cells, the tissue can undergo immunolabeling. We demonstrate fluorescent EdU chemistry followed by Tuj1 antibody staining resulting in multiplex fluorescent tissues.

  12. A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo.

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    Borges, R M; Horne, J H; Melo, A; Vidal, J T; Vieceli, F M; Melo, M O; Kanno, T Y N; Fraser, S E; Yan, C Y I

    2013-09-01

    One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation.

  13. Effect of weak electromagnetic field on cardiac work, concentration of thyroid hormones and blood aminotransferase level in the chick embryo.

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    Pawlak, Krzysztof; Sechman, Andrzej; Nieckarz, Zenon; Wojtysiak, Dorota

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of alternating electromagnetic field (EMF; 50 Hz frequency, 50 and 100 μT induction) on cardiac work of the chick embryo. Eggs from the experimental groups were exposed to EMF throughout incubation. During the experiment, heart rate (ballistocardiographic method), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, heart weight, ventricle wall thickness, and levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. The results show, for the first time, that the exposure of chick embryos to EMF augments the heart rate, especially from 17 days of incubation. The increased heart rate in the embryos exposed to EMF was associated with considerable increases in plasma T4 and T3 concentrations, which were recorded during the final stage of embryogenesis. The significant effect of the 100-μT field on heart weight and blood AST levels in the embryos suggests that EMF has a direct effect on the physiological function of cardiac muscle.

  14. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo.

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    Stekelenburg-de Vos, Sandra; Ursem, Nicolette T C; Hop, Wim C J; Wladimiroff, Juriy W; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Poelmann, Robert E

    2003-03-01

    In the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical load of the embryonic myocardium. We investigated the instantaneous effects of clipping the right lateral vitelline vein on hemodynamics in the stage-17 chick embryo. 32 chick embryos HH 17 were subdivided into venous clipped (N=16) and matched control embryos (N=16). Dorsal aortic blood flow velocity was measured with a 20 MHz pulsed Doppler meter. A time series of eight successive measurements per embryo was made starting just before clipping and ending 5h after clipping. Heart rate, peak systolic velocity, time-averaged velocity, peak blood flow, mean blood flow, peak acceleration and stroke volume were determined. All hemodynamic parameters decreased acutely after venous clipping and only three out of seven parameters (heart rate, time-averaged velocity and mean blood flow) showed a recovery to baseline values during the 5h study period. We conclude that the experimental alteration of venous return has major acute effects on hemodynamics in the chick embryo. These effects may be responsible for the observed cardiac malformations after clipping.

  15. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

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    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  16. Comparison of Hensen's node and retinoic acid in secondary axis induction in the early chick embryo.

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    Chen, Y; Solursh, M

    1992-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and Hensen's node, the organizer center in the chick embryo, have been shown to have polarizing activity when applied or grafted into the chick limb bud. Here we investigate and compare the effects of RA and grafted Hensen's node on the early chick embryo. Anion exchange beads soaked with RA at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 ng/ml and implanted on the anterior side or on the left side of the host anteroposterior axis of a stage 4 chick embryo in ovo have the ability to induce secondary axis formation, while beads soaked with RA of the same concentration and implanted on the right side or on the posterior side of the host axis are unable to induce the secondary axis. All of the induced axes contain trunk-tail structures. Hensen's node from quail embryos implanted into the early chick blastoderm could also cause the formation of secondary axes in addition to self-differentiation of the graft into a secondary axis. Both RA and grafted Hensen's node caused the inhibition of forebrain development with an increase in hindbrain development and the host heart to loop in an abnormal direction. The results support the hypothesis that Hensen's node is a source of RA which is involved in early embryogenesis. Alternatively, RA might stimulate the formation of Hensen's nodal properties in adjacent tissue.

  17. Cytoskeletal heart-enriched actin-associated protein (CHAP) is expressed in striated and smooth muscle cells in chick and mouse during embryonic and adult stages.

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    van Eldik, Willemijn; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified a new Z-disc protein, CHAP (Cytoskeletal Heart-enriched Actin-associated Protein), which is expressed in striated muscle and plays an important role during embryonic muscle development in mouse and zebrafish. Here, we confirm and further extend these findings by (i) the identification and characterization of the CHAP orthologue in chick and (ii) providing a detailed analysis of CHAP expression in mouse during embryonic and adult stages. Chick CHAP contains a PDZ domain and a nuclear localization signal, resembling the human and mouse CHAPa. CHAP is expressed in the developing heart and somites, as well as muscle precursors of the limb buds in mouse and chick embryos. CHAP expression in heart and skeletal muscle is maintained in adult mice, both in slow and fast muscle fibers. Moreover, besides expression in striated muscle, we demonstrate that CHAP is expressed in smooth muscle cells of aorta, carotid and coronary arteries in adult mice, but not during embryonic development.

  18. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  19. Hypoxia adaptation and hemoglobin mutation in Tibetan chick embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Xiao; LI Ning; LIAN Linsheng; YAN Dawei; ZHANG Hao; WU Changxin

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan chick lives at high altitudes between 2600 and 4200 m with a high hatchability and low land breeds survive rarely with a hatchability of 3.0% under hypoxia of simulated 4200 m. Under hypoxia of whole 21 d, the hatchability of Tibetan chick and Recessive White Feather broiler differed with a greatest disparity from day 4 to 11 and also significantly in other stages except from day 1 to 3. Hypoxia in each stage did not reduce significantly survival rate of this stage except hatchability. These two results indicated that the hypoxia in the early stage had an adverse effect on the later stage. All exons encoding chick hemoglobins were sequenced to analyze gene polymorphism. The functional mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu, related with hypoxia, was found in αD globin chain and the mutation frequency increased with increased altitude. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, the population with higher mutation frequency had a higher hatchability. The automated homology model building was carried out using crystal structure coordinates of chick HbD. The results indicated that the substitution Met-32(B13)-Leu provides a more hydrophobic environment which leads to higher stability of heme and oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The occurrence of the mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu is related to the origin of Tibetan chick.

  20. EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF ETIZOLAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHICK EMBRYO

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    Shweta P. Alai et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are various drugs used in daily life. Some of them show hazardous effect on various organs and some of them shows even lethal effect. Such drugs are required to banned. One of them is Etizolam (marketed under the brand name Sedekopan, Pasaden or Depas is a drug which is a thiebenzothiodiazepines analog. The aim of this work is done to compare the effect of administration of the etizolam drug at (Zero-day before incubation and at the (5-day first week of incubation, to get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development of chick embryo. So that morphological and biochemical studies were done on the chick embryo of 8- and 16-days old chick embryos treated with (0.5mg/ml egg of etizolam on the (zero and 5-th days of incubation. Etizolam caused abnormality in concentration dependent manner. Enlarged remains of primitive streak was seen at 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml concentration of Etizolam embryo dies. Etizolam inhibit development of somites of the development of 5-day at of incubation also it does not allow the development of notochord. The toxic effects of the drug was seen also more at 16-days treated chick embryos and the drug induced death of chick embryo at both 8- and 16-days treated with 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml. The conclusion from this study was the etizolam drug has dangerous effects on tissues and with powerful toxicity on the cells, because the drug absorbed rapidly with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours and has a mean elimination half life of about 3 and a half hours.

  1. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

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    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  2. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stekelenburg-de Vos (Sandra); N.T.C. Ursem (Nicolette); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); A.C. Gittenberger-de Groot (Adriana); R.E. Poelmann (Robert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical

  3. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Hauten, B.A.M. van; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  4. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  5. Glutamine synthetase localization in cortisol-induced chick embryo retinas

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    We report here for the first time, in chick retina, Muller cell localization of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity by an immunohistochemical technique, in agreement with previous reports of glial localization of this enzyme in rat brain and retina. Age- dependent changes in the endogenous enzyme activity as well as cortisol- induced changes in GS activity, both in ovo and in vitro, measured biochemically, reflect the changes observed by staining.

  6. Hypoxia, hormones, and red blood cell function in chick embryos.

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    Dragon, Stefanie; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2003-04-01

    The red blood cell function of avian embryos is regulated by cAMP. Adenosine A(2A) and beta-adrenergic receptor activation during hypoxic conditions cause changes in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and CO(2) transport. Furthermore, experimental evidence suggests a general involvement of cAMP in terminal differentiation of avian erythroblasts.

  7. Chick embryo development as influenced by selenium in the egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, R.C.; Phalaraksh, K.; Bragg, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fertile chicken eggs were injected via the air cell with various levels (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 p.p.m.) of sodium selenite before incubation. Embryos were sacrificed at two, three and four days incubation as well as every other day from 6 to 18 days incubation. The accumulative mortality over 18 days of incubation for the controls, the two low levels of selenium and the two high levels of selenium was 8%, 24%, 37% respectively. Over 98% of all mortality occurred before six days of incubation. Embryo weights were depressed considerably at three days of incubation with all four levels of selenium, and at 2, 4 and 6 days when treated with 0.45 and 0.60 p.p.m. Se. Only two abnormal embryos were observed in this study. The supplementation of breeders with various levels of sodium selenite (0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 p.p.m.) was then carried out to determine the relative effect on embryo development through the hen. Dietary levels of 2.0 p.p.m. Se and above clearly depressed hatchability of total eggs set by the end of three weeks. The incidence of embryo abnormalities and malpositions was also quite high in the latter case. Therefore, the toxicity of selenium appears to depend on the mode of accumulation (i.e. injection vs. dietary). It would also appear that the form in which it is laid down in t

  8. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

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    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  9. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

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    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  10. Endosulfan Impacts on the Developing Chick Embryos: Morphological, Morphometric and Skeletal Changes

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    Y.M. Mobarak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effects of the organochlorine pesticide Endosulfan (35% EC on the developing chick embryos. After 24 h of eggs incubation, a single dose of 7 or 14 or 21 mg Endosulfan/egg was administered through the egg air space at once. The eggs were opened on embryonic days 6 and 12 and the embryos were evaluated for viability, wet body weights and various morphological, morphometric and skeletal changes. Skeletons of 12-day-old embryos were stained by alizarin red S and Alcian blue using a whole mount double cartilage and bone staining technique. Comparing the three doses with control and with each others, the high dose treatment resulted in statistically significant more embryonic deaths, while the mid-dose caused statistically more malformed embryos. On both embryonic days, the treated embryos exhibited dose-related growth retardation, as reflected by significant reductions of embryonic wet body weight, anterior-posterior head and crown-rump lengths as well as generalized edema and hematomas formations. Also, on embryonic day 12 significant reductions of beak length, eye diameters and measurements of wing and hind-limb parts were recorded. Abnormal survivors showed high percentages of limb deformities (as limb paralysis, clinodactyly, flexion and shortness of limbs or digits, microphthalmia, microtia and omphalocele. The skeleton of treated embryos showed anomalies and incomplete chondrification and/or ossification of some skull parts (interorbital septum, frontals, parietals, palatines and external auditory apertures, cervicals, scapulae, ribs, sacrals and caudals. These findings suggest that Endosulfan exhibits embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing chick embryos in terms of growth retardation, external and skeletal malformations.

  11. A descriptive study to provide evidence of the teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine and ephedrine on cardiac- and liver-tissue of chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Der Schoor, Ciska; Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan Jean

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to drugs during pregnancy is a major concern, as some teratogenic compounds can influence normal foetal development. Although the use of drugs during pregnancy should generally be avoided, exposure of the developing foetus to teratogens may occur unknowingly since these compounds may be hidden in products that are being marketed as "all natural." The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine-a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity-on the heart and liver tissue of chick embryos. Ephedrine was used as a positive control. The chick embryo model was chosen because it has been used in studying developmental and experimental biology and teratology with great success. The embryos were exposed to three different concentrations of sibutramine and ephedrine respectively. The results obtained revealed that both compounds exhibited embryotoxicity when compared to the control groups. Liver and heart tissue of the exposed embryos was severely affected by these compounds in a dose-related manner. Morphology similar to that of muscle dystrophy was observed in the heart, where the muscle tissue was infiltrated by adipose and connective tissue. Severe liver steatosis was also noted. A more in-depth investigation into the molecular pathways involved might provide more information on the exact mechanism of toxicity of these products influencing embryonic development.

  12. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

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    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  13. Modeling gastrulation in the chick embryo: formation of the primitive streak.

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    Bakhtier Vasiev

    Full Text Available The body plan of all higher organisms develops during gastrulation. Gastrulation results from the integration of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration of thousands of cells. In the chick embryo gastrulation starts with the formation of the primitive streak, the site of invagination of mesoderm and endoderm cells, from cells overlaying Koller's Sickle. Streak formation is associated with large-scale cell flows that carry the mesoderm cells overlying Koller's sickle into the central midline region of the embryo. We use multi-cell computer simulations to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the formation of the primitive streak in the chick embryo. Our simulations suggest that the formation of the primitive streak employs chemotactic movement of a subpopulation of streak cells, as well as differential adhesion between the mesoderm cells and the other cells in the epiblast. Both chemo-attraction and chemo-repulsion between various combinations of cell types can create a streak. However, only one combination successfully reproduces experimental observations of the manner in which two streaks in the same embryo interact. This finding supports a mechanism in which streak tip cells produce a diffusible morphogen which repels cells in the surrounding epiblast. On the other hand, chemotactic interaction alone does not reproduce the experimental observation that the large-scale vortical cell flows develop simultaneously with streak initiation. In our model the formation of large scale cell flows requires an additional mechanism that coordinates and aligns the motion of neighboring cells.

  14. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

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    Shi-Jie Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation.

  15. Chick embryos have the same pattern of hypoxic lower-brain activation as fetal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeremy P; Hawkins, Connor; Lee, Aaron; Coté, Alexandra; Balaban, Evan; Pompeiano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2), modest hypoxia (15% O2), or medium hypoxia (10% O2). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals. This difference may be explained by the greater anapyrexic responses of chick embryos relative to mammalian fetuses. Activation in the A1/C1 region was examined in more detail to ascertain whether an O2-sensitive subpopulation of these cells containing heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2) may drive hypoxic brain responses before the maturation of peripheral O2-sensing. HMOX2-positive and -negative catecholaminergic cells and interdigitating noncatecholaminergic HMOX2-positive cells all showed significant changes in cFos expression to hypoxia, with larger population responses seen in the catecholaminergic cells. Hypoxia-induced activation of lower-brain regions studied here was significantly better correlated with activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) than with that of HMOX2-containing A1/C1 neurons. Together, these observations suggest that (1) the functional circuitry controlling prenatal brain responses to hypoxia is strongly conserved between birds and mammals, and (2) NTS neurons are a more dominant driving force for prenatal hypoxic cFos brain responses than O2-sensing A1/C1 neurons.

  16. Uroporphyria development in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts long-term treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muys, J M; Morais, R

    1984-07-23

    Long-term chloramphenicol- and ethidium bromide-treated chick embryo fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of porphyrins from exogenously added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The porphyrins consist mainly of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrins and are retained within cells. Uroporphyria development is a time-dependent process which accompanies a step-wise decrease in the capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon removal of chloramphenicol from the medium, the pattern of porphyrin production readily returns to normal (mainly proto- and coproporphyrins found in the medium) while ethidium bromide-treated cells remain uroporphyric. The results suggest that impairment of mitochondrial functions in chicken by xenobiotics leads to uroporphyria development.

  17. Type II cytokeratin gene expression is indicative of early cell differentiation in the chick embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlebois, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Embryonic development in vertebrates appears to involve a series of inductive tissue interactions that lead to regional specializations, which eventually become elaborated in the basic body plan of the embryo. The inductive interactions leading to early regionalization of the embryo are often particularly difficult to evaluate because of the absence of available morphological or biochemical evidence that such events have occurred. In the 36 hour chick embryo, the regional subdivision of the early ectoderm is evidence by a marked lens-forming bias in the head ectoderm, which is absent in the presumptive dorsal epidermis of the trunk region. As a strategy for isolating genes whose differential expression might reflect this regional subdivision, a cDNA library from 36 hour embryos was prepared and screened for differential hybridization to ({sup 32}P)cDNA probes synthesized using template RNA isolated from 36 hour head ectoderm and trunk ectoderm. A cDNA clone (T4) was isolated which hybridizes to transcripts present at much higher levels in trunk ectoderm than in head ectoderm. Partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of this clone indicate that it represents a gene encoding a type II cytokeratin. The distribution of transcripts complementary to the T4 probe was evaluated in early embryos using RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization to tissue sections.

  18. Spontaneous and light-induced photon emission from intact brains of chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦珠; 于文斗; 孙彤

    1997-01-01

    Photon emission (PE) and light-induced photon emission(LPE) of intact brains isolated from chick embryos have been measured by using the single photon counting device. Experimental results showed that the intensi-ty level of photon emission was detected to be higher from intact brain than from the medium in which the brain was immerged during measuring, and the emission intensity was related to the developmental stages, the healthy situation of the measured embryos, and the freshness of isolated brains as well. After white light illumination, a short-life de-layed emission from intact brains was observed, and its relaxation behavior followed a hyperbolic rather than an expo-nential law. According to the hypothesis of biophoton emission originating from a delocalized coherent electromagnetic field and Frohlich’s idea of coherent long-range interactions in biological systems, discussions were made on the signifi-cance of photon emission in studying cell communication, biological regulation, living system’

  19. Precocious locomotor behavior begins in the egg: development of leg muscle patterns for stepping in the chick.

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    Young U Ryu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chicken is capable of adaptive locomotor behavior within hours after hatching, yet little is known of the processes leading to this precocious skill. During the final week of incubation, chick embryos produce distinct repetitive limb movements that until recently had not been investigated. In this study we examined the leg muscle patterns at 3 time points as development of these spontaneous movements unfolds to determine if they exhibit attributes of locomotion reported in hatchlings. We also sought to determine whether the deeply flexed posture and movement constraint imposed by the shell wall modulate the muscle patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Synchronized electromyograms for leg muscles, force and video were recorded continuously from embryos while in their naturally flexed posture at embryonic day (E 15, E18 and E20. We tested for effects of leg posture and constraint by removing shell wall anterior to the foot. Results indicated that by E18, burst onset time distinguished leg muscle synergists from antagonists across a 10-fold range in burst frequencies (1-10 Hz, and knee extensors from ankle extensors in patterns comparable to locomotion at hatching. However, burst durations did not scale with step cycle duration in any of the muscles recorded. Despite substantially larger leg movements after shell removal, the knee extensor was the only muscle to vary its activity, and extensor muscles often failed to participate. To further clarify if the repetitive movements are likely locomotor-related, we examined bilateral coordination of ankle muscles during repetitive movements at E20. In all cases ankle muscles exhibited a bias for left/right alternation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the findings lead us to conclude that the repetitive leg movements in late stage embryos are locomotor-related and a fundamental link in the establishment of precocious locomotor skill. The potential importance of differences

  20. Conotruncal anomalies induced in chick embryos by 2 MeV neutron radiation

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    Kawamura, Tsukasa (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1984-06-01

    Radiation of 2 MeV neutrons was used to induce conotruncal anomalies experimentally in chick. White leghorn eggs were exposed to a single dose of neutrons ranging from 50 to 250 rads at various stages of the development. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 209(40%) of 526 treated embryos;conotruncal anomalies (81/209 or 39%), simple VSD (56/209 or 27%), isolated aortic arch anomalies (69/209 or 33%) and others (3/209 or 1%). The conotruncal anomalies were induced at considerably high incidences by exposures during the 3rd day of incubation and the highest incidence was 74% in the cases malformed by 220 rads. The types of conotruncal anomalies observed were as follows: VSD with pulmonary overriding (52 cases), VSD with aortic overriding (11 cases), DORV (10 cases), truncus arteriosus (6 cases) and complete TGA (2 cases). Sixty (74%) of these cases had aortic hypoplasia, constituting coarctation or interruption complex similar to that seen in man. It is generally thought that the experimental production of complete TGA in chick appears to be impossible when utilizing ordinary teratogenic means. However, neutron radiation could induce this peculiar anomaly in chick.

  1. Lipid-mediated gene transfection into chick embryo retinal cells in ovo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, J; Bradford, R L; Adler, R

    2000-12-15

    Several lipofection reagents were tested on chick embryo retinal cultures using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene; best results were obtained with the GenePORTER (GP) reagent, which yielded approximately 4.4% of the cells with intense GFP fluorescence. Cell survival and structural differentiation appeared normal, but one of the immunocytochemical markers studied (visinin) was less frequently observed in GP-treated cultures. When similar plasmid-GP mixtures were injected into chick embryo eyes in ovo, bright GFP-fluorescent cells were observed in different retinal layers, without detectable detrimental effects on retinal morphology. Particularly extensive reporter gene expression was obtained upon intraocular injection of GP plus naked DNA from a RCAS retrovirus, which resulted in the development of abundant radial columns of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells, separated by columns of negative cells. We conclude that lipid-based transfection offers a quick, simple and fairly innocuous means for gene delivery into proliferating and postmitotic retinal cells, in vitro as well as in the developing eye in ovo, and that transfection of naked retroviral DNA can lead to extensive expression of foreign genes by retinal cells, bypassing the time-consuming steps required for the generation of high-titer virion stocks.

  2. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study

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    Mary Hydrina D'Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant.

  3. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

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    Ingrid R. Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1 regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues.

  4. Mitosis and cell death in the tail of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, C L; Bellairs, R

    1989-01-01

    Although somites develop from the mesoderm in the tail of the chick embryo, they do not form to the tip of the tail. Previous work has shown that this terminal mesoderm possesses many of the characteristics of the segmental plate mesoderm which gives rise to the somites in the trunk. This investigation is aimed therefore at understanding why the terminal mesoderm fails to form somites. Mitotic and pyknotic rates have been obtained for the tail region of chick embryos between stages 13 and 27. Embryos were treated with colchicine, so that the mitoses were blocked in metaphase, and counts were made on serial sections. The overall mitotic rates were highest between stages 15 and 18. Regions of high mitotic rate, which are an indication of cell synchrony, were found in the tail bud mesoderm though not in a consistent location, and only infrequently near the anterior end of the tail segmental plate. In the trunk however (Stern and Bellairs 1984) a single peak of cell synchrony was routinely found near the cranial end of the segmental plate. It is concluded that the cells of the tail mesoderm are less synchronised in preparation for somitogenesis than are the corresponding mesoderm cells in the trunk. A further conclusion is that the tail bud is not per se a region of high proliferation, though there are patches of high mitotic rate. The overall pyknotic rate reached a maximum at stage 25; peaks of pyknosis corresponded initially with the mitotic peaks and were associated with the ventral ectodermal ridge and the tail gut. By stage 25 however, the high levels of cell death were restricted mainly to the tip of the tail.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Spontaneous locomotor activity in late-stage chicken embryos is modified by stretch of leg muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Nina S; Ryu, Young U; Yeseta, Marie C

    2014-03-15

    Chicks initiate bilateral alternating steps several days before hatching and adaptively walk within hours of hatching, but emergence of precocious walking skills is not well understood. One of our aims was to determine whether interactions between environment and movement experience prior to hatching are instrumental in establishing precocious motor skills. However, physiological evidence of proprioceptor development in the chick has yet to be established; thus, one goal of this study was to determine when in embryogenesis proprioception circuits can code changes in muscle length. A second goal was to determine whether proprioception circuits can modulate leg muscle activity during repetitive limb movements for stepping (RLMs). We hypothesized that proprioception circuits code changes in muscle length and/or tension, and modulate locomotor circuits producing RLMs in anticipation of adaptive locomotion at hatching. To this end, leg muscle activity and kinematics were recorded in embryos during normal posture and after fitting one ankle with a restraint that supported the limb in an atypical posture. We tested the hypotheses by comparing leg muscle activity during spontaneous RLMs in control posture and ankle extension restraint. The results indicated that proprioceptors detect changes in muscle length and/or muscle tension 3 days before hatching. Ankle extension restraint produced autogenic excitation of the ankle flexor and reciprocal inhibition of the ankle extensor. Restraint also modified knee extensor activity during RLMs 1 day before hatching. We consider the strengths and limitations of these results and propose that proprioception contributes to precocious locomotor development during the final 3 days before hatching.

  6. Toxicity and EROD-inducing potency of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Broman, D. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Naef, C. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1991-08-01

    The toxicities (embryolethality) of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in chick embryos using a 72-h test. The substances, dissolved in peanut oil, were injected into the air sacs of eggs preincubated for 7 days. LD{sub 50} values were determined for the four most toxic of the 24 compounds. Benzo(k)fluoranthene was the most potent, with an LD{sub 50} of 14 {mu}g (56 nmol)/kg egg. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benz(a)lanthracene and benzol(b)naphtho(2,3-d)thiophene were a few times less toxic (LD{sub 50} = 39 {mu}g (140 nmol)/kg, 79 {mu}g (349 nmol)/kg and 82 {mu}g (350 nmol)/kg, respectively). The LD{sub 50} of benzo(k)fluoranthene was only about 5 times higher than that previously found for the most potent coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (LD{sub 50} = 3.1 {mu}g (9.4 nmol)/kg), in the same kind of test. The toxicities of 18 of the PAHs in this study have also been evaluated previously using a 2-week test in chick embryos. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, which had not been studied earlier in the 2-week test, proved to be almost as toxic as previously found for benzo(k)fluoranthene in that test. Several of the PAHs studied induced EROD activity in chick embryos, and, in general, the most toxic PAHs were also the most potent inducers of EROD. The highest enzyme activities were found after treatment with indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (12 times the control value) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (8 times the control value). However, due to the high toxicity of dibenz(a,h)anthracene, the dose used was 7 times lower than that of indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Following injection of PAHs on day 7, the EROD activities on day 10 were considerably lower than those obtained after a corresponding treatment with coplanar PCBs in an earlier study. Of the PAHs studied, some exhibited very high embryotoxicity. The most toxic PAHs induced EROD activity, suggesting that their toxicity was at least partly mediated via binding to the Ah receptor

  7. Absence of O sup 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase induction in chick embryo liver and brain following X-irradiation or treatment with bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammberger, I.; Tempel, K. (Munich Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    The presence of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AT) in liver and brain of chick embryos, chicks and hens was demonstrated. An induction of AT activity has only been found in the liver of chicks and hens 48 h after X-irradiation. The administration of methylmethanesulphonate to the chick embryo resulted 3-24 hr later in strong inhibition of AT activity accompanied by DNA alkylation. Under the same conditions, X-irradiation, dimethylnitrosamine and bleomycin exhibited no effect. The results are compared with those obtained in mouse, rat and human foetal tissues. (author).

  8. Early expression of hypocretin/orexin in the chick embryo brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle E Godden

    Full Text Available Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O neuropeptides are released by a discrete group of neurons in the vertebrate hypothalamus which play a pivotal role in the maintenance of waking behavior and brain state control. Previous studies have indicated that the H/O neuronal development differs between mammals and fish; H/O peptide-expressing cells are detectable during the earliest stages of brain morphogenesis in fish, but only towards the end of brain morphogenesis (by ∼ 85% of embryonic development in rats. The developmental emergence of H/O neurons has never been previously described in birds. With the goal of determining whether the chick developmental pattern was more similar to that of mammals or of fish, we investigated the emergence of H/O-expressing cells in the brain of chick embryos of different ages using immunohistochemistry. Post-natal chick brains were included in order to compare the spatial distribution of H/O cells with that of other vertebrates. We found that H/O-expressing cells appear to originate from two separate places in the region of the diencephalic proliferative zone. These developing cells express the H/O neuropeptide at a comparatively early age relative to rodents (already visible at 14% of the way through fetal development, thus bearing a closer resemblance to fish. The H/O-expressing cell population proliferates to a large number of cells by a relatively early embryonic age. As previously suggested, the distribution of H/O neurons is intermediate between that of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. This work suggests that, in addition to its roles in developed brains, the H/O peptide may play an important role in the early embryonic development of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  9. Ontogeny of circadian clock gene expression in the pineal and the suprachiasmatic nucleus of chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Naritoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Watanabe, Miwa; Namikawa, Takao; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2003-11-14

    Avian circadian rhythms are regulated by a multiple oscillatory system consisting of the pineal, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the eye. In the present study, ontogeny of circadian clock in the pineal and the SCN of chick embryo was examined using Per2 expression as a marker. A daily rhythmicity of Per2 expression was first detectable at embryonic day (ED) 18 in the pineal and at ED 16 in the SCN under light-dark (LD) cycles. The amplitude of the rhythmicity increased during the development. In contrast, little expression was observed during the development in constant darkness. These results suggest that although circadian clock matures by the end of the embryonic life in chicken, LD cycles are required for the expression of the Per2.

  10. Expression pattern of LINGO-1 in the developing nervous system of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafuji, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2005-12-01

    We isolated a chick homologue of LINGO-1 (cLINGO-1), a novel component of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR)/p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) signaling complex, and examined the expression of cLINGO-1 in the developing brain and spinal cord of the chick embryo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. cLINGO-1 was expressed broadly in the spinal cord, including the ventral portion of the ventricular zone, and motor neurons. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the dorsal root ganglion and boundary cap cells at dorsal and ventral roots. In the early embryonic brain, cLINGO-1 was first expressed in the prosencephalon and the ventral mesencephalon, and later in the telencephalon, the rostral part of the mesencephalon and some parts of the hindbrain. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the ventral part of the neural retina and trigeminal and facial nerves. We also found that cLINGO-1, cNgR1 and p75NTR were expressed in overlapped patterns in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion, but that these genes were expressed in distinct patterns in the early embryonic brain.

  11. Exposure to Excess Phenobarbital Negatively Influences the Osteogenesis of Chick Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Ren-Hao; Li, He; Chen, Jian-Long; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phenobarbital treatment also suppressed mineralization in both in vivo and in vitro long bone models. Next, we established that phenobarbital treatment delayed blood vessel invasion in a cartilage template, and this finding was supported by the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypertrophic zone following phenobarbital treatment. Phenobarbital treatment inhibited tube formation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it impaired angiogenesis in chick yolk sac membrane model and chorioallantoic membrane model. In summary, phenobarbital exposure led to shortened lengths of long bones during embryogenesis, which might result from inhibiting mesenchyme differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, and delaying mineralization by impairing vascular invasion. PMID:27746734

  12. ULTRASTRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY DIRECT ACTION OF CU2+ UPON EARLY CHICK EMBRYO

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    Delia Checiu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratological testing of sulphonate phtalocyanine (an alimentary blue dye synthetized by the Center of Chemisty, Timisoara, shown a strong malformative effect of this compound upon early chick embryo (48 hours of incubation, (Sandor, Checiu, Prelipceanu, 1985. Dye administration on day 2 of incubation (44-48 hours revealed a high rate of embryo mortality and abnormal modification of caudal segment or even a total absence of caudal tail bud. Living embryos until day 7 of incubation showed a normal development of the anterior body part (head and trunk in contrast with posterior body part which presented an abnormal position of posterior limbs, tail and trunk aplasia. The dye with the some name produced in Germany did not show (in the some experimental conditions a malformative effect. The only difference between the two dyes was the presence of Cu2+ in our compound. It is well known that chemicals and physics factors (X rayes, insuline, hypoxy, D-Actinomycine, sucrose, etc. are noxious, inducing malformations of caudal segment (tail bud, urogenital and anorectal abnormalities associated with cardiac, facial and SNC malformations (Landauer 1953, Shepard 1973. Abnormalities of esophagus, urogenital and anorectal region associated with those of caudal axial skeleton and posterior limb buds are involved in caudal dysplasia syndrome (Duhamel 1961 cited by Roux and Martinet 1962. This syndrome is frequent (1:1000 in children of diabetic mothers (Warkany 1971. Experimental works on mice suggested implication of genetic factors in pathogenesis of this syndrome (Frye et all.1964 cited by Warkany 1971. Previous investigations (Checiu et all. 1966 revealed a caudal malformative syndrome in chick embryos induced by Cu2+. It is well known capacity of some heavy metal ions to affect the formation and desintegration reaction of free radicals. The aim of this paper is to present a morphological study of caudal malformative syndrome (Checiu et all. 1999 and an

  13. Raphe of the posterior neural tube in the chick embryo: its closure and reopening as studied in living embryos with a high definition light microscope.

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    van Straaten, H W; Jaskoll, T; Rousseau, A M; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, E A; Greenberg, G; Shankar, K; Melnick, M

    1993-09-01

    Chick embryos cultured on a curved substratum show a transient enlargement of the posterior neuropore (PN), mimicking the temporary delay of PN closure as seen in the curly tail (ct) mouse mutant (van Straaten et al. [1993] Development 117:1163-1172). In the present study the PN enlargement in the chick embryo was investigated further with a high definition light microscope (HDmic), allowing high resolution viewing of living embryos in vitro. The temporary PN enlargement appeared due to considerable reopening of the raphe of the posterior neural tube, which was followed by reclosure after several hours. The raphe was subsequently studied in detail. It appeared very irregular, with small zones of apposed, open and fused neural folds. During closure, these raphe features shifted posteriorly. A distinct fusion sequence between surface epithelium and neuroepithelium was not seen. During experimental reopening of the raphe in vitro, small bridges temporarily arose, broke and disappeared quickly; they likely represented the first adhesion sites between the neural folds. More prominent adhesion sites partly detached, resulting in bridging filopodia-like connections; they probably represented the first anteroposterior locations of neural fold fusion. Our observations in the living chick embryo in vitro thus show that the caudal neural tube has an irregular raphe with few adhesion sites, which can be readily reopened. As a result of the irregularity, the PN does not close zipper-like, but button-like by forming multiple closure sites.

  14. A chick embryo with a yet unclassified type of cephalothoracopagus malformation and a hypothesis for explaining its genesis.

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    Maurer, B; Geyer, S H; Weninger, W J

    2013-06-01

    Cephalothoracopagus embryos are conjoined twins, who share parts of their heads, necks and bodies. Our study aims at presenting a detailed morphological analysis of a cephalothoracopagus chick embryo of developmental stage 31. Because none of the existing theories can explain the genesis of the phenotype of this embryo, we also suggest a hypothesis, which explains it. Beside the cephalothoracopagus embryo, we investigated five control embryos. With the aid of the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique, we created digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the organs and arteries of the embryos. We used the 3D models for topological analysis and for measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracic arteries. The malformed embryo showed two body backs, each containing a notochord, spinal cord and dorsal aorta. The body backs continued into separated lower bodies. The embryo had a single, four-chambered heart, single respiratory tract and single upper alimentary tract. The topology of the pharyngeal arch arteries was normal, and the diameters of these arteries were similar to that of the control embryos. We classified the embryo we investigated as a yet unknown malformation and suggest a hypothesis explaining its genesis.

  15. Exploring the caffeine-induced teratogenicity on neurodevelopment using early chick embryo.

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    Zheng-lai Ma

    Full Text Available Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a "legal drug", and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation.

  16. Histological characterisation of the ethanol-induced microphthalmia phenotype in a chick embryo model system.

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    Kennelly, Kevin; Brennan, Deirdre; Chummun, Kushal; Giles, Seamus

    2011-09-01

    The eye is a sensitive indicator of the teratogenic effects of ethanol with ophthalmic defects such as microphthalmia frequently observed in FAS children. In this study, we have optimised the chick-embryo model system to investigate ethanol-induced ocular defects. Injection of 20% ethanol (125μl) directly into the yolk sac of HH-stage 7 embryos resulted in an overall 30% incidence of eye anomalies including microphthalmia. Ocular measurements showed that this treatment regime caused a significant reduction in overall globe size. Histological examination of microphthalmic specimens revealed three subgroups: (1) all ocular structures developed but were significantly retarded compared to age matched controls, (2) the bi-layered optic cup developed but with no evidence of lens induction, and (3) the optic vesicle failed to invaginate but remained as a vesicular structure comprising of a single layer of retinal pigment cells with no evidence of a neuro-retinal cell layer or lens structure. Further analysis identified clusters of apoptotic bodies in the ventral telencephalon, a region responsible for the expression of important genes in ocular specification. These results support a growing body of evidence, indicating that ethanol targets inductive signals in early eye development involving lens formation and retinal ganglion cell differentiation. The possible involvement of Shh, Fgf8, Bmp4 and Pax6 is discussed in relation to these outcomes.

  17. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. effect on muscle growth of broiler chicks

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    Farman Ullah Khan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the aqueous seed extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek on the weight of breast, thigh and leg of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments i.e., A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. Groups B, C and D received the aqueous extract of fenugreek @ 10, 20 and 30 ml/L, respectively while group A served as a control. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. The data showed that weight of breast, thigh and leg were significantly (P<0.05 heavier in group C compared to control. It was concluded from this study that Trigonella foenum-graecum at the rate of 30 ml/L aqueous extract has a beneficial impact on the growth of these muscle tissues.

  18. Investigation of Interaction between Deferoxamine and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo

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    Atena Dashtizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferoxamine (DFO is an iron chelator. In the present research, the synergic effects of deferoxamine and electromagnetic field (with 50 H frequency and 100 Gauss intensity on angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 fertilized egg used and randomly divided 8 group: control group, laboratory control groups of 1 and 2, experimental group 1 (treatment with electromagnetic field, 2 and 3 (treatment with deferoxamine 10, 100 µmol, respectively, 4 and 5 (treatment both deferoxamine 10 and 100 µmol respectively and electromagnetic field. On 8th day of incubation, 2 and 4 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine and for 3 and 5 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine 100 µmol. On 10th day, 1, 4 and 5 groups were put in electromagnetic field. On 12th day, the number and length of vessels in all samples was measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19, ANOVA and t-test. Results: The mean number and length of vessels in the control and experimental cases did not show any significant differences. Comparison between mean number of vessels in the control and group 2, 3, 4, 5 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 and groups 2 and 4 was showed a significant decrease in the mean length of vessels compared with the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using deferoxamine with low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz and 100 G cause inhibition of angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

  19. The lathyrogenic effect of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) on the chick embryo and its reversal by pyridoxal.

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    LEVENE, C I

    1961-04-01

    When applied to the chorio-allantoic membrane of the chick embryo, isoniazid was shown to produce an increase in the fragility of the embryo and in the amount of collagen which was extractable from the bones with cold 1 M sodium chloride. The administration of pyridoxal reversed these phenomena almost completely. The effect of isoniazid differed from that of beta-aminopropionitrile in that the latter was of greater magnitude, and was not affected by pyridoxal; whereas beta-aminopropionitrile caused skeletal deformities, isoniazid even at 12 times the concentration produced no deformities. The aldehyde group of pyridoxal was shown to be necessary for its interaction with isoniazid.

  20. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

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    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  1. Localization and distribution of superoxide dismutase-1 in the neural tube morphogenesis of chick embryo.

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    Dhage, Prajakta A; Kamble, Lekha K; Bhargava, Shobha Y

    2017-02-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD- 1) is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates the levels of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen. ROS are known to play a significant role in various cellular processes, via redox modification of a variety of molecules that participate in signaling pathways involved in this processes. As the levels of ROS in cells are controlled by the levels of antioxidant enzymes, thus SOD-1 may be indirectly involved in regulating different cellular processes by maintaining the required levels of H2O2. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated the possible involvement of SOD- 1 in the neurulation during the development of chick embryo. During gastrulation, SOD- 1 immunoreactivity was observed throughout the ectoderm and cauda mesoderm areas, however, its presence during neurulation was restricted to certain areas of neural tube particularly in the dorsal neural tube where neural tube closure takes place. Assaying enzyme activity revealed a significant increase in the SOD activity during neurulation. Further, inhibition of SOD- 1 by Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) induced abnormalities in the development of the neural tube. SOD- 1 inhibition specifically affected the closure of neural tube in the anterior region. Thus, here we report the presence of SOD- 1 mainly in the ectoderm and tissues of ectodermal origin during gastrulation to neurulation which suggests that it may be involved in the regulating the cellular processes during neural tube morphogenesis.

  2. Ethanol- and/or Taurine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chick Embryos

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    Emily J. Berning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because taurine alleviates ethanol- (EtOH- induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage in rats, we asked whether exogenous taurine could alleviate EtOH-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Exogenous EtOH (1.5 mmol/Kg egg or 3 mmol/Kg egg, taurine (4 μmol/Kg egg, or EtOH and taurine (1.5 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg or 3 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg were injected into fertile chicken eggs during the first three days of embryonic development (E0–2. At 11 days of development (midembryogenesis, serum taurine levels and brain caspase-3 activities, homocysteine (HoCys levels, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, membrane fatty acid composition, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO levels were measured. Early embryonic EtOH exposure caused increased brain apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress, as measured by decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Although taurine is reported to be an antioxidant, exogenous taurine was embryopathic and caused increased apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress (decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Combined EtOH and taurine treatments also caused increased apoptosis rates and oxidative stress.

  3. Induction of interferon by temperature-sensitive mutants of Newcastle disease virus. [Uv radiation, chick embryos

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    Kowal, K.J.; Youngner, J.S.

    1978-10-01

    Spontaneously selected and mutagen-induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were used to study interferon induction in chick embryo (CE) cells at temperatures permissive (37/sup 0/) and nonpermissive (42/sup 0/) for virus replication. Both infectious and uv-irradiated virus were tested for interferon-inducing ability in cells pretreated or not pretreated with homologous interferon. At 37/sup 0/, only uv-irradiated NDV was capable of inducing interferon in cells not treated with interferon before infection. In cells pretreated with interferon, on the other hand, both unirradiated and uv-irradiated virus stimulated the production of interferon. At 42/sup 0/, the interferon-inducing phenotype for some uv-irradiated ts mutants was dependent on whether or not cells were pretreated with interferon. For example, out of 10 mutants examined, one uv-irradiated ts mutant induced interferon in both untreated and interferon pretreated cells; 7 mutants failed to induce in untreated cells but induced from 25 to 100 percent of the wild-type level of interferon in cells pretreated with interferon; and two mutants failed to induce interferon in both types of cells. In addition, one mutant (NDV/sub 0/ ts-100) induced low or undetectable levels of interferon at both 37 and 42/sup 0/, conditions under which wild-type virus (NDV/sub 0/) produced significant levels of interferon. Co-infection of cells with uv-irradiated ts-100 and a preparation of NDV/sub 0/ exposed to prolonged irradiation resulted in considerable production of interferon. These results suggest the possibility that more than one virus function may be involved in interferon induction by NDV in CE cells.

  4. Early determination of nasal-temporal retinotopic specificity in the eye anlage of the chick embryo.

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    Dütting, D; Thanos, S

    1995-01-01

    The retinotectal projection of the chick is established between Embryonic Days 3 and 13 (E3 to E13). Fate mappings of the eye anlage by local injections of the fluorescent dyes DiI and DiA revealed that the anteroposterior axis of the optic vesicle corresponds to the nasotemporal axis of the retina. To investigate possible alterations in retinotopic specificity after ablating parts of the early eye anlage, we resected either most of the presumptive temporal or a large part of the presumptive nasal half of the eye anlage around stage 11 of the Hamburger-Hamilton scale (40-45 hr). After such treatment, the axes are restored in the healed optic vesicle. In the healing process the wound is closed by cells moving in from surrounding areas. After early posterior (i.e., temporal) ablation, the projection from the restored temporal half-retina onto the optic tectum was examined in embryos (E13 to E17) and juvenile chicken (P16) by retrograde and anterograde labeling of ganglion cells and their axons with DiI and DiASP. Normally, only a small fraction of ganglion cells from the temporal retina (between 6.4% on E13 and 0.08% on P16) projects onto the caudal part of the tectum. In experimental embryos and juvenile chicken this fraction is significantly increased (up to 80%). Retrograde double-labeling from the rostral and the caudal tectum reveals that temporal cells project onto either the rostral or the caudal tectum, but not via collaterals upon both areas. The ganglion cells with "displaced nasal" identity within the temporal retina that were backlabeled from the caudal tectum were to a large extent segregated into distinct clusters, indicating their derivation from few or possibly even single progenitor cells. Likewise, ablation of the anterior half of the optic vesicle led to clusters of rostrally projecting cells of "displaced temporal" identity within the restored nasal retina. In these experiments the dorsal-ventral retinotectal relationship remained intact. The

  5. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks.

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    Philbey, A W; Button, C; Gestier, A W; Munro, B E; Glastonbury, J R; Hindmarsh, M; Love, S C

    1991-07-01

    Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had anasarca and 15 had mild, generalised, acute degenerative changes in the complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo mortality.

  6. Selective innervation of fast and slow muscle regions during early chick neuromuscular development.

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    Rafuse, V F; Milner, L D; Landmesser, L T

    1996-11-01

    The electrical properties of adult motoneurons are well matched to the contractile properties of the fast or slow muscle fibers that they innervate. How this precise matching occurs developmentally is not known. To investigate whether motoneurons exhibit selectivity in innervating discrete muscle regions, containing either fast or slow muscle fibers during early neuromuscular development, we caused embryonic chick hindlimb muscles to become innervated by segmentally inappropriate motoneurons. We used the in vitro spinal cord-hindlimb preparation to identify electrophysiologically the pools of foreign motoneurons innervating the posterior iliotibialis (pITIB), an all-fast muscle, and the iliofibularis (IFIB), a partitioned muscle containing discrete fast and slow regions. The results showed that the pITIB and the fast region of the IFIB were exclusively innervated by motoneurons that normally supply fast muscles. In contrast, the slow region of the IFIB was always innervated by motoneuron pools that normally supply slow muscles. Some experimental IFIB muscles lacked a fast region and were innervated solely by "slow" motoneurons. In addition, the intramuscular nerve branching patterns were always appropriate to the fast-slow nature of the muscle (region) innervated. The selective innervation was found early in the motoneuron death period, and we found no evidence that motoneurons grew into appropriate muscle regions, but failed to form functional contacts. Together, these results support the hypothesis that different classes of motoneurons exhibit molecular differences that allow them to project selectively to, and innervate, muscle fibers of the appropriate type during early neuromuscular development.

  7. Culture of domestic cat ovarian tissue in vitro and in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, J M V; Leonel, E C R; D'Oliveira, L; Paiva, R E G; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Amorim, C A; Pic-Taylor, A; Lucci, C M

    2016-10-15

    In vitro culture and transplantation procedures are essential protocols employed in the evaluation of ovarian follicle survival and development. Culture in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos is an intermediate method that provides important follicle development information and has not been tested for cat ovaries to date. The aim of this study was to investigate if in vitro and CAM culture could be used as short-term systems to study cat ovarian tissue development. The ovaries of eight cats were dissected into 3-mm(3) cubes, cultured in vitro and in CAM for up to 5 days, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome. Cell proliferation was analyzed using anti-Ki67. Possible differences among groups were investigated by analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni correction. The T-test or Wilcoxon test was used to verify differences between the CAM and IVC. Results revealed that 87.5% of all follicles were primordial during culture. The percentage of primordial follicles in the morphologically normal follicles (MNF) pool was always higher than 80%, with the exception of Day 3 of CAM culture, but the number of MNF reduced significantly from Day 0 (600 out of 777 follicles) to Day 5 in the CAM (91 out of 171) and IVC (296 out of 686). The number of primordial follicles in 1 mm(3) in Days 2, 3, and 5 in the CAM was significantly lower than that in the control (Day 0). No cellular proliferation was observed in culture. Vascularization occurred in the CAM culture, but with no association to follicular viability. In addition, both methods showed an increase in connective tissue during culture. Although no significant differences were observed in the percentage of MNF, there was a reduction in the total number of follicles, both for IVC and CAM-cultured ovarian tissue. Furthermore, anti-Ki67 did not stain any follicle after Day 0 in IVC or in CAM culture. Neither system was capable of promoting follicle growth and

  8. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick biventer cervicis muscle

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    B. Esfandiar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available biventer cervicis muscleD. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick EsfandiarAbstractBackground and Purpose: NO is a short-lived gas molecule generated by degradation of L-arg to citrulline and by the activation of enzyme NOS Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. There are multiple NOS isoforms that strongly are expressed in skeletal muscle, suggesting the crucial role of NO in regulating muscular metabolism and function. In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle.Materials and Methods: Biventer cervicis muscle preparations from chick’s age of 3 weeks were set up in the organ bath. The organ bath had a vessel with volume of about 70 ml; it contained Tyrode solution aerated with oxygen and was kept at 37º C. NO levels was also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometer method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite+nitrate was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules.Results: L-Arginine at 500 µg/ml, decreased twitch response to electrical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-arginine at 1000 µg/ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200 µg/ml. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000 µg/ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001.Conclusion: These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginie on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post-junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic

  9. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (Ptibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  10. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in cultured chick embryonic muscle treated with phospholipase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, R; Kent, C

    1980-11-25

    Cultures of embryonic chick muscle cells grown in medium containing phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens incorporated [3H]choline into lipid at a rate 3- to 5-fold higher than control cultures. To determine the mechanism by which stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurred in phospholipase C-treated cells, activities of enzymes and levels of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylcholine were examined. Activities of choline kinase, choline phosphotransferase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and phosphatidic acid phosphatase in phospholipase C-treated cells were the same or only slightly higher than in control cells. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, on the other hand, was 3 times as active in homogenates from phospholipase C-treated cells. Levels of phosphocholine decreased and levels of CDP-choline increased in phospholipase C-treated cells, and a calculation of the disequilibrium ratio indicated that the cytidylyltransferase reaction was not at equilibrium. The cytidylyltransferase was, thus, identified as the regulatory enzyme for choline flux in these cells. The cytidylyltransferase was located in both the cytosolic and particulate fractions from cultured muscle cells and a much larger portion of enzyme activity was associated with the particulate fraction in cells treated with phospholipase C. Sonicated preparations of total chick lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine greatly stimulated the cytosolic cytidylyltransferase activity but had no effect on the particulate enzyme. Neither stimulation of incorporation of [3H]choline into lipid nor activation of the cytidylyltransferase was dependent on protein synthesis. A model for the mechanism of regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in embryonic chick muscle is presented.

  11. Detection of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) glycoprotein D in MDV1-infected chick embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M; Jang, H K; Maeda, K; Kawaguchi, Y; Tohya, Y; Niikura, M; Mikami, T

    1996-08-01

    Chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) infected with three strains of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1), GA, Md5 and JM, were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against MDV1 homolog of glycoprotein D (MDV1 gD) of herpes simplex virus. By the MAbs, a number of MDV1 gD-positive cells were detected in CEFs infected with GA, whereas only a few and no positive cells were detected in CEFs infected with Md5 and JM, respectively. The MDV1 gD in GA-infected CEFs was recognized as the band of 64 kDa in immunoblot analysis using one of the MAbs. This is the first report that the MDV1 gD was detected in MDV1-infected cell cultures.

  12. Neurturin-GFRalpha2 signaling controls liver bud migration along the ductus venosus in the chick embryo.

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    Tatsumi, Norifumi; Miki, Rika; Katsu, Kenjiro; Yokouchi, Yuji

    2007-07-01

    During chick liver development, the liver bud arises from the foregut, invaginates into the septum transversum, and elongates along and envelops the ductus venosus. However, the mechanism of liver bud migration is only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a GDNF family ligand involved in neuronal outgrowth and migration, neurturin (NRTN), and its receptor, GFRalpha2, are essential for liver bud migration. In the chick embryo, we found that GFRalpha2 was expressed in the liver bud and that NRTN was expressed in the endothelial cells of the ductus venosus. Inhibition of GFRalpha2 signaling suppressed liver bud elongation along the ductus venous without affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, ectopic expression of NRTN perturbed the directional migration along the ductus venosus, leading to splitting or ectopic branching of the liver. We showed that liver buds selectively migrated toward an NRTN-soaked bead in vitro. These data represent a new model for liver bud migration: NRTN secreted from endothelial cells functions as a chemoattractant to direct the migration of the GFRalpha2-expressing liver bud in early liver development.

  13. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

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    Rodríguez-Burgos Antonio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9 showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature.

  14. Establishment of a transplantation tumor model of human osteosarcoma in chick embryo%人骨肉瘤鸡胚移植瘤模型的建立及其生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Wang; Lihong Wang; Lin Cai

    2009-01-01

    eosarcoma. Conclusion: It is feasible to establish a transplantation tumor model of human osteosarcoma in chick embryo. The model can be easily duplicated with a simple operation, which provides a useful animal model for studying osteosarcoma.

  15. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara M Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system.

  16. Analysis of retinal cell development in chick embryo by immunohistochemistry and in ovo electroporation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashkova Anna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal cell development has been extensively investigated; however, the current knowledge of dynamic morphological and molecular changes is not yet complete. Results This study was aimed at revealing the dynamic morphological and molecular changes in retinal cell development during the embryonic stages using a new method of targeted retinal injection, in ovo electroporation, and immunohistochemistry techniques. A plasmid DNA that expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP as a marker was delivered into the sub-retinal space to transfect the chick retinal stem/progenitor cells at embryonic day 3 (E3 or E4 with the aid of pulses of electric current. The transfected retinal tissues were analyzed at various stages during chick development from near the start of neurogenesis at E4 to near the end of neurogenesis at E18. The expression of GFP allowed for clear visualization of cell morphologies and retinal laminar locations for the indication of retinal cell identity. Immunohistochemistry using cell type-specific markers (e.g., Visinin, Xap-1, Lim1+2, Pkcα, NeuN, Pax6, Brn3a, Vimentin, etc. allowed further confirmation of retinal cell types. The composition of retinal cell types was then determined over time by counting the number of GFP-expressing cells observed with morphological characteristics specific to the various retinal cell types. Conclusion The new method of retinal injection and electroporation at E3 - E4 allows the visualization of all retinal cell types, including the late-born neurons, e.g., bipolar cells at a level of single cells, which has been difficult with a conventional method with injection and electroporation at E1.5. Based on data collected from analyses of cell morphology, laminar locations in the retina, immunohistochemistry, and cell counts of GFP-expressing cells, the time-line and dynamic morphological and molecular changes of retinal cell development were determined. These data provide more

  17. Fractal analysis of extra-embryonic vessels of chick embryos under the effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Lins Borba, Fernanda Katharine; Felix, Giovanni Loos Queiroz; Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Silva, Lisie; Dias, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque Nogueira, Romildo

    2016-05-01

    Like heparan sulfate proteoglycans, some monosaccharides and glycosaminoglycans, such as sulfated glucosamine (GS) and chondroitin (CS), integrate the vascular extracellular matrix and may influence vascular endothelial cell growth. To assess the effects of these substances on blood vessel formation, we used the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model and fractal geometry quantification, which provided an objective in vivo method for testing potential agents that promote vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. An image processing method was developed to evaluate YSM capillary vessels after they were implanted in a methylcellulose disk of GS or CS at a concentration between 0.001-0.1mg/disk (performed on 2-day old embryos). This method resulted in a binary image of the microvascular network (white vessels on a black background). Fractal box-counting (DBC) and information (DINF) dimensions were used to quantify the activity of GS and CS in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. YSM treated with GS (0.001-0.1mg) and CS (0.03-0.1mg) showed an increase in fractal dimensions that corresponded to vitelline vessel growth compared to the control group (vehicle), with GS displaying higher fractal dimension values.

  18. Toxicity and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase-inducing potency of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Andersson, L.

    1988-10-01

    The toxicities of the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) were compared in a 72-h study on chick embryos. The substances were injectied into the air sacs of hens's eggs preincubated for 7 days. Mortality was measured 72 h later and corresponding LD/sub 50/ values were calculated. The rank order of toxicity was PeCB>TCB>HCB. Using the same injection procedure, the potencies of these chlorobiphenyls with regard to their induction of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were compared. The ranking order of the substances as inducers was the same as their order when ranked according to toxicity. The three coplanar chlorobiphenyls were considerably more toxic and potent as inducers than the non-planar 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. In a 2-week toxicity study, PeCB and HCB were injected into the yolks of hens' eggs preincubated for 4 days. PeCB was about 50-fold more potent than HCB in causing embryonic death. Both substances caused abnormalities, including edema, liver lesions, microphthalmia and beak deformities.

  19. The relationship between gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos and chick breed, development, sex, and egg amino acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, P L; Li, X G; Wang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Shu, G; Luo, Q B

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter mRNA and the AA content of fertilized eggs. Intestinal samples were collected on embryonic d 9, 12, 14, 17, and 19 and the day of hatch. The results showed that, before incubation, the AA content of WRRC eggs was lower (P CAT-1 [solute carrier (SLC) family 7 member 1], CAT-4 (SLC family 7 member 4), rBAT (SLC family 3 member 1), y(+)LAT-1 (SLC family 7 member 7), y(+)LAT-2 (SLC family 7 member 6), LAT-4 (SLC family 43 member 2), and SNAT-2 (SLC family 38 member 2), as detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, was greater (P CAT-1, CAT-4, y(+)LAT-2, and LAT-4 in WYFC and on CAT-4 and B(0)AT-1 (SLC family 6 member 19) mRNA expression in WRRC. In WYFC, only CAT-1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated (r = -0.68 to -0.84, P < 0.05) with all AA content. However, few correlations were detected between AA content and the mRNA expression of multiple transporters in WRRC. These findings provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression of AA transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos. Few correlations were detected between the AA content of the eggs and mRNA expression of specific AA transporters in the small intestine.

  20. Electroporation of the hindbrain to trace axonal trajectories and synaptic targets in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2013-05-29

    Electroporation of the chick embryonic neural tube has many advantages such as being quick and efficient for the expression of foreign genes into neuronal cells. In this manuscript we provide a method that demonstrates uniquely how to electroporate DNA into the avian hindbrain at E2.75 in order to specifically label a subset of neuronal progenitors, and how to follow their axonal projections and synaptic targets at much advanced stages of development, up to E14.5. We have utilized novel genetic tools including specific enhancer elements, Cre/Lox - based plasmids and the PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition system to drive GFP expression in a subtype of hindbrain cells (the dorsal most subgroup of interneurons, dA1). Axonal trajectories and targets of dA1 axons are followed at early and late embryonic stages at various brainstem regions. This strategy contributes advanced techniques for targeting cells of interest in the embryonic hindbrain and for tracing circuit formation at multiple stages of development.

  1. Dorsoventral compartmentalization of mesoderm in heart-forming area of chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärner, M; Krinka, D; Padari, K; Kärner, J; Raid, R

    2000-06-01

    In early chick development (stages 5-8) the seemingly homogeneous mesoderm in the heart-forming area splits to somatic and splanchnic cardiogenic layers. Little is known about dorsoventral compartmentalization before splitting. Electron microscopic analysis shows the early dorsoventral polarization of precardiomyocytes. The dorsal compartment has epithelial and the ventral compartment mesenchymal features with numerous protrusions. At stage 5+-6 staining for wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) transiently demarcates the ventral part of mesoderm. The glycosomes (beta-glycogen) show a dorsoventral gradient in the mesoderm of the cardiogenic field during the initial step of the compaction. The differential expression of glycosomes depends on the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta, a component of the wnt-signaling pathway, and might in this spatiotemporal developmental window be involved in the commitment of presumptive cardiogenic and somatic cells. To verify this hypothesis simulation experiments with LiCl in vitro were carried out. The normal splitting of the mesoderm and the development of heart primordia were disturbed. Blocking the receptors of WGA by WGA in vitro at stage 5-5+ perturbs the migration of mesoderm to anterio-medial direction. It appears that early specification of dorsal and ventral compartments of the mesoderm in the heart-forming area correlates with the gradient of glycosomes. Our results suggest that the target of LiCl action (glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta) might be involved in the specification of heart primordia and that WGA receptors mediate the migration of mesoderm to the anteriomedial direction.

  2. Muscle atrophy induced in broiler chicks by parts of Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Calore, E E; Dagli, M L; Cavaliere, M J; Calore, N M; Weg, R; Raspantini, P C; Górniak, S L

    1998-06-01

    Senna occidentalis (formerly Cassia occidentalis) is a common contaminant of agricultural commodities. It is toxic to cattle and poultry, reportedly being responsible for skeletal myodegeneration in these animals. All parts of the plant present toxicity, but the seeds are the most toxic. The toxin(s) responsible for the myodegeneration have not been definitively identified, nor is it known which part of the seeds is most toxic. Intoxication by this plant leads to weight loss with considerable economic repercussions. The effects of the whole seed and of parts of S. occidentalis seeds (1% in commercial feed) were compared on the pectoralis major muscle of broiler chicks intoxicated from birth until 22 days of life. There were severe clinical signals and reduced body weight in birds that received the external tegment of the seed, whereas no adverse effects were observed in birds that received the whole seed or other parts of the seed. Histological and morphometric studies showed an intense muscle fibre atrophy (both type 1 and type 2 fibres were affected) in the group that received 1% external tegment. This study may be the first step to identifying the substance(s) involved in this pathological process.

  3. Control of the segmentation process by graded MAPK/ERK activation in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Dubrulle, Julien; Malapert, Pascale; Chal, Jérome; Pourquié, Olivier

    2005-08-01

    The regular spacing of somites during vertebrate embryogenesis involves a dynamic gradient of FGF signaling that controls the timing of maturation of cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). How the FGF signal is transduced by PSM cells is unclear. Here, we first show that the FGF gradient is translated into graded activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway along the PSM in the chicken embryo. Using in ovo electroporation of PSM cells, we demonstrate that constitutive activation of ERK signaling in the PSM blocks segmentation by preventing maturation of PSM cells, thus phenocopying the overexpression of FGF8. Conversely, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation mimics a loss of function of FGF signaling in the PSM. Interestingly, video microscopy analysis of cell movements shows that ERK regulates the motility of PSM cells, suggesting that the decrease of cell movements along the PSM enables mesenchymal PSM cells to undergo proper segmentation. Together, our data demonstrate that ERK is the effector of the gradient of FGF in the PSM that controls the segmentation process.

  4. Relationship of primary and secondary myogenesis to fiber type development in embryonic chick muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, B J; Landmesser, L T

    1991-01-01

    The formation of fast and slow myotubes was investigated in embryonic chick muscle during primary and secondary myogenesis by immunocytochemistry for myosin heavy chain and Ca2(+)-ATPase. When antibodies to fast or slow isoforms of these two molecules were used to visualize myotubes in the posterior iliotibialis and iliofibularis muscles, one of the isoforms was observed in all primary and secondary myotubes until very late in development. In the case of myosin, the fast antibody stained virtually all myotubes until after stage 40, when fast myosin expression was lost in the slow myotubes of the iliofibularis. In the case of Ca2(+)-ATPase, the slow antibody also stained all myotubes until after stage 40, when staining was lost in secondary myotubes and in the fast primary myotubes of the posterior iliotibialis and the fast region of the iliofibularis. In contrast, the antibodies against slow muscle myosin heavy chain and fast muscle Ca2(+)-ATPase stained mutually exclusive populations of myotubes at all developmental stages investigated. During primary myogenesis, fast Ca2(+)-ATPase staining was restricted to the primary myotubes of the posterior iliotibialis and the fast region of the iliofibularis, whereas slow myosin heavy chain staining was confined to all of the primary myotubes of the slow region of the iliofibularis. During secondary myogenesis, the fast Ca2(+)-ATPase antibody stained nearly all secondary myotubes, while primaries in the slow region of the iliofibularis remained negative. Thus, in the slow region of the iliofibularis muscle, these two antibodies could be used in combination to distinguish primary and secondary myotubes. EM analysis of staining with the fast Ca2(+)-ATPase antibody confirmed that it recognizes only secondary myotubes in this region. This study establishes that antibodies to slow myosin heavy chain and fast Ca2(+)-ATPase are suitable markers for selective labeling of primary and secondary myotubes in the iliofibularis; these

  5. Binding characteristics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to its receptors on neurons from the chick embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.

    1988-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of Chick Embryo Vascular Geometries Using Non-invasive High-Frequency Ultrasound for Computational Fluid Dynamics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Germaine Xin Yi; Jamil, Muhammad; Tee, Nicole Gui Zhen; Zhong, Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2015-11-01

    Recent animal studies have provided evidence that prenatal blood flow fluid mechanics may play a role in the pathogenesis of congenital cardiovascular malformations. To further these researches, it is important to have an imaging technique for small animal embryos with sufficient resolution to support computational fluid dynamics studies, and that is also non-invasive and non-destructive to allow for subject-specific, longitudinal studies. In the current study, we developed such a technique, based on ultrasound biomicroscopy scans on chick embryos. Our technique included a motion cancelation algorithm to negate embryonic body motion, a temporal averaging algorithm to differentiate blood spaces from tissue spaces, and 3D reconstruction of blood volumes in the embryo. The accuracy of the reconstructed models was validated with direct stereoscopic measurements. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed to model fluid flow in the generated construct of a Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 27 embryo. Simulation results showed that there were divergent streamlines and a low shear region at the carotid duct, which may be linked to the carotid duct's eventual regression and disappearance by HH stage 34. We show that our technique has sufficient resolution to produce accurate geometries for computational fluid dynamics simulations to quantify embryonic cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

  7. Effect of atrophy and contractions on myogenin mRNA concentration in chick and rat myoblast omega muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J. M.; Denney, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The skeletal rat myoblast omega (RMo) cell line forms myotubes that exhibit spontaneous contractions under appropriate conditions in culture. We examined if the RMo cells would provide a model for studying atrophy and muscle contraction. To better understand how to obtain contractile cultures, we examined levels of contraction under different growing conditions. The proliferation medium and density of plating affected the subsequent proportion of spontaneously contracting myotubes. Using a ribonuclease protection assay, we found that exponentially growing RMo myoblasts contained no detectable myogenin or herculin mRNA, while differentiating myoblasts contained high levels of myogenin mRNA but no herculin mRNA. There was no increase in myogenin mRNA concentration in either primary chick or RMo myotubes whose contractions were inhibited by depolarizing concentrations of potassium (K+). Thus, altered myogenin mRNA concentrations are not involved in atrophy of chick myotubes. Depolarizing concentrations of potassium inhibited spontaneous contractions in both RMo cultures and primary chick myotube cultures. However, we found that the myosin concentration of 6-d-old contracting RMo cells fed medium plus AraC was 11 +/- 3 micrograms myosin/microgram DNA, not significantly different from 12 +/- 4 micrograms myosin/microgram DNA (n = 3), the myosin concentration of noncontracting RMo cells (treated with 12 mM K+ for 6 d). Resolving how RMo cells maintained their myosin content when contraction is inhibited may be important for understanding atrophy.

  8. Effectiveness of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic fractions in inducing mortality and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in chick embryo in ovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, P.; Khan, S.; O' Brien, P.J.O.; Rahimtula, A.T.; Payne, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) and its aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic fractions were tested on the developing chick embryo for (i) embryotoxicity (ii) their ability to induce hepatic and renal cytochrome P450 levels as well as hepatic, renal and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. On the basis of its concentration in PBCO, the aromatic fraction was responsible for most of the embryotoxicity as well as for the enzyme inducing ability. The NOS fraction constituted less than 7% (w/v) of PbCO but, on a weight equivalent basis, was roughly as potent as the aromatic fraction in causing embryotoxicity and in inducing cytochrome P450 levels and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. The aliphatic fraction was found to be essentially inactive. The results are consistent with the concept that elevation of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase levels by certain components of PBCO may lead to increased embroyotoxicity.

  9. Field programmable gate array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system for in vivo imaging of cardiac dynamics in the chick embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht; Norozi, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a field programmable gate-array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system. A complex-valued bandpass filter is used for the first time in optical coherence tomography signal processing to create the analytic signal. This method simplifies the filter design, and allows...... efficient and compact implementation by combining the conversion to an analytic signal with a pulse shaping function without the need for extra resources as compared to the Hilbert transform method. The conversion of the analytic signal to amplitude and phase is done by use of the coordinate rotation...... digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm, which is an efficient algorithm that maps well to the field programmable gate array. Flow phantom experiments, and the use of this system for in vivo imaging of cardiac dynamics in the chick embryo, are presented. We demonstrate the visualization of blood flow...

  10. Effects of DDT and permethrin on neurite growth in cultured neurons of chick embryo brain and Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C A; Audesirk, G

    1990-01-01

    The pesticides permethrin and 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), were studied to determine their effect on neurite growth from cultured neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis and embryonic chicks. Both of these toxins decreased the percentage of neurons growing neurites, mean neurite length, and number of neurites/cell in a dose-dependent manner. DMSO increased the toxicity of permethrin and DDT in L. stagnalis neurons. EtOH was not used as a solvent with the embryonic chick cultures. Pre-existing neurites of L. stagnalis neurons exposed to permethrin regressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These two toxins may affect neurite outgrowth through interference with intracellular calcium regulation.

  11. Characterization of the homeobox-containing gene GH6 identifies novel regions of homeobox gene expression in the developing chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, H S; Solursh, M

    1994-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a major group of genes involved in regulating, embryogenesis. Here we describe the identification of GH6, a novel chicken homeobox-containing gene and its spatial and temporal expression pattern in the developing chick embryo. Identity comparisons of the GH6 homeodomain suggest that it is closely related to the human homeobox gene H6, with 93% amino acid conservation. Temporally, GH6 expression is highest between embryonic stages 23 and 26; however, some expression is also detectable as early as stage 13. In situ hybridization of stage 23 embryos indicates that GH6 expression occurs at high levels in discrete craniofacial regions including the second branchial arch, the neural retina, the lens epithelium, the optic nerve, and the infundibulum. GH6 expression was also seen in the developing ventricular myocardium, representing the first report of homeobox gene expression in the developing ventricle. GH6 is also expressed in sensory spinal and cranial ganglia, suggesting that GH6 plays several roles not only in the development of craniofacial structures such as the eye and ear, but also in formation of functionally defined ganglia and myocardial structures.

  12. Observation of Developing Mast Cells in Immune Organs of Chick Embryos%鸡胚免疫器官发育中肥大细胞的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊峰; 李进国; 高登慧; 姚红艳

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨肥大细胞(MC)在鸡胚免疫器官中的作用,并提供组织形态学依据,对不同日龄鸡胚胸腺、法氏囊、脾脏采用Carony's液固定,阿尔新兰染色-藏红O复染(alcian blue-safrianin O,AB/SO)并对其肥大细胞(Mast cell,MC)的形态、分布及数量变化进行观察.结果表明,Carnoy's液固定,AB/SO染色可以清晰地显示MC的组织结构,MC呈圆形、椭圆形和不规则形,大小不一;胸腺中MC主要分布在髓质,并有少量分布于血管和小叶间结缔组织;法氏囊中MC在淋巴小结周围的组织中分布;脾脏中MC分布在淋巴小结周围,血窦、血管中偶见.18日龄前脾脏、19日龄前法氏囊、20日龄前胸腺中MC的数量与器官发育呈正相关,其后MC的数量下降是否与MC的排出有关尚不清楚.%The morphology, distribution and quantity change of thymus, bursa and spleen of chick embryos with different day-old were observed by Carony's fixation and AB/SO to study the effect of MC on immune organs in chick embryos and provide the morphological basis. The results show that the shape of MC is oval, ovoid and irregular, most MC in the thymus distributes in medulla and a few MC in the thymus distribute in blood vessel and inter lobular connective tissue, MC in the bursa distribute the tissue around lymph nodule, MC in the spleen mainly distribute around lymph nodule, there are positive correlations between organ development and MC quantity in the spleen before 18 day-old, in the bursa before 19 day-old and in the thymus before 20 day-old. The correlation between MC quantity descent and MC elimination should be further studied.

  13. DMPP对于鸡胚血管形成的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of DMPP in the angiogenesis of chick embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秦; 何晓东; 亓翠玲; 李江超; 郭四美; 叶杰; 韩露; 王丽京

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP)in the angiogenesis of early chick embryo.Methods The chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)and yolk sac membrane (YSM) were treated with 50 μg/mL DMPP.The angiogenesis of CAM was observed visually.The vascular density and growth rate of YSM were examined by microscopy.Results DMPP obviously suppressed the angiogenesis of CAM and decreased the vascular density and growth rate of YSM.Conclusion DMPP exhibits an inhibitory effect on the angiogenesis of chicken embryo.%目的 研究1,1-二甲基-4-苯基哌嗪(1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium,DMPP)对于鸡胚发育期血管新生的作用.方法 采用质量浓度为50 μg/mL的DMPP溶液局部处理鸡胚绒毛尿囊膜(chicken chorioallantoic membrane,CAM)和鸡胚卵黄囊膜(yolk sac membrane,YSM)表面,分别用肉眼和显微镜观察与被测物作用后CAM膜上血管生成情况和YSM膜血管密度和生长率的变化.结果 DMPP能明显抑制CAM模型血管的生成和YSM模型的血管面积和密度的增长.结论 DMPP可抑制鸡胚血管的形成.

  14. Early developmental 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure decreases chick embryo heart chronotropic response to isoproterenol but not to agents affecting signals downstream of the beta-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rebecca J; Hume, Adam J; Ciak, Jessica M; Vannostrand, John J; Friggens, Megan; Walker, Mary K

    2005-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes cardiovascular toxicity in laboratory animals, including alteration in several processes in which beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) signaling plays important roles. Thus, our laboratory investigated the effects of TCDD on beta-AR expression and signal transduction. Fertile chicken eggs were injected with vehicle (corn oil), 0.24 or 0.3 pmol TCDD/g egg on incubation day 0 (D0) or D5. On D10, heart function was assessed by ECG in ovo. Exposure to TCDD increased the incidence of arrhythmias and decreased the positive chronotropic responsiveness of the heart to isoproterenol. The reduced beta-AR responsiveness was, in part, independent of any overt morphological changes in the heart as chick embryos exposed to TCDD on D5 displayed an intermediate responsiveness to beta-AR agonist in the absence of the dilated cardiomyopathy observed in chick embryos exposed to TCDD on D0. TCDD did not decrease the chronotropic response of the heart to agents that stimulate signals downstream of the beta-AR. In fact, TCDD-exposed embryos were more sensitive than controls to forskolin, increasing heart rates (HR) 21.8 +/- 3.5 beats per min (bpm) above baseline versus control values at 6.3 +/- 2.7 bpm above baseline. TCDD exposure also augmented the negative chronotropic response of the heart to verapamil, decreasing HR -23.2 +/- 7.4 bpm relative to baseline versus control embryos at -12.7 +/- 5.9 bpm below baseline. Finally, the mean cardiac beta1-AR mRNA expression in D10 embryos was not significantly altered by exposure to TCDD on D0. These findings establish that a functional end point of the developing chick heart is sensitive to TCDD exposure and that the TCDD-induced reduction in beta-AR responsiveness may result from alterations in signal transduction upstream of adenylyl cyclase.

  15. Differential effects of Nd-YAG laser on collagen and elastin production by chick embryo aortae in vitro. Relevance to laser angioplasty for removal of atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abergel, R.P.; Zaragoza, E.J.; Dwyer, R.M.; Uitto, J.

    1985-08-30

    Aortae from 17-day old chick embryos were subjected to irradiation with a Nd:YAG laser at energy densities varying from 1.2 - 4.7 X 10(3) J/cm2. The aortae were pulse-labeled in vitro with (/sup 3/H)proline or (/sup 14/C)valine, and the synthesis of collagenous polypeptides and soluble elastin was examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by fluorography and quantitative scanning densitometry. Irradiation of the aortae with Nd:YAG laser resulted in inhibition of the synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteins. The production of collagen was inhibited to a considerably larger degree than the production of elastin. Thus, the biosynthetic pathway for collagen production appears to be more susceptible to laser inhibition than the corresponding pathway for elastin production. These observations may have relevance to laser angioplasty which has been proposed to be applicable for removal of atherosclerotic plaques in human vessels. Specifically, the results suggest that inhibition of the extracellular matrix production may result in weakening of the vessel wall with subsequent aneurysm formation and rupture.

  16. Doxorubicin Conjugated to Glutathione Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) as an Effective Therapeutic Agent for Feline Injection-Site Sarcomas-Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabielska-Koczywąs, Katarzyna; Dolka, Izabella; Król, Magdalena; Żbikowski, Artur; Lewandowski, Wiktor; Mieczkowski, Józef; Wójcik, Michał; Lechowski, Roman

    2017-02-08

    Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumours with a high local recurrence rate, ranging from 14% to 28%. The treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas includes radical surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In our previous study it has been demonstrated that doxorubicin conjugated to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) has higher cytotoxic effects than free doxorubicin for feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with high glycoprotein P activity (FFS1, FFS3). The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox on the growth of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. This model has been utilized both in human and veterinary medicine for preclinical oncological studies. The influence of intratumoural injections of Au-GSH-Dox, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles and doxorubicin alone on the Ki-67 proliferation marker was also checked. We demonstrated that the volume ratio of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines was significantly (p feline injection-site sarcomas.

  17. Doxorubicin Conjugated to Glutathione Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox as an Effective Therapeutic Agent for Feline Injection-Site Sarcomas—Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumours with a high local recurrence rate, ranging from 14% to 28%. The treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas includes radical surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In our previous study it has been demonstrated that doxorubicin conjugated to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox has higher cytotoxic effects than free doxorubicin for feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with high glycoprotein P activity (FFS1, FFS3. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox on the growth of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. This model has been utilized both in human and veterinary medicine for preclinical oncological studies. The influence of intratumoural injections of Au-GSH-Dox, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles and doxorubicin alone on the Ki-67 proliferation marker was also checked. We demonstrated that the volume ratio of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines was significantly (p < 0.01 decreased after a single intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox, which confirms the positive results of in vitro studies and indicates that Au-GSH-Dox may be a potent new therapeutic agent for feline injection-site sarcomas.

  18. Derivation of feline vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma cell line and its growth on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane - a new in vivo model for veterinary oncological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabielska, K; Lechowski, R; Król, M; Pawłowski, K M; Motyl, T; Dolka, I; Zbikowski, A

    2012-12-01

    Feline vaccine associated fibrosarcomas are the second most common skin tumor in cats. Methods of treatment are: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, the usage of cytostatics in feline vaccine associated sarcoma therapy is limited due to their adverse side effects, high toxicity and low biodistribution after i.v. injection. Therefore, much research on new therapeutic drugs is being conducted. In human medicine, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model is used as a cheap and easy to perform assay to assess new drug effectiveness in cancer treatment. Various human cell lines have different tumors growth on CAM. In veterinary medicine such model has not been described yet. In the present article derivation of feline vaccine associated fibrosarcoma cell line and its growth on CAM is described. The cell line and the tumor grown were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. As far as we believe, this is the first attempt to create such model, which may be used for further in vivo studies in veterinary oncology.

  19. Effects of nitric oxide modulating activities on development of enteric nervous system mediated gut motility in chick embryo model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein-Ali Arab; Samad Muhammadnejad; Seyed-Muhammad Faghihi; Hossein Hassanpour; Ahad Muhammadnejad

    2014-12-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs), and many molecules and biochemical processes may be involved in its development. This study examined the effects of modulating embryonic nitric oxide (NO) activity on the intestinal motility induced by ENS. One-hundred-and-twenty fertilized chicken eggs were assigned to three main groups and incubated at 37°C and 60% humidity. The eggs were treated with -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), L-arginine (L-Arg) or vehicle from days 3 (1st group), 7 (2nd group) and 10 (3rd group) of incubation and continued up to day 18. On day 19, the embryos were sacrificed, the jejunal and colorectal segments were taken and the intestinal motility was assessed using isolated organ system. The intestinal motility was recorded normally and following cholinergic, adrenergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) stimulations. The ENS structure was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Rhythmic intestinal contractions were seen in all treatment groups, but inhibition of NO in the L-NAME-treated embryos caused significant decrease ( < 0.01) in the frequency and amplitude of the contraction. The responsiveness to adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC stimulations was also significantly decreased ( <0.05). The GFAP expression was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced in the L-NAME-treated embryos. This study showed that the inhibition of NO caused a deficient development of the ENS, leading to a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of the intestinal contractions and reduced the responsiveness to adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC signalling.

  20. FGF19-FGFR4 signaling elaborates lens induction with the FGF8-L-Maf cascade in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Hitomi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Shimizu, Miyuki; Bito, Takaaki; Marcelle, Cristophe; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2005-05-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is known to be involved in vertebrate eye development. However, distinct roles of individual FGF members during eye development remain largely elusive. Here, we show a detailed expression pattern of Fgf19 in chick lens development. Fgf19 expression initiated in the forebrain, and then became restricted to the distal portion of the optic vesicle abutting the future lens placode, where FGF receptor 4 (Fgfr4), a receptor for FGF19, was expressed. Fgf8, a positive regulator for L-Maf, was expressed in a portion of the optic vesicle. To examine the role of FGF19 signaling during early eye development, Fgf19 was misexpressed near the presumptive lens ectoderm; however, no alteration in the expression of lens marker genes was observed. Conversely, a secreted form of FGFR4 was misexpressed to inhibit an FGF19 signal, resulting in the induction of L-Maf expression. To further define the relationship between L-Maf and Fgf19, L-Maf misexpression was performed, resulting in ectopic induction of Fgf19 expression by Hamburger and Hamilton's stage 12/13. Furthermore, misexpression of Fgf8 induced Fgf19 expression in addition to L-Maf. These results suggest that FGF19-FGFR4 signaling plays a role in early lens development in collaboration with FGF8 signaling and L-Maf transcriptional system.

  1. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.

  2. Differential potency of atropisomers of polychlorinated biphenyls on cytochrome P450 induction and uroporphyrin accumulation in the chick embryo hepatocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, L E; Shedlofsky, S I; Mannschreck, A; Püttmann, M; Swim, A T; Robertson, L W

    The atropisomers of 2,2',3,4,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB), 2,2',3,4,4',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (HeCB), and 2,2',3,3',4,4',6,6'-octachlorobiphenyl (OCB) were studied in the chick embryo hepatocyte culture to determine if chirality plays a role in the recognition events associated with the induction of cytochromes P450 and the accumulation of uroporphyrin (URO). Concentration-related induction of cytochrome P450 content, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzphetamine N-demethylase (BPDM) activities were measured. The rank order of potency for total cytochrome P450 induction was HeCB greater than OCB greater than or equal to PeCB. The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of PeCB and OCB were of equal potencies as inducers of cytochromes P450, whereas the (+)-HeCB was greater than the (-)-HeCB. HeCB was a much more potent inducer of EROD activity than was either PeCB or OCB. EROD activity was induced to a much greater extent by the (+)-enantiomers of all compounds, with the (-)-enantiomers of PeCB and OCB being inactive. BPDM activity was induced by all three compounds in the order of OCB greater than or equal to HeCB greater than PeCB. The (-)-enantiomers were more potent inducers of BPDM activities than were the (+)-enantiomers, except for HeCB, in which the (+)- was more potent than the (-)-enantiomer. Analysis of porphyrin accumulation in cultures treated with delta-aminolevulinic acid revealed that (+)-HeCB caused the greatest percent URO accumulation, which also correlated with the greatest increase in EROD activity. All other enantiomers caused up to 47% URO accumulation, which did not correlate with an increase in EROD activity.

  3. Evaluating the abnormal ossification in tibiotarsi of developing chick embryos exposed to 1.0ppm doses of platinum group metals by spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Adam C; Monahan, Jennifer L; Dagher, Jessica M; Baker, Joshua D; Markopoulos, Marjorie M; Iragena, Diane B; NeJame, Britney M; Slaughter, Robert; Felker, Daniel; Burggraf, Larry W; Isaac, Leon A C; Grossie, David; Gagnon, Zofia E; Sizemore, Ioana E Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Platinum group metals (PGMs), i.e., palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh), are found at pollutant levels in the environment and are known to accumulate in plant and animal tissues. However, little is known about PGM toxicity. Our previous studies showed that chick embryos exposed to PGM concentrations of 1mL of 5.0ppm (LD50) and higher exhibited severe skeletal deformities. This work hypothesized that 1.0ppm doses of PGMs will negatively impact the mineralization process in tibiotarsi. One milliliter of 1.0ppm of Pd(II), Pt(IV), Rh(III) aqueous salt solutions and a PGM-mixture were injected into the air sac on the 7th and 14th day of incubation. Control groups with no-injection and vehicle injections were included. On the 20th day, embryos were sacrificed to analyze the PGM effects on tibiotarsi using four spectroscopic techniques. 1) Micro-Raman imaging: Hyperspectral Raman data were collected on paraffin embedded cross-sections of tibiotarsi, and processed using in-house-written MATLAB codes. Micro-Raman univariate images that were created from the ν1(PO4(3-)) integrated areas revealed anomalous mineral inclusions within the bone marrow for the PGM-mixture treatment. The age of the mineral crystals (ν(CO3(2-))/ν1(PO4(3-))) was statistically lower for all treatments when compared to controls (p≤0.05). 2) FAAS: The percent calcium content of the chemically digested tibiotarsi in the Pd and Pt groups changed by ~45% with respect to the no-injection control (16.1±0.2%). 3) Micro-XRF imaging: Abnormal calcium and phosphorus inclusions were found within the inner longitudinal sections of tibiotarsi for the PGM-mixture treatment. A clear increase in the mineral content was observed for the outer sections of the Pd treatment. 4) ICP-OES: PGM concentrations in tibiotarsi were undetectable (<5ppb). The spectroscopic techniques gave corroborating results, confirmed the hypothesis, and explained the observed pathological (skeletal developmental abnormalities

  4. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Ö. Raeker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues.

  5. L-type calcium channels may regulate neurite initiation in cultured chick embryo brain neurons and N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C; Lomme, M; Shugarts, D; Rosack, J; Caracciolo, P; Gisi, T; Nichols, P

    1990-08-01

    The intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, plays an important role in regulating neurite growth in cultured neurons. Insofar as [Ca2+]i is partly a function of Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC), Ca2+ entry through VSCC should influence neurite growth. Vertebrate neurons may possess several types of VSCC. The most frequently described VSCC types are usually designated L, T and N. In most preparations, these VSCC types respond differently to certain pharmacological agents, including Cd2+, Ni2+, the dihydropyridines nifedipine and BAY K8644, and the aminoglycoside antibiotics. We used these agents to study the role of Ca2+ influx in regulating neurite initiation and length in cultures of chick embryo brain neurons and N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. In chick neurons, nifedipine and Cd2+ (less than 50 microM), which have been reported to inhibit L-type channels, reduced neurite initiation, but not mean neurite length. Ni2+ (less than 100 microM), reported to inhibit T-type channels, had no effect on either initiation or length. Low concentrations of most aminoglycosides (less than 300 microM), reported to inhibit N-type channels, had no effect on neurite initiation, but high concentrations of streptomycin (great than 300 microM), reported to inhibit both L- and N-type channels, reduced neurite initiation. BAY K8644, which enhances current flow through L-type channels, had no effect except at high concentration (50 microM), which inhibited initiation. N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells have been reported to contain L-type and T-type channels, but thus far no channel similar to the N-type has been described. In cultured N1E-115 cells, nifedipine (5 microM), Cd2+ (5 microM), and streptomycin (200 microM) reduced neurite initiation, while nickel (50 microM) and neomycin (100 microM) did not affect initiation. None of these agents altered neurite length. In N1E-115 cells, whole-cell voltage clamp recordings showed that nifedipine and Cd2

  6. Cell proliferation during early development of the chick embryo otic anlage: quantitative comparison of migratory and nonmigratory regions of the otic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I S; Martín-Partido, G; Rodríguez-Gallardo, L; González-Ramos, C; Navascués, J

    1989-12-01

    During development of the otic anlage, a certain proportion of epithelial cells migrate toward the mesenchymal compartment to form part of the acoustic-vestibular ganglion. The migrating cells are observed only in the zone of the otic anlage that will make contact with the acoustic-vestibular ganglion (so-called ganglion zone). In Hamburger and Hamilton's stages 13 to 16, the number of epithelial cells that migrate is relatively low, but it becomes steadily higher from stage 17 on. In the otic anlage of chick embryos, between developmental stages 9 and 21 (48 to 94 hours of incubation), mitotic index, apical or basal localization within the epithelium of dividing cells, and orientation of the mitotic spindles were analyzed. These features in the ganglion zone were compared with observations in the rest of the otic epithelium, where migratory processes do not take place. In stages 13 to 15, when few epithelial cells are migrating, the mitotic index (MI) in the ganglion zone of the otic anlage is similar to that in nonmigratory regions. In more advanced stages, however, when cell migration becomes accelerated, the MI in the migratory zone of the otic wall is significantly higher than that in the rest of the otic epithelium. This suggests an intimate relationship between the migration of otic epithelial cells and a high rate of cell proliferation, the possible nature of which is discussed. Although the majority of mitoses in the otic anlage are located at the apical surface of the epithelium, from stage 13 onward, a few dividing cells are seen in the basal third of the epithelium. Furthermore, these basal mitoses appear exclusively in the migratory zone of the otic anlage, thus suggesting a possible relationship between epithelial cell migration and basal mitosis. During the developmental period prior to stage 18, no significant differences in mitotic spindle orientation are noted between migratory and nonmigratory zones of the otic anlage. In contrast, in stages of

  7. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grodzik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND and l-glutamine (Gln on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2 and differentiation (MyoD1. Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  8. Harvesting clues from genome wide transcriptome analysis for exploring thalidomide mediated anomalies in eye development of chick embryo: Nitric oxide rectifies the thalidomide mediated anomalies by swinging back the system to normal transcriptome pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavitra; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Kathirvel, Priyadarshan; Veeriah, Vimal; Dutta, Priya; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha; Gupta, Ravi; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-02-01

    Thalidomide, the notorious teratogen is known to cause various developmental abnormalities, among which a range of eye deformations are very common. From the clinical point of view, it is necessary to pinpoint the mechanisms of teratogens that tune the gene expression. However, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of eye deformities under thalidomide treatmenthas not been reported so far. Present study focuses on the possible mechanism by which thalidomide affects eye development and the role of Nitric Oxide in recovering thalidomide-mediated anomalies of eye development using chick embryo and zebrafish models with transcriptome analysis. Transcriptome analysis showed that 403 genes were up-regulated and 223 genes were down-regulated significantly in thalidomide pre-treated embryos. 8% of the significantly modulated genes have been implicated in eye development including Pax6, OTX2, Dkk1 and Shh. A wide range of biological process and molecular function was affected by thalidomide exposure. Biological Processes including structural constituent of eye lens and Molecular functions such as visual perception and retinal metabolic process formed strong annotation clustersindicating the adverse effects of thalidomide on eye development and function. Here, we have discussed the whole embryo transcriptome with the expression of PAX6, SOX2, and CRYAAgenes from developing eyes. Our experimental data showing structural and functional aspects includingeye size, lens transparency and optic nerve activity and bioinformatics analyses of transcriptome suggest that NO could partially protect thalidomide treated embryos from its devastating effects on eye development and function.

  9. Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Duprez, Delphine

    2004-02-01

    Forced expression of the bHLH myogenic factors, Myf5 and MyoD, in various mammalian cell lines induces the full program of myogenic differentiation. However, this property has not been extensively explored in vivo. We have taken advantage of the chick model to investigate the effect of electroporation of the mouse Myf5 and MyoD genes in the embryonic neural tube. We found that misexpression of either mouse Myf5 or MyoD in the chick neural tube leads to ectopic skeletal muscle differentiation, assayed by the expression of the myosin heavy chains in the neural tube and neural crest derivatives. We also showed that the endogenous neuronal differentiation program is inhibited under the influence of either ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD. We used this new system to analyse, in vivo, the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors. We found that MyoD and Myogenin expression can be activated by ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD, while Myf5 expression cannot be activated either by mouse MyoD or by itself. We also analysed the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors and the different genes involved in myogenesis, such as Mef2c, Pax3, Paraxis, Six1, Mox1, Mox2 and FgfR4. We established the existence of an unexpected regulatory loop between MyoD and FgfR4. The consequences for myogenesis are discussed.

  10. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  11. Diglyceride kinase activity of microtubules. Characterization and comparison with the protein kinase and ATPase activities associated with vinblastine-isolated tubulin of chick embryonic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleo, G R; Piras, M M; Piras, R

    1976-09-15

    Vinblastine-isolated microtubule protein from chick embryonic muscles has an enzymatic activity which catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic acid from diglycerides and ATP. The pH optimum (6.4), sedimentation on sucrose gradients (Mr = 85 000), and sensitivity to ions of this diglyceride kinase activity are different to those of a similar enzymatic activity present in 150 000 X g supernatants of chick embryonic muscle homogenates, suggesting that it is a different species which is associated specifically with the microtubules. The reaction requires a divalent ion (e.g. 0.4 mM Mg2+ gives half-maximal stimulation), and GTP can replace ATP rather effectively, especially at nucleotide concentrations lower than 50 muM. The sedimentation of the diglyceride kinase on sucrose gradients coincides with that of the microtubules-associated protein kinase (Mr = 75 000); the heat-stability and sensivitity to proteolysis of both activities are also very similar. Stimulation of one reaction by the addition of the corresponding exogenous substrate does not impair the phosphorylation of the other, and no radioactivity is lost from phosphatidic acid or the protein moiety upon incubation of pre-labelled microtubules with a large excess of unlabelled ATP or GTP. In addition to diglyceride and protein kinase activities (0.2 and 0.3 nmol 32P-transferred X min-1 X mg-1 microtubular protein, respectively), microtubules also contain an associated ATPase (2.8 nmol X min-1 X mg-1), which requires either Mg2+ or Ca2+, can hydrolyze GTP quite effectively, and sediments with a molecular weight of 95000. The results obtained are discussed in connection with the possible relationships existing among these enzymatic activities, as well as their probable role in microtubular functions.

  12. [The effect of alloxan on the multiplication of different types of normal or cancerous cells, and on the transformation of chick embryo fibroblasts by Rous virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobon, P; Latarjet, R

    1975-05-26

    The action of alloxan was studied in vitro, on different categories of normal or cancerous cells. At concentrations of 250 and 350 gamma/ml, alloxan does not significantly inhibit the growth of normal cells, whereas it does inhibit the growth of cancerous cells. Furthermore, alloxan inhibits infection and transformation of chicken-embryo fibroblasts infected by the Rous virus.

  13. Short-term exposure of zebrafish embryos to arecoline leads to retarded growth, motor impairment, and somite muscle fiber changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Lee, Yen-Chia; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2015-02-01

    The areca nut-chewing habit is common in Southeast Asia, India, and Taiwan, and arecoline is the most abundant and potent component in the areca nut. The effects of arecoline on birth defects have been explored in many species, including chicken, mice, and zebrafish. The effects of arecoline on embryos after long-term exposure are well established; however, the effects of short-term embryo exposure to arecoline are not understood. Using zebrafish, we study the effects of short-term exposure of arecoline on embryos to model the human habit of areca nut-chewing during early pregnancy. Arecoline, at concentrations from 0.001% to 0.04%, was administered to zebrafish embryos from 4 to 24 hours post fertilization. The morphological changes, survival rates, body length, and skeletal muscle fiber structure were then investigated by immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and conventional electron microscopy. With exposure of embryos to increasing arecoline concentrations, we observed a significant decline in the hatching and survival rates, general growth retardation, lower locomotor activity, and swimming ability impairment. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated a loose arrangement of myosin heavy chains, and ultrastructural observations revealed altered myofibril arrangement and swelling of the mitochondria. In addition, the results of flow-cytometry and JC-1 staining to assay mitochondria activity, as well as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of functional gene expression, revealed mitochondrial dysfunctions after exposure to arecoline. We confirmed that short-term arecoline exposure resulted in retarded embryonic development and decreased locomotor activity due to defective somitic skeletal muscle development and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  14. Contribution of cells derived from the area pellucida to extraembryonic mesodermal cell lineages in heterospecific quail chick blastodermal chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagenç, Levent; Sandikci, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The current study has two main objectives: first, to determine if cells derived from the area pellucida are able to populate extraembryonic membranes, and second, to determine if donor cells have the potential to differentiate to endothelial (EC) and hematopoietic cells (HC) in the yolk sac and allantois, the two extraembryonic membranes functioning as hematopoietic organs in the avian embryo. To this end, quail chick chimeras were constructed by transferring dissociated cells from the areae pellucidae of the stage X-XII (EG&K) quail embryo into the subgerminal cavity of the unincubated chick blastoderm. The distribution of quail cells in the allantois, yolk sac, amnion, and chorion of resulting putative chimeras was examined using quail cell-specific antibody against a perinuclear antigen (QCPN) after 6 days of incubation. The presence of EC, HC, and smooth muscle cells among the QCPN(+) donor cells was examined using QH-1, a quail-specific marker identifying HC and EC and an anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. Evidence gathered in the present study demonstrates that quail cells derived from the areae pellucidae are able to populate all of the extraembryonic membranes of resulting heterospecific quail chick chimeras and, most importantly, give rise to HC, EC, and smooth muscle cells, all of the three main mesodermal lineages derived from the posterior mesoderm both in the yolk sac and allantois.

  15. Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Efstathios S; Robey, Rebecca C; Skinner, Natalie G; Tomlinson, Christopher D; Goodbourn, Stephen; Skinner, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Viruses that infect birds pose major threats-to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species defend themselves. The type I interferon-coordinated response constitutes the major antiviral innate defence. Although interferon was discovered in chicken cells, details of the response, particularly the identity of hundreds of stimulated genes, are far better described in mammals. Viruses induce interferon-stimulated genes but they also regulate the expression of many hundreds of cellular metabolic and structural genes to facilitate their replication. This study focusses on the potentially anti-viral genes by identifying those induced just by interferon in primary chick embryo fibroblasts. Three transcriptomic technologies were exploited: RNA-seq, a classical 3'-biased chicken microarray and a high density, "sense target", whole transcriptome chicken microarray, with each recognising 120-150 regulated genes (curated for duplication and incorrect assignment of some microarray probesets). Overall, the results are considered robust because 128 of the compiled, curated list of 193 regulated genes were detected by two, or more, of the technologies.

  16. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  17. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding, intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR (P0.05 and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα (P0.05, and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR (P0.01 and IGF-I (P0.01 mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P0.05 and of TRα was lower (P0.01 than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P0.05, indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (PP0.05 cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these effects. Thus

  18. The mutual relations of structures in the growing bill of chick (Gallus domesticus L.) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.) Embryos. IV. The size, shape, and position of the upper and lower bills in unilaterally microphthalmic duck embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouterlood, F G

    1977-10-01

    Unilaterally microphthalmic duck (DUM) embryos studied in stage 39 were obtained by damaging the right eye in stage 17. The development between stages 19 and 39 was observed in samples. After prolonged incubation, one duck hatched and reached adulthood. In DUM embryos partial crossbeak develops. Both the upper and lower bills deviate lateralwards, the upper bill more than the lower. In stage 39 a small orbit is present on the treated side. In stained and cleared heads most of the elements of the skull (the bones surrounding the orbit, the brain-case, and the upper and lower bill elements) are translated in the direction of the rudimentary orbit on the treated side. The bills are twisted around each other at the tip. Measurements of external dimensions as well as those made in stained and cleared stage-39 DUM heads show elongation of the left part of the lower bill. Except for the crossed bills, the changes found in the embryos persisted in the adult. The findings support a hypothesis concerning the mutual influence of bills during morphogenesis. The coherence of the functional cranial components in the embryo is discussed.

  19. Transcriptional response of zebrafish embryos exposed to neurotoxic compounds reveals a muscle activity dependent hspb11 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Klüver

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are widely used as pesticides and drugs. Their primary effect is the overstimulation of cholinergic receptors which results in an improper muscular function. During vertebrate embryonic development nerve activity and intracellular downstream events are critical for the regulation of muscle fiber formation. Whether AChE inhibitors and related neurotoxic compounds also provoke specific changes in gene transcription patterns during vertebrate development that allow them to establish a mechanistic link useful for identification of developmental toxicity pathways has, however, yet not been investigated. Therefore we examined the transcriptomic response of a known AChE inhibitor, the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (APM, in zebrafish embryos and compared the response with two non-AChE inhibiting unspecific control compounds, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP. A highly specific cluster of APM induced gene transcripts was identified and a subset of strongly regulated genes was analyzed in more detail. The small heat shock protein hspb11 was found to be the most sensitive induced gene in response to AChE inhibitors. Comparison of expression in wildtype, ache and sop(fixe mutant embryos revealed that hspb11 expression was dependent on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR activity. Furthermore, modulators of intracellular calcium levels within the whole embryo led to a transcriptional up-regulation of hspb11 which suggests that elevated intracellular calcium levels may regulate the expression of this gene. During early zebrafish development, hspb11 was specifically expressed in muscle pioneer cells and Hspb11 morpholino-knockdown resulted in effects on slow muscle myosin organization. Our findings imply that a comparative toxicogenomic approach and functional analysis can lead to the identification of molecular mechanisms and specific marker genes for potential neurotoxic compounds.

  20. Neural Tube Defect in Chick Embryos:A Histochemical Study%鸡胚神经管缺陷脊髓病理与组织化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍南; 施诚仁; 张忠德; 金惠明; 宋家其; 张文竹; 何蓉; 耿红全

    1999-01-01

    Objective The aim of this project is to study the possible pathogenesis involved in the formation of neural tube defect (NTD).Methods NTD was induced in chick embryos by injecting 0.01-0.02mg/kg methotrexate (MTX) into fertilized eggs on the 4 th and 5 th day of incubation.Sixty-six hatched chicks with NTD were studied.Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was immuno-stained with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent dependent diaphorase(NADPH-d).Utrastructure of mitochondria was studied with electro-microscopy.Results NOS positive neurons were found in the spinal cord of abnormal neural tube.The total number of neurons decrease.Electromicroscopy showed that mitochondria were swollen and had decreased folds.Conclusions No is produced in NTD.NO is neurotoxic and leads to impaired nitochondrial oxidative metabolism.%目的 鸡胚内注射甲氨喋呤(MTX),制作鸡胚神经管缺陷动物模型.利用该模型,进一步研究观察病变脊髓的病理变化及组织化学改变.方法 选用上海农科院"莱杭"鸡受精蛋66枚,在孵化期第4、5天,注射MTX,计量为:0.01 mg/kg及0.02 mg/kg.孵化3周后,选取病变鸡,采用NADPH-黄递酶组织化学染色,测定病变脊髓神经元NOS含昔;电镜观察病变脊髓神经元内线粒体结构变化.结果 NADPH-黄递酶组织化学染色显示神经管缺陷病变脊髓出现NOS阳性染色神经元,神经元数量减少,形态发育差.电镜观察,病变脊髓线粒体肿胀,嵴减少.结论 神经管缺陷病变脊髓有NO产生,NO对神经细胞有毒性作用,使线粒体功能受损,能量代谢障碍.

  1. The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, M. S.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development. Previously, we showed that the zygotic Toll protein is necessary for normal muscle development; in the absence of zygotic Toll, close to 50% of hemisegments have muscle patterning defects consisting of missing, duplicated and misinserted muscle fibers (Halfon, M.S., Hashimoto, C., and Keshishian, H., Dev. Biol. 169, 151-167, 1995). We have now also analyzed the requirements for easter, spatzle, tube, and pelle, all of which function in the Toll-mediated dorsal-ventral patterning pathway. We find that spatzle, tube, and pelle, but not easter, are necessary for muscle development. Mutations in these genes give a phenotype identical to that seen in Toll mutants, suggesting that elements of the same pathway used for Toll signaling in dorsal-ventral development are used during muscle development. By expressing the Toll cDNA under the control of distinct Toll enhancer elements in Toll mutant flies, we have examined the spatial requirements for Toll expression during muscle development. Expression of Toll in a subset of epidermal cells that includes the epidermal muscle attachment cells, but not Toll expression in the musculature, is necessary for proper muscle development. Our results suggest that signals received by the epidermis early during muscle development are an important part of the muscle patterning process.

  2. 应用中空纤维柱和凝胶色谱纯化鸡胚流感病毒%Application of hollow fiber filtration and gel chromatography in purification of chick embryo-derived influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣; 刘杰; 刘瑛; 吴永林; 范凤鸣; 刘辉; 张鹏艳; 李玉华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究鸡胚尿囊腔培养流感病毒的纯化方法.方法 采用中空纤维柱超滤、病毒裂解和两次Sepharose 4FF凝胶色谱纯化流感病毒.结果 通过中空纤维柱超滤可去除76.53%~93.66%卵清蛋白,再通过两次Sepharose 4FF凝胶色谱纯化,流感病毒样品总蛋白含量与血凝素含量比值小于4.5,卵清蛋白含量小于500 ng/mL,SDS-PAGE电泳和Western免疫印迹的电泳条带和血凝素特异性条带与英国国家生物制品检定所(NIBSC)的标准品一致.结论 该工艺纯化的流感病毒的纯度符合《中国药典》2010版的要求.%Purpose To study the purification methods of chick embryo-derived influenza virus. Methods Using hollow fiber filtration, split virus and sepharose 4FF chromatography to purify influenza virus. Results 76. 53%-93. 66% ovalburain was eliminated by hollow fiber filtration. Then, purified by twice sepharose 4FF chromatography, the total protein/hemagglutinin value was under 4. 5, ovalbumin content was less than 500 ng/mL,the electrophoretic bands of SDS-PAGE and the specific hemagglutinin reaction bands of Western blot were consistent with the influenza antigen of NIBSC. Conclusion The purity of the influenza virus purified by this process could meet the criteria of (Chinese Pharmacopoeia)2010 edition.

  3. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo; Synthese de l'acide cysteique et de la taurine a partir du sulfate dans l'oeuf embryonne de poule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author) [French] On a montre que la formation de taurine a partir de sulfate dans I'oeuf embryonne de poule, etudiee a l'aide des radioisotopes, du soufre, du carbone et de l'hydrogene, correspond aux reactions suivantes: 1) reduction du sulfate en sulfite; 2) fixation du sulfite sur une chaine tricarbonee et aminee provenant de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine, fixation conduisant a la formation d'acide L-cysteique; 3) decarboxylation de l'acide L-cysteique. La reaction (1) a lieu uniquement dans les cellules de l'endoderme du sac vitellin; la reaction (2) dans les memes cellules et dans le vitellus; la reaction (3) est plus generale, elle est localisee dans le sac vitellin, dans le vitellus et dans les tissus de l'embryon. L'enzyme qui catalyse la reaction (2) a ete purifie; il possede le phosphate de pyridoxal comme coenzyme. La desulfhydration de la cysteine par cet enzyme est une reaction reversible. Dans les conditions non

  4. Popeye domain containing gene 2 (Popdc2) is a myocyte-specific differentiation marker during chick heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breher, Stephanie S; Mavridou, Eleftheria; Brenneis, Christian; Froese, Alexander; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Brand, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    The Popeye domain containing (popdc) genes constitute a novel gene family encoding proteins of the plasma membrane in muscle cells, with three N-terminal transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic carboxy terminus. In vertebrates, three members of the Popdc gene family have been described. However, in the chick system only two cDNAs, Popdc1 and Popdc3, have been cloned previously. By screening a chick expressed sequence tag database, we report here the identification of five alternatively spliced chick Popdc2 cDNAs with different carboxy termini. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of Popdc2 predominantly in the myocardium and weaker expression in skeletal muscle. By whole-mount in situ hybridization, chick Popdc2 was first detected at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 7 within the anterior part of the heart fields. In the tubular heart, atrial and ventricular precursor cells stained positively for Popdc2. Weaker expression was observed in myocardium of the outflow tract and sinus venosus. By HH stage 18, the outer curvature myocardium was strongly stained, whereas expression in myocardium of the inner curvature was negligible. Popdc2 expression was absent from the endocardium and propepicardial organ. At HH stage 36, Popdc2 expression was confined to the compact layer myocardium. In addition to the heart, Popdc2 expression was also observed in the myotome and in the muscle-forming fields of the limbs. Our results indicate that Popdc2 is highly expressed in the developing heart and may serve as a novel marker of myocardial differentiation in the chick embryo.

  5. cAMP and in vivo hypoxia induce tob, ifr1, and fos expression in erythroid cells of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Stefanie; Offenhäuser, Nina; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2002-04-01

    During avian embryonic development, terminal erythroid differentiation occurs in the circulation. Some of the key events, such as the induction of erythroid 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), carbonic anhydrase (CAII), and pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) synthesis are oxygen dependent (Baumann R, Haller EA, Schöning U, and Weber M, Dev Biol 116: 548-551, 1986; Dragon S and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 280: R870-R878, 2001; Dragon S, Carey C, Martin K, and Baumann R, J Exp Biol 202: 2787-2795, 1999; Dragon S, Glombitza S, Götz R, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996; Dragon S, Hille R, Götz R, and Baumann R, Blood 91: 3052-3058, 1998; Million D, Zillner P, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 261: R1188-R1196, 1991) in an indirect way: hypoxia stimulates the release of norepinephrine (NE)/adenosine into the circulation (Dragon et al., J Exp Biol 202: 2787-2795, 1999; Dragon et al., Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996). This leads via erythroid beta-adrenergic/adenosine A(2) receptor activation to a cAMP signal inducing several proteins in a transcription-dependent manner (Dragon et al., Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996; Dragon et al., Blood 91: 3052-3058, 1998; Glombitza S, Dragon S, Berghammer M, Pannermayr M, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R973-R981, 1996). To understand how the cAMP-dependent processes are initiated, we screened an erythroid cDNA library for cAMP-regulated genes. We detected three genes that were strongly upregulated (>5-fold) by cAMP in definitive and primitive red blood cells. They are homologous to the mammalian Tob, Ifr1, and Fos proteins. In addition, the genes are induced in the intact embryo during short-term hypoxia. Because the genes are regulators of proliferation and differentiation in other cell types, we suggest that c

  6. Gene transfer to chicks using lentiviral vectors administered via the embryonic chorioallantoic membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Hen

    Full Text Available The lack of affordable techniques for gene transfer in birds has inhibited the advancement of molecular studies in avian species. Here we demonstrate a new approach for introducing genes into chicken somatic tissues by administration of a lentiviral vector, derived from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chick embryos on embryonic day 11. The FIV-derived vectors carried yellow fluorescent protein (YFP or recombinant alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH genes, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Transgene expression, detected in chicks 2 days after hatch by quantitative real-time PCR, was mostly observed in the liver and spleen. Lower expression levels were also detected in the brain, kidney, heart and breast muscle. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses confirmed transgene expression in chick tissues at the protein level, demonstrating a transduction efficiency of ∼0.46% of liver cells. Integration of the viral vector into the chicken genome was demonstrated using genomic repetitive (CR1-PCR amplification. Viability and stability of the transduced cells was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, immunostaining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA, and detection of transgene expression 51 days post transduction. Our approach led to only 9% drop in hatching efficiency compared to non-injected embryos, and all of the hatched chicks expressed the transgenes. We suggest that the transduction efficiency of FIV vectors combined with the accessibility of the CAM vasculature as a delivery route comprise a new powerful and practical approach for gene delivery into somatic tissues of chickens. Most relevant is the efficient transduction of the liver, which specializes in the production and secretion of proteins, thereby providing an optimal target for prolonged study of secreted hormones and peptides.

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata;

    2012-01-01

    for gene expression analysis or fixed for electron microscopy preparation. Results: Results indicate a significant role of silver nanoparticles and the complex Nano-Ag/Glu in muscle development. Conclusion: Nanoparticles of Ag, glutamine and the complexes of Ag and glutamine were without negative effects...... into the control group (Control) without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag), glutamine (Glu) and the complex of nanoparticles of silver and glutamine (Nano-Ag/Glu). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. Samples of the breast muscles were collected...... on embryo development. Nanoparticles of Ag and the complex of Ag with glutamine increased the number of nuclei per cell number and also fiber area. Furthermore, the complex of Ag with glutamine increased muscle mass....

  8. 茶藨子木层孔菌多糖硫酸酯对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的抑制作用%Inhibitory Effect of Phellinus ribis Polysaccharide Sulfates on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许家珍; 刘伟; 刘玉红

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Phellinus ribis polysaccharide sulfates(PRP-S) on the angio-genesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Methods:Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model was established. The effect of PRP-S with different degrees of sulfation on angiogenesis of CAM was observed. Results:PRP-S with different degrees of sulfation all showed inbibitory effects on angiogenesis of CAM,compared with the negative control. The higher degree of sulfation,the stronger inhibitory effect on an-giogenesis. Conclusion:PRP-S could inhibit angiogenesis of CAM.%目的:研究茶藨子木层孔菌多糖硫酸酯(PRP-S)对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的影响.方法:建立鸡胚绒毛尿囊膜模型,观察不同硫酸根取代度的PRP-S对血管生成的作用.结果:不同硫酸根取代度的PRP-S对鸡胚尿囊膜血管的生成均有抑制作用,与阴性组比较有显著性差异.硫酸化程度越高,其血管生成抑制活性越强.结论:PRP-S能够抑制鸡胚尿囊膜血管的生成.

  9. Toxicity of metals to chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, W.J.; Roberts, O.W.

    1976-09-01

    A comparative index to the embryopathic effects of a number of metals which may appear as trace contaminants in avian food sources is given. Chicken eggs (White Plymouth Rock strain) were treated by yolk injection with sodium arsenite, sodium selenate and chloride salts of cadmium, lead, mercury, methyl mercury and zinc immediately prior to incubation. Eggs were positioned horizontally for 24 hr before injection, allowing the embryonic blastodisc to orient away from the point of needle entry. The test aliquot was deposited in a needle track extending through the diameter of each egg yolk, thus facilitating the uniform distribution of the toxicant. Percent survival was determined as hatchability in experimental populations/hatchability of controls. Survival rates at a concentration of 0.001 ppM were 64-66% for selenium, arsenic and cadmium at the same concentration, survival rates were 74-83 percent for lead, methyl mercury, inorganic mercury, and zinc. All metals produced appreciable percentages of teratogenic survivors when administered at or above their TL/sub 50/ concentrations. The greatest percentages of defective survivors were always at the highest test concentrations which permitted survival, ranging from 0.5 ppM for selenium and arsenic to 10.0 ppM for mercury and zinc. (MFB)

  10. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  11. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  12. Paternal reproductive strategy influences metabolic capacities and muscle development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasse, Sébastien; Guderley, Helga; Dodson, Julian J

    2008-01-01

    Male Atlantic salmon follow a conditional strategy, becoming either "combatants" that undertake a seaward migration and spend at least a year at sea or "sneakers" that remain in freshwater and mature as parr. A variety of physiological indices showed significant but small differences between the offspring of males that use these two reproductive tactics. Offspring fathered by anadromous male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) showed greater muscular development and muscle metabolic capacities but lower spontaneous movements than those fathered by mature male parr. At hatch and at maximum attainable wet weight (MAWW), offspring fathered by anadromous males had higher activities of mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase and citrate synthase) and glycolytic (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) enzymes than progeny of mature male parr. Enzymatic profiles of progeny of anadromous fathers also suggested greater nitrogen excretion capacity (glutamate dehydrogenase) and increased muscular development (creatine kinase and LDH) than in the progeny of mature parr. At MAWW, juveniles fathered by mature parr made considerably more spontaneous movements, presumably increasing their energy expenditures. For juveniles fathered by anadromous males, total cross-sectional areas of white and red muscle at hatch were higher due to the greater number of large-diameter fibers. We suggest that the slightly lower metabolic capacities and muscular development of alevins fathered by mature parr could reflect differences in energy partitioning during their dependence on vitellus. Greater spontaneous movements of offspring of mature male parr could favor feeding and growth after the resorption of the vitellus.

  13. Effect of Eggshell Temperature During Incubation on Embryo Development, Hatchability, and Posthatch Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Brand, van den H.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different eggshell temperature (EST) profiles during incubation on embryo mortality, hatchability, and embryo development. Furthermore, chicks from different EST profiles were reared under low and high housing temperatures to investigate subsequent

  14. Slit2/Robo1信号对鸡胚早期神经管及体节发育的影响%Role of Slit2/Robo1 signaling in development of neural tube and somites in early chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广; 王晓钰; 李艳; 王丽京; 雷健; 张笑坛; 耿建国; 杨雪松

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨Slit2/Robo1对鸡胚早期神经管和体节发育的影响.方法:显微注射法将质粒注射入HH10期胚胎神经管内,活体胚胎细胞电穿孔方法转染胚胎半侧神经管,以另一侧神经管为对照侧,原位杂交及免疫荧光方法观察转染10 h后神经管的发育和神经嵴细胞迁移至体节的情况.结果:下调Robo1侧神经管发育较正常对照侧异常,同时发现Slug表达和神经嵴细胞迁移至体节路线发生改变.结论:Slit2/Robo1信号可能通过影响Slug基因表达,对胚胎早期神经管闭合、神经嵴细胞正常产生及迁移方向以及体节分化有重要作用.%AIM: To investigate the effects of Slit2/Robo1 signaling on the development of neural tube and somites in early chick embryos.METHODS: Plasmid DNA was injected into the lumen of the neural tube from dorsal side of HH10 chick embryo using microinjection, and then in ovo electroporation was performed at half - side of neural tube while another side served as control.Subsequent 10 - hour incubation was carried on after transfection until the development of neural tube and neural crest cells migrating to somites were investigated using the methods of immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization.RESULTS: Blocking Slit2/Robo1 signaling resulted in abnormal development of neural tube, while the expression of Slug and neural crest cells migrating to somites pathway were abnormal as well.CONCLUSION: Slit2/Robo1 signaling can affect the expression of Slug and play an important role in the fusion of neural fold, the trajectory of generation and migration of neural crest cells, and the differentiation of somites in early chick embryos.

  15. Studies on the Relationship between the Embryonic Heart Development and the Amnion Folding in Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a model animal for developmental biology, chick embryo is easy to control and observe during embryo development period and therefore it is widely used in the study of cardiac development. The application of proteomics has opened the door for large-scale studies to dissect both protein expression, regulation and function during chick heart developing stages. The proteomics study requires to quickly separate a large number of chick heart samples with the same developing stage. However, the traditional morphological standards based on Hamburger-Hamilton and Witschi stages are difficult to fulfill this requirement. Herein, we suppose a new standard for distinguishing chick heart morphology in different developing stages based on the relationship between the embryonic heart development and the amnion folding in chick. Based on this standard, we can accelerate the speed of embryonic heart sample separation and guarantee the quantity and quality of the sample more reliably.

  16. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  17. 麻疹病毒沪-191株在鸡胚成纤维细胞中连续传代的遗传稳定性%Genetic stability of measles virus Shanghai-191 strain after continuous subculture in chick embryo fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会强; 康庄; 倪谦枝; 刘宇虹; 温雪如; 刘瑛; 雍雪飞; 刘杰; 孙艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究麻疹病毒沪-191株在鸡胚成纤维细胞中连续传代的遗传稳定性.方法 将麻疹病毒沪-191株原始种子批(P25)在鸡胚成纤维细胞上传代2次(P27)作为主种子批,继续传代3次(P30)作为工作种子批,继续传代至33(P33)和35(P35)代.对P25、P27、P30、P33和P35病毒基因组进行基因序列分析,并对所有代次病毒进行滴度测定.结果 麻疹病毒沪-191株在鸡胚成纤维细胞中从25代传至35代,其滴度维持在5.0~5.875 lgCCID50/ml之间;P25、P27 、P30、P33、P35 5个代次病毒的全基因组序列未发生任何核苷酸和氨基酸改变.结论 麻疹病毒沪-191株在鸡胚成纤维细胞连续传代,病毒滴度均一,基因组序列未发生改变,遗传稳定性良好.%Objective To investigate the genetic stability of measles virus Shanghai-191 strain after continuous subculture in chick embryo fibroblasts. Methods The seeds from primary seed lot of measles virus Shanghai-191 strain (P25) strain was subcultured in chick embryo fibroblasts for two passages (P27) and used as mater seed lot, for further three passages (P30) as working seed lot, and further subcultured to passages 33 (P33) and 35 (P35). The genome of various passages were sequenced, while the titers were determined. Results The titer of Shanghai-191 strain from P25 to P35 were maintained at 5. 0 ~ 5. 875 lgCCID50/ml. No any change of nucleotides or amino acids were observed in genomes P25, P27, P30, P33 and P35. Conclusion The titer of measles virus Shanghai-191 strain was stable after continuous subculture in chick embryo fibroblasts, while the genome sequence showed no change, indicating high genetic stability of the strain.

  18. Mechanical influences on morphogenesis of the knee joint revealed through morphological, molecular and computational analysis of immobilised embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Karen A; Prendergast, Patrick J; Murphy, Paula

    2011-02-28

    Very little is known about the regulation of morphogenesis in synovial joints. Mechanical forces generated from muscle contractions are required for normal development of several aspects of normal skeletogenesis. Here we show that biophysical stimuli generated by muscle contractions impact multiple events during chick knee joint morphogenesis influencing differential growth of the skeletal rudiment epiphyses and patterning of the emerging tissues in the joint interzone. Immobilisation of chick embryos was achieved through treatment with the neuromuscular blocking agent Decamethonium Bromide. The effects on development of the knee joint were examined using a combination of computational modelling to predict alterations in biophysical stimuli, detailed morphometric analysis of 3D digital representations, cell proliferation assays and in situ hybridisation to examine the expression of a selected panel of genes known to regulate joint development. This work revealed the precise changes to shape, particularly in the distal femur, that occur in an altered mechanical environment, corresponding to predicted changes in the spatial and dynamic patterns of mechanical stimuli and region specific changes in cell proliferation rates. In addition, we show altered patterning of the emerging tissues of the joint interzone with the loss of clearly defined and organised cell territories revealed by loss of characteristic interzone gene expression and abnormal expression of cartilage markers. This work shows that local dynamic patterns of biophysical stimuli generated from muscle contractions in the embryo act as a source of positional information guiding patterning and morphogenesis of the developing knee joint.

  19. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis affects myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle growth in meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestun, Yogev; Yahav, Shlomo; Halevy, Orna

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of 39.5°C applied during mid-embryogenesis (embryonic d 7 to 16) has been proven to promote muscle development and enhance muscle growth and meat production in meat-type chickens. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular basis for this effect. Continuous TM or intermittent TM (for 12 h/d) increased myoblast proliferation manifested by higher (25 to 48%) myoblast number in the pectoral muscles during embryonic development but also during the first week posthatch. Proliferation ability of the pectoral-muscle-derived myoblasts in vitro was significantly higher in the TM treatments until embryonic d 15 (intermittent TM) or 13 (continuous TM) compared to that of controls, suggesting increased myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle. However, the proliferation ability of myoblasts was lower in the TM treatments vs. control during the last days of incubation. This coincided with higher levels of myogenin expression in the muscle, indicating enhanced cell differentiation in the TM muscle. A similar pattern was observed posthatch: Myoblast proliferation was significantly higher in the TM chicks relative to controls during the peak of posthatch cell proliferation until d 6, followed by lower cell number 2 wk posthatch as myoblast number sharply decreases. Higher myogenin expression was observed in the TM chicks on d 6. This resulted in increased muscle growth, manifested by significantly higher relative weight of breast muscle in the embryo and posthatch. It can be concluded that temperature elevation during mid-term embryogenesis promotes myoblast proliferation, thus increasing myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle, resulting in enhanced muscle growth in the embryo and posthatch.

  20. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  1. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  2. 数字图像分析技术在鸡胚卵黄囊膜血管形成模型中的应用%Application of digital imaging technique in quantitative analysis of blood vessels in chick embryo yolk sac membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏; 王丽京; 毛建文; 王伟章; 李明; 王会萍; 张敏

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用数字图像处理技术客观、准确和快速地对鸡胚卵黄囊膜(chick embryo yolk sac membrane,YSM)血管图像进行定量分析,为促血管和抗血管生成药物的评价和筛选提供有效可靠的技术支持.方法 应用OPTPRO 2007图像采集系统和Image-pro plus 6.0图像分析软件对鸡胚卵黄囊膜血管图像背景处理和血管面积及血管密度等参数进行客观、准确地测量.结果 建立了有效的鸡胚卵黄囊膜数字图像血管自动分析方法和步骤并通过药物实验对鸡胚卵黄囊膜血管图像进行了参数检测和统计分析.结论 应用OFIPRO 2007图像采集系统和Image-pro plus 6.0图像处理分析软件对鸡胚卵黄囊膜图像血管进行自动分析的方法不仅操作简便而且可较准确、快速、客观地反映鸡胚血管新生情况,优于鸡胚尿囊膜血管发生模型的常规人工目测血管计数方法.

  3. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  4. Circadian profiles in the embryonic chick heart: L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Michael L; Shi, Liheng; Grushin, Kirill; Nigussie, Fikru; Ko, Gladys Y-P

    2010-10-01

    Circadian clocks exist in the heart tissue and modulate multiple physiological events, from cardiac metabolism to contractile function and expression of circadian oscillator and metabolic-related genes. Ample evidence has demonstrated that there are endogenous circadian oscillators in adult mammalian cardiomyocytes. However, mammalian embryos cannot be entrained independently to light-dark (LD) cycles in vivo without any maternal influence, but circadian genes are well expressed and able to oscillate in embryonic stages. The authors took advantage of using chick embryos that are independent of maternal influences to investigate whether embryonic hearts could be entrained under LD cycles in ovo. The authors found circadian regulation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), the ion channels responsible for the production of cardiac muscle contraction in embryonic chick hearts. The mRNA levels and protein expression of VGCCα1C and VGCCα1D are under circadian control, and the average L-VGCC current density is significantly larger when cardiomyocytes are recorded during the night than day. The phosphorylation states of several kinases involved in insulin signaling and cardiac metabolism, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), stress-activated protein kinase (p38), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), are also under circadian control. Both Erk and p38 have been implicated in regulating cardiac contractility and in the development of various pathological states, such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Even though both Erk and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways participate in complex cellular processes regarding physiological or pathological states of cardiomyocytes, the circadian oscillators in the heart regulate these pathways independently, and both pathways contribute to the circadian regulation of L-VGCCs.

  5. Identification and localization of a novel zinc finger gene in developing chick skin and feather buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padanilam, B J; Solursh, M

    1996-03-07

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein (Fzf-1) containing two tandem repeats of zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type. The cDNA is 3.0 Kb long and has an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 789 amino acids. The expression pattern of the zinc finger gene was studied in chick embryonic skin and feathers by in situ hybridization. The expression of the gene is found to be temporally and spatially regulated. In stage 38 chick embryos, the transcripts are localized to the epidermis but in 10-day-old embryos, the signal is localized to the forming dermis. In 12-day-old chick, the transcripts are localized to the mesenchymal region of the elongated feather buds. Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) did not detect the transcripts in any other tissues.

  6. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-11-30

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  7. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  8. Draxin, an axon guidance protein, affects chick trunk neural crest migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuhong; Naser, Iftekhar B; Islam, Shahidul M; Zhang, Sanbing; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Chen, Sandy; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawakami, Minoru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2009-12-01

    The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in the roof plate of the chick trunk spinal cord and around the early migration pathway of neural crest cells. Draxin modulates chick neural crest cell migration in vitro by reducing the polarization of these cells. When exposed to draxin, the velocity of migrating neural crest cells was reduced, and the cells changed direction so frequently that the net migration distance was also reduced. Overexpression of draxin also caused some early migrating neural crest cells to change direction to the dorsolateral pathway in the chick trunk region, presumably due to draxin's inhibitory activity. These results demonstrate that draxin, an axon guidance protein, can also affect trunk neural crest migration in the chick embryo.

  9. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  10. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  11. From the Cover: Exposing Imidacloprid Interferes With Neurogenesis Through Impacting on Chick Neural Tube Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Zhong, Shan; Qi, Guo-Long; Wang, Chao-Jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-09-01

    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control insects in agriculture and fleas on domestic animals. However, it is not known whether imidacloprid exposure negatively affects neurogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, using a chick embryo model, we investigated the effects of imidacloprid exposure on neurogenesis at the earliest stage and during late-stage embryo development. Exposing HH0 chick embryos to imidacloprid in EC culture caused neural tube defects (NTDs) and neuronal differentiation dysplasia as determined by NF/Tuj1 labeling. Furthermore, we found that F-actin accumulation on the apical side of the neural tube was suppressed by exposure to imidacloprid, and the expression of BMP4 and Shh on the dorsal and ventral sides of the neural tubes, respectively, were also reduced, which in turn affects the dorsolateral hinge points during bending of the neural plate. In addition, exposure to imidacloprid reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, as determined by pHIS3 labeling and TUNEL staining, respectively, also contributing to the malformation. We obtained similar results in late-stage embryos exposed to imidacloprid. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was employed to determine which genes identified in this study were involved in NTDs. The experimental evidence and bioinformatics analysis suggested that imidacloprid exposure during chick embryo development could increase the risk of NTDs and neural dysplasia.

  12. The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrew Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Results Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of somitogenesis, when it slows down. When the chick embryo reaches its final number of somites at stage HH 24-25 there is still some remaining unsegmented PSM in which expression of components of the somitogenesis oscillator is no longer dynamic. Finally, we identify a change in expression of retinoic acid regulating factors in the tail bud at late stages of somitogenesis, such that in the chick embryo there is a pronounced onset of Raldh2 expression while in the mouse embryo the expression of the RA inhibitor Cyp26A1 is downregulated. Conclusions Our results show that the chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. In addition, endogenous retinoic acid is probably also involved in the termination of the process of segmentation, and in tail growth in general.

  13. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tereza C; Gorniak, Silvana L; Oloris, Silvia C S; Raspantini, Paulo C; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Dagli, Maria L Z

    2003-12-01

    Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

  14. Histological Characteristics of Leg Muscles of 56-Day Old Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the histological characteristics of leg muscles of pheasants hatched from eggs of a different colour. From muscle samples (M. biceps femoris of 56-day old pheasants hatched from eggs of different colour (dark brown, light brown, brown/green, blue/green histological preparations were made. Following parameters were examined: diameter of muscle cells, volume density of connective tissue in muscles, nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells. Results showed that diameter of muscle cells was smaller in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. There was no differences in volume density of connective tissue in muscles between groups. Nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells was higher in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. From obtained results it can be concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had weaker muscle development than pheasants hatched from eggs of other eggshell colour. Cause of this could be related to structural differences of eggshells of various colour. This leads to weaker development of embryos and chicks hatched from blue/green eggs which reflects on differences in development of leg muscles.

  15. Stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms of slow muscle-specific myosin heavy chain gene expression in fish: Transient and transgenic analysis of torafugu MYH{sub M86-2} promoter in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, Md. [Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Kinoshita, Shigeharu, E-mail: akino@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Bhuiyan, Sharmin Siddique; Asakawa, Shuichi [Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Watabe, Shugo [Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); School of Marine Biosciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH{sub M86-2}, exhibited restricted expression in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae, suggesting its functional roles for embryonic and larval muscle development. However, the transcriptional mechanisms involved in its expression are still ambiguous. The present study is the first extensive analysis of slow muscle-specific MYH{sub M86-2} promoter in fish for identifying the cis-elements that are crucial for its expression. Combining both transient transfection and transgenic approaches, we demonstrated that the 2614 bp 5′-flanking sequences of MYH{sub M86-2} contain a sufficient promoter activity to drive gene expression specific to superficial slow muscle fibers. By cyclopamine treatment, we also demonstrated that the differentiation of such superficial slow muscle fibers depends on hedgehog signaling activity. The deletion analyses defined an upstream fragment necessary for repressing ectopic MYH{sub M86-2} expression in the fast muscle fibers. The transcriptional mechanism that prevents MYH{sub M86-2} expression in the fast muscle fibers is mediated through Sox6 binding elements. We also demonstrated that Sox6 may function as a transcriptional repressor of MYH{sub M86-2} expression. We further discovered that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) binding elements plays a key role and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding elements participate in the transcriptional regulation of MYH{sub M86-2} expression. - Highlights: ► MYH{sub M86-2} is highly expressed in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae. ► MYH{sub M86-2} promoter activity depends on the hedgehog signaling. ► Sox6 binding elements inhibits MYH{sub M86-2} expression in fast muscle fibers. ► Sox6 elements function as transcriptional repressor of MYH{sub M86-2} promoter activity. ► NFAT and MEF2 binding elements play a key role for directing MYH{sub M86-2} expression.

  16. Fine structure of Plasmodium gallinaceum in embryonic and neonate chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W B; McGhee, R B; Singh, S D

    1976-02-01

    The erythrocytic stages of Plasmdoium gallinaceum in chicken embryos injected with parasited blood either from a syringe-passaged infection in chickens or from a chicken infected with sporozoites were characterized by abnormal structure. Particularly evident were large, unstained vacuoles within the cytoplasm; these occurred with greatest frequency in schizonts. The presence of myelin bodies within these vacuoles was revealed by transmission electron microscopy; abnormal cytokinesis and aberrant merozoites provided additional evidence of the parasite's inability to develop naturally within the milieu of the embryonic erythrocytes. Fifty-five passages were necessary to restore normal structure of the parasites in embryos, while only 5 passages were required for such restoration in neonate chicks. The probable adaptation of the parasite to the proportions of hemoglobin of the adult chicken may be responsible for the abnormal growth in the immature host.

  17. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effects of incubational humidity and hen age on embryo composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, E D; Burnham, M R; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D

    2001-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding the influence of incubational humidity on the characteristics of broiler embryos from young hens that often produce chicks of marginal quality. Therefore, the effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) in young broiler breeders and incubator humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on embryonic growth between 16 and 21 d of incubation, hatching chick weight, and embryo and chick body compositions were evaluated. Hatching broiler chick BW at 21 d was lower for 26-wk-old breeders compared to those at 28 and 30 wk, and the lowest RH decreased relative wet embryo weight. Embryonic growth, on wet and DM bases, was increased in eggs from the youngest hens. Embryo moisture content (EM) was lower at 16, 17, and 19 d of incubation in eggs from breeders at 26 wk when compared to those at 28 wk of age. The effects of RH on embryo crude protein and fat composition were not consistent and varied with breeder age and length of incubation. It was demonstrated that broiler breeder age affects embryogenesis and hatching chick BW. Furthermore, EM was influenced by breeder age, and changes in incubational RH between 43 and 63% affected embryogenesis without having associated effects on EM or consistent effects on embryo crude fat and protein content. Nevertheless, a depression in embryogenesis with a reduction in incubational RH to 43% may accentuate poor posthatch performance of chicks from young breeders.

  19. Neurofibrillar differentiation in 8- to 14- somites chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Abrantes Erhart

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de estudar o início da diferenciação neurofibrilar de neuro-blastos foram preparados cortes seriados de embriões de galinha impregnados pela prata, modificação de De Castro do método de Cajal. A diferenciação neurofibrilar inicia-se em fases mais jovens que as descritas na literatura. Em embriões de galinha de 8 somitos, os primeiros neuroblastos são encontrados na região rombencefálica do tubo neural, ainda aberto, na altura da invaginação ótica. Aos 12 somitos, os neuroblastos começam a aparecer, também, na junção prosencéfalo-mesencefálica, e aos 14 somitos, bem mais diferenciados, apresentam evidente, aumento numérico. Os neuroblastos localizados na junção prosencéfalo-mesencefálica enviam seus axônios caudalmente, constituindo o que parece ser o primórdio do fascículo longitudinal medial. Os neuroblastos rombencefálicos enviam seus axônios ventral, cranial e caudalmente, na espessura das paredes neurais, constituindo, provàvelmente, os primórdios dos sistemas cordonais e de associação; por apresentarem-se mais ou menos grupados nos níveis do trigêmio, facial e vago, talvez induzam, também, a pré-organização dos primórdios dos núcleos motores dos nervos V, VII e do complexo vagal.

  20. Effects on chicks of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel saponin given by different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, H B; Mohammed, O S; Abu al Futuh, I M; Adam, S E

    1992-06-01

    The effect of oral or parenteral administration of crude saponin extract from Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernal on Hisex-type chicks was studied. Seven-d-old chicks were given 5 mg Balanites crude saponin/kg/d im, 25 mg/kg/d ip or 250 mg/kg/day po for 3 w. When compared to controls, the body weights of dosed chicks were depressed and serum LDH and GOT activities and uric acid concentrations were significantly elevated. There were no consistent differences in serum GGT, CPK, total cholesterol and total protein between control and dosed birds. The main lesions were fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes, lymphocytic nodules, epithelial cell degeneration of the renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and varying degrees of hemorrhage in the thigh and breast muscles. Myositis or peritonitis were observed in chicks given Balanites crude saponins im or ip, respectively.

  1. Tissue distribution of cells derived from the area opaca in heterospecific quail-chick blastodermal chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagenç, Levent; Sandikci, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the tissue distribution of cells derived from the area opaca in heterospecific quail-chick blastodermal chimeras. Quail-chick chimeras were constructed by transferring dissociated cells from the area opaca of the stage X-XII (EG&K) quail embryo into the subgerminal cavity of the unincubated chick blastoderm. The distribution of quail cells in embryonic as well as extra-embryonic tissues of the recipient embryo were examined using the QCPN monoclonal antibody after 6 days of incubation in serial sections taken at 100-mum intervals. Data gathered in the present study demonstrated that, when introduced into the subgerminal cavity of a recipient embryo, cells of the area opaca are able to populate not only extra-embryonic structures such as the amnion and the yolk sac, but also various embryonic tissues derived from the ectoderm and less frequently the mesoderm. Ectodermal chimerism was confined mainly to the head region and was observed in tissues derived from the neural ectoderm and the surface ectoderm, including the optic cup, diencephalon and lens. Although the possibility of random incorporation of transplanted cells into these embryonic structures cannot be excluded, these results would suggest that area opaca, a peripheral ring of cells in the avian embryo destined to form the extra-embryonic ectoderm and endoderm of the yolk sac, might harbor cells that have the potential to give rise to various cell types in the recipient chick embryo, including those derived from the surface ectoderm and neural ectoderm.

  2. Monochromatic light stimuli during embryogenesis enhance embryo development and posthatch growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Piestun, Y; Mobarkey, N; Barak, M; Hoyzman, A; Halevy, O

    2004-08-01

    Photostimulation with green light accelerated BW and muscle development of broilers. In experiment 1, temperature sensors were inserted into 50 broiler eggs. The eggs were placed under 5 green light-emitting diode (LED) lamps at an intensity of 0.1 W/m2 at eggshell level for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min (n = 10). Egg temperatures were recorded continuously. A high correlation was found between lighting period and egg temperature elevation, and an intermittent light regimen of 15 min on and 15 min off was found to eliminate light-induced egg overheating. In experiment 2, the effect of in ovo green light photostimulation on embryonic development was studied. Five hundred fertile eggs were divided into 2 groups: the first was photostimulated with green light from 5 d of incubation until hatch (0.1 W/m2 intensity) and the second was incubated in the dark. In ovo green light photostimulation caused a significant elevation in BW and breast muscle weight during embryo development and posthatch until 6 d of age. In experiment 3, 240 fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups as described in experiment 2. At hatch, chicks from each in ovo light treatment were divided into 2 subgroups: the first was reared under green light and the second under white light. In ovo photostimulation with green light enhanced BW and breast muscle weight. However, rearing under green light did not have any synergistic effect on BW. Collectively, the results suggest that stimulation with green light enhances development and growth in chicks and that the best effect is achieved when this stimulus is provided during incubation.

  3. Migratory mechanisms of chick primordial germ cells toward gonadal anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, T; Rogulska, T

    1999-07-01

    After appearing at the germinal crescent region, chick primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate toward the presumptive gonads (pG) till stage 19 (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). This study seeks to elucidate the roles of passive and active factors in the PGC-migration, physical trapping of circulating PGCs by the capillary network and PGC attraction by chemotactic factor from presumptive gonads. Firstly, latex beads/pollens (the same size or larger than PGCs) were injected into the embryonic bloodstream at stage 13-19 (when PGCs are in the migrating and settlement phase to the presumptive gonad) in ovo in order to determine whether the PGCs passively reach pG. Most of such particles accumulated in the head region (60%), whereas the remainder did the same in the gonadal region (23% at the peak) at stage 16 when both the head and gonadal regions are rich in capillary plexus. After 3 days, most particles in the gonadal region were located at the angles of dorsal mesentery near the developing gonads where many extra-gonadal PGCs had been located, and a few particles were detected close to the gonad. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of PGC-migration to the developing gonads is an autonomous trapping of PGCs by the capillary network quite close to the germinal epithelium (GE) and passive translocation by morphogenetic movement. Secondly, the attraction for PGCs by the gonadal anlage proper was examined in ovo using chick and quail embryos. Grafts of quail gonadal anlage containing gonadal epithelium and neighbouring mesenchymal tissue were excised from the quail embryo at stages 12 to 16 (staging by Zacchei, 1961). With the aims of eliminating the influence of surrounding tissue, the quail graft was ectopically transplanted into the posterior to the optic vesicle of 8 to 17 somite chick embryo from the point of a posterior region to the auditory vesicle by a fine tungsten needle under the illumination by the method of Hara (1971). Then the region posterior to

  4. Photoperiodic lighting (16 hours of light:8 hours of dark) programs during incubation: 1. Effects on growth and circadian physiological traits of embryos and early stress response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Yalçin, S; Babacanoglu, E; Kozanoglu, H; Karadas, F; Uysal, S

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 16L:8D photoperiod during incubation, either during the whole incubation period (Inc(0-21d)) or the last week of incubation (Inc(14-21d)), on embryo growth, incubation performance, and light:dark rhythm of plasma melatonin and corticosterone in relation to early stress responses of newly hatched chicks to the posthatching environment. A dark incubation condition (Inc(Dark)) served as control. Three batches of eggs (n = 1,080, 1,320, 720) from Ross 308 broiler breeders were used in the experiment. Embryos from Inc(0-21d) presented a daily rhythm of melatonin at internal pipping and hatching, but Inc(Dark) embryos did not. The Inc(14-21d) group had rhythmic plasma melatonin at hatching only. A L:D rhythm of corticosterone was apparent at hatching. A significant incubation × sampling time interaction suggested that a lower increment in blood corticosterone level in Inc(0-21d) at 8 h posthatching (light period), as compared with hatching (dark period) values, might be associated with probable changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Inc(0-21d) through incubation lighting. This finding may also suggest improved adaptation to the posthatching environment. Incubation lighting did not consistently affect brain malondialdehyde concentration; the only difference between groups was higher concentrations at hatching in Inc(14-21d), whereas incubation groups at the internal pipping stage had similar values. Mean relative asymmetry (RA) did not differ with incubation lighting. The malondialdehyde and RA results indicate that neither lighting nor darkness during the overall incubation exacerbated embryo oxidative and developmental stress. An increased breast muscle weight was observed at hatching only in Inc(14-21d). The Inc(0-21d) group had increased embryo weights relative to egg weight and decreased residual yolk but had no effect on chick weight, relative heart and liver (% of embryo weight), hatchability

  5. The avian embryo responding to microgravity of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Ronald L.

    1993-01-01

    Of all the many potential and real microenvironmental influences, only gravity would appear to have remained relatively constant and ubiquitous for developing organisms. Histo- and organogenesis as well as differential growth of the embryo and fetus may have evolved with a constant environmental factor of gravity. Chick embryos of 2-day and 9-day stages of incubation were flown in an incubator on the Space Shuttle during a 9-day mission. Significant differences in embryo response to this microgravity environment were observed. This paper offers an analysis and suggests mechanisms which may contribute to these results.

  6. Application of Impermeable Barriers Combined with Candidate Factor Soaked Beads to Study Inductive Signals in the Chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Susan; Logan, Malcolm P

    2016-11-17

    The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier. The results are analyzed using in situ hybridization of subsequent gene expression. Our main focus is on the role of retinoic acid signaling in the induction and later initiation of the chick embryo fore and hindlimb. We use BMS 493 (an inverse agonist of retinoic acid receptors (RAR)) soaked beads implanted in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) to mimic the effect of a barrier placed between the somites (a source of retinoic acid (RA)) and the LPM from which limb buds grow. Modified versions of these protocols could also be used to address other questions on the origin and timing of inductive cues. Provided the region of the chick embryo is accessible at the relevant developmental stage, a barrier could be placed between the two tissues and consequent changes in development studied. Examples may be found in the developing brain, axis extension and in organ development, such as liver or kidney induction.

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  8. EFFECT OF TRIBUTYLTIN ON THE MUSCLE STRUCTURE IN ROCKFISH EMBRYOS%三丁基锡对褐菖鮋胚胎肌肉组织结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪亮; 郭黛健; 孙平; 熊建利; 朱文文

    2012-01-01

    鱼类生命早期对环境的依赖性和感受性大大高于其它生活阶段.但目前关于三丁基锡(tributyltin,TBT)对鱼类胚胎发育影响的研究还较少.本实验以海洋经济鱼类褐菖鮋(Sebastiscus marmoratus)为对象,研究环境水平TBT(0.01、0.1、1和10 ng/L)对其胚胎肌肉组织结构的影响.研究发现TBT暴露导致严重的躯干部损伤,表现为骨骼肌细胞排列紊乱以及呈现出纤维化现象.另外,TBT还引起胚胎躯干部凋亡的关键执行分子Caspase-3和乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的增加,表明TBT诱导了躯干部细胞凋亡和影响了肌肉正常功能.TBT对鱼类胚胎肌肉组织的影响,可能影响鱼类的游泳能力,最终将导致鱼类种群数量减少.本文结果将为海洋环境政策的制定,为评估有机锡污染对海洋鱼类资源的影响提供重要的依据.%Early developmental stages of fish are generally more sensitive to environmental factors than other life stages. However, the embryotoxicity of tributyltin in fish has not been extensively described. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of TBT at environmentally relevant concentrations of 0. 01, 0. 1, 1, and 10 ng/L on the muscle structure in rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos. TBT exposure caused trunk damage which was shown as the somatic muscle disorder and fibrosis. In addition, TBT also caused the increase of acetylcholinesterase and Caspase-3 which is identified as a key executor of ap-optosis, indicating that TBT induced apoptosis and affect the trunk muscles normal function. Depending on the effects of TBT on the muscle structure in embryos, TBT exposure might influence the motor functions of fish and contribut to the decline of fish resources. These results provided important evidences for constituting marine environment policies and evaluating effects of organotin compounds on resources of marine fish.

  9. Protein and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoyao.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated chick extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles and, in some experiments, rat skeletal muscles were used to study a number of aspects of protein and amino acid metabolism. (1) Chick EDC muscles synthesize and release large amounts of alanine and glutamine, which indirectly obtain their amino groups from branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). (2) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) decrease (P < 0.01) alanine synthesis and BCAA transamination in EDC muscles from 24-h fasted chicks by decreasing (P < 0.01) intracellular concentrations of pyruvate due to inhibition of glycolysis. (3) Glutamine is extensively degraded in skeletal muscles from both chicks and rats, thus challenging the traditional view that glutamine oxidation is negligible in skeletal muscle. The cytosolic glutamine aminotransferases L and K in the rat and the mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase in the chick play important roles in the conversion of glutamine to {alpha}-ketoglutarate for further oxidation. (4) Although methionine has been reported to be extensively transaminated in rat skeletal muscle preparations in the absence of other amino acids, transamination of methionine is absent or negligible in chick and rat skeletal muscles in the presence of physiological concentrations of amino acids. (5) Glutamine at 1.0-15 mM increases (P < 0.01) protein synthesis ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine incorporation), and at 10.0-15.0 mM decreases (P < 0.05) protein degradation ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine release from prelabelled protein in vivo) in EDC muscles from fed chicks as compared to muscles incubated in the absence of glutamine. (6) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) has a small but significant inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on the rate of protein synthesis, but has no effect (P > 0.05) on the rate of protein degradation in EDC muscles from fed chicks.

  10. Comparison of Difference and Ontogenetic Expression of EAATs mRNA in the Small Intestine of Broiler Chick Embryo%温氏土鸡和白洛克鸡胚小肠EAATs mRNA表达差异及发育性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎相广; 严会超; 曾佩玲; 张德祥; 王修启

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究温氏土鸡(WYFC)和隐性白洛克(WRRC)鸡胚小肠酸性氨基酸转运载体EAAT2(SLC1A2)和EAAT3(SLC1A1)mRNA的表达差异和发育性变化.[方法]选取蛋重相近的两品种纯系种蛋各96枚,每个品种随机分为6组,每组16枚,在相同的条件下进行孵化.分别就每个品种在9(E9)、12(E12)、14(E14)、17(E17)和19胚龄(E19)及出壳当天(DOH)选取16枚鸡胚,称重后采集小肠样品,采用rea1-time RT-PCR方法检测小肠EAATs mRNA的相对表达丰度.[结果](1)9、12、14、17和19胚龄隐性白洛克胚蛋重量及出壳当天雏鸡体重极显著高于温氏土鸡(P<0.01);(2)从发育性变化来看,EAAT2 mRNA在两个品种表达基本一致,即E9-14表达量下调,E17有所上调,随后下调,E12、E17、E19和DOH两品种差异极显著(P<0.01),E14差异显著(P<0.05); EAAT3 mRNA在两个品种都表现为随胚龄增加而表达上调,E19两品种差异极显著(P<0.01),E12差异显著(P< 0.05):(3)EAAT2和EAAT3 mRNA表达丰度,温氏土鸡鸡胚小肠高于隐性白洛克,不同发育阶段对其都有影响,均存在“品种x胚龄”的互作效应.[结论]EAATs mRNA表达丰度在品种和胚龄间存在差异,不同基因表达的发育模式亦不相同.%[Objective] The objective of this study was to compare the difference and ontogenetic expression of glutamate transporters (EAAT2 and EAAT3) mRNA in small intestine of broiler chick embryo. Two breeds were selected, one was Wens Yellow-Feathered Chicken (WYFC, a Chinese local breed which grows slowly and marketed age for female is over 100 days) and the other was White Recessive Rocks Chicken (WRRC). [Method] Ninety-six fertilized eggs of each breed which had a similar weight were assigned into 6 groups for hatching. Sixteen small intestinal samples from each group were collected on embryonic days 9 (E9), 12 (E12), 14 (E14), 17 (E17), 19 (E19) and day of hatch (DOH) after the eggs were weighed. The expressions of EAATs mRNA were

  11. Shh regulates chick Ebf1 gene expression in somite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Allen, Steve; McGonnell, Imelda; Mansour, Ali A; Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    The chick early B-cell factor 1 (cEbf1) is a member of EBF family of helix loop helix transcription factors. Recently, we have proved that cEbf1 expression in feather is regulated by Shh. It is therefore possible that the somitic expression of cEbf1 is controlled by Shh signals from the notochord. To assess this hypothesis, the expression profile of cEbf1 was first detailed in somites of chick embryos (from HH8 to HH28). cEbf1 expression was mainly localised in the medial sclerotome and later around the vertebral cartilage anlagen of body and pedicles. Tissue manipulations (notochord ablation) and Shh gain and loss of function experiments were then performed to analyse whether the notochord and/or Shh regulate cEbf1 expression. Results from these experiments confirmed our hypothesis that the medial somitic expression of cEbf1 is regulated by Shh from the notochord. In conclusion, cEbf1 gene is considered as a medial sclerotome marker, downstream to and regulated by the notochord derived Shh, which may be functionally involved in somitogenesis.

  12. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata;

    2012-01-01

    hatching weight and the size of the breast muscle. The small size of silver nanoparticles allows for penetration inside tissues and even enables them to cross cell membranes. Indeed it has been shown that nanoparticles of silver applied in ovo can up-regulate the expression of fibroblast growth factor...... for gene expression analysis or fixed for electron microscopy preparation. Results: Results indicate a significant role of silver nanoparticles and the complex Nano-Ag/Glu in muscle development. Conclusion: Nanoparticles of Ag, glutamine and the complexes of Ag and glutamine were without negative effects...

  13. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

    1999-01-01

    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  14. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  15. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90alpha1 function results in different effects on myofibril organization in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Codina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90alpha1 (Hsp90alpha1 has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90alpha1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments and M- and Z-line structures. It is not clear whether the disorganization of these sarcomeric structures is due to a direct effect from loss of Hsp90alpha1 function or indirectly through the disorganization of myosin thick filaments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myosin thick filaments via gene-specific knockdown or using a myosin ATPase inhibitor BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that knockdown of myosin heavy chain 1 (myhc1 resulted in sarcomeric defects in the thick and thin filaments and defective alignment of Z-lines. Similarly, treating zebrafish embryos with BTS disrupted thick and thin filament organization, with little effect on the M- and Z-lines. In contrast, loss of Hsp90alpha1 function completely disrupted all sarcomeric structures including both thick and thin filaments as well as the M- and Z-lines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these studies indicate that the hsp90alpha1 mutant phenotype is not simply due to disruption of myosin folding and assembly, suggesting that Hsp90alpha1 may play a role in the assembly and organization of other sarcomeric structures.

  16. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Dohra, Hideo; Ono, Tamao; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2014-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more spermatozoa into an egg is detrimental to its survival. Here, we report that injection of a single spermatozoon with a small volume of sperm extract (SE) or its components led to the development and birth of healthy quail chicks. SE contains three factors - phospholipase Cζ (PLCZ), aconitate hydratase (AH) and citrate synthase (CS) - all of which are essential for full egg activation and subsequent embryonic development. PLCZ induces an immediate, transient Ca(2+) rise required for the resumption of meiosis. AH and CS are required for long-lasting, spiral-like Ca(2+) oscillations within the activated egg, which are essential for cell cycle progression in early embryos. We also found that co-injection of cRNAs encoding PLCZ, AH and CS support the full development of ICSI-generated zygotes without the use of SE. These findings will aid our understanding of the mechanism of avian fertilization and embryo development, as well as assisting in the manipulation of the avian genome and the production of transgenic and cloned birds.

  17. In Vivo Characterization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Microbubble Spectroscopy in a Chicken Embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Faez (Telli); I. Skachkov (Ilya); M. Versluis (Michel); K. Kooiman (Klazina); N. de Jong (Nico)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe dynamics of coated microbubbles was studied in an in vivo model. Biotinylated lipid-coated microbubbles were prepared in-house and were injected into a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model on the fifth day of incubation. The microbubbles, ranging between 1.0 and 3.5 μm i

  18. In Vivo Characterization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Microbubble Spectroscopy in a Chicken Embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, T.; Skachkov, I.; Versluis, M.; Kooiman, K.; Jong, de N.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of coated microbubbles was studied in an in vivo model. Biotinylated lipid-coated microbubbles were prepared in-house and were injected into a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model on the fifth day of incubation. The microbubbles, ranging between 1.0 and 3.5 μm in diameter,

  19. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development.

  20. In ovo supplementation of 25(OHD3 to broiler embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gonzales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A dose of 0.3 mL of water solution containing 0.00 (control, 0.625, 1.250 or 1.875 µg of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD3 was administered to 312 fertile eggs derived from 49-w-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders on the 17th day of incubation (DE17 via allantoic cavity. After treatment, eggs were distributed and maintained until hatching in four incubators set at 37.8 ºC and 55% RH. Each incubator received eggs from all treatments, according to a block design with four treatments of 77-79 replicates each. Hatching was checked every two hours from 484h to 512h of incubation to evaluate productivity and chick qualities. Chicks were housed until 10 days of age in heated battery cages according to a block design with four treatments of 10 replicates of six chicks each for performance and mortality evaluation. Mean hatching time of the chicks treated with 25(OHD3 during the embryonic phase occurred 4 to 5 h earlier than control group (502:31h, with no effects on hatching or neonate qualities. An inverse linear effect of 25(OHD3 dose on chick body weight at hatching was observed, but 10-d-old broiler performance and mortality were not affected. The fast body weight recovery of the broilers obtained from the embryos supplemented with the highest 25(OHD3 level was recorded until 10 days of rearing, equaling final mean body weights (p>0.05 among experimental groups. The results of this study indicate the potential use of 25(OHD3 as exogenous vitamin supplementation to embryos a few days before hatching without affecting neonate qualities and 10-d-old broiler chicken performance.

  1. Effect of Embryo Thermal Stimulation on the Serum Levels of Immunoglobulins and Corticosterone, and Organ Histopathology of 1 day-old Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Flores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Embryo thermal stimulation has been studied as a means to promote epigenetic changes and to improve broiler health and performance. This study aimed at evaluating immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG, and IgA titers, serum corticosterone levels, and organ integrity of day-old male Cobb(r and Ross(r broilers. Embryos were submitted to hot and cold stimuli (thermal stimulation on days 14-18 of incubation. The thermal manipulation treatments did not affect immunoglobulin titers of 1 day-old Cobb(r or Ross(r chicks, and caused severe bursal lesions (scores 3 and 4 in both strains. However, serum corticosterone levels of Cobb(r chicks were higher when embryos were submitted to hot stimulus (+1.39ºC compared with cold stimulus (+36 ºC. Serum corticosterone levels of Ross(r chicks were not affected by embryo temperature manipulation. The only effect of broiler breeder age was observed on IgM titers of Cobb(r chicks, which were higher in chicks from 33-wk-old breeders. Further studies are needed to detect the optimal period of embryo thermal stimulation.

  2. Myogenic potential of chick limb bud mesenchyme in micromass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C W; Langille, R M; Teran, M A; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    The myogenic potential of chick limb mesenchyme from stages 18-25 was assessed by micromass culture under conditions conductive to myogenesis, and was measured as the proportion of differentiated (muscle myosin-positive) mononucleated cells detected. It was found that similar myogenic potentials existed in mesenchyme from whole limbs between stages 18 and 19, but this potential was halved by stage 20. At stage 21, proximal mesenchyme showed significantly more myogenesis than distal mesenchyme, but this difference was abolished by stage 22. Thereafter, myogenesis was increasingly restricted from the distal mesenchyme, whilst the potential in more proximal regions did not significantly increase after stage 23. When the ratio between total limb myoblasts which differentiated on days 1 and 4 of culture was analysed, it was found that two distinct peaks existed at stages 20 and 23. The significance of these ratio peaks is unclear, but may be related to different proliferative potentials of the pre-myoblasts at these stages.

  3. Endogenous electric fields in embryos during development, regeneration and wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuccitelli, R

    2003-07-01

    All embryos that have been investigated drive ionic currents through themselves and these currents will generate internal electric fields. Here, those examples in which such fields have been measured directly are discussed. The first such measurements were made in chick embryos and about 20 mV mm-1 was measured near the posterier intestinal portal in 2-4-day-old embryos. This electric field is important for the development of tail structures because reducing its magnitude results in abnormal tail development. The second embryonic electric field measured directly was in the axolotl, where a rostral-caudal field of about the same magnitude was detected. Modification of this field during neurulation but not gastrulation caused developmental abnormalities. Most recently, the development of left-right asymmetry in frog and chick embryos was found to require a voltage difference between blastomeres at a very early developmental stage. This field was measured in the chick embryo to be 10-20 mV mm-1 across the primitive streak. Mammalian skin wounds generate 150 mV mm-1 fields lateral to the wound and corneal epidermal wounds exhibit lateral fields of 40 mV mm-1. The presence of these endogenous fields would suggest that exposures to external electric fields should be limited to magnitudes of less than 0.1 V m-1. (author)

  4. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Peng, K M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. The BW; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. Our results revealed that the weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (relative to the BW) peaked on d 90, 45, and 45, respectively, and tended to decline thereafter. The villus height and width and muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the birds. The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth differed among the segments of the small intestine and at the different time points. The number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts increased rapidly up to postnatal d 45 and then decreased rapidly between d 45 and 90. The number of goblet cells in the villi was greatest in the jejunum on d 1 and in the ileum on d 45, whereas that in the crypt was greatest in the ileum on d 1 and 90 and in the duodenum on d 45. These results suggest that the small intestine develops gradually from postnatal d 1 to 90 and that the period up to postnatal d 45 is marked by significant developmental changes in the parameters reflective of the digestive capacity, such as the weight, length, and surface area of the intestine and the number of goblet cells. Therefore, in reared African ostrich chicks, feed management should be enhanced between postnatal d 1 and 45.

  5. The formation of premuscle masses during chick wing bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C; Solursh, M

    1990-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of chick limb buds is derived from somitic cells that migrate into the somatopleure of the future limb regions. These cells become organized into the earliest muscle primordia, the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, prior to myogenic differentiation. Therefore, skeletal-muscle specific markers cannot be used to observe myogenic cells during the process of premuscle mass formation. In this study, an alternative marking method was used to determine the specific stages during which this process occurs. Quail somite strips were fluorescently labeled and implanted into chick hosts. Paraffin sections of the resulting chimeric wing buds were stained with the monoclonal antibody QH1 in order to identify graft-derived endothelium. Non-endothelial graft-derived cells present in the wing mesenchyme were assumed to be myogenic. At Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20, myogenic cells were distributed throughout the central region of the limb, including the future dorsal and ventral premuscle mass regions and the prechondrogenic core region. By stage 21, the myogenic cells were present at greater density in dorsal and ventral regions than in the core. By stage 23, nearly all myogenic cells were located in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses. Therefore, the two premuscle masses become established by stage 21 and premuscle mass formation is not complete until stage 23 or later. Premuscle mass formation occurs concurrently with early chondrogenic events, as observed with the marker peanut agglutinin. To facilitate the investigation of possible underlying mechanisms of premuscle mass formation, the micromass culture system was evaluated, to determine whether or not it can serve as an accurate in vitro model system. The initially randomly distributed myogenic cells were observed to segregate from prechondrogenic regions prior to myogenic differentiation. This is similar to myogenic patterning in vivo.

  6. Ejecting chick cheats: a changing paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grim Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evolutionary arms-races between avian brood parasites and their hosts have typically resulted in some spectacular adaptations, namely remarkable host ability to recognize and reject alien eggs and, in turn, sophisticated parasite egg mimicry. In a striking contrast to hosts sometimes rejecting even highly mimetic eggs, the same species typically fail to discriminate against highly dissimilar parasite chicks. Understanding of this enigma is still hampered by the rarity of empirical tests - and consequently evidence - for chick discrimination. Recent work on Australian host-parasite systems (Gerygone hosts vs. Chalcites parasites, increased not only the diversity of hosts showing chick discrimination, but also discovered an entirely novel host behavioural adaptation. The hosts do not desert parasite chicks (as in all previously reported empirical work but physically remove living parasites from their nests. Here, I briefly discuss these exciting findings and put them in the context of recent empirical and theoretical work on parasite chick discrimination. Finally, I review factors responsible for a relatively slow progress in this research area and suggest most promising avenues for future research.

  7. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  8. 小鼠胚胎气道平滑肌发育的形态学观察%Morphological observation on the development of the airway smooth muscle in mouse embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹锡梅; 杨艳萍; 李海荣; 景雅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the developmental pattern of the airway smooth muscle in mice and the expression characteristics of different muscle-specific proteins. Methods Serial sections of mouse embryos from embryonic day 10 (ED10) to embryonic day 18 (ED18) were stained with monoclonal antibodies against α-SMA, α-SCA and Desmin. Results With the foregut gradually separating into trachea and esophagus, α-SMA positive cells were detected in the posterior wall of the initial segment of the trachea at ED12 and the expression intensity was tapered off towards the caudal segment. A few a-SMA and a-SCA positive cells were observed in the mesenchyme surrounding the developing pulmonary vein. At ED13, the expression intensity of α-SMA in the posterior wall of the trachea became stronger, while the very weaker expression of α-SCA and Desmin was only initiated. At ED14, strong α-SMA expression showed C-shaped patterns in the wall of the left and right bronchi. However, staining intensity of a-SCA and Desmin at the same segment was weaker than that of α-SMA. In addition, the muscle cells of the pulmonary vein showed strong expression of α-SMA. At ED15 , α-SMA positive cells were found in the wall of small bronchioles. Between ED17 and ED18, with progression towards the terminal bronchioles, expression intensity of a-SCA and Desmin became weaker in trie airway smooth muscle while the expression of a-SMA became stronger. Conclusion The development of the airway smooth muscle begins from the upper segment of the trachea at ED12 and gradually extends distally. At ED18 , airway smooth muscle cells have extended to the terminal bronchioles. The expression of Desmin marks the formation of smooth muscle cytoskeleton structures and implies the further maturation of the airway smooth muscle. Besides, it may help airway smooth muscle to improve peristaltic contraction function with the slow shortening speed. The appearance of the airway smooth muscle precedes the pulmonary vein

  9. Control temperature of young chicks to reduce mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Kuijpers, M.

    2002-01-01

    Individual chicks may have different environmental temperature demands. The trick is to provide every chick with the right body temperature. By measuring individual chick temperatures, hatchery staff and broiler growers or layer producers are better able to provide the right environmental temperatur

  10. Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banan K. Al-Baggou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2 on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67% and H2O2-treated (15-59% chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66% and H2O2-treated (15-30% chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of

  11. Hypoxia during embryonic development increases energy metabolism in normoxic juvenile chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Silva, Lara do; Scarpellini, Carolina da S; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C

    2017-03-07

    Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed. To this end, we measured body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (V̇02) under acute hypoxia or different ambient temperatures (Ta) of 1 and 10day-old chicks that have been exposed to 21% O2 for entire incubation (Nx) or to 15% O2 in the last week of incubation (Hx). We also assessed the thermal preference under normoxia or acute hypoxia of the older chicks from both incubation groups in a thermocline. Hypoxia over incubation reduced growth but did not affect the cold-induced thermogenesis in hatchlings. Regarding the juvenile Hx, present data indicate a catch up growth with higher resting V̇02, a thermal preference for warmer Tas and a possible higher thermal conductance. In conclusion, our results show that hypoxia over the third week of incubation can affect the thermoregulation at least until 10days after hatch in chickens.

  12. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  13. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  14. Maturation of firing pattern in chick vestibular nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M; Hirsch, J C; Peusner, K D

    2006-08-25

    The principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus are vestibular nucleus neurons participating in the vestibuloocular and vestibulocollic reflexes. In birds and mammals, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing of action potentials is essential for vestibular nucleus neurons to generate mature vestibular reflex activity. The emergence of spike-firing pattern and the underlying ion channels were studied in morphologically-identified principal cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from brain slices of late-term embryos (embryonic day 16) and hatchling chickens (hatching day 1 and hatching day 5). Spontaneous spike activity emerged around the perinatal period, since at embryonic day 16 none of the principal cells generated spontaneous action potentials. However, at hatching day 1, 50% of the cells fired spontaneously (range, 3 to 32 spikes/s), which depended on synaptic transmission in most cells. By hatching day 5, 80% of the principal cells could fire action potentials spontaneously (range, 5 to 80 spikes/s), and this activity was independent of synaptic transmission and showed faster kinetics than at hatching day 1. Repetitive firing in response to depolarizing pulses appeared in the principal cells starting around embryonic day 16, when calcium-dependent potassium current modulated both the spontaneous and evoked spike firing activity. Altogether, these in vitro studies showed that during the perinatal period, the principal cells switched from displaying no spontaneous spike activity at resting membrane potential and generating one spike on depolarization to the tonic firing of spontaneous and evoked action potentials.

  15. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  16. Perinatal changes in avian muscle: implications from ultrastructure for the development of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Z A; Russell, B

    1995-09-01

    Endothermic heat production and the capacity to shiver develop soon after hatching in birds, permitting chicks to regulate their body temperature. Physiological studies have not clearly identified the developmental events causing this change in function. Here, we use electron microscopy to examine the development of structures involved in muscle activation, contraction, and metabolism coincident with the development of shivering thermogenesis. A stereological study was used to compare the ultrastructure of chicken iliofibularis before endothermic heat production was present (24 h before hatching) and 120 h later, when the iliofibularis had substantial capacity for shivering. Profound increases were found in the t-tubule system and terminal cisternae, mitochondrial cristae, and lipids. The number of triadic profiles increased 3.8-fold (7.6 +/- 1.31/100 microns 2 to 28.5 +/- 2.90/100 microns 2 fiber area). The surface area of cristae per mitochondrial volume doubled (12.0 +/- 1.50 microns 2/microns 3 to 25.7 +/- 1.84 microns 2/microns 3). Lipid droplets were rare in the iliofibularis of embryos about to hatch, but accounted for 4.4% of the muscle fiber volume in day 4 birds. We suggest that these ultrastructural changes more fully activate the iliofibularis, allow it to produce more heat both from calcium pumping and from contraction, and increase its endurance, thus permitting the muscle to be effective in thermogenesis.

  17. Cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling in embryo neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K Yaragudri; Cao, Jin; Xie, Shan; Hyson, Richard L; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; He, Weimin; Cooper, Thomas B; Hungund, Basalingappa L; Finnell, Richard H

    2012-04-01

    In utero exposure to tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental defects in the offspring by interfering with the functioning of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. At the present time, it is not clearly known whether the eCB system is present before neurogenesis. Using an array of biochemical techniques, we analyzed the levels of CB1 receptors, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG), and the enzymes (NAPE-PLD, DAGLα, DAGLβ, MAGL, and FAAH) involved in the metabolism of the eCBs in chick and mouse models during development. The findings demonstrate the presence of eCB system in early embryo before neurogenesis. The eCB system might play a critical role in early embryogenesis and there might be adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to marijuana and other drugs of abuse during this period.

  18. Gap junction signalling mediated through connexin-43 is required for chick limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenkova, H; Patel, K

    1999-03-15

    During chick limb development the gap junction protein Connexin-43 (Cx43) is expressed in discrete spatially restricted domains in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and mesenchyme of the zone of polarising activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) were used to investigate the role of Connexin-43 (Cx43) in the development of the chick limb bud. We have used unmodified ODNs in Pluronic F-127 gel, which is liquid at low temperature but sets at room temperature and so remains situated at the point of application. As a mild surfactant, the gel increases antisense ODN penetration and supplies ODNs to the embryo continually for 12-18 h. We have shown a strong decrease in Cx43 protein expression after application of specific antisense oligonucleotides but the abundance of a closely related protein, Connexin-32 (Cx32), was not affected. Application of antisense Cx43 ODNs at stages 8-15 HH before limb outgrowth resulted in dramatic limb phenotypes. About 40% of treated embryos exhibited defects such as truncation of the limb bud, fragmentation into two or more domains, or complete splitting of the limb bud into two or three branches. Molecular analysis of antisense treated embryos failed to detect Shh or Bmp-2 in anterior structures and suggested that extra lobes seen in nicked and split limbs were not a result of establishment of new signalling centres as found after the application of FGF to the flank. However, examination of markers for the AER showed a number of abnormalities. In severely truncated specimens we were unable to detect the expression of either Fgf-4 or Fgf-8. In both nicked and split limbs the expression of these genes was discontinuous. Down-regulation of Cx43 after the antisense application could be comparable to AER removal and results in distal truncation of the limb bud. Taken together these data suggest the existence of a feedback loop between the FGFs and signalling mediated by Cx43.

  19. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Gerhart

    Full Text Available Posterior capsule opacification (PCO is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human lens tissue. Myo/Nog cells were present in anterior, equatorial and bow regions of the human lens, cornea and ciliary processes. In anterior lens tissue removed by capsulorhexis, Myo/Nog cells had synthesized myofibroblast and skeletal muscle proteins, including vimentin, MyoD and sarcomeric myosin. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was detected in a subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells. Areas of the capsule denuded of epithelial cells were surrounded by Myo/Nog cells. Some of these cell free areas contained a wrinkle in the capsule. Depletion of Myo/Nog cells eliminated cells expressing skeletal muscle proteins in 5-day cultures but did not affect cells immunoreactive for beaded filament proteins that accumulate in differentiating lens epithelial cells. Transforming growth factor-betas 1 and 2 that mediate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, did not induce the expression of skeletal muscle proteins in lens cells following Myo/Nog cell depletion. This study demonstrates that Myo/Nog cells in anterior lens tissue removed from cataract patients have undergone a partial differentiation to skeletal muscle. Myo/Nog cells appear to be the source of skeletal muscle-like cells in explants of human lens tissue. Targeting Myo/Nog cells with the G8 antibody during cataract surgery may reduce the incidence of PCO.

  20. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair.

  1. The avian embryo as a model in developmental studies: chimeras and in vitro clonal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, E; Ziller, C; Le Douarin, N M

    1998-01-01

    The avian embryo is a model in which techniques of experimental embryology and cellular and molecular biology can converge to address fundamental questions of development biology. The first part of the chapter describes two examples of transplantation and cell labeling experiments performed in ovo. Thanks to the distinctive histologic and immunocytochemical characteristics of quail and chick cells, the migration and development of definite cells are followed in suitably constructed chimeric quail-chick embryos. Isotopic transplantations of neural tube portions between quail and chick, combined with in situ hybridization with a nucleic probe specific for a quail oligodendrocyte marker, allowed study of the origin and migration of oligodendroblasts in the spinal cord. Heterotopic transplantations of rhombomeres were performed to establish the degree of plasticity of these segments of the hindbrain regarding Hox gene expression, which was revealed by labeling with chick-specific nucleic probes. The second part describes in vitro cell cloning experiments devised to investigate cell lineage segregation and diversification during development of the NC. An original cloning procedure and optimal culture conditions permitted analysis of the developmental potentials of individual NC cells taken at definite migration stages. The results revealed a striking heterogeneity of the crest cell population, which appeared to be composed of precursors at different states of determination. Clonal cultures also provide a means to identify subsets of cells that are the target of environmental factors and to understand how extrinsic signals influence the development of responsive cells.

  2. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  3. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non...... and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  4. Patterning of the chick forebrain anlage by the prechordal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, E M; Kessel, M

    1997-10-01

    We analysed the role of the prechordal plate in forebrain development of chick embryos in vivo. After transplantation to uncommitted ectoderm a prechordal plate induces an ectopic, dorsoventrally patterned, forebrain-like vesicle. Grafting laterally under the anterior neural plate causes ventralization of the lateral side of the forebrain, as indicated by a second expression domain of the homeobox gene NKX2.1. Such a lateral ventralization cannot be induced by the secreted factor Sonic Hedgehog alone, as this is only able to distort the ventral forebrain medially. Removal of the prechordal plate does not reduce the rostrocaudal extent of the anterior neural tube, but leads to significant narrowing and cyclopia. Excision of the head process results in the caudal expansion of the NKX2.1 expression in the ventral part of the anterior neural tube, while PAX6 expression in the dorsal part remains unchanged. We suggest that there are three essential steps in early forebrain patterning, which culminate in the ventralization of the forebrain. First, anterior neuralization occurs at the primitive streak stage, when BMP-4-antagonizing factors emanate from the node and spread in a planar fashion to induce anterior neural ectoderm. Second, the anterior translocation of organizer-derived cells shifts the source of neuralizing factors anteriorly, where the relative concentration of BMP-4-antagonists is thus elevated, and the medial part of the prospective forebrain becomes competent to respond to ventralizing factors. Third, the forebrain anlage is ventralized by signals including Sonic Hedgehog, thereby creating a new identity, the prospective hypothalamus, which splits the eye anlage into two lateral domains.

  5. Growth prior to thermogenesis for a quick fledging of Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Dégletagne

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trade-off between tissue growth and mature function restricts the post natal development of polar birds. The present study uses an original integrative approach as it includes gene expression, plus biochemical and physiological analysis to investigate how Adélie penguin chicks achieve a rapid growth despite the energetic constraints linked to the cold and the very short breeding season in Antarctica. In pectoralis muscle, the main thermogenic tissue in birds, our data show that the transition from ectothermy to endothermy on Day 15 post- hatching is associated with substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of key genes. While the early activation of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation (avGHR, avIGF-1R, T3Rβ is rapidly down-regulated after hatching, the global increase in the relative expression of genes involved in thermoregulation (avUCP, avANT, avLPL and transcriptional regulation (avPGC1α, avT3Rβ underlie the muscular acquisition of oxidative metabolism. Adélie chicks only become real endotherms at 15 days of age with the development of an oxidative muscle phenotype and the ability to shiver efficiently. The persistent muscular expression of IGF-1 throughout growth probably acts as a local mediator to adjust muscle size and its oxidative capacity to anticipate the new physiological demands of future Dives in cold water. The up-regulation of T3Rβ mRNA levels suggests that circulating T3 may play an important role in the late maturation of skeletal muscle by reinforcing, at least in part, the paracrine action of IGF-1. From day 30, the metabolic shift from mixed substrate to lipid metabolism, with the markedly increased mRNA levels of muscle avLPL, avANT and avUCP, suggests the late development of a fatty acid-enhanced muscle non-shivering thermogenesis mechanism. This molecular control is the key to this finely-tuned strategy by which the Adélie penguin chick successfully heads for the sea

  6. The antioxidant activity of propofol in chicks

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    A.S. Naser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the antioxidant effects of propofol in chicks by estimation of glutathione concentration in blood plasma, brain and liver as well as total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effects of propofol in vitro by using hydrogen peroxide as oxidative stress. Propofol at 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally significantly increased after 4 hours the concentration of glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compared with the control group and with 5 and 10mg propofol groups. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased glutathione concentration in the liver compared with the control group. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased the efflux rate constant by 882, 1031 and 920 %, increased glutathione turnover rate by 880, 1028, and 917 % and decreased the turnover time by 89, 91 and 90% in the liver. In the brain propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased efflux rate constant as 26, 600 and 2826 % and increased glutathione turnover rate by 29, 616 and 2894 % and a decreased in the turnover time by 21, 86 and 96%. propofol at 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased after 20 hours the TAC in the serum of the chick by 38 and 48%, respectively compared with the control group. Propofol at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 micromoles / liter decreased erythrocyte hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro 10 micromoles / liter in a concentration depended manner by 25, 49 and 64 % respectively. In conclusion, propofol have antioxidant effect in vivo and in vitro in the chicks.Propofol have a protection against oxidative stress.

  7. Measuring the style of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the distribution of the hundred most frequent function words of two novelistic genres (chick lit and literature) gives insight into the genre styles. The results shows that the literary style is more descriptive and informational, whereas the style of the chick-lit

  8. Killing day-old chicks? Public opinion regarding potential alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.; Munnichs, G.M.; Beekman, V.; Vromans, E.; Aramyan, L.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the world, male chicks from layer breeds are killed just after hatching, as they are not profitable as regards the production of meat. The Dutch and European parliaments have insisted on research into possible alternatives to the killing of day-old chicks. In the present study we have inv

  9. Integration of human model neurons (NT2) into embryonic chick nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrygajlo, Grzegorz; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Scaal, Martin; Bicker, Gerd

    2010-02-01

    Postmitotic neurons were generated from the human NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line in a novel cell aggregate differentiation procedure. Approximately a third of the differentiated neurons expressed cell markers related to cholinergic neurotransmission. To examine whether this human cell model system can be directed toward a motoneuronal fate, postmitotic neurons were co-cultured with mouse myotubes. Outgrowing neuronal processes established close contact with the myotubes and formed neuromuscular junction-like structures that bound alpha-bungarotoxin. To determine how grafted precursor cells and neurons respond to embryonic nerve tissue, NT2 cells at different stages of neural development were injected into chick embryo neural tube and brain. Grafted NT2 neurons populated both parts of the nervous system, sometimes migrating away from the site of injection. The neural tube appeared to be more permissive for neurite extensions than the brain. Moreover, extending neurites of spinal grafts were approaching the ventral roots, thus resembling motoneuronal projections.

  10. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hejnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Here we analyzed the key components of myocardial AC signaling in the developing chick embryo and assessed the impact of selected β-blocking agents on this system. Application of metoprolol and carvedilol, two commonly used β-blockers, at embryonic day (ED 8 significantly downregulated (by about 40% expression levels of AC5, the dominant cardiac AC isoform, and the amount of Gsα protein at ED9. Activity of AC stimulated by forskolin was also significantly reduced under these conditions. Interestingly, when administered at ED4, these drugs did not produce such profound changes in the myocardial AC signaling system, except for markedly increased expression of Giα protein. These data indicate that β-blocking agents can strongly derange AC signaling during the first half of embryonic heart development.

  11. Effects of Multivitamins and Known Teratogens on Chick Cardiomyocytes Micromass Culture Assay

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    Samreen Memon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study aimed to find out whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM system could be employed to predict the teratogenecity of common environmental factors. Different multivitamins and over the counter drugs were used in this study.   Materials and Methods: White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissected and trypsinized to produce a cardiomyocyte cell suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The cultures were incubated at 370C in 5% CO2 in air, and observations were made at 24, 48 and 144 hr, for the detection of cell beating. Cellular viability was assessed using the resazurin assay and cell protein content was assessed by the kenacid blue assay. It was observed that while not affecting total cell number folic acid, vitamin C, sodium fluoride and ginseng did not significantly reduced cell activity and beating. However cadmium chloride significantly reduced the beating, cell viability and cell protein content in micromass cultures. Results: The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter morphology and function, which may result in either teratogenic outcome or cytotoxicity. Conclusion: This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function

  12. FGF signaling pathway in the developing chick lung: expression and inhibition studies.

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    Rute S Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGF are essential key players during embryonic development. Through their specific cognate receptors (FGFR they activate intracellular cascades, finely regulated by modulators such as Sprouty. Several FGF ligands (FGF1, 2, 7, 9, 10 and 18 signaling through the four known FGFRs, have been implicated in lung morphogenesis. Although much is known about mammalian lung, so far, the avian model has not been explored for lung studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we provide the first description of fgf10, fgfr1-4 and spry2 expression patterns in early stages of chick lung development by in situ hybridization and observe that they are expressed similarly to their mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, aiming to determine a role for FGF signaling in chick lung development, in vitro FGFR inhibition studies were performed. Lung explants treated with an FGF receptor antagonist (SU5402 presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture; moreover, abnormal lung growth with a cystic appearance of secondary bronchi and reduction of the mesenchymal tissue was observed. Branching and morphometric analysis of lung explants confirmed that FGFR inhibition impaired branching morphogenesis and induced a significant reduction of the mesenchyme. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that FGFRs are essential for the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that determine epithelial branching and mesenchymal growth and validate the avian embryo as a good model for pulmonary studies, namely to explore the FGF pathway as a therapeutic target.

  13. Louis Sébastien Tredern de Lézérec (1780-18?), a forgotten pioneer of chick embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetschen, J C

    1995-04-01

    Tredern's thesis on chick embryo development was submitted in Jena (Germany) in 1808 and seems to have been completely overlooked by historians of embryology during the 20th century. However, K.E. von Baer and C. Pander were much interested in that thesis in 1816-1817, when they resumed work on the chick embryo. Tredern, who was born in France in 1780, had then left Germany and abandoned his studies, but von Baer tried to find trace of him throughout his life, wanting to pay homage to his pioneer work. Von Baer published a short biographical notice (1874), which was later extended by Stieda (1901). The accuracy of Tredern's observations and the reasons that could have justified von Baer's interest are discussed. Tredern went back to Paris in 1811 to submit a second medical thesis, the value of which is also considered. It is also shown that, in the teaching of embryology, 18th century preformation concepts were still vivid, remaining in French textbooks of the period 1800-1830. This situation strongly contrasts with the new epigenetic views that were developed by the German scientists with whom Tredern had performed his studies.

  14. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2017-02-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  15. Mouse FGF15 is the ortholog of human and chick FGF19, but is not uniquely required for otic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tracy J; Ladher, Raj; McWhirter, John; Murre, Cornelis; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Mansour, Suzanne L

    2004-05-01

    The inner ear develops from an ectodermal placode that is specified by inductive signals from the adjacent neurectoderm and underlying mesoderm. In chick, fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-19 is expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, and human FGF19 induces expression of otic markers in a tissue explant containing neural plate and surface ectoderm. We show here that mouse Fgf15 is the sequence homolog of chick and human Fgf19/FGF19. In addition, we show that FGF15, like FGF19, is sufficient to induce expression of otic markers in a chick explant assay, suggesting that these FGFs are orthologs. Mouse embryos lacking Fgf15, however, do not have otic abnormalities at E9.5-E10.5, suggesting that Fgf15 is not uniquely required for otic induction or early patterning of the otocyst. To compare FGF15 and FGF19 signaling components and assess where signals potentially redundant with FGF15 might function, we determined the expression patterns of Fgf15 and Fgf19. Unlike Fgf19, Fgf15 is not expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, but is expressed in the adjacent neurectoderm. Fgfr4, which encodes the likely receptor for both FGF19 and FGF15, is expressed in the neurectoderm of both species, and is also expressed in the mesoderm only in chick. These results suggest the hypotheses that during otic induction, FGF19 signals in either an autocrine fashion to the mesoderm or a paracrine fashion to the neurectoderm, whereas FGF15 signals in an autocrine fashion to the neurectoderm. Thus, the FGFs that signal to the neurectoderm are the best potential candidates for redundancy with FGF15 during mouse otic development.

  16. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  17. Does cold acclimation induce nonshivering thermogenesis in juvenile birds? Experiments with Pekin ducklings and Japanese quail chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoniemi, K; Hohtola, E

    2000-11-01

    The capability to produce heat in cold by nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) was studied in Pekin ducklings and Japanese quail chicks acclimated to cold for 3 weeks using indirect calorimetry (oxygen consumption) and electromyography from breast (M. pectoralis) and leg muscles (quails: M. gastrocnemius; ducklings: M. gastrocnemius, M. iliofibularis). Respiration of muscles in vitro was studied by measuring cytochrome c oxidase activity. In both species, cold acclimation induced clear morphometric and physiological changes, but no clear evidence of nonshivering thermogenesis. This was evident because increased shivering at least in one muscle coincided with increased oxygen consumption. In ducklings, however, amplitudes of shivering EMGs were low (muscles studied in both the control and cold-acclimated groups. Ducklings reacted to cold mainly by means of increasing body weight (1796 g in control, 2095 g in cold-acclimated) and circulatory changes. Acclimation did not change oxygen consumption either in vivo or in vitro. In quails, in addition to increased body weight (78.1 g control, 89.9 g cold-acclimated), improved insulation and metabolic adaptation to cold (increased respiration in vivo and in M. pectoralis in vitro) was also utilized. In Japanese quail chicks, 3 weeks of cold acclimation does not seem to induce NST, while in Pekin ducklings the existence of NST could not be totally excluded because of weak overall shivering activity.

  18. Analysis of cCx39 expression pattern during chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Annalisa; Cicirata, Federico; Martinez, Salvador

    2004-02-20

    The present study reports the expression pattern of connexin39 (cCx39) in chick embryos at different stages of central nervous system development. We examined the expression between HH17 and HH40 developmental stages of chicken embryos by in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. Connexin39 was first expressed at HH17. It stained neuroepithelial cells in the optic (OV) and telencephalic (TEL) vesicles, plus in the superficial mesenchyme of the two rostral branchial arches (maxilar and mandibular). These cells probably originated from the neural crest. This expression pattern changed drastically between stages HH17 and HH23, while it showed relatively little modifications from HH23 to HH29. At these times, connexin39 was expressed in three regions: the telencephalic vesicle, the diencephalon and the isthmus. At later stages, HH35 and HH40, connexin39 was mainly expressed in the ventricular epithelium and three cell layers of the stratum griseum and fibrosum superficialis (SGFS) in the optic tectum, as well as in granular and nuclear cells in the cerebellum. In conclusion, the expression pattern of connexin39 in embryonic nervous system is dynamic. This pattern is different from, and in some aspects complementary to, those showed by other connexins during brain development.

  19. Complex and dynamic patterns of Wnt pathway gene expression in the developing chick forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumsden Andrew

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wnt signalling regulates multiple aspects of brain development in vertebrate embryos. A large number of Wnts are expressed in the embryonic forebrain; however, it is poorly understood which specific Wnt performs which function and how they interact. Wnts are able to activate different intracellular pathways, but which of these pathways become activated in different brain subdivisions also remains enigmatic. Results We have compiled the first comprehensive spatiotemporal atlas of Wnt pathway gene expression at critical stages of forebrain regionalisation in the chick embryo and found that most of these genes are expressed in strikingly dynamic and complex patterns. Several expression domains do not respect proposed compartment boundaries in the developing forebrain, suggesting that areal identities are more dynamic than previously thought. Using an in ovo electroporation approach, we show that Wnt4 expression in the thalamus is negatively regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh signalling from the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI, a known organising centre of forebrain development. Conclusion The forebrain is exposed to a multitude of Wnts and Wnt inhibitors that are expressed in a highly dynamic and complex fashion, precluding simple correlative conclusions about their respective functions or signalling mechanisms. In various biological systems, Wnts are antagonised by Shh signalling. By demonstrating that Wnt4 expression in the thalamus is repressed by Shh from the ZLI we reveal an additional level of interaction between these two pathways and provide an example for the cross-regulation between patterning centres during forebrain regionalisation.

  20. Immunoregulatory effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with avian leukosis virus and Bordetella avium early in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, co-infection of chicken embryos with immunosuppressive viruses and bacteria occurs with an annually increasing frequency. Consequently, studies on new and safe immunoregulators, especially plant polysaccharides, have become a popular topic in the poultry industry. In the present study, we selected 300 specific pathogen free embryonated eggs, which were injected with subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV-B) and Bordetella avium (B. avium) to establish an artificial co-infection model. The chicks that hatched from these co-infected embryonated eggs were treated with Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS). Results indicated that relevant indices in the co-infection group were significantly lower than that in B. avium-only group. Furthermore, pathogenicity of B. avium was exacerbated, with the chicks exhibiting decreased body weights. The TPPPS groups exhibited gradual improvements in immune function and developmental status. Therefore, in terms of improving immunologic function and production performance, TPPPS could be used as immunoregulator for immune responses.

  1. Hyperoxia and local organ blood flow in the developing chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, J.M.C.G. van; Mulder, T.A.L.M.; Scheve, E.; Prinzen, F.W.; Blanco, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    1. Hyperoxia can cause local vasoconstriction in adult animal organs as a protective mechanism against hyperoxia-induced toxicity. It is not known at what time during development this vasoconstrictor capacity is present. Therefore, we measured the cardiac output (GO) distribution in different organs

  2. The chick embryo test as used in the study of the toxicity of certain dithiocarbamates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, D.O.E.; Logten, M.J. van

    1968-01-01

    The toxicities of six dithiocarbamates: bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) disulfide (thiram), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (ferbam), bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (triaram), sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (NaDEDC), and sodium ethylene bis

  3. Metabolic Responses of Chick Embryos to Short-Term Temperature Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study embryonic metabolic responses to short-term temperature fluctuations in order to explore the possibilities of using embryonic metabolic responses as a tool to control the incubation process. In the first experiment, eggshell temperature (ET) in the control g

  4. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  5. Teratogenic efects of injected methylmercury on avian embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Kondrad, Shannon L.; Erwin, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled laboratory studies with game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and chickens (Gallus gallus) have demonstrated that methylmercury can cause teratogenic effects in birds, but studies with wild species of birds are lacking. To address this need, doses of methylmercury chloride were injected into the eggs of 25 species of birds, and the dead embryos and hatched chicks were examined for external deformities. When data for controls were summed across all 25 species tested and across all types of deformities, 24 individuals out of a total of 1,533 (a rate of 1.57%) exhibited at least one deformity. In contrast, when data for all of the mercury treatments and all 25 species were summed, 188 deformed individuals out of a total of 2,292 (8.20%) were found. Some deformities, such as lordosis and scoliosis (twisting of the spine), misshapen heads, shortening or twisting of the neck, and deformities of the wings, were seldom observed in controls but occurred in much greater frequency in Hg-treated individuals. Only 0.59% of individual control dead embryos and hatchlings exhibited multiple deformities versus 3.18% for Hg-dosed dead embryos and hatchlings. Methylmercury seems to have a widespread teratogenic potential across many species of birds.

  6. Mother-embryo isotope (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-sea sharks : aplacental shark isotope fractionation and hg

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourg, B.; Kiszka, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ13C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systematically lower in embryos c...

  7. Clinical and biochemical effects of aflatoxin in feed ration of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Taskar, P K; Schwabe, O; Das, Y T; Brown, H D

    1985-06-01

    Aflatoxin carcinogenesis appears to relate to multiple factors. This includes bulky adduct formation at DNA guanine N-7. The process also requires more extensive physiological degradation, possibly by the toxin alone as the active principle, but in instances also involving other assaults (e.g., hepatitis B virus). Since aflatoxin carcinogenesis involves complex effects, we have undertaken to define the range of influence of this common food contaminant upon a susceptible model, the broiler-type chick. Aflatoxicosis in two treated groups was indicated by jaundice, coagulopathy, dehydration of combs and shanks, retardation of body weight, and decrease in bursa weight. Blood clotting time, hemoglobin content, erythrocyte and packed-cell volume were affected. Hepatocytes were swollen and had undergone fatty degeneration. Bile duct hyperplasia was evident. Total serum protein, alkaline phosphatase, creatine, lactate dehydrogenase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and glutamyl transpeptidase were similarly abnormal in birds receiving the contaminated (0.5 and 2.5 micrograms/g aflatoxin B1) feed rations. The aflatoxin B1 and its metabolites were isolated by HPLC from chick serum, liver and muscle.

  8. Protein expression profiling during chick retinal maturation: a proteomics-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stitt Alan W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying pathways that drive retinal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis are still relatively poorly understood. Protein expression analysis can provide direct insight into these complex developmental processes. The aim of this study was therefore to employ proteomic analysis to study the developing chick retina throughout embryonic (E development commencing at day 12 through 13, 17, 19 and post-hatch (P 1 and 33 days. Results 2D proteomic and mass spectrometric analysis detected an average of 1514 spots per gel with 15 spots demonstrating either modulation or constitutive expression identified via MS. Proteins identified included alpha and beta-tubulin, alpha enolase, B-creatine kinase, gamma-actin, platelet-activating factor (PAF, PREDICTED: similar to TGF-beta interacting protein 1, capping protein (actin filament muscle Z line, nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase, triosphoaphate isomerase, DJ1, stathmin, fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7/B-FABP, beta-synuclein and enhancer of rudimentary homologue. Conclusion This study builds upon previous proteomic investigations of retinal development and represents the addition of a unique data set to those previously reported. Based on reported bioactivity some of the identified proteins are most likely to be important to normal retinal development in the chick. Continued analysis of the dynamic protein populations present at the early stages and throughout retinal development will increase our understanding of the molecular events underpinning retinogenesis.

  9. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  10. Oxygen diffusion in fish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2002-01-01

    All vertebrate embryos pass through a developmental period of remarkably low morphological variability. This period has been called phylotypic period. During the phylotypic period, organogenesis takes place, including blood vessel development. Before the phylotypic period, the embryos

  11. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells - new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to ana-lyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such

  13. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  14. Increased responsiveness to dietary lysine deficiency of pectoralis major muscle protein turnover in broilers selected on breast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesseraud, S; Temim, S; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Chagneau, A M

    2001-04-01

    It has been previously established that growth and carcass qualities of chicks are modified by genotype and dietary amino acid supply. In this study, we evaluated the effects of lysine deficiency and genetic selection on muscle protein metabolism. Chicks originating from an experimental line selected for breast development (QL) and its control line (CL) were provided ad libitum access to isoenergetic diets containing 20% crude protein but differing in their lysine content (0.75 or 1.01%). Protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured in vivo in the pectoralis major and sartorius muscles of 3-wk-old chickens (flooding dose of [3H]phenylalanine). Fractional breakdown rates (FBR) were estimated as the difference between synthesis and deposition. Lysine deficiency reduced (P 0.14). In the pectoralis major muscle, chicks of both lines receiving an adequate lysine intake also exhibited similar protein turnover rates. However, in chicks fed the lysine-deficient (0.75% lysine) diet, FSR and Cs were higher in QL than in CL chicks (P < 0.05), and FBR tended (P = 0.07) to be higher in QL chicks. This increased protein turnover in the QL birds on the lysine-deficient diet suggests that the responsiveness of muscle protein metabolism to amino acid supply is modified by genetic selection for breast development.

  15. Regulation of chick early B-cell factor-1 gene expression in feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Awad, Ashraf; Shukry, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The chick Ebf1 (early B-cell factor-1) gene is a member of a novel family of helix loop helix transcription factors. The expression profile, regulation and significance of this gene have been extensively studied in lymphatic, nervous, adipose and muscular tissues. However, cEbf1 expression, regulation and function in the feather of chick embryo have not yet been investigated. cEbf1 expression was first detected throughout the mesenchymal core of some few feather placodes (D7-D7.5). After feathers became mature and grew distally (D9 and D10), the mesenchymal expression of cEbf1 became confined to the caudal margin of the proximal half of all formed feather buds. Because this dynamic pattern of expression resembles that of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp4) plus the crucial role of these two major signals in feather development, we hypothesized that cEbf1 expression in the feather may be regulated by Shh and Bmp4. In a feather explant culture system, Shh signals are necessary to initiate and maintain cEbf1 expression in the posterior half of the feather bud, while Bmp4 is crucial for the initial cEbf1 expression in the anterior half of the feather bud. Inhibition of Shh, not only down-regulates cEbf1, but also changes the morphology of feather buds, which become irregular and fused. This is the first study to demonstrate that cEbf1 expression in the feather bud is under the control of Shh and Bmp4 signals and that expression may play a role in the normal development of feathers.

  16. Spread of hatch and delayed feed access affect post hatch performance of female broiler chicks up to day 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Li, Y; Willems, E; Willemsen, H; Franssens, L; Koppenol, A; Guo, X; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2014-04-01

    It is not rare that newly hatched chicks remain without feed for about 24 to 48 h before they are placed on farms due to a series of logistic operations. Furthermore, the spread in hatching time can also mount up to 30 to 48 h for late v. early hatchers. In other words, the practice is a complex combination of spread of hatch and delayed feed access. The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of hatching time with a delay in feed access of 48 h, starting from their hatch-time (biological age). When chicks had access to feed immediately after hatch, late hatchers had a higher feed intake and relative growth rate up to day 5 compared with their early hatched counterparts. Feed deprivation during the first 48 h resulted in retarded early growth rate, which was further aggravated by an impaired feed intake after refeeding. In addition, the differential effects of hatching time on relative growth rate and feed intake observed in immediately fed chicks were eliminated by the 48 h feed delay. The yolk utilization after hatch was faster for the late hatchers up to biological day 2 regardless of the feeding treatments. Hatching muscle glycogen content was higher in the late hatchers compared with that of their early counterparts at hatch and at biological day 2 independent of feeding treatment. Moreover, the liver glycogen content of the late hatchers was also higher at hatch. For the immediately fed chicks, the proportional breast muscle weight of the late hatchers was higher at biological day 2 and 5. For the starved chicks, on the other hand, this effect was only observed after they had access to feed (biological day 5). The different plasma T3 levels at hatch may have contributed to the different post hatch performance. It is concluded that the spread of hatch influenced post hatch performance, especially appetite and growth at least until day 5. Moreover, the delay in feed access interacted with the hatching time and caused adverse effects on the

  17. Plasma thyroid hormones and corticosterone levels in blood of chicken embryos and post hatch chickens exposed during incubation to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pawlak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study attempted to determine the effect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF (only carrier frequency on thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and corticosterone (CORT concentrations in the blood plasma of chick embryos, and to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF exposure during embryogenesis on the level of these hormones in birds that are ready for slaughter. Material and Methods: Throughout the incubation period, embryos from the experimental group were exposed to a 1800 MHz EMF with power density of 0.1 W/m2, 10 times during 24 h for 4 min. Blood samples were collected to determine T4, T3 and CORT concentrations on the 12th (E12 and 18th (E18 day of incubation, from newly hatched chicks (D1 and from birds ready for slaughter (D42. Results: The experiment showed that T4 and T3 concentrations decreased markedly and CORT levels increased in the embryos and in the newly hatched chicks exposed to EMF during embryogenesis. However, no changes were found in the level of the analyzed hormones in the birds ready for slaughter. Differences in T4 and T3 plasma concentrations between the EMF-exposed group and the embryos incubated without additional EMF were the highest in the newly hatched chicks, which may be indicative of the cumulative effect of electromagnetic field on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT. Discussion: The obtained results suggest that additional 1800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic field inhibits function of HPT axis, however, it stimulates hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal axis by inducing adrenal steroidogenic cells to synthesize corticosterone. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which radio EMFs affect HPT and HPA axis function in the chicken embryos.

  18. Cloning in cattle: from embryo splitting to somatic nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Y; Vignon, X; Chesné, P; Le Bourhis, D; Marchal, J; Renard, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ability to obtain genetically identical offspring in cattle (clones) is useful for research and for potential applications to breeding schemes. Experimental possibilities for generating such animals have evolved considerably in the last two decades. Embryo splitting has become a relatively simple technique but is limited to twinning. Embryonic nuclear transfer has improved and is associated with sexing to generate sets of clones despite a great variability of results between parent embryos. The factors of progress are reviewed here. Recently, somatic cells used as a source of nuclei in bovine nuclear transfer has been demonstrated. Here we present the results of the developmental potential of nuclei from skin and muscle cells.

  19. Cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeto, Amy L; Hymel, Kristen A; Carpenter, Erika C; Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2011-02-10

    Cognitive bias is a phenomenon that presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals tend to adopt a more pessimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli whereas depressed individuals tend to adopt a less optimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. To further validate the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation we sought to quantify this cognitive endophenotype. Chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5m to induce an anxiety-like or 60 m to induce a depressive-like state were then tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. In non-isolated controls, runway start and goal latencies generally increased as a function of greater amounts of aversive characteristics in the cues. In chicks in the anxiety-like state, runway latencies were increased to aversive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like behavior. In chicks in the depression-like state, runway latencies were increased to both aversive and appetitive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like behavior, respectively.

  20. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  1. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur ... minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  2. The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane: A Model of Molecular, Structural, and Functional Adaptation to Transepithelial Ion Transport and Barrier Function during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Gabrielli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chick chorioallantoic membrane is a very simple extraembryonic membrane which serves multiple functions during embryo development; it is the site of exchange of respiratory gases, calcium transport from the eggshell, acid-base homeostasis in the embryo, and ion and H2O reabsorption from the allantoic fluid. All these functions are accomplished by its epithelia, the chorionic and the allantoic epithelium, by differentiation of a wide range of structural and molecular peculiarities which make them highly specialized, ion transporting epithelia. Studying the different aspects of such a developmental strategy emphasizes the functional potential of the epithelium and offers an excellent model system to gain insights into questions partly still unresolved.

  3. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S.; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  4. An evaluation of a novel chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture assay with two teratogens/embryotoxins associated with heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Helena S; Clothier, Richard H; Pratten, Margaret

    2007-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM) system could be employed to predict the teratogenicity/embryotoxicity of exogenous chemicals. Two documented teratogens/embryotoxins, sodium valproate (the sodium salt of valproic acid; VPA) and all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), were used in the initial phase of the study. White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissociated to produce a cardiomyocyte suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. Cultures were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air, and observations were made every 24 hours over 5 days, for the detection of beating. Culture viability was assessed by using the resazurin reduction assay for determining culture activity and the kenacid blue assay for determining cell number. It was found that tRA significantly reduced cell activity and beating, whilst not affecting total cell number. VPA up to 500 microM induced no cytotoxicity in the MM cardiomyocyte cultures, whilst all the VPA concentrations tested reduced beating. The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter functionality, which may result in a teratogenic outcome, whilst not causing cytotoxicity (direct embryotoxicity). This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function, whilst limb cultures and brain cultures based on the same system could be relevant to teratogenic effects on those tissues.

  5. Thioredoxin-2 Modulates Neuronal Programmed Cell Death in the Embryonic Chick Spinal Cord in Basal and Target-Deprived Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pirson

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-2 (Trx2 is a mitochondrial protein using a dithiol active site to reduce protein disulfides. In addition to the cytoprotective function of this enzyme, several studies have highlighted the implication of Trx2 in cellular signaling events. In particular, growing evidence points to such roles of redox enzymes in developmental processes taking place in the central nervous system. Here, we investigate the potential implication of Trx2 in embryonic development of chick spinal cord. To this end, we first studied the distribution of the enzyme in this tissue and report strong expression of Trx2 in chick embryo post-mitotic neurons at E4.5 and in motor neurons at E6.5. Using in ovo electroporation, we go on to highlight a cytoprotective effect of Trx2 on the programmed cell death (PCD of neurons during spinal cord development and in a novel cultured spinal cord explant model. These findings suggest an implication of Trx2 in the modulation of developmental PCD of neurons during embryonic development of the spinal cord, possibly through redox regulation mechanisms.

  6. Enhancement of vertebrate cardiogenesis by a lectin from perivitelline fluid of horseshoe crab embryo

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghaskadbi, S.; Patwardhan, V.; Chakraborthy, M.; Agrawal, S.; Verma, M.K.; Chatterji, A.; Lenka, N.; Parab, P.B.

    by UV spectroscopy and Bradford’s assay [20]. Treatment of stage 4 chick embryo explants with whole PVF/ PVF Fraction VII: Freshly laid fertile eggs of white Leghorn chicken were incubated at 37°C for 18 hr., so that they could develop to Hamburger... of plain PC saline. After 30 minutes at room temperature for diffusion, the cultures were transferred to 37°C for duration ranging from 6 to 36 hours, depending on the developmental stage at which the effects were studied. At the end of the treatment...

  7. PATHOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SALINOMYCIN ON LAYER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. RIZVI, A. D. ANJUM, A. KHAN, M. MOHSAN AND M. SHAZAD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of continuous and over dosage of salinomycin was studied experimentally in layer chicks.Salinomycin was given to layers @ 60, 120 and 180 ppm in feed up to the age of 12 weeks. During the courseof trial, the birds of all groups were active and did not show any clinical signs. Body weight started decreasingsignificantly (P<0.001 in chicks receiving 60, 120 and 180 ppm salinomycin compared to the control groupfrom the 11th, 5th and 3rd week onward, respectively. Feed conversion ratio at 12th week was 3.537 in the controlcompared with 3.701, 4.250 and 4.465 in layer chicks given salinomycin at the rate of 60, 120 and 180 ppm,respectively. Absolute weight of liver at 12th week and absolute weight of kidneys throughout the experimentdecreased significantly (P<0.001 in chicks receiving 180 ppm salinomycin. Concentrations of AST, ALT,blood urea and creatinine were higher in layers receiving 180 ppm salinomycin, while serum total bilirubinconcentration was increased significantly (P<0.001 in layers receiving 120 and 180 ppm salinomycin. No grosslesions were observed in liver and kidneys of layers receiving various doses of salinomycin. Microscopically,there was congestion of liver sinusides and vacuolization of hepatocytes in chicks receiving 180 ppmsalinomycin. There was hydropic degeneration of tubular epithelium, degeneration and desquamation of most ofcells of Bowman’s capsule epithelium of kidneys in birds receiving 180 ppm salinomycin. Higher doses ofsalinomycin seem to alter liver and kidney functions subclinically in layer chicks.

  8. Interpreting variation in growth of Eurasian Spoonbill chicks: disentangling the effects of age, sex and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chick body condition can be a sensitive indicator of local environmental conditions and has been shown to be correlated with chick survival. Designing a reliable index of chick body condition for a given species from a single measurement point requires knowledge about the extent of variation in body

  9. Immunization of young chicks using graded dose of wild strain of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Kimbita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Eimeria tenella was isolated and utilized for immunization studies. Its optimal sporulation was attained at room temperature 24-25 °C after 24-48 h. Two groups of chicks were immunized by dosing a graded dose of five oocysts/chick/day for 6 days followed by 50 oocysts/chick/day for 7 days. A third group was not immunized and served as a negative control. Immunized chicks gained mass at the same rate as unimmunized ones, but when challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick, mass gains declined in the unimmunized group. The growth rate of immunized chicks was not affected by challenge (P > 0.05. Upon challenge, unimmunized chicks produced significantly more oocysts than immunized chicks (P < 0.005. Immunized chicks withstood a challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick without developing any clinical signs whereas the unimmunized chicks developed typical clinical signs of coccidiosis. Unimmunized chicks had significantly more severe lesions in the caecum than any other group (P > 0.005 and also produced significantly more oocysts than any other group (P > 0.005.

  10. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liheng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ, high concentration of glucose (high-glucose, or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT. In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.

  11. Green Light-emitting Diodes Light Stimuli during Incubation Enhances Posthatch Growth without Disrupting Normal Eye Development of Broiler Embryos and Hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhu, X D; Wang, X F; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2016-11-01

    Monochromatic green light-emitting diodes (LED) light stimuli influences the posthatch growth performance of chicks. This study was undertaken with the following objectives: i) to examine whether the green LED light stimuli induces an overheating effect by determining weight loss rate of fertile eggs during incubation period; ii) to look for the development of eyes and other primary organs at different ages of embryos and newly hatched chicks. Arbor Acres fertile broiler eggs (n = 480) were randomly assigned to 3 incubation groups and exposed to continuous white light, green light, or a dark environment (control) from the first day to 19 d of incubation. The light sourced from LED lamps with the intensity of 30 lx at eggshell level. The results showed that either green or white light stimuli during incubation did not significantly affect the weight loss rate of fertile eggs, hatching time, hatchability, chick embryo, or body weight (BW), the weight percentage of heart, liver, and eyes, as well as obvious systematic abnormalities in eye weight, side-to-side, back-to-front, or corneal diameter from 15 d of embryogenesis to 6 d of posthatch (p>0.05). Compared with the dark condition, green light stimuli during incubation tended to increase feed intake (p = 0.080), improved the BW gain of chicks during 0 to 6 day posthatch (pgreen light had lower weight percentage of yolk retention on 19 d of embryogenesis and 1 d of posthatch in comparison to those in dark or white group (pgreen LED light stimuli during incubation has no detrimental effect on the development of eyes, heart and liver of embryos and hatchlings, but does have potential benefits in terms of enhancement of the chick growth during the early posthatch stages. In addition, the fertile broiler eggs stimulated with 30 lx green LED light during incubation does not cause an overheating effect.

  12. Mother-embryo isotope (δ¹⁵N, δ¹³C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-sea sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, B; Kiszka, J; Bustamante, P

    2014-05-01

    Stable carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ¹³C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systematically lower in embryos compared with their mothers suggesting a low transfer of this element in muscle and liver.

  13. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  14. Proteomic analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to simulated-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Xiaoming; Ma, Wenwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Cong; Sun, Yeqing

    Microgravity can induce a serial of physiological and pathological changes in human body, such as cardiovascular functional disorder, bone loss, muscular atrophy and impaired immune system function, etc. In this research, we focus on the influence of microgravity to vertebrate embryo development. As a powerful model for studying vertebrate development, zebrafish embryos at 8 hpf (hour past fertilization) and 24 hpf were placed into a NASA developed bioreac-tor (RCCS) to simulate microgravity for 64 and 48 hours, respectively. The same number of control embryos from the same parents were placed in a tissue culture dish at the same temper-ature of 28° C. Each experiment was repeated 3 times and analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Image analysis of silver stained 2-D gels revealed that 64 from total 292 protein spots showed quantitative and qualitative variations that were significantly (Pprotein spots with significant expression alteration (Pproteins, 3 down-regulated proteins were identified as bectin 2, centrosomal protein of 135kDa and tropomyosin 4, while the up-regulated protein was identified as creatine kinase muscle B. Other protein spots showed significant expression alteration will be identified successively and the corresponding genes expression will also be measured by Q-PCR method at different development stages. The data presented in this study illustrate that zebrafish embryo can be significantly induced by microgravity on the expression of proteins involved in bone and muscle formation. Key Words: Danio rerio; Simulated-microgravity; Proteomics

  15. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  16. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Folk, Martin J.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  17. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in

  18. History of the discovery of neuronal death in embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, V

    1992-11-01

    The German anatomists, M. Ernst and A. Glücksmann, deserve credit for the discovery of widespread cell death in embryonic tissues, including the nervous tissue. In 1934, V. Hamburger described a significant hypoplasia in dorsal root ganglia (DGR) and lateral motor columns, following the extirpation of limb buds in chick embryos. In the early 1940s, Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini in Turin (Italy) repeated the experiment and suggested that the hypoplasia might result from the death of young differentiated neurons. In a joint reinvestigation, published in 1949, large numbers of degenerating neurons were described in brachial DRG, following wing bud extirpations. In the same embryos, Dr. Levi-Montalcini observed massive neuronal death in cervical and thoracic DRG which had not been affected by the operation. This was the discovery of naturally occurring neuronal death. Long after the discovery of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) it was recognized that NGF and natural neuronal death are two sides of the same coin: the latter results from an insufficient supply of the former by the target tissues.

  19. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  20. Raman spectral study of anti-angiogenic drugs on the role of chick vascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixiang; Chen, Rong; Chen, Qisong; Lin, Juqiang; Pan, Jianji; Lin, Shaojun; Li, Chao; Li, Yongzeng; Feng, Shangyuan

    2009-08-01

    Inhibit angiogenesis is one of the important tumor therapy. If the mechanism of vascular changes can be detected at molecular level, it will have therapeutic significance. Raman spectroscopy, which can be applied to the structural analysis of solid, liquid or solution of biological molecules, is a non-destructive spectral technology holding very rich information. Basing on Confocal Raman Microscope, a unique system is developed for obtaining the different Raman spectra of the chick embryo vascular with the anti-angiogenic drugs - thalidomide and without. In the study, the location and shape of the average Raman spectra of vessels in drug 5h were very similar to the ones without medicine, and the intensity of some characteristic peaks changed, such as 1441cm-1,1527cm-1 and 1657cm-1 showing markedly increasing, while the 971cm-1 and 1081cm-1 decreasing. This change was due to anti- angiogenic drugs that caused the nucleic acid, protein, phospholipids, and other important biological molecules of the vessels on the structure or content tovary. PCA was used to distinguish between the two kinds of vascular with the result that they were accurately partitioned.The study indicated that Raman spectroscopy could be an effective tool for detection of the mechanism of vascular changes.

  1. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin.

  2. Production of a monoclonal antibody by in vitro immunization that recognizes a native chondroitin sulfate epitope in the embryonic chick limb and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capehart, A A; Wienecke, M M; Kitten, G T; Solursh, M; Krug, E L

    1997-11-01

    We report the production of a monoclonal antibody (d1C4) by in vitro immunization that has immunoreactivity with a native chondroitin sulfate epitope in embryonic chick limb and heart. Murine lymphocytes were stimulated by direct exposure to unfixed, unsolubilized precartilage mesenchymal aggregates in high-density micromass culture derived from Stage 22-23 chick limb buds. Specificity of d1C4 reactivity was demonstrated by sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining to pretreatment with chondroitinase ABC or AC, preferential immunoreactivity with chondroitin-6-sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS-C GAG) in ELISA, and competition of immunohistochemical staining with CS-C GAG. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the d1C4 epitope revealed a striking localization of immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of precartilage aggregates of chick limb mesenchyme in high-density micromass culture by 16 hr and the prechondrogenic limb core at Stage 23 in vivo. Immunoreactivity in both cultured limb mesenchyme and the embryonic limb continued through differentiation of prechondrogenic condensations into cartilage tissue. In the developing chick heart, d1C4 staining was found throughout the ECM of atrioventricular cushion tissue by Stage 25, but was localized to mesenchyme adjacent to the myocardium in the outflow tract cushions. There was an abrupt demarcation between d1C4-reactive intracardiac mesenchyme and unreactive extracardiac mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium in the Stage 22 embryo. This study demonstrates the efficacy of in vitro immunization of lymphocytes for the production of MAbs to native ECM constituents, such as CS-GAGs. Immunohistochemical data utilizing d1C4 suggest that CS-GAGs bearing this epitope may be important in early morphogenetic events leading to cartilage differentiation in the limb and valvuloseptal morphogenesis in the heart.

  3. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  4. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  5. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  6. Development of Experimental Myopia in Chicks in a Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard A.; Cohen, Yuval; McGlinn, Alice M.; Davison, Sherrill; Casavant, Susan; Shaffer, James; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. Methods Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather. Control chicks were reared indoors with incandescent lighting. Besides ocular refraction and ultrasound, we determined dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content in retina and vitreous and measured mRNA expression levels of selected clock and circadian rhythm-related genes in the retina/RPE. Results Myopia developed in the goggled eyes of all cohorts. Whereas outdoor rearing lessened myopia by 44% at 4 days, a protective effect was no longer evident at 11 days. Outdoor rearing had no consistent effect on retinal or vitreous content of dopamine or DOPAC. Conforming to prior data on form-deprivation myopia, retina and vitreous levels of DOPAC were reduced in goggled eyes. Compared with contralateral eyes, the retinal expression of clock and circadian rhythm-related genes was modestly altered in myopic eyes of chicks reared indoors or outdoors. Conclusions Outdoor rearing of chicks induces only a partial decrease of goggle-induced myopia that is not maintained, without evidence that retinal dopamine metabolism accounts for the partial myopia inhibition under these outdoor conditions. Although modest, alterations in retinal gene expression suggest that studying circadian signals might be informative for understanding refractive mechanisms. PMID:27618415

  7. Rapid and simple method for in vivo ex utero development of mouse embryo explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, André B; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Deries, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The in utero development of mammals drastically reduces the accessibility of the mammalian embryo and therefore limits the range of experimental manipulation that can be done to study functions of genes or signaling pathways during embryo development. Over the past decades, tissue and organ-like culture methods have been developed with the intention of reproducing in vivo situations. Developing accessible and simple techniques to study and manipulate embryos is an everlasting challenge. Herein, we describe a reliable and quick technique to culture mid-gestation explanted mouse embryos on top of a floating membrane filter in a defined medium. Viability of the cultured tissues was assessed by apoptosis and proliferation analysis showing that cell proliferation is normal and there is only a slight increase in apoptosis after 12h of culture compared to embryos developing in utero. Moreover, differentiation and morphogenesis proceed normally as assessed by 3D imaging of the transformation of the myotome into deep back muscles. Not only does muscle cell differentiation occur as expected, but so do extracellular matrix organization and the characteristic splitting of the myotome into the three epaxial muscle groups. Our culture method allows for the culture and manipulation of mammalian embryo explants in a very efficient way, and it permits the manipulation of in vivo developmental events in a controlled environment. Explants grown under these ex utero conditions simulate real developmental events that occur in utero.

  8. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  9. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  10. Mandibular arch muscle identity is regulated by a conserved molecular process during vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Robert D; Mebus, Katharina; Roehl, Henry H

    2008-06-15

    Vertebrate head muscles exhibit a highly conserved pattern of innervation and skeletal connectivity and yet it is unclear whether the molecular basis of their development is likewise conserved. Using the highly conserved expression of Engrailed 2 (En2) as a marker of identity in the dorsal mandibular muscles of zebrafish, we have investigated the molecular signals and tissues required for patterning these muscles. We show that muscle En2 expression is not dependent on signals from the adjacent neural tube, pharyngeal endoderm or axial mesoderm and that early identity of head muscles does not require bone morphogenetic pathway, Notch or Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. However, constrictor dorsalis En2 expression is completely lost after a loss of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling and we show that is true throughout head muscle development. These results suggest that head muscle identity is dependent on Fgf signalling. Data from experiments performed in chick suggest a similar regulation of En2 genes by Fgf signalling revealing a conserved mechanism for specifying head muscle identity. We present evidence that another key gene important in the development of mouse head muscles, Tbx1, is also critical for specification of mandibular arch muscle identity and that this is independent of Fgf signalling. These data imply that dorsal mandibular arch muscle identity in fish, chick and mouse is specified by a highly conserved molecular process despite differing functions of these muscles in different lineages.

  11. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  12. Viability of bovine demi embryo after splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo derived from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo embryo production was limited by number of donor, wide variability respond due to superovulation program and also immunoactifity of superovulation hormone (FSH. Splitting technology could be an alternative to increase the number of transferrable embryos into recipien cows. Splitting is done with cutting embryo becoming two equal pieces (called demi embrio base on ICM orientation. The objective of this research was to determine the viability of demi embryo obtained from embryo splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo. The results showed that demi embryos which performed blastocoel reexpansion 3 hours after embryo splitting using fresh and frozen thawed embryos were 76.9 and 76.2% respectively. Base on existention of inner cell mass (ICM, the number of demi embryos developed with ICM from fresh and frozen thawed embryos were not significantly different (90.6 and 85.7% respectively. The cell number of demi embryo from fresh embryos splitting was not different compared with those from frozen thawed embryos (36.1 and 35.9 respectively. These finding indicated that embryo splitting can be applied to frozen thawed embryos with certain condition as well as fresh embryos.

  13. Deciphering axonal pathways of genetically defined groups of neurons in the chick neural tube utilizing in ovo electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Oshri; Zisman, Sophie; Hadas, Yoav; Vald, Lilach; Klar, Avihu

    2010-05-02

    Employment of enhancer elements to drive expression of reporter genes in neurons is a widely used paradigm for tracking axonal projection. For tracking axonal projection of spinal interneurons in vertebrates, germ line-targeted reporter genes yield bilaterally symmetric labeling. Therefore, it is hard to distinguish between the ipsi- and contra-laterally projecting axons. Unilateral electroporation into the chick neural tube provides a useful means to restrict expression of a reporter gene to one side of the central nervous system, and to follow axonal projection on both sides. This video demonstrates first how to handle the eggs prior to injection. At HH stage 18-20, DNA is injected into the sacral level of the neural tube, then tungsten electrodes are placed parallel to the embryo and short electrical pulses are administered with a pulse generator. The egg is sealed with tape and placed back into an incubator for further development. Three days later (E6) the spinal cord is removed as an open book preparation from embryo, fixed, and processed for whole mount antibody staining. The stained spinal cord is mounted on slide and visualized using confocal microscopy.

  14. Mother-embryo isotope (δ15N, δ13C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-water sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourg, Baptiste; Kiszka, Jeremy; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ13C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systemati...

  15. Physical influences on embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D C; Rowlett, K; Simkiss, K

    1987-01-01

    There is a critical period between 3 and 7 days of incubation when the absence of turning in eggs of the domestic fowl leads to increased mortality and decreased embryo growth. This critical period coincides with the time of subembryonic fluid formation, and it is suggested that the absence of turning leads to the presence of unstirred layer effects in fluid secretion. This fluid deficiency persists throughout the subsequent development of the embryo. Experiments on shell-less culture systems support this interpretation in preference to other explanations of embryo death in unturned eggs, which usually refer to chorion adhesion to shell membranes.

  16. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  17. Scintillation autoradiographic localization of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in chick intestine. [Tritium tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.G.; Haussler, M.R.

    1979-02-01

    The intracellular binding site of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) was determined via biochemical analysis of radioactive 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ association with various chick tissues and then by direct autoradiography. When vitamin D-deficient chicks were injected intracardially with doses of tritiated 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ and killed 2 h later, 2 to 3 times more radioactivity was found in the intestinal mucosa than was present in equal weights of pancreas, parathyroid, or liver tissue. Very little tritium was found in muscle tissue. The intestinally localized radioactivity was predominantly associated with the nuclear chromatin fraction, and binding of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/(/sup 3/H)D/sub 3/ to the nucleus was maximal 2 h after injection and at a dose of at least 0.52 nmol. Using this dose and time period, autoradiographic studies were done on duodenum and thoracic muscle of rachitic chicks injected with radioactive 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ (11.2 Ci/mol). Thin sections of tissue were prepared for thaw and dry mount scintillation autoradiography as well as simple dip-coating autoradiography. After exposure for 4 to 6 months, a preferential concentration and retention of tritium-labeled 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ was evident in the nuclei of intestinal villi and in the crypt of Lieberkuehn cells when each of the autoradiographic techniques was utilized. Quantitation of the labeled hormone confirms the significant nuclear accumulation in both villi and crypt cells. No such nuclear concentration of silver grains was observed in thoracic muscle cells, and the intestinal localization was abolished when a 100-fold excess of unlabeled 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ was injected simultaneously with the radioactive hormone. It is concluded that 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ is bound in a tissue-selective fashion to a high affinity, low capacity site within the nucleus of its intestinal target organ.

  18. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  19. Central administration of neuromedin U suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin

    2007-06-08

    The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food intake. However, the anorexigenic action of NMU in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the central administration of NMU on food intake and hypothalamic mRNA levels of CRF, AVT and mesotocin (a nonmammalian equivalent of oxytocin) in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and induced wing-flapping behavior. NMU also significantly upregulated mRNA expression of CRF and AVT, but did not influence mRNA expression of mesotocin in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that NMU functions as an appetite-suppressive peptide via CRF and AVT in the central nervous system in chicks.

  20. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish.

  1. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Muscle_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Conserved and divergent expression patterns of markers of axial development in reptilian embryos: Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michio; Kajikawa, Eriko; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Noro, Miyuki; Iwai, Tatsuhiro; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kobayashi, Kensaku; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    The processes of development leading up to gastrulation have been markedly altered during the evolution of amniotes, and it is uncertain how the mechanisms of axis formation are conserved and diverged between mouse and chick embryos. To assess the conservation and divergence of these mechanisms, this study examined gene expression patterns during the axis formation process in Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko preovipositional embryos. The data suggest that NODAL signaling, similarly to avian embryos but in contrast to eutherian embryos, does not have a role in epiblast and hypoblast development in reptilian embryos. The posterior marginal epiblast (PME) is the initial molecular landmark of axis formation in reptilian embryos prior to primitive plate development. Ontogenetically, PME may be the precursor of the primitive plate, and phylogenetically, Koller's sickle and posterior marginal zone in avian development may have been derived from the PME. Most of the genes expressed in the mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE genes), especially signaling antagonist genes, are not expressed in the hypoblast of turtle and gecko embryos, though they are expressed in the avian hypoblast. This study proposes that AVE gene expression in the hypoblast and the visceral endoderm could have been independently established in avian and eutherian lineages, similar to the primitive streak that has been independently acquired in these lineages.

  17. Kidney alkaline phosphatase in mercuric chloride injected chicks resistant and susceptible to leukosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; McIntyre, J.A.; Bearse, G.E.

    1969-01-01

    Two strains of chickens were selected for resistance and susceptibility to avian leukosis. Researchers found that the resistant chicks retained two to four times as much mercury in the liver and kidneys as did the susceptible chicks following injection of mercuric chloride or phenylmercuric acetate. Differences in alkaline phosphatase in the kidneys of the resistant and susceptible chicks, and the effect of the mercuric chloride injection on the alkaline phosphatase activity were reported in this paper. 19 references, 2 tables.

  18. DAPI Staining of Drosophila Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Wendy F; Sullivan, William

    2007-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONDrosophila embryos can be stained with specific fluorescent probes or antibodies through either direct or indirect immunofluorescence. In particular, several effective probes exist for visualizing DNA. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is a commonly used DNA-binding dye. Because it is specific for double-stranded DNA, no prior RNase treatment is required. While the embryo staining method described here uses DAPI, other fluorescent DNA probes can be processed similarly.

  19. Transcriptional Responses and Mechanisms of Copper-Induced Dysfunctional Locomotor Behavior in Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Lian; Wu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Wei-Min; Mei, Jie; Ma, Xu-Fa; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2015-11-01

    Copper-induced delayed hatching and dysfunctional movement had been reported previously, and unbalanced free copper was found in the body of humans with Alzheimer's disease and other neural diseases, but details of the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to over 3.9 μM of copper-exhibited delayed hatching and significantly dysfunctional movement. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization screening and by conducting an in-depth analysis of gene characterization in embryos exposed to copper, we found that copper caused neural crest defects from the initiation stage of neurogenesis, and embryos younger than the 70% epiboly stage were sensitive to copper toxicity. The myelination of Schwann cells, other than melanophores, cartilage, and neurons, was inhibited by copper during neurogenesis. In addition, axon guidance was blocked by copper. Downregulated cdx4-hox might have contributed to the neurogenesis-related defects. Moreover, copper inhibited the differentiation of muscle fibers and myotomes but not the specification of muscle progenitors. In summary, our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for copper-inhibited locomotor behavior in embryos, in which copper blocks functional muscle fiber specification during myogenesis and inhibits the specification of axons and Schwann cell myelination during neurogenesis. A combination of these processes results in dysfunctional locomotor behavior in zebrafish embryos exposed to copper.

  20. Raman spectroscopic imaging of the whole Ciona intestinalis embryo during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru J Nakamura

    Full Text Available Intracellular composition and the distribution of bio-molecules play central roles in the specification of cell fates and morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Consequently, investigation of changes in the expression and distribution of bio-molecules, especially mRNAs and proteins, is an important challenge in developmental biology. Raman spectroscopic imaging, a non-invasive and label-free technique, allows simultaneous imaging of the intracellular composition and distribution of multiple bio-molecules. In this study, we explored the application of Raman spectroscopic imaging in the whole Ciona intestinalis embryo during development. Analysis of Raman spectra scattered from C. intestinalis embryos revealed a number of localized patterns of high Raman intensity within the embryo. Based on the observed distribution of bio-molecules, we succeeded in identifying the location and structure of differentiated muscle and endoderm within the whole embryo, up to the tailbud stage, in a label-free manner. Furthermore, during cell differentiation, we detected significant differences in cell state between muscle/endoderm daughter cells and daughter cells with other fates that had divided from the same mother cells; this was achieved by focusing on the Raman intensity of single Raman bands at 1002 or 1526 cm(-1, respectively. This study reports the first application of Raman spectroscopic imaging to the study of identifying and characterizing differentiating tissues in a whole chordate embryo. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopic imaging is a feasible label-free technique for investigating the developmental process of the whole embryo of C. intestinalis.

  1. Phaseolus immature embryo rescue technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Pascal; Toussaint, André; Mergeai, Guy; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Predominant among the production constraints of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris are infestation of Ascochyta blight, Bean Golden Mosaic virus (BGMV), and Bean Fly. Interbreeding with Phaseolus -coccineus L. and/or Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm has been shown to provide P. vulgaris with greater resistance to these diseases. For interspecific crosses to be successful, it is important to use P. coccineus and P. polyanthus as female parents; this prevents rapid reversal to the recurrent parent P. vulgaris. Although incompatibility barriers are post-zygotic, early hybrid embryo abortion limits the success of F1 crosses. While rescue techniques for globular and early heart-shaped embryos have improved in recent years, -success in hybridization remains very low. In this study, we describe six steps that allowed us to rescue 2-day-old P. vulgaris embryos using a pod culture technique. Our methods consisted of (i) pod culture, (ii) extraction and culture of immature embryos, (iii) dehydration of embryos, (iv) germination of embryos, (v) rooting of developed shoots, and (vi) hardening of plantlets.

  2. A study on the growth curve of and maximum profit from layer-type cockerel chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, F Y; Zhen, Y S

    1997-09-01

    1. 2900 commercial layer-type cockerel chicks were reared on the floor from 1-day-old to 9 weeks of age. 2. The growth curve of the cockerel chicks was [formula see text] 3. The feeding costs (US$) of layer-type cockerel chicks were described by the equation Y = a + bx + cx2 = 0.0657 - 0.0091x + 0.0069x2. 4. When the layer-type cockerel chicks' marketing price was US$0.82 per kg. (6.8 Renminbi per kg), the optimum marketing age for maximum profit margin was 5.9 weeks (41 to 42 d).

  3. Correlation between plasma steroids and chick visits by nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Elisa M; Wikelski, Martin; Anderson, David J

    2003-03-01

    Nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti) often approach unattended chicks and perform parental and/or aggressive behaviors toward the chicks. Earlier descriptions of these encounters included sexual behaviors as well. We studied hormonal correlates of chick visits by such nonbreeding boobies during the breeding season. We compared the hormonal status of chick-visiting adults with that of nonvisiting adults in the colony. We determined levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), androstendione, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol as potential candidate hormones controlling parental, aggressive, or sexual behavior. Only T and CORT differed between chick-visiting and nonvisiting adults. Chick-visiting adults had higher CORT levels after the interaction than nonvisiting adults randomly caught in the colony. To the contrary. T levels after interactions were lower in chick-visiting compared to random nonvisiting adults. T levels, however, did not vary with level of aggression among chick-visiting adults. We suggest that chick-visiting behavior may be permitted by low T levels and activated by, or resulting in, high CORT levels.

  4. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  5. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P heat-stressed chicks modulated (P heat-stress-induced growth retardation in broiler chicks. Moreover, supplemental CrMet modulated suppressive effects of heat stress on cellular and humoral immune responses.

  6. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  7. Lessons from Embryos: Haeckel's Embryo Drawings, Evolution, and Secondary Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, developmental biologist Michael Richardson compared his research team's embryo photographs to Ernst Haeckel's 1874 embryo drawings and called Haeckel's work "noncredible". "Science" soon published "Haeckel's Embryos: Fraud Rediscovered," and Richardson's comments further reinvigorated criticism of Haeckel by…

  8. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  9. Physiological responses of hens divergently selected on the number of chicks obtained from a single insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, J P; Beaumont, C; Scheller, M F

    1998-09-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in domestic fowl to investigate the consequences of five generations of divergent selection for increased (L+) or decreased (L-) numbers of hatched chicks. After artificial insemination with pooled ejaculates within the same line (L+ males x L+ hens or L- males x L- hens), significant differences were observed between L+ and L- hens for mean fertility rates (L+ 94.8%, L- 70.2%, P hens laid fewer eggs than L+ hens (P hens compared with L+ hens. Another series of experiments revealed the presence of larger initial populations of spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules as well as in the perivitelline layer of eggs from L+ hens. The populations of spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules of commercial laying hens inseminated with pooled semen samples from L+ males was compared with those in hens inseminated with samples from L- males to determine whether the variations in oviductal sperm storage between the two lines were male dependent. No significant differences between the populations of spermatozoa present in the sperm storage tubules of either group of hens could be detected at any of the intervals examined after insemination (days 1, 3 and 10). Finally, an experiment conducted on hens originating from the two selected lines indicated that the utero-vaginal junction of L+ hens contained significantly more sperm storage tubules compared with L- hens (P < 0.01). It is concluded that selection based on overall reproductive performance modifies the number of eggs capable of developing viable embryos and also influences the efficacy of initial sperm storage by increasing or altering the population of sperm storage tubules located in the utero-vaginal junction. Such changes have major consequences on the duration of the fertile period, which in avian species is directly dependent on both the actual population of spermatozoa stored in the oviduct and on their rate of release from the storage sites.

  10. Axonal patterns and targets of dA1 interneurons in the chick hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2012-04-25

    Hindbrain dorsal interneurons that comprise the rhombic lip relay sensory information and coordinate motor outputs. The progenitor dA1 subgroup of interneurons, which is formed along the dorsal-most region of the caudal rhombic lip, gives rise to the cochlear and precerebellar nuclei. These centers project sensory inputs toward upper-brain regions. The fundamental role of dA1 interneurons in the assembly and function of these brainstem nuclei is well characterized. However, the precise en route axonal patterns and synaptic targets of dA1 interneurons are not clear as of yet. Novel genetic tools were used to label dA1 neurons and trace their axonal trajectories and synaptic connections at various stages of chick embryos. Using dA1-specific enhancers, two contralateral ascending axonal projection patterns were identified; one derived from rhombomeres 6-7 that elongated in the dorsal funiculus, while the other originated from rhombomeres 2-5 and extended in the lateral funiculus. Targets of dA1 axons were followed at later stages using PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition. dA1 axons were found to project and form synapses in the auditory nuclei and cerebellum. Investigation of mechanisms that regulate the patterns of dA1 axons revealed a fundamental role of Lim-homeodomain (HD) proteins. Switch in the expression of the specific dA1 Lim-HD proteins Lhx2/9 into Lhx1, which is typically expressed in dB1 interneurons, modified dA1 axonal patterns to project along the routes of dB1 subgroup. Together, the results of this research provided new tools and knowledge to the assembly of trajectories and connectivity of hindbrain dA1 interneurons and of molecular mechanisms that control these patterns.

  11. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain. The feeding behavior of chicks was recorded continuously for 6 h. The next day, brain and blood samples were collected when the chicks either attempted to have food (hungry group) or turned food down (satiated group), in order to analyze the concentrations of the free amino acids and monoamines. We confirmed that the feeding behavior of neonatal chicks was characterized by short resting periods between very brief times spent on food intake. Several free amino acids in the mesencephalon were significantly lower in the satiated group than in the hungry group, while l-histidine and l-glutamine were significantly higher. Notably, there was no change in the free amino acid concentrations in other brain regions or plasma. As for monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the mesencephalon of the hungry group compared with the satiated group, but 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) was higher. In addition, serotonin and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in the brain stem of the hungry chicks compared with the satiated group, but levels of 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid were lower. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were significantly higher in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the chicks in the hungry group. In conclusion, the changes in the free amino acids and monoamines in the brain may have some role in the feeding behavior of

  12. Muscle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis ) Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels ( ... disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash ( dermatomyositis ) Inherited muscle disorder ( Duchenne muscular dystrophy ) Inflammation of ...

  13. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  14. What is the preimplantation embryo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Tanja; Schlüter, Elmar; Neuwohner, Elke; El Ansari, Susan; Wissner, Thomas; Richter, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    We present results from our 'bioethical field studies', which explore and compare the views of experts, patients and the general public on the beginning of human life and the status of the preimplantation embryo in Germany. Using a qualitative and quantitative multi-method approach, we found crucial differences in the categorization of the beginning of human life within the expert group (representative samples of human geneticists n=104, ethicists n=168, midwives n=294, obstetricians n=147, paediatricians n=166), and between expert and lay samples (IVF couples n=108, high genetic risk couples n=324, general population n=1017). The majority of lay respondents as well as paediatricians and obstetricians chose nidation, the moment when the implantation of the fertilized egg into the uterus takes place, as the crucial boundary that marks the beginning of human life, whereas the majority of (female) human geneticists, ethicists and midwives voted for conception as the decisive point in time. The views of all groups on the status of the preimplantation embryo differed from the assumptions underlying German legislation (Embryo Protection Act). Religiousness and religious affiliation, gender, attitudes towards disabled people, post-material values and a present desire for a child were identified as independent factors influencing attitudes towards the preimplantation embryo in the population sample. The results are discussed within a broader philosophical and social science perspective of constructivism versus essentialism, proposing a truly interdisciplinary approach to such bioethical core issues as new reproductive technologies and the status of the preimplantation embryo.

  15. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  16. Influences of Feeding Lactobacillus on Colonization of the Lactobacillus in Chicks'Digestible Tracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It was carried out with culture solution of Lactobacillus fed to the newborn chicks to observe the influences on colonization of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts. The results showed that after the chicks were fed Lactobacillus, the amount of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts significantly increased (P<0.01) and the Lactobacillus colonized 36h ahead of schedule

  17. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became...

  18. Foraging behavior and physiological changes in precocial quail chicks in response to low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, KL; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degreesC and one group to 24 degreesC during foraging throughout

  19. EFFECTS OF PRIMARY IMPRINTING ON THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY FILIAL ATTACHMENTS IN THE CHICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVOS, GJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    1993-01-01

    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the developmen

  20. In vivo functional imaging of blood flow and wall strain rate in outflow tract of embryonic chick heart using ultrafast spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Xin; Shi, Liang; Rugonyi, Sandra; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-09-01

    During cardiac development, the cardiac wall and flowing blood are two important cardiac tissues that constantly interact with each other. This dynamic interaction defines appropriate biomechanical environment to which the embryonic heart is exposed. Quantitative assessment of the dynamic parameters of wall tissues and blood flow is required to further our understanding of cardiac development. We report the use of an ultrafast 1310-nm dual-camera spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to characterize/image, in parallel, the dynamic radial strain rate of the myocardial wall and the Doppler velocity of the underlying flowing blood within an in vivo beating chick embryo. The OCT system operates at 184-kHz line scan rate, providing the flexibility of imaging the fast blood flow and the slow tissue deformation within one scan. The ability to simultaneously characterize tissue motion and blood flow provides a useful approach to better understand cardiac dynamics during early developmental stages.

  1. Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan; Thrane, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four-dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired...... at every angle of an incremental rotation of the deflection mirrors of the OCT system. Image acquisition is accomplished after a rotation of 180◦. Comparison of a displayed live M-mode of the central A-scan with a reference M-mode allows instant detection of translational movements of the embryo....... For calculation of 4D data sets, we apply an imagebased retrospective gating algorithm using the phase information of the common central A-scan present in all acquired images. This leads to cylindrical three-dimensional data sets for every time step of the cardiac cycle that can be used for 4D visualization...

  2. Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisenberg Carl-Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.

  3. Cell adhesion in embryo morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vanessa; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2012-02-01

    Visualizing and analyzing shape changes at various scales, ranging from single molecules to whole organisms, are essential for understanding complex morphogenetic processes, such as early embryonic development. Embryo morphogenesis relies on the interplay between different tissues, the properties of which are again determined by the interaction between their constituent cells. Cell interactions, on the other hand, are controlled by various molecules, such as signaling and adhesion molecules, which in order to exert their functions need to be spatiotemporally organized within and between the interacting cells. In this review, we will focus on the role of cell adhesion functioning at different scales to organize cell, tissue and embryo morphogenesis. We will specifically ask how the subcellular distribution of adhesion molecules controls the formation of cell-cell contacts, how cell-cell contacts determine tissue shape, and how tissue interactions regulate embryo morphogenesis.

  4. In amnio MRI of mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Roberts

    Full Text Available Mouse embryo imaging is conventionally carried out on ex vivo embryos excised from the amniotic sac, omitting vital structures and abnormalities external to the body. Here, we present an in amnio MR imaging methodology in which the mouse embryo is retained in the amniotic sac and demonstrate how important embryonic structures can be visualised in 3D with high spatial resolution (100 µm/px. To illustrate the utility of in amnio imaging, we subsequently apply the technique to examine abnormal mouse embryos with abdominal wall defects. Mouse embryos at E17.5 were imaged and compared, including three normal phenotype embryos, an abnormal embryo with a clear exomphalos defect, and one with a suspected gastroschisis phenotype. Embryos were excised from the mother ensuring the amnion remained intact and stereo microscopy was performed. Embryos were next embedded in agarose for 3D, high resolution MRI on a 9.4T scanner. Identification of the abnormal embryo phenotypes was not possible using stereo microscopy or conventional ex vivo MRI. Using in amnio MRI, we determined that the abnormal embryos had an exomphalos phenotype with varying severities. In amnio MRI is ideally suited to investigate the complex relationship between embryo and amnion, together with screening for other abnormalities located outside of the mouse embryo, providing a valuable complement to histology and existing imaging methods available to the phenotyping community.

  5. Hedgehog can drive terminal differentiation of amniote slow skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bildsoe Heidi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted Hedgehog (Hh signalling molecules have profound influences on many developing and regenerating tissues. Yet in most vertebrate tissues it is unclear which Hh-responses are the direct result of Hh action on a particular cell type because Hhs frequently elicit secondary signals. In developing skeletal muscle, Hhs promote slow myogenesis in zebrafish and are involved in specification of medial muscle cells in amniote somites. However, the extent to which non-myogenic cells, myoblasts or differentiating myocytes are direct or indirect targets of Hh signalling is not known. Results We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh can act directly on cultured C2 myoblasts, driving Gli1 expression, myogenin up-regulation and terminal differentiation, even in the presence of growth factors that normally prevent differentiation. Distinct myoblasts respond differently to Shh: in some slow myosin expression is increased, whereas in others Shh simply enhances terminal differentiation. Exposure of chick wing bud cells to Shh in culture increases numbers of both muscle and non-muscle cells, yet simultaneously enhances differentiation of myoblasts. The small proportion of differentiated muscle cells expressing definitive slow myosin can be doubled by Shh. Shh over-expression in chick limb bud reduces muscle mass at early developmental stages while inducing ectopic slow muscle fibre formation. Abundant later-differentiating fibres, however, do not express extra slow myosin. Conversely, Hh loss of function in the limb bud, caused by implanting hybridoma cells expressing a functionally blocking anti-Hh antibody, reduces early slow muscle formation and differentiation, but does not prevent later slow myogenesis. Analysis of Hh knockout mice indicates that Shh promotes early somitic slow myogenesis. Conclusions Taken together, the data show that Hh can have direct pro-differentiative effects on myoblasts and that early-developing muscle requires Hh for

  6. The Role of Endothelial Cells in Myofiber Differentiation and the Vascularization and Innervation of Bioengineered Muscle Tissue in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-08

    DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin) until use. MPCs were used no later than passage 2. Human umbilical vein...Biosciences) coated six-well tissue culture plates containing DMEM ( Hyclone , Thermo Scientific, Logan, UT) supplemented with 10% horse serum , 1% penicillin...streptomycin and 0.5% chick embryo extract ( Hyclone ) at 37 C in 5% CO2 for 4e6 days. Isolated MPCs were trypsinized and grown in growth media (GM

  7. Nondestructive Imaging of Internal Structures of Frog (Xenopus laevis) Embryos by Shadow-Projection X-Ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sadao; Yoneda, Ikuo; Nagai, Takeharu; Ueno, Naoto; Murakami, Kazuo

    1994-04-01

    Nondestructive high-resolution imaging of frog ( Xenopus laevis) embryos has been developed by X-ray microtomography. Shadow-projection X-ray microtomography with a brilliant fine focus laboratory X-ray source could image fine structures of Xenopus embryos which were embedded in paraffin wax. The imaging system enabled us to not only distinguish endoderm from ectoderm at the gastrula stage, but also to obtain a cross-section view of the tail bud embryo showing muscle, notochord and neural tube without staining. Furthermore, the distribution of myosin was also imaged in combination with whole-mount immunohistochemistry.

  8. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  9. [Use of colchicine in studying the proliferative activity of chicken embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V I; El Zajat, M

    1977-07-01

    Manifestation of mitotic activity of colchicin in 4- and 5-day-old chick embryos was studied under different modes of colchicin injection into the eggs. Three methods were tested: colchicin solution was injected into the serous-amniotic cavity (1) and into the yolk sac (2) and also by dripping on the serous membrane over the enbryo (3). Perfect metastatic effect was observed only when colchicin was used in concentration of 1 X 10(-4) g/ml and injected by the third mehtod. Increase in the solution volume over 0.1 ml resulted in a greater percentage of embryo death. Lack of a definite inhibitory action after colchicin injection into the serous-amniotic cavity might be explained by decrease of the substance concentration as a result of its dilution by the cavity fluid. A complete lack of blocked mitoses in the embryo tissues after colchicin injection into the yolk sac can be explained, according to the authors, by the presence, in the yolk, of a great number of ovoflavins capable to inhibit mitotic activity of colchicin.

  10. Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  11. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  12. Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C

    2001-01-01

    Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF. Using cattle as a model, it is possible to increase pregnancy rates from 70% per transfer of good quality in-vivo-produced embryos, to 110% by transferring the two demi-embryos resulting from the bisection of one embryo. The 30-40% greater chance of conception would reduce costs for the government, health authorities and patients, and reduce stress, time and complications for women having IVF treatment. Embryo splitting may also provide donor embryos for infertile couples that cannot conceive naturally or with IVF. The shortage of children for adoption and donor embryos may be overcome by the production of demi-embryos.

  13. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks.

  14. The transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin into eggs and chicks following exposure to hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Yamashita, Junko; Tomita, Takako [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan); Matsushita, Sachihiro; Ikeya, Moriji; Iwasawa, Toshiyuki [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins have been shown to exert reproductive and teratogenic effects in several strains of mice, rats, and chickens. We reported that in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at less than 7.5 ng/egg on day 0 did not influence hatchability, whereas more than 10 ng/egg completely inhibited hatching. We also reported that maternal exposure to TCDD in Barred Plymouth Rock hens induced a reversible inhibition of egg laying. The hatchability of the eggs from TCDD exposed hens was significantly decreased and eggshell thickness was thicker than that from control hens 1. These results suggested that the TCDD in maternally exposed hens was transferred into eggs and induced embryo toxicity. Transfer of TCDD in eggs has been reported previously in foraging chickens 2,3 and ring-necked pheasants 4,5. The TCDD concentration in chicken eggs related to environmental exposure, especially contact with soil. The measurement of dioxins in eggs is important for assessing environmental contamination by dioxins and for humans because chicken eggs are one of the most popular food for humans. Measurement of TCDD concentration is generally performed by GC/MS method which is expensive and requires special equipment. Recently, a simple method for TCDD assay using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 6 and CALUX bioassay 7 has been reported. The objectives of this study were, first, to determine the TCDD concentration in eggs by ELISA. Second, the transfer of maternally exposed TCDD into the egg, embryo and chicks was examined.

  15. Chick limbs with mouse teeth: an effective in vivo culture system for tooth germ development and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Eiki; Wu, Changshan; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    Mouse tooth germ development is currently studied by three main approaches: in wild-type and mutant mouse lines, after transplantation of tooth germs to ectopic sites, and in organ culture. The in vivo approaches are the most physiological but do not provide accessibility to tooth germs for further experimental manipulation. Organ cultures, although readily accessible, do not sustain full tooth germ development and are appropriate for short-term analysis. Thus, we sought to establish a new approach that would combine experimental accessibility with sustained development. We implanted fragments of embryonic day 12 mouse embryo first branchial arch containing early bud stage tooth germs into the lateral mesenchyme of day 4-5 chick embryo wing buds in ovo. Eggs were reincubated, and implanted tissues were examined by histochemistry and in situ hybridization over time. The tooth germs underwent seemingly normal growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis. They reached the cap, bell, and crown stages in approximately 3, 6, and 10 days, respectively, mimicking in a striking manner native temporal patterns. To examine mechanisms regulating tooth germ development, we first implanted tooth germ fragments, microinjected them with neutralizing antibodies to the key signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and examined them over time. Tooth germ development was markedly delayed, as revealed by poor morphogenesis and lack of mature ameloblasts and odontoblasts displaying characteristic traits such as an elongated cell shape, nuclear relocalization, and amelogenin gene expression. These phenotypic changes began to be reversed upon further incubation. The data show that the limb bud represents an effective, experimentally accessible as well as economical system for growth and analysis of developing tooth germs. The inhibitory effects of Shh neutralizing antibody treatment are discussed in relation to roles of this signaling pathway proposed by this and other groups previously.

  16. Expression of neuronal guidance factor Slit2 in the spinal cord of chick embryonic development%神经生长导向因子Slit2在鸡胚脊髓发育中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍思琪; 张玉英; 吴婷; 王丽京; 韩哲; 杨雪松

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察神经生长导向因子Slit2在鸡胚神经管和脊髓不同发育时期的表达变化.方法 用免疫组织化学方法检测Slit2蛋白在鸡胚原肠期(HH6-HH10)神经管和第3d-17d(E3-E17期)脊髓中的表达和分布情况.结果 Slit2蛋白在鸡胚神经管和脊髓不同发育时期均有阳性表达,在脊髓中线结构区呈优势表达,在第9d(E9期)脊髓中线底板处表达最明显,第11d后Slit2蛋白阳性表达逐渐减弱并呈散在分布.结论 神经生长导向因子Slit2在鸡胚各发育时期神经管和脊髓的阳性表达呈动态变化.Slit2蛋白在脊髓发育过程起着重要作用.%Objective To explore the expression of neuronal guidance factor Slit2 in the neural tube and spinal cord of chick embryonic development. Method The protein expression pattern of Slit2 was detected in the neural tube(HH6-HH10) and spinal cord(3d-17d) using immunohistochemistry. Results Slit 2 positive product was detected in different stages of neural tube and spinal cord of chick embryo, superior in the spinal cord midline of neural floor plate to other regions, especially on 9 day chick embryo, but showed an attenuated and diffused trend after 11 days. Conclusion The expression pattern of neuronal guidance factor Slit2 in the neural tube and spinal cord of chick embryo presented a dynamic change.

  17. Embryo temperature during incubation: practice and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.

    2008-01-01

    (Key words: incubation, embryo temperature, embryonic development, heat production, heat loss) Until recently, all incubator studies were performed using a constant machine temperature (MT). But it is embryo temperature (ET) that is of importance to the embryo, and not MT. In practice, MT is often

  18. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  19. Detection of isoform-specific fibroblast growth factor receptors by whole-mount in situ hybridization in early chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Junko; Ohta, Sho; Bleyl, Steven B; Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2011-06-01

    We have developed "b" and "c" isoform-specific chicken fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1-3 probes for in situ hybridization. We rigorously demonstrate the specificity of these probes by using both dot blot hybridization and whole-mount in situ hybridization during neurulation and early postneurulation stages, and we compare expression patterns of each of the three isoform-specific probes to one another and to generic probes to each of the three (non-isoform-specific) FGF receptors. We show that the expression pattern of each receptor is represented by the collective expression of each of its two isoforms, with the expression of each FGF receptor being most similar to that of its "c" isoform at two of the three stages studied, and that tissue and stage differences exist in the patterns of expression of the six isoforms. We demonstrate the usefulness of these probes for defining the differential tissue expression of FGF receptor 1-3 isoforms.

  20. Development of bioluminescent chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models for primary pancreatic cancer cells: a platform for drug testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithi, Maria; Avan, Amir; Funel, Niccola; Leon, Leticia G.; Gomez, Valentina E.; Wurdinger, Thomas; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Giovannetti, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop chick-embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioluminescent tumor models employing low passage cell cultures obtained from primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Primary PDAC cells transduced with lentivirus expressing Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) were established and inoculated onto the CAM membrane, with >80% engraftment. Fluc signal reliably correlated with tumor growth. Tumor features were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses, including analysis of mutations and mRNA expression of PDAC pivotal genes, as well as microRNA (miRNA) profiling. These studies showed that CAM tumors had histopathological and genetic characteristic comparable to the original tumors. We subsequently tested the modulation of key miRNAs and the activity of gemcitabine and crizotinib on CAM tumors, showing that combination treatment resulted in 63% inhibition of tumor growth as compared to control (p < 0.01). These results were associated with reduced expression of miR-21 and increased expression of miR-155. Our study provides the first evidence that transduced primary PDAC cells can form tumors on the CAM, retaining several histopathological and (epi)genetic characteristics of original tumors. Moreover, our results support the use of these models for drug testing, providing insights on molecular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of new drugs/combinations. PMID:28304379

  1. Chick homeobox gene cDlx expression demarcates the forebrain anlage, indicating the onset of forebrain regional specification at gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghjid, S; Siddiqui, M A

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a chick homeobox-containing gene, cDlx, which shows greater than 85% homology to the homeodomain of other vertebrate Distal-less genes. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization studies reveal that cDlx expression is developmentally regulated and is tissue specific. In particular, the developmental expression pattern is characterized by an early appearance of cDlx transcript in the prospective forebrain region of gastrulating embryos. During neurulation, cDlx is consistently expressed in a spatially restricted domain in the presumptive ventral forebrain region of the neural plate that will give rise to the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis. Our data support the notion that members of the Dlx gene family are part of a homeobox gene code in forebrain pattern formation and suggest that regional specification of the forebrain occurs at much earlier stages than previously thought. The homeobox gene cDlx may thus play a role in defining forebrain regional identity as early as gastrulation.

  2. Knee joint morphogenesis of the quail (Coturnix japonica) embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Bahador; Talebhemat, Mahdokht; Hashemnia, Shadi; Shojaeepour, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Knee joint development and its morphogenetic events have been studied in human, chicken and other animal models and differences have been found in the pattern of the knee joint morphogenesis among the studied species. According to the small number of studies which have focused on the chronology of knee morphogenesis, a "morphogenetic timely pattern" is hard to suggest. Quail is an animal model for which there is no information about knee joint morphogenesis. This study was planned to define the time table of the knee joint structures formation in this bird. For this purpose embryonated Japanese quail eggs were incubated for 3 to 12 days. Embryos were removed from their eggs every twelve hours and staged according to Ainsworth et al. The hind limbs of the embryos at the stages 17 to 41 were dissected and 6 μm thick slides were prepared from their knee region. The time of appearance of menisci, ligaments, articular cavity and other knee joint components were identified in the quail embryo. During quail knee morphogenesis we observed the appearance of a three layered interzone, femorotibial cavitation and long bone ossification earlier than in chicken. A hypothesis is presented on the differential role of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee joint on embryonic knee development in birds as compared with humans.

  3. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  4. Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba

    2012-07-01

    Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites.

  5. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  6. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  7. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision.

  8. Efficiency of manganese absorption in chicks fed corn-soy and casein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.

  9. Expression of Fgf19 in the developing chick eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco-Morcillo, Javier; Sánchez-Calderón, Hortensia; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; Martín-Partido, Gervasio

    2005-04-21

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a new member of the FGF family of growth factors. Here, we describe the localization of Fgf19 mRNA in the developing chick retina and lens in stages from the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 15 (HH15) to postnatal day 30 (P30). Fgf19 was expressed in a transient manner in postmitotic neuroblasts during the migration from the ventricular surface to their final location. Moreover, from HH31 (embryonic day 7, E7) on, a subset of lined up Fgf19 expressing cells was distributed in the outer region of the presumptive INL. These cells were Pax6 immunoreactive horizontal cells. During the last third of embryogenesis, Fgf19 expression in the retina was progressively down-regulated and was not detected at P30. Also, it was transiently expressed in the equatorial region of the lens.

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Characteristics in the Embryonic Chick Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Jesper

    This ph.d. thesis contains the mathematical modeling of fluid dynamical phenomena in the tubular embryonic chick heart at HH-stages 10, 12, 14, and 16. The models are constructed by application of energy bond technique and involve the elasticity of heart walls with elliptic cross-section, Womersley...... modified inertia, and resistance due to friction and curvature of the multilayered tubular heart. Through the modeling, flow conditions in the embryonic heart are characterized. The models suggest that eccentric rather than concentric deformation of the beating heart is optimal for mean flows induced...... the models are not conclusive on this point. In addition the Liebau effect is investigated in a simpler system containing two elastic tubes joined to form a liquid filled ring, with a compression pump at an asymmetric location. Through comparison to other reports the system validates model construction...

  11. Endogenous expression of ASLV viral proteins in specific pathogen free chicken embryos: relevance for the developmental biology research field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canto-Soler M Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF eggs in combination with RCAS retrovirus, a member of the Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus (ASLV family, is of standard practice to study gene function and development. SPF eggs are certified free of infection by specific pathogen viruses of either exogenous or endogenous origin, including those belonging to the ASLV family. Based on this, SPF embryos are considered to be free of ASLV viral protein expression, and consequently in developmental research studies RCAS infected cells are routinely identified by immunohistochemistry against the ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Contrary to this generally accepted notion, observations in our laboratory suggested that certified SPF chicken embryos may endogenously express ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Since these observations may have significant implications for the developmental research field we further investigated this possibility. Results We demonstrate that certified SPF chicken embryos have transcriptionally active endogenous ASLV loci (ev loci capable of expressing ASLV viral proteins, such as p19 and p27, even when those loci are not capable of producing viral particles. We also show that the extent of viral protein expression in embryonic tissues varies not only among flocks but also between embryos of the same flock. In addition, our genetic screening revealed significant heterogeneity in ev loci composition even among embryos of the same flock. Conclusions These observations have critical implications for the developmental biology research field, since they strongly suggest that the current standard methodology used in experimental studies using the chick embryo and RCAS vectors may lead to inaccurate interpretation of results. Retrospectively, our observations suggest that studies in which infected cells have been identified simply by pan-ASLV viral protein expression may need to be considered with caution. For future studies, they

  12. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2013-12-01

    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals.

  13. Effects of Chronic Lithium Treatment on the Learning and Memory of Chicks%锂元素对雏鸡学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯薇; 崔勇华; 车轶

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究锂元素在雏鸡学习记忆中的作用.[方法]设定不同浓度锂元素处理鸡胚,待鸡胚孵化后,利用经典的行为学模型,研究不同锂元素浓度对雏鸡学习记忆的影响,通过RT-PCR方法检测学习记忆相关基因jun的表达,分析锂元素是否对jun有影响.[结果]不同浓度锂元素对于雏鸡一次性回避的影响明显,在5 min(短时记忆)、120 min(长时记忆)2个时间点均能够记住这个厌恶反应,与空白对照组相比,注射100 mmol/L氯化锂组的雏鸡在5、120 min 2个时间点均显示有显著或极显著差异(P5min=0.039 <0.05,P120min=0.002 <0.01);jun基因的在训练前和训练后以及不同浓度的锂元素梯度下出现了明显的表达差异.[结论]锂元素在雏鸡的学习记忆中发挥中重要的作用;jun基因是学习记忆环路中的一个重要基因.%[Objective]To study the effect of chronic lithium treatment on the learning and memory in chicks. [ Method]The embryos of chicks were treated in different concentration of lithium. After hatched,the classical model of behavior was adopted to study the effects of lithium treatment on the learning and memory of chicks,and then RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of learning and memory-related gene jun and analyze whether jun was affected by lithium or not. [ Result ] Different concentrations of lithium had obvious influence on the one-trial avoidance reaction of chicks,the aversive response was recorded in both short term memory (S min) and long term memory (lOmin);compared with the control group,the chicks injected with 100 mmol lithium chloride showed significant or extremely significant difference at both the fifth minute (PSmin = 0.039 <0.05,P120min =0.002 <0.01) ; meanwhile, the expression of jun also showed a significant difference in different concentrations of lithium before and after training. [Conclusion] lithium played an important role in the learning and memory of chicks;and jun was an

  14. Electroporation into Cultured Mammalian Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masanori; Osumi, Noriko

    Over the last century, mammalian embryos have been used extensively as a common animal model to investigate fundamental questions in the field of developmental biology. More recently, the establishment of transgenic and gene-targeting systems in laboratory mice has enabled researchers to unveil the genetic mechanisms under lying complex developmental processes (Mak, 2007). However, our understanding of cell—cell interactions and their molecular basis in the early stages of mammalian embryogenesis is still very fragmentary. One of the major problems is the difficulty of precise manipulation and limited accessibility to mammalian embryos via uterus wall. Unfortunately, existing tissue and organotypic culture systems per se do not fully recapitulate three-dimensional, dynamic processes of organogenesis observed in vivo. Although transgenic animal technology and virus-mediated gene delivery are useful to manipulate gene expression, these techniques take much time and financial costs, which limit their use.

  15. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  16. Embryo donation in Iran: an ethical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Leila; Bagheri, Alireza

    2013-12-01

    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10-15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, the paper presents a critical review of the Act of Embryo Donation in Iran. The paper argues that the Act does not provide enough safeguards for the future child and assurance for the safety of the donated embryos. It also does not restrict embryo donation to surplus embryos from infertile couples and is silent about the number of embryos that could be donated by each couple as well as the number of recipients for donated embryos by a couple. The Act is also silent about the issues of genetic linkage (nasab) and heritage which are challenging issues, especially in a conservative Islamic society. As a result, the future child may not inherit from their birth parents, as it is not required by the Act, or from the genetically related parents under the anonymity policy. Finally there is no standard national protocol or guidelines to evaluate the safety of the donated embryos. The paper concludes that despite its benefits, the Act lacks clarity, and it is subject to misunderstanding and confusion.

  17. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories.

  18. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  19. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  20. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

    OpenAIRE

    Imna Trigueros V; Miguel Ramón C; José Vázquez O; Juan Aguirre M; Carlos Garcia C; Jaime Martínez T

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline...

  1. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1992-08-01

    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  2. Comparative toxicity of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas in Brown Hisex chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1995-02-01

    Symptoms, lesions and changes in growth, haematology and clinical chemistry were investigated in Brown Hisex chicks fed diets containing 0.5% Jatropha curcas seed or 0.5% Ricinus communis seed. High mortality and more severe changes occurred in chicks on Ricinus diet than Jatropha feed. The results indicated that caution should be observed in tropical countries where people are accustomed to chewing castor bean when in need of a laxative.

  3. The importance of endogenous nutrition of chicks from divergent strains for growing tested by deutectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gonzales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of yolk sac removal (deutectomy upon performance of chicks from three divergent strains were tested to evaluate the importance of endogenous nutrition on the post-hatch phase. Chicks from three different strains (Hy-Line W98, Cobb 500, and JA57 were submitted to a surgery procedure after hatching. Half of them had the residual yolk removed, and the other constituted a sham-deutectomized group. After operation, chicks were designated to a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 strains x 2 presence/absence of yolk sac, in a total of six experimental groups and ten replications of two to four birds. During 14 experimental days all birds were fed ad libitum a 21% CP and 3050 kcal/kg EM mash diet. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and Tukey's test (p<0.05. Relative yolk sac weights were similar among chicks from different breeders, averaging 11.7% to 13.5%. Comparing to sham-operated, deuctetomized chicks had lower weight gain at 7 and 14d, indicating that endogenous nutrition, via yolk sac, is very important to galliform birds whatever their strain. Hy-line deutectomized chicks gained 40% less body weight at the 7th day as compared to their sham counterparts. Analysis of the same criterion to Cobb and JA57 groups revealed a decrease of 16.1% and 10.8%, respectively, on weight gain efficiency. At the 14th rearing day, Hy-Line chicks had the lowest weight gain, followed by JA57s' and Cobbs'. The results suggested that chicks selected for fast growth are less dependent on endogenous nutrition, responding better when exogenous nutrition is associated to yolk assimilation.

  4. Egg traits and physiological neonatal chick parameters from broiler breeder at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Luquetti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.

  5. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  6. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  7. Evaluation of Bovine Embryo Biopsy Techniques according to Their Ability to Preserve Embryo Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cenariu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate three embryo biopsy techniques used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in cattle and to recommend the least invasive one for current use, especially when PGD is followed by embryo cryopreservation. Three hundred bovine embryos were biopsied by either one of the needle, aspiration or microblade method, and then checked for viability by freezing/thawing and transplantation to recipient cows. The number of pregnancies obtained after the transfer of biopsied frozen/thawed embryos was assessed 30 days later using ultrasounds. The results were significantly different between the three biopsy methods: the pregnancy rate was of 57% in cows that received embryos biopsied by needle, 43% in cows that received embryos biopsied by aspiration, and 31% in cows that received embryos biopsied by microblade. Choosing an adequate biopsy method is therefore of great importance in embryos that will undergo subsequent cryopreservation, as it significantly influences their viability after thawing.

  8. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a single nerve, such as carpal tunnel syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome Nerve damage caused by injury, diabetes, toxins, ... chap 421. Read More Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Guillain-Barré syndrome Hypotonia Muscle cramps Muscular dystrophy Polio Review ...

  9. Innocuity and anti-Newcastle-virus-activity of Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Avila, Laura M; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Regina; Rodriguez-Santillan, Patricia; Aguilar-Briseño, Jose Alberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Cruz-Suarez, L Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the potential toxicity and antiviral activity of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one of the most serious threats to the poultry industry in the world. Toxicity was assayed on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) secondary cultures at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1500 μg per mL culture medium, assessing the cell viability by the yellow tetrazolium MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and on 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by inoculation of 2 to 500 μg doses in the allantoic cavity, assessing the embryos morphology and liver histology. At 48 h post-inoculation, viability of CEF exposed to concentrations up to 10 μg/mL was not significantly affected, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration was estimated as of 1062 μg/mL; after exposure in ovo, some chick embryos showed liver steatosis when treated with fucoidan doses over 20 μg per egg (15 to 28% at 200 μg, 27 to 56% at 500 μg), but no change was detected in their size or aspect. Antiviral activity was tested by treating 9-day-old embryos via the allantoic route with 0.25 to 16 μg fucoidan doses that were applied at different times (-1, 0 and +1 h) relative to the inoculation of 10,000 folds the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) of the NDV, La Sota strain. At 72 h post infection, virus titration in the allantoic fluid by hemagglutination assay (HA) showed a considerable and significant inhibition of infectivity for all doses, the best result (a 90% decrease) being obtained in embryos treated with 1 μg fucoidan one hour before infection. Viral RNA semi-quantification in pooled liver and small intestine of embryos that had been treated with 4 and 16 μg fucoidan 1 h before the infection showed reductions of the virus replication by 60 and 99.8%, respectively. Since this high anti-NDV activity in ovo was obtained with quite innocuous doses, fucoidan from C. okamuranus could be a potential

  10. Embryo forming cells in carrot suspension cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, M.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Somatic cells of many plant species can be cultured in vitro and induced to form embryos that are able to develop into mature plants. This process, termed somatic embryogenesis, was originally described in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Somatic embryos develop through the same characteristic morphological stages, i.e. the globular-, heartand torpedo-stage respectively, as their zygotic counterparts. Due to the different cellular origin of somatic embryos, it is less clear to what extent the earli...

  11. Facial Transplants in Xenopus laevis Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jacox, Laura A.; Dickinson, Amanda J.; Sive, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial birth defects occur in 1 out of every 700 live births, but etiology is rarely known due to limited understanding of craniofacial development. To identify where signaling pathways and tissues act during patterning of the developing face, a 'face transplant' technique has been developed in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. A region of presumptive facial tissue (the "Extreme Anterior Domain" (EAD)) is removed from a donor embryo at tailbud stage, and transplanted to a host embryo ...

  12. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  13. 9 CFR 98.16 - The embryo collection unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The embryo collection unit. 98.16... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.16 The embryo collection unit. Ruminant and swine embryos may...

  14. Chitosan nanoparticles and their Tween 80 modified counterparts disrupt the developmental profile of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhongyue; Li, Ying; Hu, Yulan; You, Jian; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Gao, Jianqing

    2016-12-30

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) and their Tween 80 modified counterparts (TmCS-NPs) are among the most commonly used brain-targeted vehicles. However, their potential developmental toxicity is poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish embryos are introduced as an in vivo platform. Both NPs showed a dose-dependent increase in developmental toxicity (decreased hatching rate, increased mortality and incidences of malformation). Neurobehavioral changes included decreased spontaneous movement in TmCS-NP treated embryos and hyperactive effect in CS-NP treated larvae. Both NPs remarkably inhibited axonal development of primary and secondary motor neurons, and affected the muscle structure. Overall, this study demonstrated that CS-NPs and TmCS-NPs could affect embryonic development, disrupt neurobehavior of zebrafish larvae and affect muscle and neuron development, suggesting more attention on biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles.

  15. Generation and developmental characteristics of porcine tetraploid embryos and tetraploid/diploid chimeric embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Shi, Yongqian; Xie, Bingteng; Jiao, Mingxia; Huang, Tianqing; Guo, Shimeng; Hu, Kui; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize electrofusion conditions for generating porcine tetraploid (4n) embryos and produce tetraploid/diploid (4n/2n) chimeric embryos. Different electric field intensities were tested and 2 direct current (DC) pulses of 0.9 kV/cm for 30 μs was selected as the optimum condition for electrofusion of 2-cell embryos to produce 4n embryos. The fusion rate of 2-cell embryos and the development rate to blastocyst of presumably 4n embryos, reached 85.4% and 28.5%, respectively. 68.18% of the fused embryos were found to be 4n as demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Although the number of blastomeres in 4n blastocysts was significantly lower than in 2n blastocysts (P0.05), suggesting that the blastocyst forming capacity in 4n embryos is similar to those in 2n embryos. Moreover, 4n/2n chimeric embryos were obtained by aggregation of 4n and 2n embryos. We found that the developmental rate and cell number of blastocysts of 4-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n) chimeric embryos were significantly higher than those of 2-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/8-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/2-cell (2n) chimeric embryos (P<0.05). Consistent with mouse chimeras, the majority of 4n cells contribute to the trophectoderm (TE), while the 2n cells are mainly present in the inner cell mass (ICM) of porcine 4n/2n chimeric embryos. Our study established a feasible and efficient approach to produce porcine 4n embryos and 4n/2n chimeric embryos.

  16. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  17. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  18. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  19. Screening of central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for sedative and hypnotic effects using chick models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The chick has a practical advantage in the screening process in that chicks require only small quantities of drugs. The chick separation stress paradigm has traditionally been recognized as a valid form of anxiolytic screening. Further, chick behavior involving standing motionless with eyes closed or sitting motionless with head drooped is nearly always associated with electrophysiological sleep. When centrally administered, some DNA-encoded L-α-amino acids, as well as some DNA-non-encoded amino acids, such as metabolites of L-α-amino acids, D-amino acid and β-amino acid, have shown sedative and/or hypnotic effects in chicks. The effects of some of these amino acids have subsequently been confirmed in humans. In conclusion, the chick model is convenient and useful for screening central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for hypnosis and sedation.

  20. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into a new environmental chamber to facilitate long term in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution 3-D in vivo imaging of embryonic development over long periods of time under constant physiological conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity) was a challenging task for researchers working on early cardiovascular development. Without appropriate maintenance of temperature, for example...... development. Here we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system integrated into a new environmental incubation chamber (EIC) to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The EIC provides stable...... conditions for embryonic development with respect to temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels. An OCT probe is integrated into the EIC and facilitates visualization of embryos at micrometer resolution, including the acquisition of M-mode, Doppler OCT, and Doppler M-mode data....

  1. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  2. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  3. GROWTH REGULATION IN ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS INFECTED CHICKEN EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS: THE ROLE OF THE src GENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.; Bartholomew, J.A.; Blssell, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    We report here a study of the mechanisms leading to loss of growth control in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). We have been particularly concerned with the role of the src gene in this process, and have used RSV mutants temperature sensitive (ts) for transformation to investigate the nature of the growth regulatory lesion. The two principal findings were (1) the stationary phase of the cell cycle (G{sub 1}) in chick embryo fibroblasts seems to have two distinct regulatory compartments (using the terminology of Brooks et al. we refer to these as 'Q' and 'A' states). When rendered stationary at 41.5 C by serum deprivation, normal cells enter a Q state, but cells infected with the ts-mutant occupy an A state. (2) Whereas normal cells can occupy either state depending on culture conditions, the ts-infected cells, at 41.5 C, do not seem to enter Q even though a known src gene product, a kinase, is reported to be inactive at this temperature. We discuss the possibility that viral factors other than the active src protein kinase influence growth control in infected cultures.

  4. HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

  5. How the embryo makes a limb: determination, polarity and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2015-10-01

    The vertebrate limb with its complex anatomy develops from a small bud of undifferentiated mesoderm cells encased in ectoderm. The bud has its own intrinsic polarity and can develop autonomously into a limb without reference to the rest of the embryo. In this review, recent advances are integrated with classical embryology, carried out mainly in chick embryos, to present an overview of how the embryo makes a limb bud. We will focus on how mesoderm cells in precise locations in the embryo become determined to form a limb and express the key transcription factors Tbx4 (leg/hindlimb) or Tbx5 (wing/forelimb). These Tbx transcription factors have equivalent functions in the control of bud formation by initiating a signalling cascade involving Wnts and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and by regulating recruitment of mesenchymal cells from the coelomic epithelium into the bud. The mesoderm that will form limb buds and the polarity of the buds is determined with respect to both antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of the body. The position in which a bud develops along the antero-posterior axis of the body will also determine its identity - wing/forelimb or leg/hindlimb. Hox gene activity, under the influence of retinoic acid signalling, is directly linked with the initiation of Tbx5 gene expression in the region along the antero-posterior axis of the body that will form wings/forelimbs and determines antero-posterior polarity of the buds. In contrast, Tbx4 expression in the regions that will form legs/hindlimbs is regulated by the homeoprotein Pitx1 and there is no evidence that Hox genes determine antero-posterior polarity of the buds. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling determines the region along the dorso-ventral axis of the body in which both wings/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs develop and dorso-ventral polarity of the buds. The polarity of the buds leads to the establishment of signalling regions - the dorsal and ventral ectoderm, producing Wnts and BMPs

  6. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  7. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  8. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  9. Slow-Adhering Stem Cells Derived from Injured Skeletal Muscle Have Improved Regenerative Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM); Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA] supplemented with 10% horse serum, 20% fetal bo- vine serum, 0.5% chicken embryo...also transplanted into dystrophic muscle of MDX/SCID mice to observe the progress of muscle regeneration. At 3 weeks after trans- plantation , SASCs from...fac- tor, angiogenesis, and cardiac repair after muscle stem cell trans- plantation into ischemic hearts. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007, 50:1677– 1684 13

  10. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  11. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  12. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  13. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  14. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Guttery

    Full Text Available Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  15. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  16. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  17. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  18. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  19. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  20. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  1. L-Ornithine is a potential acute satiety signal in the brain of neonatal chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Do, Phong H; Bahry, Mohammad A; Yang, Hui; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Recently, we observed that neonatal chicks exhibit feeding behavior characterized by frequent food intake and short resting intervals, with changes detected in the brain amino acid and monoamine concentrations. In this study, we aimed to clarify further the relationship between the appetite of neonatal chicks and brain amino acid metabolism. In Experiment 1, changes were investigated in free amino acids in the brain under conditions of regulated appetite induced by fasting and subsequent short-term re-feeding. Chicks (5 days old) were distributed into four treatment groups--namely, fasting for 3h, and fasting for 3h followed by re-feeding for 10, 20 or 30 min. Brain samples were collected after treatment to analyze free amino acid concentrations. Amino adipic acid and proline in all brain parts as well as arginine and ornithine in all brain parts--except mesencephalic arginine and cerebellar ornithine--were increased in a time-dependent manner following re-feeding. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effect of exogenous administration of some amino acids altered in association with feeding behavior in Experiment 1. We chose L-arginine and its functional metabolite, L-ornithine, to analyze their effects on food intake in chicks. Intracerebroventricular injection (2 μmol) of L-ornithine, but not L-arginine, significantly inhibited food intake in neonatal chicks. In Experiment 3, we found that central injection of L-ornithine (2, 4, and 6 μmol) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in chicks. These results suggested that L-ornithine may have an important role in the control of food intake as an acute satiety signal in the neonatal chick brain.

  2. Confocal imaging of whole vertebrate embryos reveals novel insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadel, Diana M.; Keller, Bradley B.; Sandell, Lisa L.

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy has been an invaluable tool for studying cellular or sub-cellular biological processes. The study of vertebrate embryology is based largely on examination of whole embryos and organs. The application of confocal microscopy to immunostained whole mount embryos, combined with three dimensional (3D) image reconstruction technologies, opens new avenues for synthesizing molecular, cellular and anatomical analysis of vertebrate development. Optical cropping of the region of interest enables visualization of structures that are morphologically complex or obscured, and solid surface rendering of fluorescent signal facilitates understanding of 3D structures. We have applied these technologies to whole mount immunostained mouse embryos to visualize developmental morphogenesis of the mammalian inner ear and heart. Using molecular markers of neuron development and transgenic reporters of neural crest cell lineage we have examined development of inner ear neurons that originate from the otic vesicle, along with the supporting glial cells that derive from the neural crest. The image analysis reveals a previously unrecognized coordinated spatial organization between migratory neural crest cells and neurons of the cochleovestibular nerve. The images also enable visualization of early cochlear spiral nerve morphogenesis relative to the developing cochlea, demonstrating a heretofore unknown association of neural crest cells with extending peripheral neurite projections. We performed similar analysis of embryonic hearts in mouse and chick, documenting the distribution of adhesion molecules during septation of the outflow tract and remodeling of aortic arches. Surface rendering of lumen space defines the morphology in a manner similar to resin injection casting and micro-CT.

  3. Irx1 and Irx2 are coordinately expressed and regulated by retinoic acid, TGFβ and FGF signaling during chick hindlimb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Martha Elena; Bustamante, Marcia; Galván-Hernández, Claudio Iván; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The Iroquois homeobox (Irx) genes play a crucial role in the regionalization and patterning of tissues and organs during metazoan development. The Irx1 and Irx2 gene expression pattern during hindlimb development has been investigated in different species, but its regulation during hindlimb morphogenesis has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression pattern of Irx1 and Irx2 as well as their regulation by important regulators of hindlimb development such as retinoic acid (RA), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during chick hindlimb development. Irx1 and Irx2 were coordinately expressed in the interdigital tissue, digital primordia, joints and in the boundary between cartilage and non-cartilage tissue. Down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 expression at the interdigital tissue coincided with the onset of cell death. RA was found to down-regulate their expression by a bone morphogenetic protein-independent mechanism before any evidence of cell death. Furthermore, TGFβ protein regulated Irx1 and Irx2 in a stage-dependent manner at the interdigital tissue, it inhibited their expression when it was administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages before their normal down-regulation. TGFβ administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages after normal down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 evidenced that expression of these genes marked the boundary between cartilage tissue and non-cartilage tissue. It was also found that at early stages of hindlimb development FGF signaling inhibited the expression of Irx2. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Irx1 and Irx2 are coordinately expressed and regulated during chick embryo hindlimb development as occurs in other species of vertebrates supporting the notion that the genomic architecture of Irx clusters is conserved in vertebrates.

  4. Supplement of autologous ooplasm into porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos does not alter embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jeon, R-H; Jang, S-J; Lee, S-C; Park, J-S; Lee, S-L; King, W-A; Rho, G-J

    2017-02-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos. They were comparatively evaluated with respect to embryo developmental potential, the number of apoptotic body formation and gene expression including embryonic lineage differentiation, apoptosis, epigenetics and mitochondrial activity in comparison with parthenogenetic, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and SCNT embryos. Although AOT embryos showed perfect fusion of autologous donor ooplasm with recipient SCNT embryos, the supplement of autologous ooplasm could not ameliorate embryo developmental potential in regard to the rate of blastocyst formation, total cell number and the number of apoptotic body. Furthermore, overall gene expression of AOT embryos was presented with no significant alterations in comparison with that of SCNT embryos. Taken together, the results of AOT demonstrated inability to make relevant values improved from the level of SCNT embryos to their IVF counterparts.

  5. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos I: Convergence of Embryos in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N C; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    According to the core-accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses ($M_p$) in the range of a few Earth masses ($M_\\oplus$) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When $M_p > 10 M_\\oplus$, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use numerical simulation to show that, despite streamline interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torque by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in the...

  6. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  7. Embryo culture and rapid propagation of Syringa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; SU Bao-ling

    2003-01-01

    Embryo of lilacs (Syringa L) culture in vitro and the rapid propagation were studied. The orthogonal experiments, including the selection of basal medium, embryo age and other factors such as sugar, benzyladenine (BA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and glutamine (Gln), were carried out. The results indicated that the optimal medium for embryo culture was Monnier medium supplemented with NAA (0.001 mg@L-1), BA (0.1 mg@L-1), sugar (50 g@L-1), and Gln (400 mg@L-1), with a germination rate of 91.7% at least; the optimal embryo age was 50 d; and Gln had significant effects on the germination rate of embryo. Moreover, the optimal medium for subculture was MS+BA (2 mg@L-1)+NAA (0.001 mg@L-1)+Gln (0.5 mg@L-1), with the propagation coefficient of 3.6 at least.

  8. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  9. Synthetic retinoids, retinobenzoic acids, Am80, Am580 and Ch55 regulate morphogenesis in chick limb bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, K; Kagechika, H; Hashimoto, Y; Shudo, K; Ohsugi, K; Ide, H

    1990-10-01

    The retinobenzoic acids Am80, Am580 and Ch55 are synthetic stable analogs of retinoic acid (RA), and show very strong differentiation-inducing activity in human myelogeneous leukemia cell line HL-60. To examine the effects of these synthetic retinoids on limb pattern formation, AG1-X2 beads containing these retinoids were applied to the anterior margin of stage 19-20 chick wing buds. By implanting the beads with 1 microgram/ml retinoids, normal wings were formed and extra digits 2 or 32 were rarely formed. As the retinoid concentrations increased from 10 micrograms/ml to 100 micrograms/ml duplicated limbs 3234, 43234, 432234, 4334 were progressively produced. At higher concentrations, 1 mg/ml, the wings often truncated, although duplication occurred in some embryos. These synthetic analogs seem to have the same degree of morphogenetic potential as RA, since the activity index of these retinoids was similar to that of RA. Since these synthetic retinoids hardly bind to CRABP (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein), it may be possible that the retinoids and RA may affect limb-pattern formation without the interaction with CRABP. It is known that limb buds cannot develop distal structures when the posterior region including all ZPA (zone of polarizing activity) is removed. When beads containing the above mentioned retinoids were implanted to the anterior margin of wing buds from which the posterior one third region including all ZPA had been removed, distal growth of the wing buds and the formation of digit elements were observed. Some of the wing buds produced a completely reverse digit pattern 432. From these results, we discussed the roles of RA in limb development and pattern formation.

  10. Comparative analysis of 3D expression patterns of transcription factor genes and digit fate maps in the developing chick wing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Fisher

    Full Text Available Hoxd13, Tbx2, Tbx3, Sall1 and Sall3 genes are candidates for encoding antero-posterior positional values in the developing chick wing and specifying digit identity. In order to build up a detailed profile of gene expression patterns in cell lineages that give rise to each of the digits over time, we compared 3 dimensional (3D expression patterns of these genes during wing development and related them to digit fate maps. 3D gene expression data at stages 21, 24 and 27 spanning early bud to digital plate formation, captured from in situ hybridisation whole mounts using Optical Projection Tomography (OPT were mapped to reference wing bud models. Grafts of wing bud tissue from GFP chicken embryos were used to fate map regions of the wing bud giving rise to each digit; 3D images of the grafts were captured using OPT and mapped on to the same models. Computational analysis of the combined computerised data revealed that Tbx2 and Tbx3 are expressed in digit 3 and 4 progenitors at all stages, consistent with encoding stable antero-posterior positional values established in the early bud; Hoxd13 and Sall1 expression is more dynamic, being associated with posterior digit 3 and 4 progenitors in the early bud but later becoming associated with anterior digit 2 progenitors in the digital plate. Sox9 expression in digit condensations lies within domains of digit progenitors defined by fate mapping; digit 3 condensations express Hoxd13 and Sall1, digit 4 condensations Hoxd13, Tbx3 and to a lesser extent Tbx2. Sall3 is only transiently expressed in digit 3 progenitors at stage 24 together with Sall1 and Hoxd13; then becomes excluded from the digital plate. These dynamic patterns of expression suggest that these genes may play different roles in digit identity either together or in combination at different stages including the digit condensation stage.

  11. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-04-01

    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions.

  12. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Sherley

    Full Text Available The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot. Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08 and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10 survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03. Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  13. Pharmacological reversal of cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Kristen A; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive bias presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals adopt a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and depressed individuals adopt both a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and a less optimistic interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. These biases have been reversed by anxiolytics and antidepressants. In the current study, chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5-min to induce an anxiety-like state or 60-min to induce a depressive-like state were tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. Chicks in the depression-like state displayed more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like approach behavior to ambiguous aversive and appetitive cues, respectively. Both forms of cognitive bias were reversed by 15.0 mg/kg imipramine. Chicks in anxiety-like state displayed more pessimistic-like approach behavior under the ambiguous aversive stimulus cues. However, 0.10 mg/kg clonidine produced modest sedation and thus, was ineffective at reversing this bias. The observation that cognitive biases of more pessimism and less optimism can be reversed in the depression-like phase by imipramine adds to the validity of the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  14. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  15. Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Patrick; Delaunay, Laurent; Dannappel, Thomas; Baracchini, Dominique; Marcadet-Fredet, Sabine; Moreau, Olivier; Pacaud, Luc; Przyrowski, Daniel; Marret, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Levitas et al. (2006) showed in a cohort study that hypnosis during embryo transfer (ET) increased pregnancy ratio by 76%. In order to evaluate hypnosis during ET in a general population, the authors performed a randomized prospective controlled study comparing diazepam (usual premedication) administered before ET plus muscle relaxation versus hypnosis plus placebo in 94 patients. Additionally, the authors studied anxiety pre and post ET. Anxiety scores were not different in the two groups before and after ET. No difference in pregnancy and birth ratio was found in the two groups. Hypnosis during ET is as effective as diazepam in terms of pregnancy ratio and anxiolytic effects, but with fewer side effects and should be routinely available.

  16. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-charles.gabillard@rennes.inra.fr

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  17. PS2 integrin requirements in Drosophila embryo and wing morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, M C; Brower, D L

    1993-05-01

    The Drosophila inflated (if) gene encodes the alpha PS2 subunit of the PS integrins. We describe the generation of new if mutations, their lethal embryonic phenotype, and experiments that examine the spatial and temporal requirements for integrins in adult wing morphogenesis. Embryos hemizygous for either new allele, ifA7 or ifB2, make reduced amounts of alpha PS2. In a variety of genetic tests, these alleles behave similarly to ifk27e, which makes no detectable alpha PS2, and all three alleles display the same embryonic phenotype. We therefore conclude that all of the lethal alleles retain little or no wild-type alpha PS2 function. As seen for strong mutations at the myospheroid (mys) locus, which encodes the beta PS integrin subunit, if mutants show extreme defects in somatic muscle attachments and in midgut morphogenesis. Unlike mys, however, there is no dorsal herniation of the if mutant embryos. With respect to wing morphogenesis, clonal analysis experiments demonstrate that if+ function is required only in cells of the ventral wing surface. We have rescued the wing blister phenotype of double mutants for the hypomorphic mysnj42 and if3 alleles using a heat shock-inducible mys+ transgene. By varying times of transgene induction, we find that integrin function is required from very early in metamorphosis until at least the last 24-48 hr of wing development.

  18. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  19. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

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    Mercer Kathryn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  20. Morphologic characterization of osteosarcoma growth on the chick chorioallantoic membrane

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    Gosheger Georg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay is a commonly used method for studying angiogenic or anti-angiogenic activities in vivo. The ease of access allows direct monitoring of tumour growth by biomicroscopy and the possibility to screen many samples in an inexpensive way. The CAM model provides a powerful tool to study effects of molecules, which interfere with physiological angiogenesis, or experimental tumours derived from cancer cell lines. We therefore screened eight osteosarcoma cell lines for their ability to form vascularized tumours on the CAM. Findings We implanted 3-5 million cells of human osteosarcoma lines (HOS, MG63, MNNG-HOS, OST, SAOS, SJSA1, U2OS, ZK58 on the CAM at day 10 of embryonic development. Tumour growth was monitored by in vivo biomicroscopy at different time points and tumours were fixed in paraformaldehyde seven days after cell grafting. The tissue was observed, photographed and selected cases were further analyzed using standard histology. From the eight cell lines the MNNG-HOS, U2OS and SAOS were able to form solid tumours when grafted on the CAM. The MNNG-HOS tumours showed the most reliable and consistent growth and were able to penetrate the chorionic epithelium, grow in the CAM stroma and induce a strong angiogenic response. Conclusions Our results show that the CAM assay is a useful tool for studying osteosarcoma growth. The model provides an excellent alternative to current rodent models and could serve as a preclinical screening assay for anticancer molecules. It might increase the speed and efficacy of the development of new drugs for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  1. Endocardial tip cells in the human embryo - facts and hypotheses.

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    Mugurel C Rusu

    Full Text Available Experimental studies regarding coronary embryogenesis suggest that the endocardium is a source of endothelial cells for the myocardial networks. As this was not previously documented in human embryos, we aimed to study whether or not endothelial tip cells could be correlated with endocardial-dependent mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis. Six human embryos (43-56 days were obtained and processed in accordance with ethical regulations; immunohistochemistry was performed for CD105 (endoglin, CD31, CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin antibodies. Primitive main vessels were found deriving from both the sinus venosus and aorta, and were sought to be the primordia of the venous and arterial ends of cardiac microcirculation. Subepicardial vessels were found branching into the outer ventricular myocardium, with a pattern of recruiting α-SMA+/desmin+ vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Endothelial sprouts were guided by CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/vimentin+ endothelial tip cells. Within the inner myocardium, we found endothelial networks rooted from endocardium, guided by filopodia-projecting CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/ vimentin+ endocardial tip cells. The myocardial microcirculatory bed in the atria was mostly originated from endocardium, as well. Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial networks. A general anatomical pattern of cardiac microvascular embryogenesis was thus hypothesized; the arterial and venous ends being linked, respectively, to the aorta and sinus venosus. Further elongation of the vessels may be related to the epicardium and subepicardial stroma and the intramyocardial network, depending on either endothelial and endocardial filopodia-guided tip cells in ventricles, or mostly on endocardium, in atria.

  2. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  3. Modulation of Bmp4 signalling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place in early thymus and parathyroid development in avian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Hélia; Dupin, Elisabeth; Parreira, Leonor; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2012-01-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the development of the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches into the epithelia of thymus and parathyroid glands. Here we investigated the dynamics of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place at the earliest stages of thymic and parathyroid organogenesis using the quail-chick model together with a co-culture system capable of reproducing these early events in vitro. The presumptive territories of thymus and parathyroid epithelia were identified in three-dimensionally preserved pharyngeal endoderm of embryonic day 4.5 chick embryos on the basis of the expression of Foxn1 and Gcm2, respectively: the thymic rudiment is located in the dorsal domain of the third and fourth pouches, while the parathyroid rudiment occupies a more medial/anterior pouch domain. Using in vitro quail-chick tissue associations combined with in ovo transplantations, we show that the somatopleural but not the limb bud mesenchyme, can mimic the role of neural crest-derived pharyngeal mesenchyme to sustain development of these glands up to terminal differentiation. Furthermore, mesenchymal-derived Bmp4 appears to be essential to promote early stages of endoderm development during a short window of time, irrespective of the mesenchymal source. In vivo studies using the quail-chick system and implantation of growth factor soaked-beads further showed that expression of Bmp4 by the mesenchyme is necessary during a 24 h-period of time. After this period however, Bmp4 is no longer required and another signalling factor produced by the mesenchyme, Fgf10, influences later differentiation of the pouch endoderm. These results show that morphological development and cell differentiation of thymus and parathyroid epithelia require a succession of signals emanating from the associated mesenchyme, among which Bmp4 plays a pivotal role for triggering thymic epithelium specification.

  4. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the succ ess of an embryo freezing and thawing program. Method: The relationship betwee n the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thawing program and the following factors was analyzed: maternal age, E2 level at the time of HCG trigg er, embryo storage time, number of thawed embryos transferred, presence of spons oring embryos and intact embryos. And the survival rate of thawed embryos with d ifferent morphology, cell stage and storage time was evaluated. Result: Tra nsfer with three or more than three thawed embryos resulted in pregnancy rates o f 38.5% and 35.7%, respectively, compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer th an t hree embryos. The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantl y increases pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program. No other fact or examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome. The survival rate of good morph ology embryos was higher than poor ones, but was not influenced by cell stage an d storage time. Conclusion: Embryo morphology before freezing, number of thaw ed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the o utcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  5. Trivial or Commendable? : Women’s Writing, Popular Culture, and Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  6. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

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    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  7. Organochlorines and heavy metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs and chicks from the same clutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.H. (Institut fur Vogelforschung Vogelwarte Helgoland (West Germany)); Sperveslage, H. (Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Oldenburg (West Germany))

    1989-05-01

    In an earlier paper the authors investigated the intraclutch variability in levels of toxic pollutants and compared this contamination with that of the female Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) after production of the clutch in question. In the present study, they examine the concentrations of contaminants in chicks as compared with one egg of the same clutch. Such studies are important with regard to the question as to which ontogenetic stage is most endangered by toxic pollutants. Some investigations concerning this problem have already been carried out, but they don't refer to samples taken from the same clutches. Chicks receive contaminants mainly from two sources: from the egg, which reflects directly the contamination of the breeding female as well as from the food. Moreover the concentrations of pollutants in chicks vary with growth-dependent body distribution and with a decline of the lipid content.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni Gene Expression in the Chick Cecum: Evidence for Adaptation to a Low-Oxygen Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C. A.; Jones, M. A.; Barrow, P. A.; Hinds, J.; Marsden, G. L.; Kelly, D. J.; Dorrell, N.; Wren, B. W.; Maskell, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of Campylobacter jejuni during colonization of the chick cecum identified 59 genes that were differentially expressed in vivo compared with the genes in vitro. The data suggest that C. jejuni regulates electron transport and central metabolic pathways to alter its physiological state during establishment in the chick cecum. PMID:16041056

  9. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

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    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  10. Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Tomás

    2007-02-01

    Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this 'discrimination without recognition' behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasite-host systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of host-parasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general.

  11. Dislocated Tongue Muscle Attachment and Cleft Palate Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouskoura, T; El Fersioui, Y; Angelini, M; Graf, D; Katsaros, C; Chiquet, M

    2016-04-01

    In Pierre Robin sequence, a retracted tongue due to micrognathia is thought to physically obstruct palatal shelf elevation and thereby cause cleft palate. However, micrognathia is not always associated with palatal clefting. Here, by using the Bmp7-null mouse model presenting with cleft palate and severe micrognathia, we provide the first causative mechanism linking the two. In wild-type embryos, the genioglossus muscle, which mediates tongue protrusion, originates from the rostral process of Meckel's cartilage and later from the mandibular symphysis, with 2 tendons positive for Scleraxis messenger RNA. In E13.5 Bmp7-null embryos, a rostral process failed to form, and a mandibular symphysis was absent at E17.5. Consequently, the genioglossus muscle fibers were diverted toward the lingual surface of Meckel's cartilage and mandibles, where they attached in an aponeurosis that ectopically expressed Scleraxis. The deflection of genioglossus fibers from the anterior-posterior toward the medial-lateral axis alters their direction of contraction and necessarily compromises tongue protrusion. Since this muscle abnormality precedes palatal shelf elevation, it is likely to contribute to clefting. In contrast, embryos with a cranial mesenchyme-specific deletion of Bmp7 (Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre) exhibited some degree of micrognathia but no cleft palate. In these embryos, a rostral process was present, indicating that mesenchyme-derived Bmp7 is dispensable for its formation. Moreover, the genioglossus appeared normal in Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre embryos, further supporting a role of aberrant tongue muscle attachment in palatal clefting. We thus propose that in Pierre Robin sequence, palatal shelf elevation is not impaired simply by physical obstruction by the tongue but by a specific developmental defect that leads to functional changes in tongue movements.

  12. Biofluid Flow Simulations of Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W. P.; Ding, D. L.

    2011-09-01

    The investigation of the fluid flow for embryo transfer (ET) procedure may find the way to increase the success rate of the assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, the transferred liquid flow in the uterine cavity during ET procedure is simulated by a two dimensional multiphase flow model, and the discrete phase model is adopted to trace the embryo motion. Through the investigation on the transferred liquid outline and the track of each embryo in ET cases with different parameters, we summarize the effect of transferred liquid viscosity and distance between catheter tip and uterine fundus. According to the numerical results, we recommend the optimizing standard to perform the ET procedure.

  13. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David Martin

    2008-05-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have towards future persons.

  14. Phenylalanine requirement, imbalance, and dietary excess in one-week-old chicks: growth and phenylalanine hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, F M; Austic, R E

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments were performed to study Phe imbalance and toxicity in 1-wk-old Babcock B380 chicks resulting from the addition of either a mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) or excess Phe to a diet that was nutritionally adequate in Phe. Chicks received a preexperimental semipurified diet for 1 wk and experimental diets from 7 to 14 d of age. In the first experiment, the chicks were given diets with Phe levels at 0.24, 0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44, and 0.49% of the diet to determine the Phe requirement. The requirement of the chicks for Phe, based on weight gain and feed efficiency, was determined to be 0.39% of the diet. In experiment 2, the IAA - Phe (10% of the diet) or excess Phe (2% of the diet) was added to a diet containing 0.44% Phe. Chicks given the IAA - Phe or excess Phe had significantly slower growth rates than chicks given the basal diet (P > or = 0.05). The activities of the major hepatic enzyme of Phe catabolism, Phe hydroxylase (PAH), were significantly higher than that of chicks fed the basal diet when the chicks were fed the diets containing IAA - Phe plus 1.1% Phe (P > or = 0.05) but not when chicks were fed the diet containing IAA - Phe alone. The activity of PAH in chicks given the excess (2%) Phe was nearly 4 times the activity of PAH in chicks given the basal diet. Adding IAA - Phe to the diet containing excess Phe also resulted in higher PAH activity than was observed in chicks fed the basal diet, although the activity was significantly lower than observed for chicks receiving the diet containing excess Phe alone (P > or = 0.05). It is concluded that hepatic PAH activity in chicks increases primarily in response to its substrate, Phe. A dietary amino acid load without Phe reduces this response to excess Phe.

  15. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Wuethrich, Andrew J.; Hancock, Deana L.

    2002-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 d of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 d. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in the weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-d period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens, and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and the breast muscle groups of 12-d chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 uM clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 d, beginning on the seventh d in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes was significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast or leg muscle cultures; however, the MHC quantity was 50-150% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The B-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) population was 4000-7000 betaARs per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle Culture. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the betaAR Population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 16,000-18,000 betaARs per cell. Basal concentration of cyclic adenosine 3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) was not significantly affected by the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 uM isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP Concentration above the. basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were

  16. Association between Number of Formed Embryos, Embryo Morphology and Clinical Pregnancy Rate after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Giorgi, Vanessa Silvestre Innocenti; Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Infertility has a high prevalence in the general population, affecting ∼ 5 to 15% of couples in reproductive age. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) include in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos and are an important treatment indicated to these couples. It is well accepted that the implantation rate is positively influenced by the morphology of transferred embryos. However, we question if, apart from the assessment of embryo morphology, the number of produced embryos per cycle is also related to pregnancy rates in the first fresh transfer cycle. Purpose To evaluate the clinical pregnancy rate according to the number of formed embryos and the transfer of top quality embryos (TQEs). Methods In a retrospective cohort study, between January 2011 and December 2012, we evaluated women who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), aged < 40 years, and with at least 1 formed embryo fresh transferred in cleavage stage. These women were stratified into 3 groups according to the number of formed embryos (1 embryo, 2-3 and ≥ 4 embryos). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the presence or not of at least 1 transferred TQE (1 with TQE; 1 without TQE; 2-3 with TQE, 2-3 without TQE; ≥ 4 with TQE; ≥ 4 without TQE). The clinical pregnancy rates were compared in each subgroup based on the presence or absence of at least one transferred TQE. Results During the study period, 636 women had at least one embryo to be transferred in the first fresh cycle (17.8% had 1 formed embryo [32.7% with TQE versus 67.3% without TQE], 42.1% of women had 2-3 formed embryos [55.6% with TQE versus 44.4% without TQE], and 40.1% of patients had ≥ 4 formed embryos [73.7% with TQE versus 26.3% without TQE]). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the subgroup with ≥ 4 formed embryos with at least 1 transfered TQE (45.2%) compared with the subgroup without TQE (28.4%). Conclusions Having at

  17. Expression of Sex-Related Genes in Chicken Embryos During Male-to-Female Sex Reversal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Li-xiu; XIN Rui; CHE Yi; XU Shi-qing

    2013-01-01

    Sex emerges out of a delicate dance between a variety of promale, anti-male, and possibly profemale genes. To investigate the role that sex-related genes play in sex determination and gonadal differentiation of fowl, we constructed a male-to-female sex-reversal model of chick induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) at onset of incubation (E0). The results of semi-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of Sf1, the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 gene, was put forward from E7d to E5d and up-regulated during E5-7d;the Dmrt1, the double sex and the Mab-3 related to transcription factor 1 gene, was down-regulated during E3-7d. Meanwhile, anti-Müllerian hormone gene (Amh) expressed at a similar level in the genetic females and sex-reversal females before E7d, while no expression products of the three female-specific genes Wpkci, Fet1 and Foxl2 were detected in male-to-female embryos. These findings suggest that the expression of some certain sex-related genes, induced by the exogenous estrogen during period of sex determination and gonadal differentiation, results in the male-to-female sex reversal. Moreover, high activity of Sf1 gene during E5-7d might be related to the profemale process, while low activity of Dmrt1 gene during E3-5d might be anti-male. The expression activity of Amh gene might only contribute to the promale process after E7d, however, it is possibly not an anti-female gene in chick embryos.

  18. In vitro prevention of chick pancreatic lipase activity by Abroma augusta extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Gupta; Aditya Ganeshpurkar; Nishikant Jatav; Divya Bansal; Nazneen Dubey

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate chick pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the Abroma augusta (A. augusta). Methods: A. augusta was first extracted with methanol and subjected to phytochemical screenings. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics and alkaloids was done. Pancreatic lipase from chick pancreas was isolated and used as substrate for anti-lipase studies. Results:A. augusta extract effectively inhibited concentration dependent lipase activity, whereby extract at concentration 100 μg/mL inhibited 88.6% enzyme activity. Conclusions: From these results, it could be concluded that A. augusta can be used as a potential source anti-lipase agents.

  19. Vascular tissue is the first site of damage in the TCDD-exposed fish embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, S.; Tillitt, D. [Midwest Science Center, Columbia, MO (United States); Hannink, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Biochemistry Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs) are a group of environmental contaminants that exert adverse biological effects in most vertebrate organisms. Embryonic development is the most sensitive life stage to the effects of these compounds. The reason for the enhanced sensitivity to PHHs during early life stages is unknown. To study TCDD-induced embryotoxicity, a fish species the medaka was the organism of choice. The authors localized the initial site of tissue damage in the developing embryo and investigated the mechanism of TCDD-induced tissue damage. There were three parts to this study, (1) observation of morphological anomalies in the TCDD-treated embryo, (2) immunohistochemical detection of DNA damage in the tissues of TCDD-treated embryos, and (3) test the ability of an antioxidant to delay the onset of initial tissue damage. Morphological observations show that the first visual lesions that occur in the TCDD treated embryo occur at stage 36, about day 6 post fertilization. The lesions are localized in the cardiac vasculature. Immunohistochemical staining, using the terminal nucleotide transferase assay (TdT-assay) which detects DNA damage showed that the initial site of tissue damage was in the vasculature in the cardiac region. Tissue damage was detected in neural tissue and muscle tissue at later time points. TCDD is known to induce oxidative stress in a variety of organisms, therefore; the authors tested to see if oxidative stress may play a role in TCDD-induced embryotoxicity. The TCDD-treated embryos were cultured in the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the morphological observations and TdT-assay were repeated. They found that NAC was able to delay the onset of tissue damage and NAC was able to reduce total mortality in the embryo. The results from this study indicate that the cardiac vasculature is the initial site of tissue damage.

  20. A comparative study on efficiency of adult fibroblast, putative embryonic stem cell and lymphocyte as donor cells for production of handmade cloned embryos in goat and characterization of putative ntES cells obtained from these embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rahul; Malakar, Dhruba; Khate, Keviletsu; Sahu, Shailendra; Akshey, Yogesh; Mukesh, Manishi

    2011-09-15

    The main purpose of the experiment was to compare the efficiency of three cell types, namely adult fibroblast, putative embryonic stem (ES) cell, and lymphocyte, as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning in goats. The outcome clearly shows that putative embryonic stem cells, with a cleavage and blastocyst production rate of 74.69% ± 3.92 and 39.75% ± 3.86, respectively, performs better in comparison to adult fibroblast cell and lymphocyte. Between adult fibroblast cell and lymphocyte no statistically significant difference exists at P II DRB genes of cloned embryos and three donor cells were performed to verify the cloned embryos. The amplified PCR products were subjected to SSCP to confirm their genetic identity. The karyotyping of the cloned embryos showed normal chromosomal status as expected in goat. Significantly, in the second stage of the experiment, the produced cloned embryos were successfully used to derive ntES-like cells. The rate of primary colony formation rate was 62.50% ± 4.62 for fibroblast donor cell derived embryos. The same was 60.60% ± 4.62 for putative ES donor cell derived embryos and 66.66% ± 4.62 for lymphocyte donor cell derived embryos, respectively. The putative ntES colonies were positively characterized for alkaline phosphatase, Oct-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Sox-2, and Nanog by Immunocytochemistry and Reverse Transcription PCR. To further validate the stem ness, the produced putative ntES colonies were differentiated to embryoid bodies. Immunocytochemistry revealed that embryoid bodies expressed NESTIN specific for ectodermal lineage; GATA-4 for endodermal lineage and smooth muscle actin-I, and troponin-I specific for mesodermal lineage. The study has established an efficient protocol for putative ntES cell derivation from HMC embryos. It could be of substantial significance as patient specific ntES cells have proven therapeutic significance.

  1. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling

    2008-01-01

    development. The zona pellucida (ZP) in all three types of embryos became thinner and ZP pores in both GC and GG embryos showed an increased rate of development, especially for GC embryos, while in vivo-produced embryos had smooth ZP. The Golgi apparatus (Gi) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of the two...

  2. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and Ihawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the sucess of an ernbryo freezing and thawing program.Method: The relationship between the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thewing program and the following factors was analyzed;matermal age,E2 level at the time of HCG trigger,embryo storage time,number of thawed embryos transferred,presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos.And the suvival rate of thawed embryos with different morphology,cell stage and storage time was evaluated.Result:Transfer with three of more than three thawed embryos resulted in pragnancy rates of 38.5% and 35.7%,respectively.compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer than three embryos.The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantly incresses pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program .No other factor examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome.The survival rate of good morphology embryos was higher than poor ones,but was not influenced by cell stage and storage time.Conclusion:Embryo morphology before freezing , number of thawed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  3. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  4. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  5. To transfer fresh or thawed embryos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide freezing and thawing of embryos has been increasingly used since the first infant was born as a result of this technique in 1984. The use of frozen embryo replacement (FER) currently even exceeds the number of fresh cycles performed in some countries. This article discusses the pros...... and cons of FER versus fresh-embryo transfer with regard to both single-cycle and cumulative pregnancy and delivery rates. The review discusses the obvious advantages of FER: minimizing the proportion of pharmacological and surgical treatments, and lowering the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome...... and multiple pregnancies, thereby increasing the safety for mother and child. Finally the article describes the accumulating literature on perinatal and long-term child outcome after transfer of frozen/thawed embryos, including a discussion on the concerns regarding cryo techniques and their possible roles...

  6. Bovine in vitro embryo production : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Suthar

    Full Text Available Dairy industry perfected the application of the first reproductive biotechnology, i.e. artificial insemination (AI - a great success story and also remains the user of embryo transfer technology (ETT. In addition, recently the researchers taking interest to embraced the field of Transvaginal OocyteRecovery (TVOR and in vitro production (IVEP of embryos. IVF provides the starting point for the generation of reproductive material for a number of advanced reproduction techniques including sperm microinjection and nuclear transfer (cloning. In several countries commercial IVF facilities are already being employed by cattle ET operators. Various research groups have reported on modification of TVOR technique to give greater efficiency. Much research is still needed in domestic animal (Especially Indian species on mechanisms controlling embryo development and on development of totally in vitro system for embryo culture. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 478-479`

  7. Steroidal alkaloid toxicity to fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L; Kocan, R M

    1993-02-01

    Embryos of two species of fish were evaluated for their suitability as model systems for steroidal alkaloid toxicity, the Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzius latipes) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the equine neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone repin, was also tested. A PROBIT program was used to evaluate the EC1, EC50 and EC99 as well as the associated confidence limits. The steroidal alkaloids tested were the Solanum potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, the aglyclones solanidine and solasodine and the Veratrum alkaloid, jervine. Embryo mortality, likely due to structural or functional abnormalities in the early development stages of the embryo, were the only response observed in both species. The rainbow trout exhibited a toxic response to chaconine, solasidine, repin and solanine but the medaka embryos were only affected by the compounds, chaconine and solanine. Rainbow trout may indeed serve as a good lower vertebrate model for studying the toxicity of steroidal alkaloids.

  8. The fate of the mosaic embryo : chromosomal constitution and development of Day 4, 5 and 8 human embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Margarida Avo; Teklenburg, Gijs; Macklon, Nick S.; Van Opstal, Diane; Schuring-Blom, G. Heleen; Krijtenburg, Pieter-Jaap; de Vreeden-Elbertse, Johanna; Fauser, Bart C.; Baart, Esther B.

    2010-01-01

    Post-zygotic chromosome segregation errors are very common in human embryos after in vitro fertilization, resulting in mosaic embryos. However, the significance of mosaicism for the developmental potential of early embryos is unknown. We assessed chromosomal constitution and development of embryos f

  9. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  10. Culture systems: embryo culture and monozygotic twinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of monozygotic twinning in pregnancies achieved with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is significantly higher than spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The factors associated with ART that predispose the embryos to splitting are not well-characterized. Assisted hatching and extended embryo culture are two ART laboratory methods that have been risk factors for monozygotic twinning. The methods and strategies that may be employed to avoid monozygotic twinning are discussed in this chapter.

  11. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available The yellow fever (YF 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system.

  12. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  13. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the

  14. Zebrafish embryo model of Bartonella henselae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Amorce; Cha, Byeong J; Amin, Jahanshah; Smith, Lisa K; Anderson, Burt

    2014-10-01

    Bartonella henselae (Bh) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been associated with a variety of human diseases, including bacillary angiomatosis that is characterized by vasoproliferative tumor-like lesions on the skin of some immunosuppressed individuals. The study of Bh pathogenesis has been limited to in vitro cell culture systems due to the lack of an animal model. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether the zebrafish embryo could be used to model human infection with Bh. Our data showed that Tg(fli1:egfp)(y1) zebrafish embryos supported a sustained Bh infection for 7 days with >10-fold bacterial replication when inoculated in the yolk sac. We showed that Bh recruited phagocytes to the site of infection in the Tg(mpx:GFP)uwm1 embryos. Infected embryos showed evidence of a Bh-induced angiogenic phenotype and an increase in the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory factors and pro-angiogenic markers. However, infection of zebrafish embryos with a deletion mutant in the major adhesin (BadA) resulted in little or no bacterial replication and a diminished host response, providing the first evidence that BadA is critical for in vivo infection. Thus, the zebrafish embryo provides the first practical model of Bh infection that will facilitate efforts to identify virulence factors and define molecular mechanisms of Bh pathogenesis.

  15. Manipulation and imaging of Kryptolebias marmoratus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourabit, Sulayman; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro

    2012-12-01

    The self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is an upcoming model species for a range of biological disciplines. To further establish this model in the field of developmental biology, we examined several techniques for embryonic manipulation and for imaging that can be used in an array of experimental designs. These methodological approaches can be divided into two categories: handling of embryos with and without their chorionic membrane. Embryos still enclosed in their chorion can be manipulated using an agarose bed or a methyl cellulose system, holding them in place and allowing their rotation to more specific angles and positions. Using these methods, we demonstrate microinjection of embryos and monitoring of fluorescent yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) using both stereo and compound microscopes. For higher magnification imaging using compound microscopes as well as time-lapse analyses, embryos were dechorionated and embedded in low-melting-point agarose. To demonstrate this embedding technique, we further examined fluorescent YSN and also analyzed the yolk surface of K. marmoratus embryos. The latter was observed to provide an excellent imaging platform for study of the behavior and morphology of cells during embryonic development, for various types of cells. Our data demonstrate that K. marmoratus is an excellent model species for research in developmental biology, as methodological approaches for the manipulation and imaging of embryos are efficient and readily available.

  16. Pbx and Prdm1a transcription factors differentially regulate subsets of the fast skeletal muscle program in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Yao

    2013-04-01

    The basic helix–loop–helix factor Myod initiates skeletal muscle differentiation by directly and sequentially activating sets of muscle differentiation genes, including those encoding muscle contractile proteins. We hypothesize that Pbx homeodomain proteins direct Myod to a subset of its transcriptional targets, in particular fast-twitch muscle differentiation genes, thereby regulating the competence of muscle precursor cells to differentiate. We have previously shown that Pbx proteins bind with Myod on the promoter of the zebrafish fast muscle gene mylpfa and that Pbx proteins are required for Myod to activate mylpfa expression and the fast-twitch muscle-specific differentiation program in zebrafish embryos. Here we have investigated the interactions of Pbx with another muscle fiber-type regulator, Prdm1a, a SET-domain DNA-binding factor that directly represses mylpfa expression and fast muscle differentiation. The prdm1a mutant phenotype, early and increased fast muscle differentiation, is the opposite of the Pbx-null phenotype, delayed and reduced fast muscle differentiation. To determine whether Pbx and Prdm1a have opposing activities on a common set of genes, we used RNA-seq analysis to globally assess gene expression in zebrafish embryos with single- and double-losses-of-function for Pbx and Prdm1a. We find that the levels of expression of certain fast muscle genes are increased or approximately wild type in pbx2/4-MO;prdm1a−/− embryos, suggesting that Pbx activity normally counters the repressive action of Prdm1a for a subset of the fast muscle program. However, other fast muscle genes require Pbx but are not regulated by Prdm1a. Thus, our findings reveal that subsets of the fast muscle program are differentially regulated by Pbx and Prdm1a. Our findings provide an example of how Pbx homeodomain proteins act in a balance with other transcription factors to regulate subsets of a cellular differentiation program.

  17. Miniaturized embryo array for automated trapping, immobilization and microperfusion of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Akagi

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation. In this work, we describe the development of an innovative miniaturized chip-based device for the in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos. We present evidence that automatic, hydrodynamic positioning, trapping and long-term immobilization of single embryos inside the microfluidic chips can be combined with time-lapse imaging to provide real-time developmental analysis. Our platform, fabricated using biocompatible polymer molding technology, enables rapid trapping of embryos in low shear stress zones, uniform drug microperfusion and high-resolution imaging without the need of manual embryo handling at various developmental stages. The device provides a highly controllable fluidic microenvironment and post-analysis eleuthero-embryo stage recovery. Throughout the incubation, the position of individual embryos is registered. Importantly, we also for first time show that microfluidic embryo array technology can be effectively used for the analysis of anti-angiogenic compounds using transgenic zebrafish line (fli1a:EGFP. The work provides a new rationale for rapid and automated manipulation and analysis of developing zebrafish embryos at a large scale.

  18. Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

    2012-02-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2α) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results.

  19. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  20. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix co

  1. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet.

  2. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  3. Anthelminthic treatment negatively affects chick survival in the Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K; Heg, D; Quenec'hdu, SLD

    2002-01-01

    Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus are infested with a wide range of gut parasites, but experimental evidence of their effects on host fitness is scant. We investigated prevalence of parasites, and experimentally tested the effects of gut parasites on chick survival and growth. One hundre

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of novel glucagon-like peptide suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Glucagon-related peptides such as glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin suppress food intake in mammals and birds. Recently, novel glucagon-like peptide (GCGL) was identified from chicken brain, and a comparatively high mRNA expression level of GCGL was detected in the hypothalamus. A number of studies suggest that the hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake in mammals and birds. In the present study, we investigated whether GCGL is involved in the central regulation of food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of GCGL in chicks significantly suppressed food intake. Plasma glucose level was significantly decreased by GCGL, whereas plasma corticosterone level was not affected. Central administration of a corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, attenuated GCGL-suppressed food intake. It seems likely that CRF receptor is involved in the GCGL-induced anorexigenic pathway. All our findings suggest that GCGL functions as an anorexigenic peptide in the central nervous system of chicks.

  5. A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

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    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  6. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-07-28

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  7. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main…

  8. From high heels to weed attics: a syntactic investigation of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.; Koolen, C.W.; van Cranenburgh, Andreas; de Jong, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stylometric analysis of prose is typically limited to classification tasks such as authorship attribution. Since the models used are typically black boxes, they give little insight into the stylistic diff erences they detect. In this paper, we characterize two prose genres syntactically: chick lit (

  9. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. CONCLUSION: The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  10. Effect of feeding poultry manure treated with antibiotic, bacteriostat, and lime on the performance of chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, V.R.; Rao, P.V.; Reddy, V.R.

    1977-01-01

    A 4-week experiment was conducted with 5-week-old New Hampshire chicks employing treated and untreated dried poultry manure (DPM) at 15% level in the diet. Treating the fresh manure either with antibiotic, bacteriostat, or lime did not show any beneficial effect over untreated manure. DPM at 15% of the feed showed a nonsignificant beneficial effect on weight gain.

  11. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  12. MEMORY FOR THE SPATIAL POSITION OF AN IMPRINTING OBJECT IN JUNGLEFOWL CHICKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of memory for the position of an imprinting object were investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). Subjects were exposed individually and continuously to an imprinting object located in one of the two back quadrants of their home cage ('training quadrant'). Posi

  13. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive super

  14. Doing What Your Big Sister Does: Sex, Postfeminism and the YA Chick Lit Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Toffoletti, Kim; Parsons, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Mass-marketed teen chick lit has become a publishing phenomenon and has begun to attract critical interest among children's literature scholars. Much of this critical work, however, has shied away from robust critical assessment of the postfeminist conditions informing the production and reception of young adult series like Private, Gossip Girl…

  15. Preventive effect of selenium, methionine and antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks induced by dilauryl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Hoshi, H

    1977-01-01

    The protective effect of supplemental selenium, methionine, ascorbic acid, menaquinone and five antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks fed a diet containing dilauryl succinate was examined. Diauryl succinate induces vitamin E deficiency signs such as fragility of the erythrocytes and encephalomalacia. Supplementation of selenium and methionine with or without simultaneous supplementation of a low level of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate had little effect on preventing encephalomalacia. The preventive effect of ascorbic acid, methylene blue, ethoyquine, 2,6-ditertiary-butyl-p-cresol and butylated hydroxyanisole was roughly in proportion to their dietary level, and a high level of any of them could almost completely protect the chicks from encephalomalacia, while diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine was not as effective and the effect was not proportional to the dose. Menaquinone had little effect. No difference was observed in the plasma tocopherol levels and peroxide levels in the adipose tissueof the chick fed eith er dilauryl succinate or cornstarch. The effect of dilauryl succinate appears to be independent of peroxides generated in the chick.

  16. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  17. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  18. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.

  19. Mucin dynamics in the chick small intestine are altered by starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Asya; Sklan, David; Uni, Zehava

    2004-04-01

    The absorptive surface of the small intestine is covered by a layer of mucus secreted by goblet cells. The secreted mucins and thickness of the adherent layer influence nutrient digestion and absorption processes as well as the functionality of the mucosa. In this study, methods for the analysis of mucin synthesis and dynamics in the chick small intestine are described. A fragment of chicken mucin cDNA was isolated and characterized; this fraction had 60% homology to human mucin MUC-5AC. The thickness of the mucus adherent layer and the relative amounts of mucin glycoprotein and mRNA were also examined in the small intestines of control and starved chicks. Relative amounts of intestinal mucin mRNA and protein increased in the duodenum and jejunum of starved chicks, and mucus adherent layer thickness decreased throughout the small intestine. In starved chicks, higher mRNA expression and protein concentrations with lower amounts of adherent mucus may be related to a higher rate of degradation of the mucus layer, a lower rate of mucus secretion, or an altered rate of mucin turnover. It thus appears that starvation alters mucus dynamics in the small intestine, and this may affect intestinal digestive function and defense.

  20. Daily energy expenditure in precocial shorebird chicks : Smaller species perform at higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, Karen L.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2012-01-01

    We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) during the development periods of precocial chicks of five species of Arctic shorebirds spanning a broad range in size, in order to investigate the relationships between DEE, body size, and growth rate. We also quantified the effect of weather conditions on

  1. Muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chang-Yong

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy, is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by out-of-frame mutations of the dystrophin gene. Thus, it is classified asa dystrophinopathy. The disease onset is before age 5 years. Patients with DMD present with progressive symmetrical limb-girdle muscle weakness and become wheelchair dependent after age 12 years. (2)(3). On the basis of some research evidence,cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure are usually seen in the late teens in patients with DMD. Progressive scoliosis and respiratory in sufficiency often develop once wheelchair dependency occurs. Respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy are common causes of death, and few survive beyond the third decade of life. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7). On the basis of some research evidence, prednisone at 0.75 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 40 mg/d) or deflazacort at 0.9 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 39 mg/d), a derivative of prednisolone (not available in the United States), as a single morning dose is recommended for DMD patients older than 5 years, which may prolong independent walking from a few months to 2 years. (2)(3)(16)(17). Based on some research evidence, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, b-blockers, and diuretics has been reported to be beneficial in DMD patients with cardiac abnormalities. (2)(3)(5)(18). Based on expert opinion, children with muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels may be associated with either genetic or acquired muscle disorders (Tables 1 and 3). (14)(15)

  2. Convergent effects on cell signaling mechanisms mediate the actions of different neurobehavioral teratogens: alterations in cholinergic regulation of protein kinase C in chick and avian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Joseph; Beer, Avital; Huleihel, Rabab; Izrael, Michal; Katz, Sofia; Levi, Yaarit; Rozenboim, Israel; Yaniv, Shiri P; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2004-10-01

    Although the actions of heroin on central nervous system (CNS) development are mediated through opioid receptors, the net effects converge on dysfunction of cholinergic systems. We explored the mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral deficits in mouse and avian (chick, Cayuga duck) models. In mice, prenatal heroin exposure (10 mg/kg on gestation days 9-18) elicited deficits in behaviors related to hippocampal cholinergic innervation, characterized by concomitant pre- and postsynaptic hyperactivity, but ending in a reduction of basal levels of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms betaII and gamma and their desensitization to cholinergic receptor-induced activation. PKCalpha, which is not involved in the behaviors studied, was unaffected. Because mammalian models possess inherent confounding factors from maternal effects, we conducted parallel studies using avian embryos, evaluating hyperstriatal nucleus (intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale, IMHV)-related, filial imprinting behavior. Heroin injection to the eggs (20 mg/kg) on incubation days 0 and 5 diminished the post-hatch imprinting ability and reduced PKCg and bII content in the IMHV membrane fraction. Two otherwise unrelated agents that converge on cholinergic systems, chlorpyrifos and nicotine, elicited the same spectrum of effects on PKC isoforms and imprinting but had more robust actions. Pharmacological characterization also excluded direct effects of opioid receptors on the expression of imprinting; instead, it indicated participation of serotonergic innervation. The avian models can provide rapid screening of neuroteratogens, exploration of common mechanisms of behavioral disruption, and the potential design of therapies to reverse neurobehavioral deficits.

  3. Biomechanics of the chick embryonic heart outflow tract at HH18 using 4D optical coherence tomography imaging and computational modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Liu

    Full Text Available During developmental stages, biomechanical stimuli on cardiac cells modulate genetic programs, and deviations from normal stimuli can lead to cardiac defects. Therefore, it is important to characterize normal cardiac biomechanical stimuli during early developmental stages. Using the chicken embryo model of cardiac development, we focused on characterizing biomechanical stimuli on the Hamburger-Hamilton (HH 18 chick cardiac outflow tract (OFT, the distal portion of the heart from which a large portion of defects observed in humans originate. To characterize biomechanical stimuli in the OFT, we used a combination of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging, physiological measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling. We found that, at HH18, the proximal portion of the OFT wall undergoes larger circumferential strains than its distal portion, while the distal portion of the OFT wall undergoes larger wall stresses. Maximal wall shear stresses were generally found on the surface of endocardial cushions, which are protrusions of extracellular matrix onto the OFT lumen that later during development give rise to cardiac septa and valves. The non-uniform spatial and temporal distributions of stresses and strains in the OFT walls provide biomechanical cues to cardiac cells that likely aid in the extensive differential growth and remodeling patterns observed during normal development.

  4. Effects of chronic heat exposure and protein intake on growth performance, nitrogen retention and muscle development in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, S; Chagneau, A M; Guillaumin, S; Michel, J; Peresson, R; Geraert, P A; Tesseraud, S

    1999-01-01

    The respective effects of ambient temperature, dietary crude protein and feed intake were investigated in finishing chickens and the consequence of protein supplementation under high temperature conditions was analysed in particular. Heat-related reduction in growth was associated with decreased nitrogen retention (-30 or -35% according to the diet), which could not be explained by the observed lower feed intake alone. Tissue samples performed in 5- to 6-week-old chicks showed varying effects of heat according to the muscles studied: at 32 degrees C, the proportion of Pectoralis major muscle (in percentage of body weight) appeared slightly reduced (reduction lower than 10%), whereas the proportion of two leg muscles were increased (+10 to +15% for the Sartorius muscle; +5% for the gastrocnemius muscle). At 32 degrees C, providing a high protein diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased weight gain and feed efficiency, and slightly improved whole body protein deposition.

  5. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Koshiba

    Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  6. Effect of dietary buffer additions on gain, efficiency, duodenal pH, and copper concentration in liver of Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M C; Brown, D R; Southern, L L

    1987-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to investigate the effect of dietary additions of NaHCO3(1%), A1(OH)3(.5%), kaolin(1%), A1(OH)2NaCO3(.23%), CaCO3(.37%), and MgO(1%) on gain, efficiency, duodenal pH, and liver Cu concentration of Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. Experimental coccidial infection consistently reduced chick gain, efficiency, and duodenal pH, but it increased liver Cu concentration of chicks fed excess Cu. Sodium bicarbonate addition improved chick gain and efficiency slightly, whereas the MgO addition reduced these performance criteria. Sodium bicarbonate improved gain more in coccidiosis-infected chicks than in uninfected chicks, but it failed to alleviate, to any extent, the coccidiosis-induced liver Cu increase of the duodenal pH decrease.

  7. Meanings of the embryo in Japan: narratives of IVF experience and embryo ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.; Sleeboom-Faulkner, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the sociocultural meanings of the embryo implied in the narratives of 58 women who have undergone in vitro fertilisation in Japan over a period from 2006 to 2008. We argue that a lack of sufficient analysis of the sociocultural meanings of the embryo result in a situation where

  8. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  9. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer

    2007-12-01

    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  10. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  12. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Black

    Full Text Available Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1 reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2 avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3 lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  13. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A S; Kitaiskaia, E V; Piatt, J F; Wingfield, J C

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages.

  14. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich