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Sample records for chicago cyclotron

  1. Chicago, Chicago ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph V.; Nobles, Laurence H.

    In Eos (June 22, p. 547), The University of Chicago is described as a large municipal university. It is actually a private university with about 2600 undergraduates in a liberal arts college and 5000 graduates in divisions and graduate schools. Its campus and ethos are similar to those of Johns Hopkins University. Most of the faculty and students of The University of Chicago live in Hyde Park, within walking distance of the university, in distinction to the commuting faculty and students of many large municipal universities.

  2. Cyclotrons: 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron

  3. Cyclotrons: 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron. (GHT)

  4. Chicago arhitektuuribiennaal / Eve Komp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komp, Eve, 1982-

    2015-01-01

    Chicagos esimest korda korraldatud arhitektuuribiennaali nimi oli "The State of the Art of Architecture", mis toimus 03. oktoober 2015.a. - 03. jaanuar 2016.a. Biennaali eesmärk oli pakkuda rahvusvahelist arhitektuurisündmust kohalikule arhitektuurikogukonnale.

  5. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  6. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  7. "Perestroika" in Chicago's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, William

    1991-01-01

    In a sense, school reform is Chicago's "perestroika." As in Europe, an authoritarian, survivalist bureaucracy has collapsed, and a radical democracy is proposed as the solution to years of paralysis and backwardness. Unfortunately, the inexperienced Local School Councils lack vision and often promulgate commonplace solutions. Insistence on parent…

  8. The Chicago Climate Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About the organization and activities of the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). According to the author the CCX is the world's first and North America's only voluntary, legally binding integrated greenhouse gas reduction and trading system for all 6 GHG emission sources, with offset projects in North America and worldwide

  9. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  10. Cyclotron operations and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60 in. cyclotron is now in its 34th year of continuous operation. Maintaining the cyclotron in operating condition required installation of a new oscillator tube, replacement of the variac coils on the main magnet power supply and overhaul of the main magnet oil circulating pump. The new University Hospital clinical neutron therapy cyclotron is now operating so that cancer therapy operations at the 60 in. cyclotron stopped at the end of February, 1984. Calcium measurements will continue for the near future. The machine ran 908 hours between April 16, 1983 and April 15, 1984. Other statistics of cyclotron operations are given

  11. Russell Donnelly at Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanoff, Leo

    2015-11-01

    The period (1956-1965) in which Russ served as a faculty member at Chicago was one in which he set the main topics that occupied his subsequent professional life. These included the few-degree Helium work that formed the low temperature physics of that period. This work included studies of motion of vortex lines and ions in Helium. During that period, he had seven doctoral students mostly devoted in work in these areas. In addition he served as a good citizen of both his department and his field of science, by publishing a book on ``Experimental Superfluidity'' based on course lecture notes and also serving as an editor of a conference volume on ``Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics.'' Because of the University of Chicago's nepotism rules, Russ's wife could not follow her academic interests here. They both left for the University of Oregon.

  12. Chicago-metoden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    I filmen »De Uovervindelige« om politiets kamp mod Al Capones mafia forklarer politimanden Malone, hvad der er byens modus vivendi: »De trækker en kniv - du trækker en pistol. Han sender en af dine på hospitalet - du sender en af hans til lighuset. Dét er Chicago-metoden«. - Præsident Obama og hans...

  13. Chicago exploration days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single heavy atoms supported on thin carbon film were first imaged by Crewe, Wall and Langmore with their dark-field STEM. This glimpse into a hitherto invisible world we owe undeniably to Crewe's vision and determination, and to his gift to electrify, engage and encourage talented students. Since this successful event happened during my sabbatical stay in Crewe's group, the editors of this memorial volume asked me to write an account of its early history, which I gladly composed mostly from memory. The circumstances that led to my collaboration with Albert Crew in Chicago are reviewed, and the main project that we jointly embarked on the Chicago 1 MeV STEM is described. It is shown that the project was nearing completion and would have likely been successful, had funding been continued. The paper concludes with a tribute to Albert I wrote many years ago. -- Highlights: ►► Reasons and motivations for Crewe's interest in electron microscopy are reviewed. ► Reasons and motivations for Crewe's interest in electron microscopy are reviewed. ► Early theoretical work on STEM imaging is summarized. The design of the Chicago 1 MeV Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope is described. ► Construction details are illustrated. Reasons for the project not reaching a successful conclusion are given. ► Tribute is paid to Albert Crewe.

  14. Alfven cyclotron instability and ion cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional solutions of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) are studied in the cold plasma approximation. For finite inverse aspect ratio tokamak plasmas the two-dimensional eigenmode envelope is localized at the low magnetic field side with the radial and poloidal localization on the order of a/√m and a/(fourth root of m), respectively, where m is the dominant poloidal mode number. Charged fusion product driven Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) of the compressional Alfven eigenmodes provides the explanation for the ion cyclotron emission (ICE) spectrum observed in tokamak experiments. The ACI is excited by fast charged fusion products via Doppler shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonances. The ion cyclotron and electron Landau dampings and fast particle instability drive are calculated perturbatively for deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Near the plasma edge at the low field side the velocity distribution function of charged fusion products is localized in both pitch angle and velocity. The poloidal localization of the eigenmode enhances the ACI growth rates by a factor of √m in comparison with the previous results without poloidal envelope. The thermal ion cyclotron damping determines that only modes with eigenfrequencies at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of the background ions can be easily excited and form an ICE spectrum similar to the experimental observations. Theoretical understanding is given for the results of TFTR DD and DT experiments with υα0/υA α0/υA > 1

  15. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactors, nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; atomic and materials studies; nuclear theory; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  16. Medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the separate proposals from the Austin Hospital and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for a medical cyclotron facility. The proponents have argued that a cyclotron facility would benefit Australia in areas of patient care, availability and export of radioisotopes, and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and neutron beam therapy are also examined

  17. Alfven cyclotron instability and ion cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional solutions of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) are studied in the cold plasma approximation. For finite inverse aspect ratio tokamak plasmas the two-dimensional eigenmode envelope is localized at the low magnetic field side with the radial and poloidal localization on the order of a/√m and a/4√m, respectively, where m is the dominant poloidal mode number. Charged fusion product driven Alfven cyclotron instability (ACI) of the compressional Alfven eigenmodes provides the explanation for the ion cyclotron emission (ICE) spectrum observed in tokamak experiments. The ACI is excited by fast charged fusion products via Doppler shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonances. The ion cyclotron and electron Landau damping and fast particle instability drive are calculated perturbatively for deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Near the plasma edge at the low field side the velocity distribution function of charged fusion products is localized in both pitch angle and velocity. The poloidal localization of the eigenmode enhances the ACI growth rates by a factor of √m in comparison with the previous results without poloidal envelope. The thermal ion cyclotron damping determines that only modes with eigenfrequencies at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of the background ions can be easily excited and form an ICE spectrum similar to the experimental observations. Theoretical understanding is given for the results of TFTR DD and DT experiments with υα0/υA ≅ 1 and JET experiments with υα0/υA > 1. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  18. Vancouver Cyclotron Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although no longer on the high energy frontier, the cyclotron field is still a major scientific growth area. Its progress is highlighted at the international conference on cyclotron design, development and utilization held at intervals of about three years, under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Vancouver, surrounded by mountains, water and some cyclotrons, provided a pleasant setting for the 13th Conference, held last summer. With over 200 cyclotrons in operation around the world, the attendance, 241 delegates and 26 industrial exhibitors, was a near record, reflecting the flourishing state of the field. The early sessions covered the initial operation of new or upgraded cyclotron facilities. Major facilities completed since the previous Conference in Berlin in May 1989 included the 400 MeV ring cyclotron at Osaka, the U400M cyclotron at Dubna which will be coupled to the U400 to give 20 MeV nucléon uranium beams, the 130 MeV cyclotron at Jyvaskyla (in Finland, the furthest north!), the 110 MeV JAERI machine in Japan, and the 65 MeV proton therapy cyclotron in Nice. Among the facility upgrades were the KFA cyclotron at Julich which will inject the 2.5 GeV storage ring COSY, and the addition of an FM mode to the K=200 CW mode at Uppsala to give protons up to 180 MeV. The impressive current of 1.5 mA at 72 MeV obtained from the PSI Injector II will soon be injected into the 590 MeV ring

  19. Chicago particle accelerator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally, emphasis at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Chicago in March was on work in the US, just as the newly instituted European Particle Accelerator Conference places emphasis on work in the 'old continent'. All will come together at the international conference in Japan in August. The proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was highlighted in the opening talk at Chicago. Progress on this inchoate project to explore the TeV (1000 GeV) energy region by colliding 20 TeV proton beams was reported by the recently-appointed Director of the SSC Laboratory, Roy Schwitters. He reviewed the physics challenges and described progress and plans towards full authorization of construction.This year, the SSC conceptual design will be transformed into a 'site specific' report, now that the location at Waxahachie in Ellis County, Texas, has been selected. The Central Design Group, based in Berkeley for the past few years, will soon move to the Waxahachie region. The top management structure is taking shape and an International Advisory Committee is being formed

  20. 33 CFR 117.391 - Chicago River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chicago River. 117.391 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Illinois § 117.391 Chicago River. The draws of the bridges operated by the City of Chicago over the Main Branch of Chicago River, the bridges on the...

  1. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of research programs carried out by Institute staff, in nuclear physics as well as progress on new instrumentation during the period April 1, 1989, to July 31, 1990. During this year the ECR source was completed and beams were injected into the cyclotron. In November, 1989 experiments began with beams from the ECR + K500 cyclotron. To date, the highest velocity beam accelerated has been 43 MeV/nucleon 14N, and the highest energy beam has been 1.57 GeV 63Cu. Heavy ion reaction experiments and cyclotron operation and instrumentation are briefly described in this paper

  2. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  3. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  4. MSU superconducting cyclotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cyclotron Laboratory at MSU is in the process of designing and constructing a large double cyclotron system for the purpose of providing high quality beams of heavy ions with energies up to 200 MeV per nucleon for lighter heavy ions such as calcium and up to 20 MeV per nucleon for the heaviest particles such as uranium. The 500 MeV first stage cyclotron is at present in the final year of its construction phase; funding for the second stage cyclotron and for a large expansion of experimental facilities and building is expected in fiscal year 1980. The project has been described in a number of previous publications. A broad overview of the project is presented here in a brief form along with a statement of project status as of July 1979

  5. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  6. 88-Inch Cyclotron operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 88-Inch Cyclotron, operated by the Nuclear Science Division, provides a large fraction of the beam time that is used by Division scientists. Variable energy high resolution beams from hydrogen through argon are produced and used for studies of nuclear structure and nuclear reaction mechanisms. The cyclotron is also the Laboratory's major source of medical isotopes and its only source of polarized proton and deuteron beams. Ions as heavy as 40Ar can be accererated to the Coulomb barrier of 5 MeV/nucleon, while lighter heavy ions can reach 20-30 MeV/nucleon. The cyclotron thus operates in the important transition region between low and high energies: 10-30 MeV/nucleon. As a national accelerator laboratory the 88-Inch Cyclotron is used extensively by outside groups from many institutions in the US and abroad. The 88-Inch Cyclotron also plays a significant educational role. In 1983 twelve graduate students from the University of California at Berkeley employed this facility in their research toward the Ph.D. degree. Five students received their doctorates from UCB in 1983 for research done at the cyclotron. Eleven graduate students from other universities participated in research at the cyclotron. The cyclotron now operates 14 1/2 eight hour shifts per week with one additional shift for maintenance at the beginning of the week and one half shift for shutdown for the weekend. It was operated for 20 shifts per week until October 1981 when increased power rates and budget limitations made the reduction in running time necessary. Several improvement programs are ongoing

  7. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  8. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopička, Karel; Fišer, Miroslav; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. A763-A768. ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : cyclotron * radionuclides * radiopharmaceuticals Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003

  9. Neutron radiography with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique using thermal neutrons was demanded because of its inspection ability to show hydrogeneous material such as plastics, water, explosives or composite materials and irradiated nuclear fuel capsules. This paper describes some experimental results and applications in neutron radiography by the use of several small cyclotrons producing neutrons by Be(p,n) reaction. (author)

  10. Argentina cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even since its creation in 1950, the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) pays special attention to the development of activities related to the production of radioisotopes, ionising radiations and its applications, promoting producing and supporting them. In 1953, with the installation of an Crockroft-Walton electrostatic accelerator and in 1954 whit the acquisition of an synchrocyclotron, CNEA started early in the production of radioisotopes. After that, with the installation of the RA-1 and RA-3 research reactors baby cyclotrons and processing plants, CNEA complete and complement all infrastructure dedicated to production activities. In this sense, in 1994 a Cyclotron Facility for radioisotope production started its operations at Ezeiza Atomic Center. The cyclotron installed is a isochronous, negative ion, CP-42 accelerator, mainly used for the production of short and medium half life radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. With the object of covering the local demand of these radioisotopes some improvements were made in the cyclotron in order to increase the beam current. Finally, a brief description of the processes for the production of Tl-201, FDG (F-18) and I-123 is made. (author)

  11. Biomedical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fifth year of operation the mechanical performance of the cyclotron and accessory equipment was excellent. Major items put into operation were a small computer system interfaced with Ge-Li gamma spectrometer and a pneumatic-tube system for fast delivery of short-lived radionuclides. A table is presented listing the radionuclides produced

  12. Cyclotron motion in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schliemann, John

    2008-01-01

    We investigate cyclotron motion in graphene monolayers considering both the full quantum dynamics and its semiclassical limit reached at high carrier energies. Effects of zitterbewegung due to the two dispersion branches of the spectrum dominate the irregular quantum motion at low energies and are obtained as a systematic correction to the semiclassical case. Recent experiments are shown to operate in the semiclassical regime.

  13. An Artistic Analysis of Chicago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Licong

    2014-01-01

    Chicago is Sandburg’s masterpiece. This thesis tries to analyze the poem from an artistic angle. It means to give a better understanding of Sandburg’s delight in violence and his membership in the industrial workers of the world.

  14. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  15. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  16. Production cyclotron's project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1986 the National Atomic Energy Commission signed a contract to aquire a production cyclotron which will have a beam intensity up to 100 μA and a maximum energy of 40 MeV. The concretion of this project will allow the country to supply itself of an important variety of medical radioisotopes. The advantages of these radioisotopes could be summarized in the following way: shorter periods, in some cases absence of beta-minus emission, as well as lower γ energies and radionuclides without carrier. All this will contribute to improve the radiological protection and a better quality information could be obtained with a minimum of radiation. The installation is divided into two areas: cyclotron area and production area. This division results from the analysis of the safety problems that will appear. (M.E.L.)

  17. Startup work on Inshas cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startup works on the MGC-20 variable energy cyclotron in the Inshas Nuclear Research Center (Egypt) are described. The cyclotron is intended for acceleration of hydrogen and helium ions in a wide energy range (for protons - from 5 to 20 MeV). Main units of the cyclotron and results of computer experimental acceleration of protons to 18 MeV are described. The prospects of furthers investigations are presented

  18. The Chicago science explorers program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new program has been introduced into the Chicago Public Schools to stimulate science education and career awareness. It utilizes a series of video tapes produced by Bill Kurtis (news anchor of CBS-WBBM-TV) called The New Explorers, which present profiles of scientists as people doing some very interesting things. The tapes are viewed in the classroom, the scientific principles and content discussed, and follow-up activities carried out. Among the latter, are visits to a group of partner organizations that include the museums and zoos in the Chicago area, as well as Fermilab and Argonne. Special programs have been developed at these sites to provide post-tape enhancement of the scientific experience and hands-on activities for the students. At Argonne, the students analyze various samples they bring with them by XRF and PIXE. This augments the topic of microscopic analysis depicted in the video

  19. Cyclotron Research and Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, Rostislav

    MELVILLE, NY 11747-4501 : AMER INST PHYSICS, 2 HUNTINGTON QUADRANGLE, STE 1NO1, 2009 - (Dubnickova, A.; Dubnicka, S.; Granja, C.; Leroy, C.; Stekl, I.), s. 98-99 ISBN 978-0-7354-0741-1. ISSN 0094-243X. [5th International Summer School on Nuclear Physics Methods and Accelerators in Biology and Medicine . Bratislava (SK), 06.07.2009-15.07.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Cyclotron * R&D of Radiopharmaceuticals Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  20. Cyclotron at an impasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government's big dream to build a high cyclotron departments revolves in a vicious circle with no apparent hope of realization. Ministers regularly discuss about billion crowns project since 2001, but it has not found any public authority, which would have the strength to complete a huge uncompleted building in Bratislava Karlova Ves and was able to run equipment that are waiting in warehouses in Russia. The reason is not only missing 50 million euros per completion, but also the need for annual operating cash injection for ten million euros. And speak nothing of inability to find relevant use for expensive equipment.

  1. High-current cyclotron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing the parameters of a high-current cyclotron intended for production of 1-10 mA intensity beam is considered. The cyclotron is assumed to be used as an injector for deuteron accelerating facility to 45 MeV/nucleon energy. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  3. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs

  4. Medical cyclotron: why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons for medical purposes are particularly useful for the production of radioactive isotopes of elements normally constituting organic matter (15O, 13N, 11C). The short half-life and positron emission of those elements are of great interest in medical diagnosis. Many others carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by cyclotrons. Three categories of cyclotrons are mentioned. Desk top cyclotron only adapted to the production of short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital; low energy and average energy cyclotrons which require well-entrained personnel for their operation and are best adapted to the production of radioelements on a regional or even national scale. Examples relative to the interest of short-lived radioisotopes in lung and brain investigations and tumor detection are given

  5. Cyclotron trap: future experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron trap at PSI was built to increase the brightness of a source of x-rays emitted from exotic atoms. It allows to work at target densities where the interaction with the surrounding atoms is substantially reduced. Especially electron refilling can be excluded for medium to low Z atoms, which results in a high or even complete ionization. X-rays emitted from higher n-states of electron-free exotic atoms have well defined energies with the error originating only from the error in the mass values of the constituent particles. In consequence an experiment for a new determination of the pion mass was performed using a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The determination of the response function of the spectrometer could be performed using x-rays from completely ionized pionic carbon and with a dedicated electron cyclotron resonance ion trap (ECRIT). A further extension of the ECRIT method allows a direct calibration of exotic atom transitions as well as a precise determination of the energy of fluorescence lines. In combination an increase in accuracy of one order of magnitude can be achieved and a dense set of x-ray energy standards below 20 keV can be established. (author)

  6. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopička, K.; Fišer, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanč, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides/compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed.

  7. Chicago Initiative Aims to Upgrade Principal Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    Even with nearly 50 schools shutting down at the end of this month, Chicago education officials have been barreling ahead with plans to groom a large crop of high-performing principals that they say represents the most ambitious effort the city has undertaken to upgrade its school leadership ranks. The goal, said Chicago schools CEO Barbara…

  8. Chicago, Keynes and Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Pérez Caldentey

    2003-01-01

    En la primera mitad de la década de los años treinta los padres fundadores de la escuela de economía de Chicago y John Maynard Keynes en Inglaterra propusieron la puesta en marcha de trabajos públicos para combatir el desempleo y sobreponerse a la Gran Depresión. Frente a la rigidez de los precios de mercado y la impotencia de la política monetaria, la política fiscal contra cíclica pasó a ser vista como una estrategia viable y capaz de atenuar las fases del ciclo económico. ...

  9. Applied research with cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past three decades the Flerov laboratory carried out research and development of a number of applications that have found or may find use in modern technologies. One of the applications is the so-called ion track technology enabling us to create micro- and nano-structured materials. Accelerated heavy ion beams are the unique tools for structuring insulating solids in a controllable manner. At FLNR JINR the U-400 cyclotron and the IC-100 cyclotron are employed for irradiation of materials to be modified by the track-etch technique. For practical applications, U-400 delivers the 86Kr ion beams with total energies of 250, 350, 430 and 750 MeV, and the 136Xe ion beams with the energy of 430 MeV. The cyclotron is equipped with a specialized channel for irradiation of polymer foils. IC-100 is a compact accelerator specially designed for the technological uses. High-intensity krypton ion beams with the energy of ∼ 1 MeV/u are available now at IC-100. Production of track-etch membranes is an example of mature technology based on irradiation with accelerated ions. The track-etch membranes offer distinct advantages over other types of membranes due to their precisely determined structure. One-pore, oligo-pore and multi-pore samples can serve as models for studying the transport of liquids, gases, particles, solutes, and electrolytes in narrow channels. Track-etch pores are also used as templates for making nano wires, nano tubes or array of nano rods. The microstructures obtained this way may find use in miniaturized devices such as sensors for biologically important molecules. Bulk and surface modification for the production of new composites and materials with special optical properties can be performed with ion beams. Flexible printed circuits, high-performance heat transfer modules, X-ray filters, and protective signs are examples of products developed in collaboration with research and industrial partners. Some recent achievements and promising ideas that

  10. Isochronous cyclotron data base description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relational data base of the control parameters of the isochronous cyclotron, Isochronous Cyclotron Data Base (ICDB), is described. The relational data base under consideration, written in Transact SQL for the MS SQL Server 2000 with the use of MS Enterprise Manager and MS Query Analyzer, was installed on the server of the AIC144 isochronous cyclotron in Krakow, which operates under the control of the operating system MS Windows Server 2003 (Standard Edition). The interface of the data base under considerations is written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ .NET and is built in the Cyclotron Operator Help Program (COHP), which is used for modeling the operational modes of the isochronous cyclotron. Communication between the COHP and the relational data base is realised on the base of the Open Data Base Connectivity protocol. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron is intended: firstly, for systematization and automatic use of all measured and modelled magnetic field maps in the process of modeling the operational modes; secondly, for systematization and convenient access to the stored operational modes; thirdly, for simplifying the operator's work. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron reflects its physical structure and the logic of its operator's work. (author)

  11. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of research programs carried out by Institute staff, as well as progress on new instrumentation during the period, April 1, 1990, to March 31, 1991. The K500 cyclotron and ECR source provided beam for 4140 hours during the period. The beam was actually available for experiments 1927.50 hours and 1110.50 hours was devoted to developing new beams and exploring cyclotron performance. A wide range of beams from protons to Xe with energies from 2.4 MeV/u to 60 MeV/U have been used in experiments. The highest total energy beam accelerated was 35 MeV/u 63Cu. The ECR source, made a tremendous improvement in accelerator performance and reliability. Substantial amounts of beam time were devoted to investigations of hot nuclei, electron-positron, giant resonances, atomic effects of high velocity ion beams, astrophysics related reactions and proton and alpha bremsstrahlung. Scientific accomplishments included determination of the heat capacity of nuclei through new insight into the level densities and establishing a lower limit for electron positron resonances a factor of ten better than previous measurements. The proton spectrometer, constructed for studies of the Gamow-Teller interaction is complete, and initial physics measurements will be made in the next few months. All of the BaF2 crystals have been delivered and acceptance tests are underway. A K=315 MDM spectrometer has been obtained from Oxford University and is scheduled for installation in Spring 1992, after removal of the K=150 Enge split pole spectrometer. Institute groups continue participation in MEGA, instrumentation projects for RHIC, and few nucleon studies at LAMPF and KEK. Reports of these activities are included

  12. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [eds.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  13. Chicago, Keynes and Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez Caldentey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera mitad de la década de los años treinta los padres fundadores de la escuela de economía de Chicago y John Maynard Keynes en Inglaterra propusieron la puesta en marcha de trabajos públicos para combatir el desempleo y sobreponerse a la Gran Depresión. Frente a la rigidez de los precios de mercado y la impotencia de la política monetaria, la política fiscal contra cíclica pasó a ser vista como una estrategia viable y capaz de atenuar las fases del ciclo económico. A finales de la década tanto los economistas de Chicago como Keynes renunciaron al uso de este tipo de incentivos fiscales. Los economistas de Chicago centraron su rechazo en el potencial inflacionario de la política fiscal expansiva y enfocaron sus preocupaciones hacia los aspectos monetarios de la política fiscal. Por su parte Keynes mantuvo su apoyo a la política fiscal contra cíclica absteniéndose de recomendar los instrumentos que había propuesto anteriormente para combatir las fluctuaciones económicas. Utilizando el marco teórico que desarrolló en la Teoría General (1936, Keynes distinguió entre el presupuesto corriente y el de capital. El presupuesto corriente debía mostrar un equilibrio o un superávit con el fin de financiar el gasto en capital que actuaría como estabilizador del ciclo económico. Keynes distinguió así entre dos conceptos de política fiscal (la política fiscal compensatoria y la política fiscal basada en la programación de los gastos de capital. El segundo tipo de política fiscal, válido bajo la suposición de escasez del factor capital, suponía el rechazo de los instrumentos de estabilización fiscal de corto plazo (trabajos públicos y el uso de los impuestos para alterar los patrones de consumo. Más allá del punto de saturación del capital, la política fiscal podría cambiar su enfásis hacia el consumo y su rol compensatorio.

  14. An Evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) After Four Years

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Glazerman; Allison Seifullah

    2012-01-01

    Mathematica's final report on the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) found that the program did not raise student math or reading scores, but it increased teacher retention in some schools. For example, teachers in Chicago TAP schools at the start of the program in fall 2007 were about 20 percent more likely than teachers in comparison schools to be in those same schools three years later (67 percent versus 56 percent retention rate). However, the program did not have an impact...

  15. Chicago Operations Office: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities funded through the Chicago Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US Industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. OTD technologies addresses three specific problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets

  16. Chicago Operations Office: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities funded through the Chicago Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US Industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. OTD technologies addresses three specific problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets.

  17. Multimegawatt cyclotron autoresonance accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means are discussed for generation of high-quality multimegawatt gyrating electron beams using rf gyroresonant acceleration. TE111-mode cylindrical cavities in a uniform axial magnetic field have been employed for beam acceleration since 1968; such beams have more recently been employed for generation of radiation at harmonics of the gyration frequency. Use of a TE11-mode waveguide for acceleration, rather than a cavity, is discussed. It is shown that the applied magnetic field and group velocity axial tapers allow resonance to be maintained along a waveguide, but that this is impractical in a cavity. In consequence, a waveguide cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) can operate with near-100% efficiency in power transfer from rf source to beam, while cavity accelerators will, in practice, have efficiency values limited to about 40%. CARA experiments are described in which an injected beam of up to 25 A, 95 kV has had up to 7.2 MW of rf power added, with efficiencies of up to 96%. Such levels of efficiency are higher than observed previously in any fast-wave interaction, and are competitive with efficiency values in industrial linear accelerators. Scaling arguments suggest that good quality gyrating megavolt beams with peak and average powers of 100 MW and 100 kW can be produced using an advanced CARA, with applications in the generation of high-power microwaves and for possible remediation of flue gas pollutants. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Private schools and school enrollment in Chicago

    OpenAIRE

    William Sander

    2006-01-01

    Does enrollment in private school increase educational attainment? After reviewing some research on national trends concerning private (versus public) schooling, the author examines how private school options in the Chicago metropolitan area might affect academic achievement for various demographic groups.

  19. The Urban Scene--Part 1, Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ida Frances; Duel, Ward

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Environmental Control policies and legislation in Chicago, Illinois concerning air, water, noise, solid waste management, urban life, and food protection. This article is the first of a series dealing with urban environmental health situations. (MA)

  20. Tappev kuulsus viib Chicago lavale / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Muusikafilm "Chicago", mille aluseks John Kanderi - Fred Ebb'i muusikal : režissöör Rob Marshall : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002. 1975.a. selle muusikali Broadwayl lavale toonud Bob Fosse mõjust filmi stiilile

  1. Teatrireisikiri. USA. Chicago. Aprill 2009 / Rednar Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Rednar, 1970-

    2009-01-01

    Chicago Improv Festivalist. Kahest nähtud lavastustest: William Gibsoni "The Miracle worker" ja Alan Bennetti "Ajaloopoisid". Kahest nähtud muusikalist: Michael Bennetti "A Corus Line" ja Disney ning Cameron Macintoshi "Mary Poppins"

  2. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the μ → eγ decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal μ decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Zprojectile -- Ztarget combinations. Studies of the (α,2α) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references

  3. 76 FR 58108 - Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago.... Background and Purpose The Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot event takes place on the Chicago River near.... 165.T09-0847 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0847 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf...

  4. 78 FR 46810 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Chicago River due to the filming of a motion picture... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A....

  5. CSIR cyclotron modified for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Accelerator Centre (NAC) staff members will be making an important contribution to radiation therapy in South Africa when the Transvaal Department of Hospital Services starts treating certain types of cancer with fast neutrons, at the Pretoria Cyclotron on the CSIR campus. The fast neutrons will be utilized mainly to treat advanced cancers of the head and the neck. The project will develop along two lines. Firstly the Pretoria cyclotron must be modified and secondly satisfactory radiobiological data must be provided before patients may be treated. This radiobiological experiment heralds a new area for use of the cyclotron which has thus far been used mainly for basic nuclear research and the production of isotopes.

  6. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs

  7. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs.

  8. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60μA. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed

  9. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  10. Cyclotron subharmonics resonant (CSR) heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corresponding to the experiment done with the JIPPT-II-U device [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2339 (1985)], the cyclotron subharmonics resonant (CSR) heating mechanism is studied using particle simulation codes with an emphasis on the relationship between CSR and the nonlinear Landau damping

  11. Status report on cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2002 was concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4084 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 15 hours last year. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations, several following improvements were done. (R.P.)

  12. Status report on cyclotron operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, P; Ander, I; Lakatos, T; Fenyvesi, A; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F

    2003-01-01

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2002 was concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4084 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 15 hours last year. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations, several following improvements were done. (R.P.)

  13. Trends in Chicago's Schools across Three Eras of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; de la Torre, Marisa; Murphy, James

    2011-01-01

    "Trends in Chicago's Schools Across Three Eras of Reform" finds that Chicago Public Schools has experienced tremendous growth in graduation rates over the past 20 years, but learning gains have been modest. The report tracks elementary and high school test scores and graduation rates in Chicago since 1988, when U.S. Secretary of Education William…

  14. Turning around Low-Performing Schools in Chicago. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Marisa; Allensworth, Elaine; Jagesic, Sanja; Sebastian, James; Salmonowicz, Michael; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research and the American Institutes for Research (AIR) partnered to examine five different models initiated by the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in 36 schools. CPS was an early adopter of dramatic intervention strategies in low-performing schools, and the reforms in this study were implemented…

  15. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL (78 FR 20241, August 20, 2013). This updated schedule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago... will enforce the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from...

  16. Economic Aspects of Single Parenthood in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1985-01-01

    Estimated single parenthood rates in Chicago in 1970 and 1980. Single parenthood was related to both low earning ability and very high earning ability. The former was affected by low educational levels and high unemployment. The latter was caused by an increase in women's earning ability. (BH)

  17. Who Runs This Chicago High School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charles M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the lack of discipline which allows large numbers of students to stay in the hallways rather than attend classes at Chicago's all Black Westside High School. Suggests that the administration does not enforce teacher discipline and that teachers, thus, do not fulfill their own duty to control students. (GC)

  18. The Chicago Teachers Strike and Its Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.

  19. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop the radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with 12'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism

  20. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  1. Development of the compact cyclotron for PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact cyclotrons for PET (Positron Emission Tomography) system have been developed for more than 25 years. After the permission of the health insurance, applied for the cancer diagnostics, many cyclotrons have been installed in the hospitals. For most of the PET cyclotrons, negative ion acceleration is mainly adopted. History and innovations concerning the PET cyclotron the PET cyclotron are described in this paper. (author)

  2. Cyclotron production of Cu-61

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Seifert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S323-S323. ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * PET * Cu-61 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  3. Medical use of baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby cyclotron established at Nakano Hospital of National Sanatorium and its building were introduced. Production of compounds labelled with 11C, 13N, 15O, or 18F and the plan of medical use of accelerator isotopes were described. The usefulness of positron nuclear medicine and problems in its clinical use for the lung, the heart, the brain, and cancer were also described. Finally, measuring method of labelled compounds was introduced. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Future cyclotron systems: An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modern cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired, decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, the authors investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century

  5. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  6. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  7. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  8. Future cyclotron systems : an industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modem cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, we investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century. (author)

  9. A new cyclotron for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the rationale for replacing the old AEG Compact Cyclotron (built in 1969/71) of the Institute for Radiology and Pathophysiology at the German Cancer Research Center by a 30 MeV H-/15 MeV D- cyclotron. A status report is followed by the scientific and technical reasoning as well as budgetary and organizational considerations. In the appendix we tried to explain the function of a cyclotron in a simple and comprehensive manner. (orig.)

  10. Status report on the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The operation of the cyclotron in 1999 was concentrated to the usual 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4265 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 76 hours last year. The cyclotron was available for users during 3888 hours, the effectively used beam time is summarized in Table 1. (FERMI: Front-End Readout Microsystems, Radiation hardness measurements, CERN RD-16). The time used for machine setup and beam tuning or waiting for the start of an irradiation totalled to 546 hours. The modernization of the vacuum and control systems of the cyclotron - within the framework of a Technical Assistance Program (HUN/4/013) of the International Atomic Energy Agency - has been carried on. The renewal of the gas supply system was completed in the winter maintenance period. It included the replacement of the manual valves with high pressure solenoid valves and the installation of a Tylan FC-280A mass flow controller to set and change the amount of gas flow into the ion source. All the new elements have been connected to the PLC-station dedicated to the control of the vacuum subsystems. The control code, which provides automated has change processes and allows for very precise regulation of the gas inlet, has been developed as well. As a result, the time to change the working gas in the ion source has been significantly decreased (by a factor of 5 to 10) - the process is completely automated now and does not require any manual or local control from the operator. (author)

  11. Ion cyclotron waves at Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, H. Y.; Cowee, M. M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    During the interaction of Titan's thick atmosphere with the ambient plasma, it was expected that ion cyclotron waves would be generated by the free energy of the highly anisotropic velocity distribution of the freshly ionized atmospheric particles created in the interaction. However, ion cyclotron waves are rarely observed near Titan, due to the long growth times of waves associated with the major ion species from Titan's ionosphere, such as CH4+ and N2+. In the over 100 Titan flybys obtained by Cassini to date, there are only two wave events, for just a few minutes during T63 flyby and for tens of minutes during T98 flyby. These waves occur near the gyrofrequencies of proton and singly ionized molecular hydrogen. They are left-handed, elliptically polarized, and propagate nearly parallel to the field lines. Hybrid simulations are performed to understand the wave growth under various conditions in the Titan environment. The simulations using the plasma and field conditions during T63 show that pickup protons with densities ranging from 0.01 cm-3 to 0.02 cm-3 and singly ionized molecular hydrogens with densities ranging from 0.015 cm-3 to 0.25 cm-3 can drive ion cyclotron waves with amplitudes of ~0.02 nT and of ~0.04 nT within appropriate growth times at Titan, respectively. Since the T98 waves were seen farther upstream than the T63 waves, it is possible that the instability was stronger and grew faster on T98 than T63.

  12. Thorium residuals in West Chicago, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay and Company began operation of its west Chicago, Illinois, plant in 1931, processing thorium ores for thorium and rare earths. From that time until normal operations ceased in 1973, thorium residuals from the operation found their way offsite to Reed-Keppler City Park, the West Chicago Sewage Treatment Plant, and numerous other locations about the city and its environs. The present study located and identified such thorium residuals in the West Chicago area, a total of 75 epicenters having been found in addition to deposits at Reed-Keppler Park, the sewage-treatment plant, and down Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Deposits proved to be almost exclusively the dense, gray, insoluble particles of thorium-ore tailings from the process, which have been historically stored in two large piles in the site waste area. Epicenter locations and associated radiological parameters are given for the 75 locations, along with quantitative descriptions of the larger collections of material at the park, at the sewage-treatment plant, and on the banks of Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Not one of the areas of thorium residuals located outside security fences was found to violate the requirements of 10 CFR 20

  13. Cyclotron closed orbits on a radial grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarten, C., E-mail: christian.baumgarten@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-08-11

    A method for the computation of closed orbits in cyclotrons is derived with emphasis on fixed spatial starting coordinates. The method is a direct extension of Gordon's algorithm . It can also be applied to FFAGs and synchro-cyclotrons.

  14. Studies of electron cyclotron emission on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auburn University electron cyclotron emission (ECE) system has made many significant contributions to the TEXT experimental program during the past five years. Contributions include electron temperature information used in the following areas of study: electron cyclotron heating (ECH), pellet injection, and impurity/energy transport. Details of the role which the Auburn ECE system has played will now be discussed

  15. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  16. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  17. The cyclotron development activities at CIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Zhenguo; An, Shizhong; Yin, Zhiguo; Yang, Jianjun; Yang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    The cyclotron has an obvious advantage in offering high average current and beam power. Cyclotron development for various applications, e.g. radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation, clean nuclear energy systems, medical diagnostics and isotope production, were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for over 50 years. At the moment two cyclotrons are being built at CIAE, the 100 MeV, CYCIAE-100, and a 14 MeV, the CYCIAE-14. Meanwhile, we are designing and proposing to build a number of cyclotrons with different energies, among them are the CYCIAE-70, the CYCIAE-800, and the upgrading of CYCIAE-CRM, which is going to increase its beam current to mA level. The contribution will present an overall introduction to the cyclotron development activities conducted at CIAE, with different emphasis to each project in order to demonstrate the design and construction highlights.

  18. Computer design of a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present results of the computer design of the structural elements of a compact cyclotron by the example of HITFiL cyclotron selected as the driving accelerator that is under construction at the Institute of Modern Physics (Lanzhou, China). In the article a complex approach to modeling of the compact cyclotron, including calculation of electromagnetic fields of the structural elements and beam dynamics calculations, is described. The existing design data on the axial injection, magnetic, acceleration and extraction systems of the cyclotron are used as a starting point in the simulation. Some of the upgrades of the cyclotron structural elements were proposed, which led to substantial improvement of the beam quality and transmission

  19. Developing the smallest possible medical cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a portable medical cyclotron operated in a conventional radioactive facility at a hospital. Imagine a nurse or technician switching it on and producing isotopes at the patient’s bedside. Sounds like science fiction? Think again.   CERN has teamed up with Spain’s national scientific research centre (CIEMAT) to develop an avant-garde cyclotron to be used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). “We plan to make a cyclotron that doesn't need an insulated building or ‘vault’: a cyclotron small enough to fit inside a hospital lift,” explains Jose Manuel Perez, who is leading the CIEMAT/CERN collaboration. “It will be the smallest possible medical cyclotron for single patient dose production and will dramatically reduce costs for hospitals.” While PET technology has transformed imaging techniques, many of its medical benefits have remained confined to highly specialised hospitals. “Studies have foun...

  20. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    In the project, 3,985mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,912mCi of {sup 201}Tl and 2,569mCi of {sup 123}I were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 8,466mCi and 103,191,950won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was developed and new {sup 201}TI chemical processing system was installed in the hot-cell. With this new solid target, R.I. production yield could be increased by more than 2 times per batch. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In the project, 3,412mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 10,718mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 1,848mCi of {sup 123}I, 542mCi of [{sup 123}I]mIBG and 285mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 16,805mCi and 257,777,660won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was used. Tl-201 has been produced two times per week for increasing demand. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  3. Production of radiopharmaceuticals by cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Companies specialized in the development and installation of accelerator-based systems dedicated to the medical applications brought on the market cyclotrons well fitted to the requests of the industrial community or universities and so covering every segment of the market. These machines are fully automatic, and need reduced maintenance; they are highly specialized for defined tasks. They can produce high beam intensity and realize dual beam irradiation. Also the prices are reducing considerably. The targets and the automatic system follow the same trend. Unfortunately, the flexibility of these devices for new area of research and development has been dramatically reduced. The growing number of PET cameras has increased the popularity of PET tracers used for nuclear imaging. Consequently, there is a growing demand for these radiopharmaceuticals compounds labeled with short-lived radioisotopes for clinical applications. From a research and development tool in the eighties, PET has now grown up to a clinical tool. Moreover, depending of the social welfare, reimbursement of some PET examinations is granted, which accelerates the trend for an extended use of PET tracers. Regulatory affairs try to establish and standardize the control on these radiopharmaceutical compounds produced in a growing number of local radio pharmacies owning a baby cyclotron. On the other hand, the attention of equipment suppliers was brought in the setting up of a total quality control follow up. These efforts were successively achieved by getting for instance the ISO 9001 certificate

  4. Physics design of a compact medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: A compact cyclotron with energy of 11 MeV and current of 50 μA is under construction in Institute of Fluid Physics of China Academy of Engineering Physics. The compact cyclotron is developed for medical isotope production. Purpose: To minimize the cost and to shorten the time of the development of the compact cyclotron, a lot of efforts were dedicated to the physics design of the compact cyclotron. Methods: Physics design of the main magnet was performed using TOSCA software, and start-to-end beam dynamics design was performed using home-made software CYCDYN. Results: Physics design of the compact cyclotron was given in details. Design methods and results of the main subsystems (including ion source, radial sector focusing magnet, RF cavity, central region and extraction system) were also given in this paper. Conclusion: Now commissioning of this cyclotron has been finished, and the goal for extracting proton beams of 11 MeV and 50 μA on average has been achieved. Physics design of the cyclotron has been validated by the commissioning results. (authors)

  5. 77 FR 59749 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Chicago River due to the installation of...

  6. 75 FR 45478 - Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River... filming of this movie. DATES: Effective Date: this rule is effective in the CFR from August 3, 2010 until... orders. Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section...

  7. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  8. Production of radioisotopes using a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotron produced radioisotopes are generally neutron deficient and decay by EC or β+ emission. They find major applications in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The production processes involve rather sophisticated technology and the areas needing research and development work include nuclear data, targetry, chemical processing, remote control, automation and quality control. A comparison of the various parameters relevant to the production of radioisotopes using a nuclear reactor and a cyclotron is given. The cyclotron products are more expensive than the reactor products; they are, however, far superior to the latter as far as in-vivo functional studies are concerned. (author)

  9. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL... from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones... work, low-flying helicopter, and other hazards involved in the filming of a motion picture. DATES:...

  10. From Crisis to Consensus. Setting Standards in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Patte

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 the Council for Basic Education assisted in the drafting of academic standards for the students of the Chicago (Illinois) Public Schools. The results of this project, the Chicago Learning Outcomes, are now the official basis for designing new curricula, citywide assessments, and professional development throughout the district. The Chicago…

  11. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  12. WWC Review of the Report "An Evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) after Four Years"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined whether the Chicago Public Schools' Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP), which provides mentoring, leadership opportunities, and financial incentives to teachers, improved student academic achievement and teacher retention. The study used two designs to answer distinct research questions. Under the…

  13. 75 FR 62841 - Award of a Single-Source Grant to Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, ACF, HHS... and Evaluation (OPRE) announces the award of a single-source grant to Chapin Hall at the University of... applied: Objectives and Need for Assistance, Facilities and Resources, Cost, and Relevance to ACF....

  14. Vacuum system for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI AVF cyclotron system has been already constructed to promote the application of advanced radiation technology. This cyclotron system consists of two ion sources, an ion injection line, an AVF cyclotron and eight main beam transport lines. The ultimate pressure in each vacuum section was mainly designed on the basis of the ion beam losses caused by the charge exchange with residual gas. The pressure distributions in whole vacuum sections, which were estimated on the practical arrangement of the vacuum components, showed clearly that the objective ultimate pressure could be attainable. The specification for the vacuum system was fixed up taking into account guiding principles such as clean vacuum, maintenance-free and high reliability, and the details of its final composition were described. We also showed the several results of evacuation curve measurement and residual gas analysis in the cyclotron vacuum chamber, reliability test for the vacuum gauge controller and so on. (author) 55 refs

  15. Intensity limitations in compact Hminus cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H- cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H- cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H- cyclotron

  16. H- superconducting cyclotron for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific design of a 14-MeV H- compact superconducting cyclotron for producing of the 18F and 13N isotopes has been developed. Main requirements to the facility as a medical accelerator are met in the design. In particular, the main requirement for the cyclotron was the smallest possible size due to the superconducting magnet. The calculations show that the proposed cyclotron allows extracted beam intensity over 500 μA. To increase system reliability and production rates, an external H- ion source is applied. The choice of the cyclotron concept, design of the structure elements, calculation of the electromagnetic fields and beam dynamics from the ion source to the extraction system were performed.

  17. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  18. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A.; Scott, Jill R.; McJunkin, Timothy R.

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  19. The variable energy cyclotron at Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of the Variable Energy Cyclotron, now under construction at Calcutta, for : (1) studies in radiology, cancer therapy, nuclear physics, radiation damage (2) nuclear data generation and (3) isotope production are described (M.G.B.)

  20. Isochronous cyclotron AIC-144 main parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General technical description of the Cracow AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron is given as well as some of possible application of the facility in experimental physics, medical therapy and diagnostics, pharmacology, agriculture, metallurgy and radiochemistry. 15 refs, 10 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Cyclotrons for high-intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the important physical and technological aspects of cyclotrons for the acceleration of high-intensity beams. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of beam loss mechanisms and extraction schemes.

  2. NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period from January to December 1978, the NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron has been used regularly for medical and biological purposes, i.e. clinical trial of fast neutron therapy, radiobiology and production of short-lived radioactive nuclides. Reporting the activities during the period, the following are given: features of the year, machine research and improvement, partition of machine time, radiation doses received by personnel, principal particulars of cyclotron, personnel, and publications. (Mori, K.)

  3. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  4. Cyclotron beam dynamic simulations in MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATLAB is useful for beam dynamic simulations in cyclotrons. Programming in an easy-to-use environment permits creation of models in a short space of time. Advanced graphical tools of MATLAB give good visualization features to created models. The beam dynamic modeling results with an example of two different cyclotron designs are presented. Programming with MATLAB opens wide possibilities of the development of the complex program, able to perform complete block of calculations for the design of the accelerators

  5. 75 FR 64393 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Executive Airport, Prospect Heights and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... proposed action. Approval does not constitute a commitment by the FAA to financially assist in the... (NCP) submitted by the Chicago Executive Airport Board of Directors for Chicago Executive Airport under... exposure maps submitted by Chicago Executive Airport Board of Directors for Chicago Executive Airport...

  6. A national medical cyclotron facility: report to the Minister of Health by the Medical Cyclotron Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and training in nuclear medicine in Australia are both limited by the lack of a medical cyclotron facility. The Committee recommends the establishment of a national medical cyclotron to provide a supply of short-lived radioisotopes for research in relevant fields of medicine, and for diagnostic use in nuclear medicine

  7. Electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear fusion becomes an increasingly important potential energy source in these times of global oil and energy crises, the development of technologies that can lead to the realization of this virtually inexhaustible source of energy takes on ever greater urgency. Over the past decade electron cyclotron heating has undergone a significant maturation and has emerged as an essential component of the major approaches to achieving controlled nuclear fusion. The gyrotron, first developed in the Soviet Union, has made it possible to employ ECH in large tokamak and stellarator fusion devices by providing megawatts of microwave power at frequencies above 100 GHz. A contemporary VGT-8110 gyrotron, for example, shown here with Kevin Felch and Pat Cahalan of Communications and Power Industries, is capable of delivering 10 second pulses of 1 MW of power at 110 GHz. The present monograph addresses the ECH physics critical to the international fusion reactor experiment, ITER, but also presents the fundamentals of ECH that are essential to its successful implementation in applications that range from active experiments in planetary magnetospheres to commercial plasma sources for the manufacture of computer chips. The book seeks to convey the physics of ECH in an orderly and coherent fashion to a professional audience by presenting the basic theoretical foundations and then using the theory to interpret a number of established experimental results. Exercises are included to aid the reader in making the theory more concrete. (orig.)

  8. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Chicago-14-05-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Consulate General of France in Chicago organizes a third whole day for the discovery of science by students, in downtown Chicago, through hands-on activities. This event is designed for both American and French students from 5th to 10th grade and their teachers. One of the highlight will be a direct connevtion with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, Switzerland. - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/Chicago-2-2014.html#sthash.EGd2sTp0.dpuf

  9. Gentrification and community fabric in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, John

    2011-01-01

    Critical authors of gentrification point to its deleterious impacts on displaced residents. Research on the nature or actual forms of impacts has not advanced much, however. This paper attempts to specify impacts on low-income racial/ethnic groups (Latinos in particular) in five Chicago neighbourhoods, with a particular focus on neighbourhood-based fabrics of support and advancement. Limited in their mobility and exchange value resources, lower-income groups depend on such fabrics far more than do the higher income. In fact, they have fewer choices and are most vulnerable to place-based shifts. The case seems especially challenging for minorities who, like European immigrants before them, depend largely on place-based platforms/social fabrics but, unlike them, confront the added factors of race and urban restructuring. PMID:21275200

  10. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  11. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  12. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  13. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity /sup 14/C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate /sup 14/C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect /sup 14/C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.

  14. Decommissioning of a University Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the decommissioning of a university cyclotron, the cost estimate provided by a decommissioning company to carry out the entire project was in excess of Pounds 1million. This level of funding was not available, and a more modest budget of Pounds 125 thousand was provided (about US$ 250 000 or Euro 180 000). This made it essential that as much of the work as possible was carried out by existing staff. Whereas existing staff could be trained to draft all the required documentation, complete the characterization survey and deliver some aspects of the decontamination programme, their greatest contribution to the project was in sorting, segregation, measurement, packaging and consignment for disposal of all of the decommissioning wastes. This necessitated provision of additional training to existing operators. At an early stage it was identified that an experienced decommissioning consultant was needed to oversee the project. The Decommissioning Consultant appointed external contractors to carry out all the heavy dismantling and demolition work associated with the project. This work involved: -Assembly of a caged storage area adjacent to the cyclotron to hold the wastes from dismantling and demolition, pending characterization for segregation and disposal by existing staff at the facility; -Removal of the D's and cutting them up in situ ready for characterization for shipment to the low level waste repository; -Removal of all rotating machinery in the adjacent generator house, then dismantling the concrete block and brick wall between the inner vault and the generator house; -Removal of extra shielding supported by girder matrix to assist removal of the concrete block wall. Collect core samples of bricks and blocks for activity estimation by operators working at the facility; -Moving of the resonator into the generator house for dismantling, monitoring and characterization; -Dismantling of ancillary equipment such as beam lines, remote target handling system, vacuum

  15. The Invisible Hand: Big Business and Chicago School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, Dorothy

    1997-01-01

    Examines Chicago's governance reforms as one case of corporate influence on public school policy making. Discusses the role of local political institutions and corporate organizational resources. Corporate associations were involved in both policymaking and policy implementation. (SM)

  16. Whole House Mechanical Ventilation: A South Chicago Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-03

    This case study describes a neighborhood of efficient, healthy, sustainable, affordable homes in South Chicago, IL, that feature structural insulated panels (SIPs), condensing furnaces, sealed combustion water heaters, and efficient lights and appliances.

  17. Preliminary survey of biodiversity in New Chicago Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the late winter and early springs 1995, we conducted a preliminary survey of biodiversity in New Chicago Marsh (NCM), at the south end of San Francisco Bay,...

  18. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Sanitary and Ship Canal. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  19. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    .... 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  20. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ..., transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  1. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  2. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... general regulations in Sec. 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  3. Creating a marketplace for green roofs in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, the Chicago Department of Planning and Development has been encouraging city developers to consider installing green roofs on buildings in Chicago, with the belief that this practice results in mitigation of the urban heat island effect, cleaner runoff leaving green roofs, sound attenuation, aesthetic value, oxygen production, and mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, the benefits to developers, which include reduced stormwater runoff, extended roof life and energy savings, in total do not offset the first cost premium of a green roof. Despite this, and with no mandate requiring green roofs, the marketplace is growing. After seeing green roofs on a tour in Europe, the mayor of Chicago encouraged the first design and installation of a 20,300 square foot demonstration green roof in Chicago, and other city-sponsored pilot projects followed shortly after. Since then, the number of green roofs in Chicago has grown to over one million square feet. A map of Chicago showing locations of most of the projects was presented. It was suggested that lower prices for green roofs, higher energy costs and an inclination to invest in long-term strategies would accelerate the market. In an effort to engage the public in dialogue, the Department of Planning and Development held seminars to promote the benefits of green roofs . Participants had many questions about the applicability of green roofs to Chicago, expressing skepticism that Chicago's climate would provide the same benefits as in Europe. Other concerns were expressed regarding the devaluation of property values resulting from placing green roofs on buildings; doubts about roof leaks; maintenance practices; and, bugs and mold. Since the first cost premium of the system remains a question, most participants expressed interest in some kind of incentive program, but remained open-minded if benefits could be proved. 6 figs

  4. Improvements and applications at NIRS cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron has been working in routinely, and providing the stable beams for bio-medical studies and various kind of related experiments since 1975. The clinical trail of eye melanoma has been under continued. Recently two new beam lines were constructed in order to carry out the bio-physical study, and to produce the long-lived R.I.s for SPECT. Some progressive improvements, such as updating the magnetic-channel and development of a floating septum system, were performed for stable operation of the cyclotron. A brief review of the current status of the cyclotron and typical application of latest experiments in the various fields are described

  5. Computer modeling of a compact isochronous cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. L.

    2015-11-01

    The computer modeling methods of a compact isochronous cyclotron are described. The main stages of analysis of accelerator facilities systems are considered. The described methods are based on theoretical fundamentals of cyclotron physics and mention highlights of creation of the physical project of a compact cyclotron. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the beam dynamics, formation of a magnetic field, stability of the movement, and a realistic assessment of intensity of the generated bunch of particles. In the article, the stages of development of the accelerator computer model, analytical ways of assessment of the accelerator parameters, and the basic technique of the numerical analysis of dynamics of the particles are described.

  6. Cyclotron maser emission: Stars, planets, and laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of results by the group over the past decade on auroral kilometric radiation and similar cyclotron emissions from stars and planets. These emissions are often attributed to a horseshoe or crescent shaped momentum distribution of energetic electrons moving into the convergent magnetic field which exists around polar regions of dipole-type stars and planets. We have established a laboratory-based facility that has verified many of the details of our original theoretical description and agrees well with numerical simulations. The experiment has demonstrated that the horseshoe distribution does indeed produce cyclotron emission at a frequency just below the local cyclotron frequency, with polarization close to X-mode and propagating nearly perpendicularly to the beam motion. We discuss recent developments in the theory and simulation of the instability including addressing a radiation escape problem and the effect of competing instabilities, relating these to the laboratory, space, and astrophysical observations.

  7. Challenges for the ITER ion cyclotron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion cyclotron heating is one of the methods proposed for heating and for driving current in the ITER plasma. The ITER environment is significantly different from that of present day tokamak because of heating from neutrons and from the high radiated heat flux. In addition, the proposed 15 cm gap between the plasma separatrix and the outer wall (where the ion cyclotron antennas are located) necessitates running the antennas at relatively high values of voltage in order to couple the required power to the plasma. There are two main questions: (1) Can the ion cyclotron antennas deliver the required power to the plasma? (2) Can they survive in the ITER environment? Results presented in this paper indicate that the antennas can survive both normal operation and disruptions in ITER, and can deliver the power to the plasma

  8. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  9. Radiation exposure to workers at cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals quickly furnish the information doctors need to establish a precise diagnosis of the patient's condition, and therefore to prescribe the most effective therapy. In cancerology, F18-FDG, the most widely used PET imaging tracer, excels in the early detection of cancer tumors, even very tiny ones, which it locates and clearly distinguishes from healthy surrounding tissues. IPEN-CNEN/SP has two cyclotron accelerators used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The first is a CV-28 cyclotron, variable energy that came into operation in 1982, which was used to produce F18-FDG and Iodine 123 up to 1998. The second, a Cyclone 30 cyclotron, 30 MeV, commenced operation in 1998 for certification purpose, and due to increase demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil, started F18-FDG production in 1999. Cyclotron Laboratory will be a reference Research and Developing Center in our country and will help the Brazilian and Latin-American community. It is necessary to have an adequate database to allow regular follow up and analysis of the individual dose distributions for each group involved in the cyclotron activities. These databases are also important means to assess the effectiveness of efforts in order to maintain doses ALARA and reduce inequalities. The official individual occupational dosimetry is provided by certified Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry at IPEN-CNEN/SP. This paper describes the occupational doses distribution in Laboratory of Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP from January, 1998 to July, 2000 and propose improvements for the future. (author)

  10. Mass resolution of accelerated ions in LNR cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibiliti of separating in cyclotron accelerated ions with different mass-to-charge ratios is considered. The calculations and experiment have demonstrated that mass resolution of accelerated ions for the U-400 cyclotron is approximately 3600; for U-200 cyclotron, approximately 1500. Ion beams which have not been separated in the cyclotron may be separated during beam extraction by means of the charge exchange in thin targets

  11. Cyclotron wave adsorption in large aspect ratio elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse dielectric susceptibility elements are derived for radio frequency waves in a large aspect ratio toroidal plasma with elliptic magnetic surfaces by solving the Vlasov equation for untrapped, t-trapped and d-trapped particles. These dielectric characteristics are suitable for estimating the wave absorption by the fundamental cyclotron resonance damping in the frequency range of ion-cyclotron and electron cyclotron resonances.

  12. The Chicago Public Schools (CPS)/University of Chicago (UC) Internet Project (CUIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D.; Rebull, L. M.; Munoz-Franco, L.; Jay, M. J.; Burke, R. D.; Fenstermacher, K. D.; Lenz, D. D.; MacNaught, H.; Marks, M. D.; Murphy, J.; Thomas, C.; York, D. G.; Anderson, D.; Chisom, Y.; Dynis, R.; Letts, J.; Lewis, E.; Harris, E.; Segneri, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Chicago Public Schools (CPS)/University of Chicago (UC) Internet Project (CUIP) is a collaborative pilot project among the UC, CPS Central Administration, and 24 public schools in the Woodlawn, Hyde Park/ South Kenwood, and North Kenwood/Oakland neighborhoods. Our primary goal is connecting these schools to the Internet, emphasizing the continued support of the schools and their teachers after the computers and connections are in place. We work with principals, department heads, and individual teachers to create and nurture a self-sustaining computer culture that will both maintain the network systems and incorporate the technology into the curriculum. We also encourage the schools to take advantage of ther new connectivity by collaborating and sharing resources among themselves. Formal interactions are fostered with museums and research centers, locally and nationally. CUIP is committed to supporting these schools as they use the Internet to enhance student learning. CUIP's goals include: providing T-1 internet connectivity to 24 local schools, supporting the technology coordinator in each school in order to ensure continuous Internet connectivity, and developing effective technology plans, including technology upgrades; nurturing and supporting teachers interested in incorporating technology in their classroom; fostering an environment in which the students can acquire a wide range of comptuer skills appropriate to the current job market; and fostering similar community-based efforts, around Chicago and the nation. CUIP's milestones include: internet service connected to 12 schools; technology interns placed in some CUIP schools in collaboration with Governors State University; email provided to more than half of the 660 teachers in connected schools; and World Wide Web for Teachers, a summer class on curriculum uses of the Web, taught by CUIP staff to 23 of over 100 public school teacher applicants.

  13. Mass measurements with the GANIL cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An original method of mass measurements using the GANIL facility cyclotrons as an Accelerator-Mass spectrometer system is presented. The first test runs show that a precision of 3.10-6 can be achieved. Further improvement of this value can be obtained. Although some limitations apply to this technique, a broad spectrum of nuclei can be studied by this method

  14. A visual assistance environment for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists inexperienced operators has been developed. Cyclotron start-up operations require dozens of adjustable parameters to be finely tuned to maximize extracted beam current. The human interfaces of the system provide a visual environment designed to enhance beam parameter adjustments. First, the mental model of operators is analyzed. It is supposed to be composed of five partial mental models: beam behavior model, feasible setting regions model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter mutual relation model, and status map model. Next, based on these models, three visual interfaces are developed, i.e., (1) Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever the operators change the cyclotron parameters. (2) Feasible setting regions (FSR) of the parameters that satisfy the cyclotron's beam acceptance criteria are indicated. (3) Search traces, being a historical visual map of beam current values, are superimposed on the FSRs. Finally, to evaluate system effectiveness, the search time required to reach maximum beam current conditions was measured. In addition, system operability was evaluated using written questionnaires. Results of the experiment showed that the search time to reach specific beam conditions was reduced by approximately 65% using these interfaces. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system operability. (author)

  15. Passive cyclotron current drive for fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation of toroidal current using cyclotron radiation in a passive way is, together with the well known bootstrap current, an interesting method for stationary current drive in high-temperature fusion reactors. Here, instead of externally applied RF-waves, fish-scale like structures at the first wall help to create enough asymmetry in the self generated cyclotron radiation intensity to drive a current within the plasma. The problem of computing passive cyclotron current drive consists of actually two linked problems, which are the computation of the electron equilibrium under the presence of self-generated radiation, and the computation of the photon equilibrium in a bounded system with a distorted electron distribution. This system of integro-differential equations cannot be solved directly in an efficient way. Therefore a linearization procedure was developed to decouple both sets of equations, finally linked through a generalized local current drive efficiency. The problem of the exact accounting for the wall profile effects was reduced to the solution of a Fredholm-type integral equation of the 2nd-kind. Based on all this an extensive computer code was developed to compute the passively driven current as well as radiation losses, radiation transport and overall efficiencies. The results therefrom give an interesting and very detailed insight into the problems related to passive cyclotron current drive

  16. Development of the cyclotron radioisotope production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Chun, K.S.; Yang, S.D.; Lee, J.D.; Ahn, S.H.; Yun, Y.K.; Park, H.; Lee, J.S.; Chai, J.S.; Kim, U.S.; Hong, S.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Park, C.W.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. H

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute the advance of nuclear medicine and to the improvement of human health through the development of various accelerator radionuclides and mass production with automization of production. The results obtained from this study are following: 1) In order to introduce 30 MeV high current cyclotron, the specification of cyclotron has been made, the building site was selected and we drew the draw-up of cyclotron. The cyclotron installation contract was postponed until the financial resources could be secured. 2) For a development high purity 1-123 producing system, a Xe-124 target system, a temperature measurement system of the inner part of the target and a target window were fabricated. A Xe-124 gas target recovery system and a full production system of 1-123 was drew up. 3) For a development of a therapeutic nuclide At-211, a target for the production of At-211 via {sup 209}Bi(alpha, 2n) reaction was fabricated. Produced At-211 was separated by distillation method. 4) For development of beta-emitting nuclides, Ti-45, C-11, F{sub 2}-18, beam irradiation system suitable for each target were fabricated. 5) For automatic production of Ga-67, automated module and PLC program was made 6) For the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals, analytical method of thallium and copper by polarography was investigated and established.

  17. Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities and progress on construction of the new cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy-ion reactions, nuclear structure, nuclear theory, and atomic studies. Progress in instrumentation and systems development is discussed. Publications are listed

  18. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  19. Electron cyclotron heating and associated parallel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been experimentally observed that during the electron-cyclotron heating the electron longitudinal temperature drops as the perpendicular temperature increases. The experiment was carried in a linear mirror machine with a low density (1010 cm-3) weakly ionized (< 1.0 %) plasma. (Author)

  20. The irradiation facility at the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint; Hofstee, Mariet; Kiewiet, Harry; Beijers, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The KVI is conducting radiobiology research using protons up to 190 MeV from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron in collaboration with the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) since 1998. Using the same set-up, we have started irradiations for radiation hardness studies of detectors and compone

  1. Physics of Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sschoenherr, Gabriele; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Falkner, Sebastian; Dauser, Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kretschmar, Peter; Klochkov, Dmitry; Ferrigno, Carlo; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    Cyclotron resonant scattering features (short: cyclotron lines) are sensitive tracers of the physics of the accretion columns and mounds of X-ray pulsars. They form by interaction of X-ray photons with magnetically quantized electrons in the accreted plasma close to the neutron star. Such lines have been observed as absorption-like features for about 20 X-ray pulsars. Their energies provide a direct measure of the magnetic field strength in the line-forming region. By detailed modelling of the lines and of their parameter dependencies we can further decipher the physical conditions in the accretion column. For instance the fact that the complex scattering cross sections have a strong angle-dependence relates the phase-resolved cyclotron line shapes to parameters that constrain the systems’ still poorly understood geometry. Modelling the physics of cyclotron lines to a degree that allows for detailed and solid comparison to data therefore provides a unique access also to a better understanding of the overall picture of magnetically accreting neutron star systems.

  2. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [People`s Friendship Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.

    1994-12-31

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called {open_quotes}greenfields,{close_quotes} fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of `sustainable development.` This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city.

  4. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called open-quotes greenfields,close quotes fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of 'sustainable development.' This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city

  5. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  6. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  7. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  8. The Chicago perspective on design for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the efforts made by the city of Chicago to promote total access and full participation for people with disabilities. The process that the Chicago Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities (MOPD) undertook to ensure that other city departments and sister agencies incorporated accessible programs and physical accessibility considerations into their own buildings, programs, and processes is described. Some of the major accomplishments made by the department include the addition of an accessibility review added to the building permit process and a rewrite of the Chicago Building Code that requires more accessibility features in single-family homes and smaller apartment buildings. Examples are given of how thinking beyond the minimum accessibility requirements can better meet the needs of people with a disability. PMID:18430670

  9. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that 15O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and 18F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies

  10. Status report of Variable Energy Cyclotron at Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Variable Energy Cyclotron at Kolkata also known as K-130 cyclotron was the first large circular accelerator indigenously developed and commissioned in 1977. Up to middle of nineties, cyclotron was extensively utilized for doing research in nuclear physics, radiochemistry, radiation damage studies and other related areas using an internal hot cathode PIG ion source. The projectiles were alpha, proton and deuteron. Then in late nineties, the cyclotron started accelerating high charge state light heavy ions using an indigenously developed 6.4 GHz ECR ion source. Later on another ECR ion source of 14.4 GHz was coupled to it. Since ECR ion sources were located outside the cyclotron, beam was injected into the cyclotron through an axial injection line. The K-130 cyclotron after accelerating high charge state light heavy ions for about 10 years was shut down in early 2007 for large scale changes of cyclotron sub-systems under 'Modernization of VEC Technical Systems' program. This is because most of the cyclotron sub-systems were prone to failure frequently as these systems were very old and their maintenance was also getting difficult as spares were not readily available. These problems were hampering smooth cyclotron operation and experiments as well

  11. Achievement and Attainment in Chicago Charter Schools: A Summary. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Kevin; Gill, Brian; Zimmer, Ron; Sass, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Chicago's "multi-grade" charter high schools (those that include middle school grades) appear to be increasing students' rates of graduation and college entry. The overall performance of Chicago's charter schools in raising student test scores is approximately on par with that of traditional public schools in Chicago. Charter schools in Chicago…

  12. Research activities by INS cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities made by the cyclotron facility and the related apparatuses at Institute for Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo, have been reviewed in terms of the associated scientific publications. This publication list, which is to be read as a continuation of INS-Rep.-608 (October, 1986), includes experimental works on low-energy nuclear physics, accelerator technology, instrumental developments, radiation physics and other applications in interdisciplinary fields. The publications are classified into the following four categories. (A) : Internal reports published in INS. (B) : Publications in international scientific journals on experimental research works done by the cyclotron facility and the related apparatuses at INS. Those made by outside users are also included. (C) : Publications in international scientific journals on experimental low-energy nuclear physics, which have been done by the staff of INS Nuclear Physics Division using facilities outside INS. (D) : Contributions to international conferences. (author)

  13. Superconducting cyclotron: neutron source for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron source for medical therapy purposes is described. The cyclotron consists of: an iron metal housing acting as a magnetic yoke, magnetic shield, radiation shield, and vacuum vessel; a pair of superconducting coils mounted in a cavity in the housing, the coils being cooled to superconducting temperatures; an ion orbiting region defined by pairs of sectoral-shaped rf electrode structures focusing flutter poles mounted in the intense magnetic field between coils; a source of ions; an ion target to produce neutrons; a channel formed in the iron housing from the target to the exterior for passage of the beam of neutrons formed at the target, the channel acting as a beam collimator; and a mounting structure for movably mounting the cyclotron and target such that the neutron beam produced can be employed at more than one position

  14. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hillpoles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction. 6 figures

  15. Safety of material handling for superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of the art of material handling for superconducting cyclotron project has been ensured through advance safety analysis and safety planning for selection and procurement of proper material handling equipment at right time and right place to minimized time, cost over run and man-day loss. Mechanization of material handling is the most important aspect of safety. Typical problems of superconducting cyclotron material handling was solved by indigenous design, fabrication and utilization of a unique material handling equipment for 180 deg rotation of a 28 tons single weight complicated upper pole-cap assembly with safety and ease. Material handling is an art and has been implemented through the science of safe movement, handling during manufacturing and assembly and installation of SCC project. (author)

  16. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction

  17. Thermal cyclotron radiation from solar active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various frequency spectra with the fine structure resulting from the thermal cyclotron radio emission from solar active regions are discussed. The conditions in sources (distribution of magnetic field and kinetic temperature over the height) are put forward which provide the frequency spectrum as a set of cyclotron lines and high frequency cut-offs. For each kind of distribution the frequency spectrum and polarization are of peculiar character. This permits one to find the conditions in the source through the properties of the observed microwave solar radio emission. To obtain reliable data on the fine structure and judge about conditions in the sources it is necessary to study microwave solar radio emission using the swept-frequency or multi-channel receivers combined with high directional antennae. (Auth.)

  18. An ionic cyclotron resonance isotopic separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopes are separated using ion cyclotron resonance. The process takes place under vacuum in a vertical cylindrical vessel, with means for creating a plasma containing ions of the isotope to be separated. An electrical field is generated, perpendicular to a vertical magnetic field and oscillating at a frequency near to the cyclotron frequency of the isotope in question. Mixtures enriched and depleted in the isotopes in question are collected separately in the upper part of the vessel. The plasma generator includes a container for the element for treatment made of electro-conducting material which does not melt at operating temperature, open at the top. During operation part of the container is held at a high enough temperature to provoke evaporation or sublimation of the element being treated, while its upper part stays cooler. An ionizer is situated above the container. Isotopes of metals such as zinc, cadmium, tin, calcium and particularly gadolinium can be separated. 1 fig

  19. A compact H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of a compact, high intensity H- cyclotron for isotope production exploiting the recently developed TRIUMF high brightness multicusp volume H- ion source. A 5 mA version of this H- source currently under development, makes possible accelerated beam intensities of up to 500 μA. The cyclotron has a four sector, radial ridge design, with two 45 degrees dees in opposite valleys. Beam extraction is by stripping to H+ in thin graphite foils. Two foil strippers permit the simultaneous extraction of two beams. By varying the radial position of the stripper the energy of the extracted beams can be varied between 15 MeV and 30 MeV

  20. Theory of ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the use of magnetoacoustic waves at the ion cyclotron frequency is not an efficient method to heat the plasmas of small size tokamaks. On the contrary the method is very promizing for present day or next generation tokamaks, at least from a theoretical point of view. The power absorbed by the plasma can exceed ohmic losses in the walls and in the coupling structures by an order of magnitude or more

  1. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  2. DAISY - the Oslo Cyclotron data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new CACTUS multidetector system for the Oslo Cyclotron consists of 8 particle telescopes, 28 NAI detectors and 2 Ge detectors. Each detector gives rise to one energy parameter and one time parameter. Thus, a total of 80 parameters are present. The counting rate is 100 kByte/s for the highest beam intensities. A new data acquisition system, DAISY, satisfying these demands has been designed. The present report is intended as a complete technical manual for the new system. 24 refs

  3. Properties of segmented ion cyclotron antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible issue for Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive systems in next step fusion devices is related to the high electric field at which these systems are planned to operate, which may limit the power transfer efficiency to the plasma core. This paper addresses the problem of maintaining a high power handling in an IC launcher at high power density, with some suggestion for a solution. (authors)

  4. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime

  5. Development of Cyclotron Radionuclides for Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity it was shown that radionuclides can be used both for diagnostic and therapeutic studies, depending on the characteristic radiations emitted by them. By 1960’s the radionuclide production technology using nuclear reactors was well established. In early 1970’s a renaissance of the cyclotrons occurred because many of the neutron deficient radionuclides could only be produced using irradiations with charged particles, like protons, deuterons, α-particles,...

  6. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  7. Laboratory study of auroral cyclotron emission processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Electrons encounter an increasing magnetic field and increase in pitch angle as they descend towards the auroral ionosphere, according to the conservation of the magnetic moment. This process results in a horseshoe shaped distribution function in electron velocity space which has been observed by satellites [1]. Research has shown this distribution to be unstable to a cyclotron maser instability [2] and the emitted Auroral Kilometric Radiation is observed to be polarised in the extraordinary mode. Experimental results are presented based on an electron beam of energy 75keV having a cyclotron frequency of 4.45GHz, compressed using magnet coils to mimic the naturally occurring phenomenon. The emitted radiation spectrum was observed to be close to the cyclotron frequency. Electron transport measurements confirmed that the horseshoe distribution function was obtained. Measurements of the antenna pattern radiated from the output window demonstrated the radiation to be polarised and propagating perpendicular to the static magnetic field. The radiation generation efficiency was estimated to be 2% in close agreement to the numerical predictions of the 2D PiC code KARAT. The efficiency was also comparable with estimates of the astrophysical phenomenon. [1] R. J. Strangeway et al, Geophys. Rev. Lett., 25, 1998, pp. 2065-2068 [2] I Vorgul et al, Physics of Plasmas, 12, 2005, pp. 1-8

  8. TRIUMF high intensity cyclotron development for ISAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 15 years the 500 MeV H- cyclotron has been extracting routinely a total current of up to 220 μA protons through three lines at different energies. For ISAC a new 500 MeV beamline which was recently commissioned to 100 μA is now being operated up to 70 μA. Work to increase the total cyclotron extracted current to 300 μA was approved within the 2000-2005 plan. 300 μA peak was successfully obtained at 95% duty cycle, limited only by the maximum beam current presently accepted by the beamlines. Measurements also confirmed the feasibility of 400 μA total cw extracted beam, provided total beam dump capacity be increased. Total 400 μA peak at 25% duty cycle was achieved with good transmission and reasonable percentage losses. Because of these results a new high intensity beam line with a 200 μA beam dump and an additional RIB target ion-source was included in the next 2005-2010 plan submission. The new station will allow studies of target efficiency. Delivery of a second simultaneous RIB beam for experiments is also being considered. The paper will review recent results, and cyclotron refurbishing and primary beamline upgrade plans. (author)

  9. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  10. Nuclear physics with superconducting cyclotron at Kolkata: Scopes and possibilities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sailajananda Bhattacharya

    2010-08-01

    The K500 superconducting cyclotron at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India is getting ready to deliver its first accelerated ion beam for experiment. At the same time, the nuclear physics programme and related experimental facility development activities are taking shape. A general review of the nuclear physics research opportunities with the superconducting cyclotron and the present status of the development of different detector arrays and other experimental facilities will be presented.

  11. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ..., mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on...

  12. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Sec. 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced... including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on...

  13. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    .... 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on...

  14. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  15. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  16. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic system measures the electron cyclotron emission from optically thick plasma that is limited to the blackbody radiation limit of the plasma at the cyclotron resonance location. This provides an electron temperature profile for plasmas with spatially varying magnetic fields, such as a tokamak. The second harmonic x-mode electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at frequency range 98-126 GHz is normally used in HT-7 tokamak to measure electron temperature, which is the only ECE detectable mode with optical depth >1. The theoretical review of ECE emission and its radiometry is briefly summarized. (authors)

  17. The Michigan State University Cyclotron Laboratory: Its Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sam M.

    2016-01-01

    The Michigan State University Cyclotron Laboratory was founded in 1958 and over the years grew in stature, becoming the highest-ranked university-based program in nuclear science. Its K50 cyclotron had unmatched capability as a light-ion accelerator and helped to define what a modern cyclotron could do to advance our understanding of nuclei. This paper describes the first twenty years of the Cyclotron Laboratory's evolution and gives some insight into the cultural characteristics of the laboratory, and of its early members, that led it to thrive.

  18. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinec, Emil J. [University of Chicago

    2013-06-27

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  19. Making Health Easier: Healthy Schools in Chicago, IL PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-21

    To help Chicago schools increase access to healthy food, Health Educator April Lillstrom utilized community partnerships to provide school gardens, salad bars, and nutrition education to students.  Created: 5/21/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/21/2013.

  20. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  1. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief discussions on theoretical High Energy Physics research done by the researchers at University of Chicago. Some topics covered are: lepton production; kaon decay; Higgs boson production; electric dipole moment of the neutron; string models; supersymmetry; and cosmic ray shower

  2. School Violent Crime and Academic Achievement in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many underperforming schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However,…

  3. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  4. Chicago EARLY Program Follow-Up: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Carole L.; And Others

    Since 1975, the Chicago public schools have been conducting ongoing research and development related to the identification and remediation of prekindergarten children with potential learning problems. The present study describes initial efforts toward the creation of a longitudinal data base aimed at determining (1) prekindergarten-age…

  5. Cyclotron based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic studies and activation analysis, superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. Publications are listed

  6. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.;

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...... control of plasma instabilities this line-of-sight ECE diagnostic removes the need to localize the instabilities in absolute coordinates. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  7. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) for cyclotrons and radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources are discussed. These improvements include improvements in the charge-state distribution to increase the fraction of high charge-state current, improvement in production of beams of metallic ions, and reduction of construction cost and energy consumption for such sources

  8. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  9. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Kogi, Y; Kawahata, K; Nagayama, Y; Mase, A; Kwon, M

    2010-10-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration. PMID:21033954

  10. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2009-08-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008.

  11. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008. (magnetically confined plasma)

  12. Calibration source for electron cyclotron emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature radiation source has been developed for the absolute calibration of diagnostic instruments for measuring electron cyclotron emission from high temperature plasmas. The source has a radiation area of φ150 mm and can be heated up to 500degC. The measured emissivity of the source is close to unity in the wavelength region between 0.5 and 5 mm. The grating polychromator has been calibrated using the radiation source developed. The obtained temperatures agree with those by the pulse height analysis of soft X-rays and Thomson scattering measurement within 10%. (author)

  13. Electron cyclotron emission imaging in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsat, Tobin; Domier, Calvin W.; Kong, Xiangyu; Liang, Tianran; Luhmann, Jr.; Neville C.; Tobias, Benjamin J.; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Yun, Gunsu; Classen, Ivo. G. J.; Donne, Anthony J. H.

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the recent history and latest developments of the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic technique, wherein electron temperature is measured in magnetically confined plasmas with two-dimensional spatial resolution. The key enabling technologies for this technique are the large-aperture optical systems and the linear detector arrays sensitive to millimeter-wavelength radiation. We present the status and recent progress on existing instruments as well as new systems under development for future experiments. We also discuss data analysis techniques relevant to plasma imaging diagnostics and present recent temperature fluctuation results from the tokamak experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR).

  14. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  15. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.; Domier, C.W.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Tobias, B.; Shen, Z.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H.; Classen, I.G.J.; van de Pol, M.J.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. Jaspers,

    2008-01-01

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of T-e profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities

  16. Development of visual beam adjustment method for cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a computer-based visual assistance system for JAERI AVF cyclotron operation. This system provides a CRT display about the cyclotron beam trajectories, feasible setting regions (FSRs), and search traces designed to improve beam parameter adjustment. As a result of the test in actual operation, it was realized that simulated beam trajectories and FSRs nearly agree with actual beam conditions. (author)

  17. Beam extraction system in AIC-144 automatic isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project of beam extraction system in Cracow AIC-144 cyclotron is described. The problems of increase of beam emittance, and change of the magnetic field in the cyclotron chamber are discussed. Expected extraction coefficient of the beam is about 0.7. (S.B.)

  18. New superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since one and a half decades ACCEL is investing in development and engineering of state of the art particle-therapy systems. A new medical superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron with special focus on the present and future beam requirements of fast scanning treatment systems has been designed. The first new ACCEL medical proton cyclotron is under commissioning at PSI for their PROSCAN proton therapy facility having undergone successful factory tests especially of the closed loop cryomagnetic system. The second cyclotron is part of ACCEL's integrated proton therapy system for Europe's first clinical center, RPTC in Munich. The cyclotron, the energy selection system, the beamline as well as the four gantries and patient positioners have been installed. The scanning system and major parts of the control software have already been tested. We will report on the concept of ACCEL's superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems and the current status of the commissioning work at PSI and RPTC

  19. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  20. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  1. Operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975 is briefly surveyed. The main reasons for a very short period for maintenance, repair and installation, and several additional efforts to improve the reliability of the accelerator installation, are discussed. The status and the results of several technical developments for the cyclotron are described: 1) the axial injection system; 2) computer aided cyclotron operation; 3) ion source development; 4) capacitive current measurement at the external beam; 5) new correction coils for the cyclotron; 6) improvement of the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. As there is an increasing interest in using this type of accelerator for research in fields other than nuclear physics, it was felt appropriate to present short surveys on investigations at our cyclotron in 1975 in the fields of: 1) solid state physics; 2) engineering; 3) materials research; 4) nuclear medicine; 5) nuclear chemistry. (orig.)

  2. Visual assistance system for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists operators has been developed. It is the operation assistance system depending on visual sense to indicate beam parameters to operators. First, the mental model of operators at the time of beam adjustment was analyzed, and it was presumed to be composed of five partial mental models, that is, beam behavior model, feasible setting region model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter interrelation model and status map model. Next, three visual interfaces were developed. Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever operators change parameters. Feasible setting regions (FSR) for parameters that satisfy the beam acceptance criteria of a cyclotron are indicated. The distribution of beam current values which are the quantity for evaluating adjustment is indicated as search history. Finally, for evaluating the system effectiveness, the search time required to reach the optimum conditions was measured. In addition, the system usability was evaluated by written questionnaires. The result of experiment showed the reduction of search time by about 65%. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system usability. (K.I.)

  3. Coherent cyclotron motion beyond Kohn's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, T.; Bayer, A.; Baierl, S.; Hohenleutner, M.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Lange, C.; Huber, R.; Mootz, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.

    2016-02-01

    In solids, the high density of charged particles makes many-body interactions a pervasive principle governing optics and electronics. However, Walter Kohn found in 1961 that the cyclotron resonance of Landau-quantized electrons is independent of the seemingly inescapable Coulomb interaction between electrons. Although this surprising theorem has been exploited in sophisticated quantum phenomena, such as ultrastrong light-matter coupling, superradiance and coherent control, the complete absence of nonlinearities excludes many intriguing possibilities, such as quantum-logic protocols. Here, we use intense terahertz pulses to drive the cyclotron response of a two-dimensional electron gas beyond the protective limits of Kohn's theorem. Anharmonic Landau ladder climbing and distinct terahertz four- and six-wave mixing signatures occur, which our theory links to dynamic Coulomb effects between electrons and the positively charged ion background. This new context for Kohn's theorem unveils previously inaccessible internal degrees of freedom of Landau electrons, opening up new realms of ultrafast quantum control for electrons.

  4. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of Physics of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28Mg, 43K, or 72Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems. (orig.)

  5. Electron cyclotron emission from tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emitted electron radiation can be used as a diagnostic signal to measure the electron temperature of a thermonuclear plasma. This type of diagnostics is well established in tokamak physics. In ch. 2 of this thesis the development, calibration and special design features are treated of a six-channel prototype of a twelve-channel grating spectrometer which is built for JET at Culham for electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements. In order to test this prototype measurements have been performed with the T-10 tokamak at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. With this prototype nearly half of the temperature profile of the T-10 could be measured. Detailed observations of sawteeth instabilities have been performed. Plasma heating by electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments was studied. A detailed description of these measurements and results is given in ch. 3. Often ECE spectra from tokamaks showed non-thermal features. In order to interprete them a computer code Notec has been developed. This code that calculates the ECE radiation emerging from the plasma for a 3-D configuration, is described in ch. 4. Some preliminary results and applications are presented. (Auth.)

  6. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  7. Status of the NSCL Cyclotron Gas Stopper

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Brodeur, M; Morrissey, D J; Schwarz, S

    2016-01-01

    A gas-filled reverse cyclotron for the thermalisation of energetic beams is under construction at NSCL/MSU. Rare isotopes produced via projectile fragmentation after in-flight separation will be injected into the device and converted into low-energy beams through buffer gas interactions as they spiral towards the centre of the device. The extracted thermal beams will be used for low energy experiments such as precision mass measurements with traps or laser spectroscopy, and further transport for reacceleration. Detailed calculations have been performed to optimize the magnetic field design as well as the transport and stopping of ions inside the gas. An RF carpet will be used to transport the thermal ions to the axial extraction point. The calculations indicate that the cyclotron gas stopper will be much more efficient for the thermalisation of light and medium mass ions compared to linear gas cells. In this contribution we will discuss simulations of the overall performance and acceptance of machine, the bea...

  8. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  9. Design and operation of the Chicago air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large-area surface scintillator array designed to study PeV sources of cosmic rays. The complete detector will consist of 1089 detector stations, distributed on a square 15 m grid. We have operated an array of 49 stations for much of the 1989 calendar year, an array of 529 stations for much of 1990, and the balance of the 1089 stations will be operating in early 1991. This surface array, together with the University of Michigan underground muon detectors (MIA), and the University of Utah atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes and Fly's Eye air fluorescence detector, constitute a uniquely powerful instrument, dubbed the Utah Michigan Chicago (UMC) experiment, for the study of PeV sources. We report here the performance and current status of these detectors

  10. vPlants: a Virtual Herbarium of the Chicago Region

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, Matthew; Dunn, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Three major botanical institutions, the Morton Arboretum, Field Museum of Natural History, and Chicago Botanic Garden, are developing an online searchable herbarium (vPlants, or "virtual plants") that will provide herbarium specimen data and digital images of specimens and labels to anyone with Internet access. This Web-based system will include a "portal," housed at the Morton Arboretum, and three separate databases housed at and maintained by each participating institution. This virtual her...

  11. Enno Toomsalu 30 aastat Chicago Eesti Maja president / Endel Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Endel

    2006-01-01

    1976. aastast Eesti Maja juhtinud Enno on kujundanud selle "väikeseks Eestiks", kus on korraldatud palju kultuuriüritusi. 19. märtsi koosolekul andis ta ameti nooremale, samas valiti ta Chicago Eesti Maja auliikmeks. Akadeemiliselt kuulub ta Korp! Frat. Estica´sse, teda on autasustatud korporatsiooni Kuldmärgiga teenete eest eestlusele ja Valgetähe 4. järgu ordeniga

  12. Indexes a chapter from the Chicago Manual of Style

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    For nearly one hundred years, The Chicago Manual of Style has been the authoritative reference for writers, editors, and publishers. Now in its fifteenth edition, the Manual has been thoroughly revised and updated. The chapter on indexing presented here has been reorganized, streamlined, and revised for the electronic age. It provides examples and recommendations on style and method for professionals, authors, and others who prepare indexes for published works.

  13. United Airlines Launches New Daily Nonstop Shanghai-Chicago Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ United Airlines, the leading carrier between the U.S. And China, announced on November 1 the launch of its new Shanghai to Chicago nonstop flight. The flight took off from Shanghai's Pudong International Airport at 7:10pm, opening a new air service route between two of the world's greatest cities, which delivers greater convenience and travel options to and from China throughout the U.S. East Coast and Midwest.

  14. Concurso Network Reset: rethinking the Chicago Emerald Necklace

    OpenAIRE

    Torrecillas-Molina, Carmen; Cabrera-Manzano, David; Mart??nez-Hidalgo, Celia; Huertas-Fern??ndez, Miguel; Montalb??n-Navas, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Esta publicaci??n presenta la propuesta para el concurso???Network Reset: Rethinking the Chicago Emerald Necklace??? NUESTRA VISI??N Nuestra visi??n es crear una infraestructura maravillosa, vibrante y sociales a lo largo de la cadena con miles de lugares diferentes e intensos. El proyecto desarrolla una serie de intervenciones a lo largo del sistema de parques, especialmente en dos de norte a sur tiras interiores, dispositivos y eventos arquitect??nicos que fomenten nuevas conexion...

  15. ADCP measurements of gravity currents in the Chicago River, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.M.; Oberg, K.; Garcia, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    A unique set of observations of stratified flow phenomena in the Chicago River was made using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) during the period November 20, 2003 to February 1, 2004. Water density differences between the Chicago River and its North Branch (NB) seem to be responsible for the development of gravity currents. With the objective of characterizing the occurrence, frequency, and evolution of such currents, the ADCP was configured to continuously collect high-resolution water velocity and echo intensity profiles in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive. During the observation period, 28 gravity current events were identified, lasting a total of 77% of the time. Sixteen of these events were generated by underflows from the NB and 12 of these events were generated by overflows from the NB. On average, the duration of the underflow and overflow events was 52.3 and 42.1 h, respectively. A detailed analysis of one underflow event, which started on January 7, 2004, and lasted about 65h, was performed. This is the first time that ADCP technology has been used to continuously monitor gravity currents in a river. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  16. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  17. Anni di formazione nella Chicago d'un tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman P. Minsky

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolo originariamente pubblicato in Moneta e Credito, vol. 39, n. 153, marzo 1982, pp. 3-14.Tra il 1937 e il 1942 l’Università di Chicago era un ottimo posto dove cominciare a diventare un economista. Gli economisti dell’Università coprivano un ampio spettro di pensiero; non c’era nessuna scuola di Chicago predominante. L’accento sul rigore intellettuale e sulla serietà era unito a una definizione ampia della materia di studio. Tra i più importanti docenti solo Lange, e forse Douglas, avevano simpatia per le idee di Keynes; ciò però era forse dovuto alla precedente accettazione, da parte degli altri docenti, della necessità di una politica fiscale fortemente espansiva durante la depressione. Avendo raggiunto conclusioni “keynesiane” sulla politica economica semplicemente osservando l’economia, gli economisti ortodossi di Chicago non sentivano la necessità di rivoluzionare la teoria economica.  JEL Codes: B31Keywords: Hyman Minsky, biography, retrospective

  18. Getting to the CORE of the Chicago Teachers’ Union Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brogan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a comparative study of urban change and rank-and-file teacher rebellion in New York City and Chicago, to explore the contemporary dynamics of what Jamie Peck (2013 calls “austerity urbanism” and its relationship to a rebirth of a social justice, grassroots teacher unionism in US urban centres. Tracing the trajectories of one group of rank-and-file teacher dissidents in Chicago, it argues that municipal unions are uniquely situated to lead the fight against austerity urbanism and the crisis tendencies of contemporary capitalism. To do this, however, trade unions will need to be reinvented and a different form of working class politic forged, grounded both in and outside of the trade union movement. Only then may we see organized labour in North America contribute to a movement for radical and systemic change, which is key to building a more socially just urbanism and society more broadly. The case of the Chicago teachers is highly instructive for activists, both inside and outside of the North American labour movement.

  19. Lessons Learned from Chicago Wilderness—Implementing and Sustaining Conservation Management in an Urban Setting

    OpenAIRE

    David H Wise; Westphal, Lynne M; Cristy Watkins; Lauren Umek; Christopher Mulvaney; Kristen Ross; Liam Heneghan

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the factors that shaped the biodiversity of Chicago and its hinterland and point out the conservation significance of these ecological systems, addressing why conservation of Chicago’s biodiversity has importance locally and beyond. We highlight Chicago Wilderness (CW), a regional biodiversity conservation alliance committed to protecting nature and enriching the lives of the region’s residents. Chicago Wilderness, with over 250 institutional members, has for over a decade coordi...

  20. Harmonics of cyclotron and cyclotron-phonon resonances in semiconductors with superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The harmonics of cyclotron and cyclotron-phonon resonances (CR and CPR, respectively) in semiconductors with a superlattice (SL) in the presence of strong magnetic field, H, arranged, parallel to SL axis, are studied based on quantum kinetic equation. The peculiarities of CR and CPR reveal themselves most explicitly with electromagnetic wave E(t) polarized transversely to H. This leads to sudden changes in the dependence of the absorption coefficient against incident light frequency. These sudden changes are shifted relative to the peaks of respective resonances by a miniband-width. At E(t) parallel H the sudden changes are absent and maxima of CR and CPR are defined less explicitly. In SL the maxima of CR and CPR as well as the sudden changes can manifest themselves in a rather weak magnetic field, while the respective quantum oscillations in conventional semiconductors are not revealed. (author)

  1. Construction and commissioning of K110 AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TIARA facilities (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application: TIARA) was constructed at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (presently, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute) under the 6-year program from 1988 in order to promote effective use of ion beams. The first phase of the construction including a K110 AVF cyclotron and a 3 MV tandem accelerator was complete in 1991, and the second phase including a 3 MV single-ended accelerator and 400 kV implanter in 1993. Large AVF cyclotrons have been used mostly for fundamental nuclear physics and medical applications of radiation therapy and radioisotope production so far. The JAEA K110 AVF cyclotron is the first one dedicated to R and D in materials science and other irradiation purpose. This cyclotron facility consists of three external ion sources, an injection line, a K110 AVF cyclotron, eight main beam transport lines, and a control system. The first beam, 50 MeV 4He2+, was extracted from the cyclotron in March 1991. This report describes an outline of the K110 AVF cyclotron system and results of performance tests. (author)

  2. Survey on radionuclide producing using cyclotron method in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research discuss about basic design and systems of medical cyclotron that Malaysia currently have, its applications in radionuclide production and upcoming technologies of cyclotron. Surveys have been carried out on cyclotron facilities at Hospital Putrajaya and Wijaya International Medical Center, WIMC as well as reactor facility at Malaysia Nuclear Agency. The sources in this research also involves on-line and library searches. Information obtained are recorded, categorized, synthesized and discussed. systems of cyclotron of Hospital Putrajaya are further discussed in details. Based from the surveys carried out, it is found out that cyclotron facilities both in Hospital Putrajaya and WIMC only produce (18F)FDG with radioactivity of 18F produced in 2007 are 16479 mCi and 92546 mCi respectively. Survey also revealed that radioisotope production at Nuclear Malaysia has had its operation been ceased. A new radiopharmaceutical, namely CHOL is suggested to be synthesized by both facilities as a new PET tracer. Latest developments concerning technologies of cyclotron as well as other accelerators such as laser for future medical accelerator, prospect of boron neutron capture and the potential of hadron therapy in Malaysia are discussed here. Radioisotope production in Malaysia is expected to keep booming in future due to increase in usage of PET techniques and the construction of more compact, easy to handle and less costly cyclotrons. (author)

  3. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical aspects of development and production of cyclotron-made radiopharmaceuticals (excluding PET) are discussed. In this field, nuclear chemistry and pharmacy are in a close contact; therefore, requirements of both should be taken into account. The principles of cyclotron targetry, separation/recovery of materials and synthesis of the active substances are given, as well as issues connected with formulation pharmaceutical forms of radioactive medical products. As the radiopharmaceuticals should fulfil the requirements for in vivo preparations, there exist a variety of demands pertaining to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), which is also briefly discussed. A typical production chain is presented involving the treatment of irradiated cyclotron target, choosing and validation of method for pharmacon synthesis, selection or development of necessary analytical procedures, preparing active substance according pharmaceutical standards, development of dosage form, adoption of final technology procedure and opening the clinical trial. Practical examples of real technologies based on cyclotron-made radionuclides (81Rb, 123I, 68Ge, 211At) are given. Special attention is devoted to the technology of enriched cyclotron targets. Frequently used medicinal products employing some cyclotron-produced active substances are characterised (Rb/Kr or Ge/Ga generators, 123I-labelled MIBG, OIH, MAB's and some others). The cyclotron produced radioactive implants for transluminal coronary angioplasty (radioactive stent) are introduced as an example of a medical device developed for therapeutic application. (author)

  4. Utilization of cyclotron for the production of radionuclides for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various types of cyclotrons (medical cyclotrons, medium energy cyclotrons, high energy cyclotrons, proton linear accelerators) used for the production of radionucleides are reviewed. The production method of five of the most important, together with their medical use are described: iodine-123, rubidium-81, krypton-81m, thalllium-201, indium-111 and gallium-67

  5. Electron tube with transverse cyclotron interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chodorow, M.

    1985-04-23

    An electron-beam tube for generating high microwave power at high frequencies comprises a fast-wave circuit such as a hollow waveguide. The circuit wave has a component of electric field perpendicular to its propagation axis. This field interacts with motions of the electrons transverse to the axis, in particular cyclotron rotation in an axial magnetic field. The above features are common to the well-known ''gyrotrons''. In the inventive tube the fast-wave circuit has means for locking a linearly polarized transverse-electric mode to the orientation of a circuit member such as the ridge in a ridged waveguide. The member (ridge) rotates spirally with distance along the guide. The added periodicity permits interaction with a space harmonic of the circuit wave. The -1 harmonic has a dispersion characteristic which provides beam-wave interaction over a wider frequency range than is possible in prior-art tubes of the gyrotron type.

  6. Electron tube with transverse cyclotron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron-beam tube for generating high microwave power at high frequencies comprises a fast-wave circuit such as a hollow waveguide. The circuit wave has a component of electric field perpendicular to its propagation axis. This field interacts with motions of the electrons transverse to the axis, in particular cyclotron rotation in an axial magnetic field. The above features are common to the well-known ''gyrotrons''. In the inventive tube the fast-wave circuit has means for locking a linearly polarized transverse-electric mode to the orientation of a circuit member such as the ridge in a ridged waveguide. The member (ridge) rotates spirally with distance along the guide. The added periodicity permits interaction with a space harmonic of the circuit wave. The -1 harmonic has a dispersion characteristic which provides beam-wave interaction over a wider frequency range than is possible in prior-art tubes of the gyrotron type

  7. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources

  9. Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. Y.; Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Omidi, N.

    2016-02-01

    The ion cyclotron waves (ICWs) refer to electromagnetic transverse waves with nearly field-aligned propagation, circular polarization, and frequencies near the proton gyro-frequency. This chapter presents the ICW studies observed in the solar wind over a wide range of heliocentric distances, at all solar longitudes, and at locations far from planets or comets. To better understand the wave source region, case studies have been performed on a special group of ICW storm events, in which the left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) waves were observed simultaneously in the spacecraft frame. The study in the chapter assumes the waves are generated through one possible mechanism (i.e., the temperature anisotropy instability). The variations of the wave properties with heliocentric distances may also provide information on the possible wave generation sources and the effects of the wave to the solar wind plasma.

  10. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system which can provide no less than 10 MW radio frequency (RF) heating power (frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) is being set up for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) in the institute of plasma physics. System includes High-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, liquid phase shifter and resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. Now one ICRH system unit whose ultimate output is 2.5 MW has been set up and employed for RF heating experiment and maximum of the injected RF power reached to 200 kW in 2008 EAST tokamak experiment. The results of ICRH heating are satisfying. (author)

  11. Time-resolved ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion cyclotron resonance (i.c.r.) is a technique for the study of ion-molecule reactions in the collisional range from thermal to several electron volts. The study of these reactions at low energy has been given impetus by the discovery of their importance in the ionosphere and in interstellar space. This communication identifies some possible weaknesses inherent in current i.c.r. work and suggests an improved technique with which it is possible to determine absolute rate constants more reliably. As an illustration of the technique a measurement of the rate constant for the reaction CH4+ + CH4 → CH5+ + CH3 is presented. This value is k = 1.21 + - 0.09 x 10-15 m3 s-1. A new i.c.r. cell design is discussed with which it is hoped to provide further improvement in reliability by the production of a homogeneous radiofrequency field within a true quadrupole trap. (author)

  12. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bora; Sunil Kumar; Raj Singh; S V Kulkarni; A Mukherjee; J P Singh; Raguraj Singh; S Dani; A Patel; Sai Kumar; V George; Y S S Srinivas; P Khilar; M Kushwah; P Shah; H M Jadav; Rajnish Kumar; S Gangopadhyay; H Machhar; B Kadia; K Parmar; A Bhardwaj; Suresh Adav; D Rathi; D S Bhattacharya

    2005-02-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system has been designed, fabricated indigenously and commissioned on Tokamak Aditya. The system has been commissioned to operate between 20·0 and 47·0 MHz at a maximum power of 200 kW continuous wave (CW). Duration of 500 ms is sufficient for operation on Aditya, however, the same system feeds the final stage of the 1·5 MW ICRH system being prepared for the steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) for a duration of 1000 s. Radio frequency (RF) power (225 kW) has been generated and successfully tested on a dummy load for 100s at 30·0 MHz. Lower powers have been coupled to Aditya in a breakdown experiment. We describe the system in detail in this work.

  13. Ionospheric modification at twice the electron cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, a new transmission band was added to the HAARP high-frequency ionospheric modification facility that encompasses the second electron cyclotron harmonic at altitudes between ∼220 and 330 km. Initial observations indicate that greatly enhanced airglow occurs whenever the transmission frequency approximately matches the second electron cyclotron harmonic at the height of the upper hybrid resonance. This is the reverse of what happens at higher electron cyclotron harmonics. The measured optical emissions confirm the presence of accelerated electrons in the plasma

  14. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  15. Superconducting cyclotron and its vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large superconducting cyclotron is under construction at this Centre and will be used to accelerate heavy ion beams to energy up to 80 MeV/A for light heavy ions and about 10 MeV/A for medium mass heavy ions. The vacuum system for this accelerator has several different aspects. The main acceleration chamber will be evacuated to a level of about 10-7 torr using both turbo molecular pumps and specially designed cryopanels. The surfaces exposed to this 'vacuum' are mostly made of OFE copper. The cryogenic transfer lines, to cool the cryopanels, are of several meters in length and they pass through RF resonators extending below the magnet. The cryostat that will house the superconducting coils has an annular vacuum chamber, which is evacuated to a level of approximately 10-5 torr using a turbo molecular pump. Cryopumping action starts once the coils are cooled to low temperatures. A differential pumping is provided below the RF liner that encloses the pole tip of the main magnet. The space that is pumped in this case contains epoxy-potted trim coils wound around the pole tips. Crucial interlocks are provided between the differential vacuum and the acceleration chamber vacuum to avoid distortion of the RF liner, which is made of thin copper sheets. The other important vacuum system provides thermal insulation for the liquid helium transfer lines. In this paper a brief description of the superconducting cyclotron will be given. Details of various vacuum aspects of the accelerator and the logistics of their operation will be presented. Introduction of some of the improved equipment now available and improved techniques are also discussed

  16. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is very well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis of modern

  17. Automated irradiation systems for use in cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two cyclotrons in operation at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d, 3He++ and α, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30μA; the other one, model Cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30MeV and currents up to 350μA. They have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotope production for use in Nuclear Medicine, such as 67Ga, 201Tl, 111In, 123I, 18F and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatized was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increase the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PLC was developed using SIMATIC STEP SEVEN (S7), software from SIEMENS, where all the steps are supervised in screens at a microcomputer. The assembling and sequence of leading were developed using the software from UNISOFT, that keeps the operator informed about the work being carried out, at any time. The system is being tested at the CV-28 Cyclotron of IPEN through the irradiations with 24MeV protons and currents up to 10μA in targets of: Solid, natural Zinc electroplated onto a nickelated Copper support for the production of 67Ga; Gas, natural Krypton for the production of the generator 81Rb-81mKr; Liquid, natural water for the production of 18F. (author)

  18. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper - Entering commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Das, J. J.; Green, M.; Magsig, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Villari, A. C. C.; Zeller, A.

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These 'stopped beams' have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN2-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet's two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  19. Ion extraction in the cyclotron geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed physics of ion beam extraction from a plasma column by intense sinusoidal radio frequency (rf) electric fields at the ion cyclotron frequency omega/sub ci/ and its harmonics is experimentally studied. Results describe the instantaneous relationship - within one rf period of approx. = 3009 nsec - between applied rf, the plasma response and the ions expelled by rf and plasma fields. Reflex discharges in H2, D2, and He with ion and electron densities greater than or equal to1011 cm-3 are subjected to 0-5 kV zero-to-peak rf electric fields E vector and 0.65-9.00 kG background magnetic fields B0 vector with E vector perpendicular to B0 vector. Ion currents up to 200 μA are extracted. Nonperturbing optical diagnostics measure the relative amplitude and phase of instantaneous ion and electron density fluctuations induced by the rf during each rf cycle and the time variation of extracted ion bursts, the latter made possible by the use of a phosphor beam-stop. Detailed dependences on external electric and magnetic fields are reported. The plasma density fluctuations are in good agreement with the dispersion relation for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EICW), and the beam data show current enhancement at the second harmonic over that at the fundamental and evidence for a radically different mechanism for the rf-driven ion extraction process than conventional wisdom assumes. This work represents the first detailed, systematic study of the ac ion extraction process

  20. Ion cyclotron emission in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of α(3.5 MeV) fusion products will be of major importance for the achievement of self sustained discharges in fusion thermonuclear reactors. Due to their cyclotronic gyration in the confining magnetic field of a tokamak, α particles are suspected to radiate in the radio-frequency band [RF: 10-500 MHz]. Our aim is to determine whether detection of RF emission radiated from a reactor plasma can provide information concerning those fusion products. We observed experimentally that the RF emission radiated from fast ions situated in the core of the discharge is detectable with a probe located at the plasma edge. For that purpose, fast temporal acquisition of spectral power was achieved in a narrow frequency band. We also propose two complementary models for this emission. In the first one, we describe locally the energy transfer between the photon population and the plasma and we compute the radiation equilibrium taking place in the tokamak. α particles are not the unique species involved in the equilibrium and it is necessary to take into account all other species present in the plasma (Deuterium, Tritium, electrons,...). Our second model consists in the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov with the use of a variational formulation, in which all polarizations are considered and the 4 first cyclotronic harmonics are included in a 1-D slab geometry. The development of this second model leads to the proposal for an experimental set up aiming to the feasibility demonstration of a routine diagnostic providing the central α density in a reactor. (author)

  1. Mean magnetic field calculation program with allowance for flutter for isochronous cyclotron (Cyclotron Analytic Model Program - CAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cyclotron Analytic Model Program (CAMP) written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ is described. The program is intended for the mean magnetic field calculation of the isochronous cyclotron with allowance for flutter. The program algorithm was developed on the basis of the paper 'Calculation of Isochronous Fields for Sector-Focused Cyclotrons', by M.M.Gordon (Particle Accelerators. 1983. V.13). The accuracy of the calculations, performed with this program, was tested with the use of maps of isochronous magnetic fields of different cyclotrons with the azimuthally varying fields - AVF cyclotrons, in which the ion beams were produced. The calculation by CAMP showed that the isochronous mean magnetic field curve for the measured magnetic field, in which the ion beam was produced, exactly corresponded to the curve of the isochronous mean magnetic field, calculated with the allowance for flutter for all the AVF cyclotrons that were considered. As is evident from the calculations, this program can be used for calculations for both straight-sector and spiral-sector cyclotrons. (author)

  2. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-10-09

    Progress is reported in the design, installation of various components of the cyclotron, including coils, magnets, rf system, and vacuum system. Also reported are measurements on magnets and rf components. (LEW)

  3. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-30

    Progress is reported in the fabrication and testing of cyclotron components, including magnet system and rf system components. Work on vacuum components and instrumentation and control equipment is also reported. (LEW)

  4. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-28

    Completion of magnet tests, followed by completion of installation of major cyclotron components, are reported. Intermediate level power tests of the rf system are also reported. Design and fabrication of the control system are reported to be under way. (LEW)

  5. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-01-17

    Progress is reported in the fabrication, installation, and testing of cyclotron components, including magnets and coils, rf components, vacuum and control equipment. Also reported are magnet and rf component measurements. (LEW)

  6. Undergraduate Education with the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Timothy W.

    The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron is a research grade accelerator dedicated to undergraduate education. From its inception, it has been intended for instruction and has been designed to demonstrate classic beam physics phenomena and provides students hands on experience with accelerator technology. The cyclotron is easily reconfigured, allowing experiments to be designed and performed within one academic semester. Our cyclotron offers students the opportunity to operate an accelerator and directly observe many fundamental beam physics concepts, including axial and radial betatron motion, destructive resonances, weak and azimuthally varying field (AVF) focusing schemes, RF and DEE voltage effects, diagnostic techniques, and perform low energy nuclear reactions. This paper emphasizes the unique beam physics measurements and beam manipulations capable at the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron.

  7. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  8. Heavy ion booster cyclotron design studies at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design studies on four booster cyclotrons for heavy ions are described. Comparisons are made of normal vs. superconducting main coils and of K = 400 and 800 sizes. Performance and cost estimates are given. (U.S.)

  9. H-superconducting cyclotron for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific design of a 14-MeV H- compact superconducting cyclotron for producing of the 18F and 13N isotopes has been developed. Main requirements to the facility as a medical accelerator are met in the design. In particular, the main requirement for the cyclotron was the smallest possible size due to the superconducting magnet. The calculations show that the proposed cyclotron allows extracted beam intensity over 500 μA. To increase system reliability and production rates, an external H- ion source is applied. The choice of the cyclotron concept, design of the structure elements, calculation of the electromagnetic fields and beam dynamics from the ion source to the extraction system were performed.

  10. The fundamental cyclotron line in 4U 1538-52

    CERN Document Server

    Rodes-Roca, J J; Bernabéu, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present pulse phase averaged spectra of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar 4U 1538-52/QV Nor. Observations of this persistent accreting pulsar were made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We study the variability of cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF or simply cyclotron line) in the high energy spectra of this binary system. We show that the parameters of the CRSF are correlated. The first one is, as suggested by theory, between the width and the energy of the cyclotron line. The second one is between the relative width and the optical depth of the cyclotron line. We discuss these results with studies of other X-ray pulsars and their implications on the line variability.

  11. Single electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D M; de Viveiros, L; Doe, P J; Fernandes, J L; Fertl, M; Finn, E C; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Jones, A M; Kofron, J N; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; McBride, E L; Miller, M L; Mohanmurthy, P; Monreal, B; Oblath, N S; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Rysewyk, D; Sternberg, M G; Tedeschi, J R; Thummler, T; VanDevender, B A; Woods, N L

    2014-01-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta elec- tron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta sp...

  12. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  13. Development of baby cyclotron for PET in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a 13 MeV cyclotron for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been in progress since April 1999 at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH). The study has been carried out in a joint collaboration between KCCH and the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). Increasing desire for an uninterrupted, reliable and timely supply of the isotopes to customers has prompted obtaining a dedicated 5-13 MeV cyclotron for PET applications and pursuing the purchase of another 30MeV medical cyclotron in the very near future. A decision has been made to design the PET cyclotron in Korea. This will not only ease the problems associated with maintenance during operation but also keep the door open for continuous upgrading of the machine in the future

  14. Cyclotron radiation by a multi-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-energy group technique is developed to study conditions under which cyclotron radiation emission can shift a Maxwellian electron distribution into a non-Maxwellian; and if the electron distribution is non-Maxwellian, to study the rate of cyclotron radiation emission as compared to that emitted by a Maxwellian having the same mean electron density and energy. The assumptions in this study are: the electrons should be in an isotropic medium and the magnetic field should be uniform. The multi-group technique is coupled into a multi-group Fokker-Planck computer code to study electron behavior under the influence of cyclotron radiation emission in a self-consistent fashion. Several non-Maxwellian distributions were simulated to compare their cyclotron emissions with the corresponding energy and number density equivalent Maxwellian distribtions

  15. Flat-top system of the DC-280 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbekyan, G. G.; Buzmakov, V. A.; Zarubin, V. B.; Ivanenko, I. A.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Karamysheva, G. A.; Franko, I.

    2013-07-01

    The flat-top cavity of the radio-frequency accelerating system designed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, for the DC-280 cyclotron is described. The cyclotron is intended for increasing the capabilities and efficiency of experiments on the synthesis of super-heavy elements and an investigation of their nuclear physical and chemical properties. The DC-280 isochronous heavy-ion cyclotron will produce accelerated beam of ions in the range from neon to uranium. The parameters, design, and results of the experimental and 3D computer modeling of the flat-top cavity of the RF accelerating system of the DC-280 cyclotron are reported.

  16. Status report of the operation of the RIBF ring cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yearly operation status of the RIBF ring cyclotrons (RRC, fRC, IRC and SRC) including statistics of machine time, troubles, and developments in the Aug. 2012 - Jul. 2013 period is reported. (author)

  17. The beam handling system of the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam optic system of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. A computer program for the calculation of optimal settings of quadropoles is presented. The reliability of the computer program is confirmed by experimental data

  18. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 1997 and published as IAEA-TECDOC-1007 in 1998. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of October 2001 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. It contains 246 entries based on questionnaires accomplished and submitted to the IAEA by cyclotron facilities from 39 Member States, which represents a 19% increase over the 206 cyclotrons listed in the 1998 edition. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user-friendly medical cyclotron, and recent decisions that costs for 150-oxygen PET studies in Japan and 18F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. Although there are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron facilities dedicated to the production of PET tracers will continue to grow in the near future, the need to further update the directory will be assessed in due course, depending on comments and suggestions we shall receive from users of the directory. The Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section of the IAEA can, in the meantime, receive more information on existing facilities not included herein as well as on new and planned cyclotron installations to be used for radionuclide production

  19. Development of visual beam adjustment method for cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a computer-based visual assistance system for JAERI AVF-cyclotron operation. This system provides a CRT display about the cyclotron beam trajectories, feasible setting regions (FSR's), and search traces designed to enhance beam parameter adjustment. As a result of the test in actual operation, it was realized that simulated beam trajectories and FSR's were nearly agreeable with actual beam condition in the axial injection block and the extraction block. (author)

  20. Cyrce, a cyclotron for research and teaching in Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging, often considered as a speciality, arose from the combined efforts of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. This functional imaging modality is based on technical and scientific developments and benefits from the high sensitivity of detection of radio-isotopes. Cyrce, a cyclotron set up in Strasbourg, merges into the French national network of cyclotrons dedicated to clinical and preclinical research but also designed for teaching and pharmaceutical collaborations. (authors)

  1. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  2. PET computer programs for use with the 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail several offline programs written for the PET computer which provide an efficient data management system to assist with the operation of the 88-Inch Cyclotron. This function includes the capability to predict settings for all cyclotron and beam line parameters for all beams within the present operating domain of the facility. The establishment of a data base for operational records is also described from which various aspects of the operating history can be projected

  3. High intensity ion beam injection into the 88-inch cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Wutte, Daniela; Clark, Dave J.; Laune, Bernard; Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2000-01-01

    Low cross section experiments to produce super-heavy elements have increased the demand for high intensity heavy ion beams at energies of about 5 MeV/nucleon at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Therefore, efforts are underway to increase the overall ion beam transmission through the axial injection line and the cyclotron. The ion beam emittance has been measured for various ion masses and charge states. Beam transport simulations including space charge ...

  4. Accelerator activities at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) at Kolkata indigenously developed the first large accelerator in the country, the room temperature cyclotron K-130 during seventies which is still delivering ions beams to the users spread all over the country for research in nuclear science and applied physics. VECC, with its vast experience and expertise in accelerator technology, took up the challenging task of constructing the first superconducting cyclotron in the country the K500 superconducting cyclotron. It has also been commissioned with internal beam. The problems associated with getting the external beam are analysed in detail since last one year and some of them are fixed. Efforts are on to get external beam from the K500 cyclotron and it is expected that soon it will also deliver beams to the users. In order to study structure of unstable nuclei that are very neutron rich or proton rich, an ISOL based RIB facility is under-development at VECC. Several components of this facility have already been tested and installed. VECC is also working on to build a world class national accelerator facility called ANURIB (Advanced National facility for Unstable and Rare Isotope Beams) at the new campus in Kolkata. This facility will serve a wide user community in nuclear and material sciences. VECC is also setting up a medical cyclotron to produce proton beam with energy up to 30 MeV and current up to 350 μA, to produce various isotopes for medical applications. This cyclotron will also be used for R and D in material science and to settle the various problems related with handling of high beam current on ADS related components. Apart from these main facilities VECC is also involved in the R and D activities related with accelerators such as studies on using cyclotrons to achieve high power proton beam, development and testing of superconducting cavities, development of superconducting magnets for FAIR project etc. (author)

  5. Cyclotron Target Monitoring During Bombardment for PET Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radio-labeled pharmaceuticals in medicine has generated the need for radioisotope availability on a routine commercial basis. Cyclotrons are commonly used to produce short-lived positron-emitting isotopes. A growing number of small cyclotrons have been installed in hospitals. The materials produced in cyclotrons are used in PET (Positron Emitting Tomography) studies as research tools for observing physiological mechanisms and diagnostic procedures for numerous medical problems. Due to the short half-lives of positron-emitting isotopes, they must be produced as rapidly as possible and be available in the required quantity. Sometimes, due to problems in the cyclotron operation, the production run fails. Physicians and patients expect the radioisotopes to be available at a particular time. A failed run, in addition to delaying or even canceling the scheduled medical examination, is also extremely costly. Hence the need for automated control sensors to monitor the expensive production process arises. The need is even greater in PET commercial, production and distribution centers, and in high energy cyclotron centers that produce and distribute isotopes for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), since numerous hospital clinics and patients rely on the prompt availability of the radiopharmaceuticals. Our goal was to develop an optimum radiation detection system to be used as a diagnostic tool for startup, maintenance and operational needs of the cyclotron facility

  6. Status and development of the Kazakhstan isochronous cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzumanov, A.; Batischev, V.; Borissenko, A.; Gorkovets, M.; Koptev, V.; Lyssukhin, S.; Mulgin, S.; Popov, Yu.; Zhdanov, S.

    2001-12-01

    A report is presented on the status of the cyclotron in Almaty at present time. In spite of sharp curtailment of government-funded basic research program the cyclotron still remains as multipurpose accelerator facility and is being used for fundamental research and application in different fields of applied science. During last years some cyclotron systems were upgraded and some were designed anew. The system for on-line precise ion beam energy measurement using time-of-flight method was designed and constructed. Inductive pick-up electrodes are integrated into beam transport channel and are located at the distance of 10 m from each other. Average beam energy determination is performed with the accuracy about 0.1%. This system allows to analyze ion beam parameters in pulse-mode of cyclotron operation with macro duty factor in the range of 2-50. In connection with development of cyclotron based radioisotope production and necessity of irradiation of toxic materials and loose and smelted powders with low heat conductivity circular beam scanning system was designed and installed. Transversal rotating magnetic field is generated by stator of usual electro-motor. The scanner allows to form predictable beam power density distribution on the target surface and obtain rather uniform irradiation fields. Cyclotron based neutron source with Be target for research on radioecology and neutron dosimetry was constructed and is located at one of the external beam transportation channel. Parameters of the system and examples of its application are presented.

  7. Fighting for the "Right to the City": Examining Spatial Injustice in Chicago Public School Closings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Floch Arcello, Anna; Konrad, Annika M.; Swenson, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    This article uses Chicago public school closings as a case study for the rise of mayoral control and the decline of democratic participation -- two common responses to stiff competition from global markets -- in urban public schools in the United States. In response to the 2013 Chicago decision to close 50 schools and move 30,000 students, this…

  8. State Budgets and the Economy. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 200b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard

    2004-01-01

    On November 12, 2003, over 70 policymakers, fiscal analysts, and academics gathered at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago to examine the fiscal condition of the state government sector. The conference was cosponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the National Tax Association. Despite a shallow national recession that ended in…

  9. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...) Summit, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (77 FR 13232). Although the G8 Summit is now planned to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May...

  10. 77 FR 13232 - Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... Harbor and the Chicago River during the G8/NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held...

  11. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 13232) that would establish four separate security zones in the Chicago Harbor and Chicago River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  12. 75 FR 11990 - Chicago Executive Airports Noise Exposure Map Approval and Noise Compatibility Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... applicant's data, information or plans, or constitute a commitment to approve a noise compatibility program... Chicago Executive Airport Board of Directors for Chicago Executive Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S... Board of Directors submitted to the FAA on June 18, 2009 noise exposure maps, descriptions and...

  13. Chicago High School Redesign Initiative: Schools, Students, and Outcomes. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporte, Susan; de la Torre, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2007, the Chicago High School Redesign Initiative (CHSRI) opened 23 small high schools. Implemented in partnership with Chicago Public Schools (CPS), this initiative aimed to provide populations of low-performing students in under-served areas of the city with high-quality, small high schools. These schools were formed (1) by…

  14. Trends in Chicago's Schools across Three Eras of Reform: Summary of Key Findings. Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; de la Torre, Marisa; Murphy, James

    2011-01-01

    In 1988, U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett proclaimed Chicago's public schools to be the worst in the nation. Since that time, Chicago has been at the forefront of urban school reform. Beginning with a dramatic move in 1990 to shift power away from the central office, through CEO Paul Vallas's use of standardized testing to hold schools…

  15. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing five temporary safety zones on waterways near Chicago, IL. These safety zones are intended to restrict vessels from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones are necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the stunt work, pyrotechnics, low-flying helicopter, and......

  16. At University of Chicago, Dispute over Friedman Center Continues to Simmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the dispute about the creation of an institute named for the late economist and free-market advocate Milton Friedman at the University of Chicago. Five months after the University of Chicago announced plans to invest $200-million in an economics institute named for the late Milton Friedman, the project is still generating…

  17. Proceedings of the 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating was held in Aix-en-Provence (France) from 13 to 16 May 2002. The meeting was hosted by the Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion (CEA/Cadarache, France), with additional financial support from: - Region Provence-Alpes Cote d'Azur - The City of Aix-en-Provence - Communaute de l'Agglomeration du Pays d'Aix - Thales Electron Devices (France) - Alstom Magnets and Superconductors (France) - Spinner GmbH (Germany). The members of the local organizing committee were: G. Giruzzi, M. Lennholm, R. Magne and V. Poli, from CEA/Cadarache. The composition of the International Programme Committee was the following: M. Bornatici (Italy), A. Costley (ITER), E. de la Luna (Spain), G. Giruzzi (France), W. Kasparek (Germany), B. Lloyd (UK), J. Lohr (USA), K. Sakamoto (Japan). The subjects of the meeting were classified in four main topics: Electron Cyclotron Theory; Electron Cyclotron Emission; Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Experiments; Electron Cyclotron Technology. The results presented in these topics have been summarised in the closing session by E. Westerhof, A. Kraemer-Flecken, T. Goodman and G. Bosia, respectively. The workshop was attended by 85 participants from 18 countries, providing 10 invited talks, 30 oral presentations and 50 posters. The success of the workshop is mainly due to the amount and quality of their work and of their presentations. The generosity of the sponsors, the selection and advice work of the International Programme Committee, as well as the contribution of the chairmen and of the summary speakers should also be warmly acknowledged. The papers in this collection have been reproduced directly from the authors' manuscripts, provided either as camera-ready texts or as pdf files. The constraints on the papers lengths and formats have been kept to a minimum, on purpose. This series of workshops has now reached a good level of maturity, with well established

  18. Dynamic regimes of cyclotron instability in the afterglow mode of minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfeld, D.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Tarvainen, Olli; Kalvas, Taneli; Koivisto, Hannu; Komppula, Jani; Kronholm, Risto; Laulainen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the dynamic regimes of cyclotron instabilities in non-equilibrium plasma of a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source operated in pulsed mode. The instability appears in decaying ion source plasma shortly (1–10 ms) after switching off the microwave radiation of the klystron, and manifests itself in the form of powerful pulses of electromagnetic emission associated with precipitation of high-energy electrons along the magnetic field lines. Recently it was ...

  19. 76 FR 35106 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within any enforced segment of the safety zone is... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... segments of the navigable waters of the Des Plaines River, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, branches...

  20. Mean magnetic field calculation program with allowance for flutter for isochronous cyclotron (Cyclotron Analytic Model Program - CAMP)

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyan, I N; Vorozhtsov, S B

    2002-01-01

    The Cyclotron Analytic Model Program (CAMP) written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ is described. The program is intended for the mean magnetic field calculation of the isochronous cyclotron with allowance for flutter. The program algorithm was developed on the basis of the paper 'Calculation of Isochronous Fields for Sector-Focused Cyclotrons', by M.M.Gordon (Particle Accelerators. 1983. V.13). The accuracy of the calculations, performed with this program, was tested with the use of maps of isochronous magnetic fields of different cyclotrons with the azimuthally varying fields - AVF cyclotrons, in which the ion beams were produced. The calculation by CAMP showed that the isochronous mean magnetic field curve for the measured magnetic field, in which the ion beam was produced, exactly corresponded to the curve of the isochronous mean magnetic field, calculated with the allowance for flutter for all the AVF cyclotrons that were considered. As is evident from the calculations, this program can be used for cal...

  1. Electron cyclotron emission spectroscopy on thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) enables one to infer the radial profile of the electron temperature in tokamaks. The Dutch FOM institute for plasma physics has designed, built, installed and operated a grating polychromator for ECE measurements at JET. This thesis deals with a few instrumental aspects of this project and with applications of ECE measurements in tokamak physics studies. Ch. 3 and 4 deal with the wave transport in ECE systems. In Ch. 3 a method is developed to infer the mode conversion, which is a source for transmission losses, in a waveguide component from the antenna pattern of its exit aperture. In Ch. 4 the design and manufacture of the waveguide transition system to the grating polychromator are described. In Ch. 5 a method is reported for calibration of the spectrometers, based on the use of a microwave source which simulates a large area blackbody of very high temperature. The feasibility of the method is tested by applying it to two different ECE systems. In Ch. 6 a study of heat pulse propagation in tokamak plasma's, based on measurement of the electron temperature with the grating polychromator, is presented. 105 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  2. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development. PMID:18315111

  3. Ion cyclotron system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Jeong, S. H.; Yoony, J. S.; Bae, Y. D.; Kwak, J. G.; Ju, M. H

    1998-05-01

    The KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak (R=1.8 m, a=0.5 m, k=2, b=3.5T, I=2MA, t=300 s) is being constructed to do long-pulse, high-b, advanced-operating-mode fusion physics experiments. The ion cyclotron (IC) system (in conjunction with an 8-MW neutral beam and a 1.5-MW lower hybrid system) will provide heating and current drive capability for the machine. The IC system will deliver 6 MW of RF power to the plasma in the 25 to 60 MHz frequency range, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. It will be used for ion heating, fast-wave current drive (FWCD), and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD). The phasing between current straps in the antenna will be adjustable quickly during operation to provide the capability of changing the current-drive efficiency. This report describes the design of the IC system hardware: the electrical characteristics of the antenna and the matching system, the requirements on the power sources, and electrical analyses of the launcher. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 40 figs.

  4. Ion cyclotron system design for KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak (R=1.8 m, a=0.5 m, k=2, b=3.5T, I=2MA, t=300 s) is being constructed to do long-pulse, high-b, advanced-operating-mode fusion physics experiments. The ion cyclotron (IC) system (in conjunction with an 8-MW neutral beam and a 1.5-MW lower hybrid system) will provide heating and current drive capability for the machine. The IC system will deliver 6 MW of RF power to the plasma in the 25 to 60 MHz frequency range, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. It will be used for ion heating, fast-wave current drive (FWCD), and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD). The phasing between current straps in the antenna will be adjustable quickly during operation to provide the capability of changing the current-drive efficiency. This report describes the design of the IC system hardware: the electrical characteristics of the antenna and the matching system, the requirements on the power sources, and electrical analyses of the launcher. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 40 figs

  5. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerby, Eli; Kesar, A; Aharony, A; Breitmeier, G

    2002-06-01

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement. PMID:12188841

  6. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement

  7. Vacuum control systems at the NAC cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular microprocessor-based system being used for control of the vacuum pumping stations at the NAC cyclotrons is described. The microcomputer-system consists of a set of Euro-card sized modules plugged into a bussed back-plane. The set may typically consist of (i) the processor module containing a Z80 CPU running under the CP/M 2.2 operating system, 64 kbytes of RAM, timer and peripheral ICs; (2) a 128-kbyte bubble memory module containing the compiled software; (3) a number of 32-bit relay output modules for driving contacters for vacuum valves and pumps; (4) a number of 80-bit opto-isolator input modules for reading the binary status of valve position limit-switches, binary setpoints from pressure-, temperature-, waterflow- and rotational-speed transducers as well as digital data from vacuum meters; (5) a 32-channel eight-bit analogue-to-digital converter module for digitizing analogue voltages from vacuum and temperature gauges; (6) an interface module for bi-directional data transfer to a CAMAC mailbox memory module for communication with the central control computers as well as for data transfer between the vacuum control system's front-panel and the processor and (7) front-panel modules. (author)

  8. Chicago Transit Authority train passenger environmental noise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffee, Matt R.; Karner, Chris

    2003-04-01

    The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) train system is referred to as the ``L'' because most of the track throughout the city is elevated. Passengers riding aboard the ``L'' are often subjected to high levels of noise due to the aging metal girder system that the tracks are perched on, as well as some train cars that are in disrepair. The environmental acoustics class of nine students at Columbia College Chicago decided to quantify exactly how much noise an ``L'' passenger is subjected to. Using a Quest 2900 integrating sound level meter the class split up and took Leq measurements on all of the seven train lines. Each line was tested in both directions of travel twice, with the meter taking samples every 3 s, which added up to a total of approximately 65 000 samples. The data were then averaged and synthesized into a graph using ESRI ArcView software. The graph is actually a map of the CTA ``L'' system that is color coded according to the Leq level that the passengers are subjected to between each station. It was interesting to see the difference in noise levels according to the type of track construction.

  9. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct detection of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 104. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3H, and 10Be, and 26Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  10. 33 CFR 165.T09-0166 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... general regulations in § 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring... and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River... including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  11. The PET / cyclotron facility at Putrajaya Hospital - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia desire to have a cyclotron for nuclear medical use came into realisation recently with the establishment of a PET/Cyclotron Facility at Putrajaya Hospital. The testing and commissioning of the cyclotron, hot cells, QC equipment and PET/CT started on March 27, culminating in the first patient to be injected on May 10 2006. Three other patients were to be followed on May 15. The patients from both the Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya Hospital were pre-selected by physicians from these hospitals. The 18 MeV cyclotron is capable of generating 16.4 MeV protons and 8.4 MeV deuterons. The cyclotron at Putrajaya has three targets (2 liquid and 1 gas) and is capable of producing 18F-FDG and 18F-DOPA. To complement this, the facility has 2 modules for FDG synthesis, 1 for F-DOPA and 1 for nucleophilic synthesis. The facility will be GMP compliant. For the first production for human use, the water-18 target was irradiated for 50 minutes at 20 mA to produce 1.3 Ci of F-18. At the end of synthesis, the activity of the FDG obtained was 600 mCi. The product was then injected to a 26-year-old female, with a suspected adenocarcinoma. (Author)

  12. Preparation and use of cyclotron-produced isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons are far less efficient instrument for producing radioactive isotopes than reactors. However, cyclotron-produced isotopes are usually neutron-deficient, because they are formed by the reaction with positively charged particles, and such isotopes can be used for injection without further chemical processing. A few examples of cyclotron-produced isotopes in medicine are as follows: 18F is injected into a patient for bone-scanning. 11CO and 11CO2 are used for the studies of lung function, and 11CO-labelled red blood cells for the localization of placenta, estimation of red cell volume and splenic blood volume. 123I is the ideal isotope for scanning thyroids. 52Fe is the only isotope suitable for the external observation of haemopoiesis. 111In and 67Ga are under test as tumor-localising agents. The isotopes in regular production at present with the cyclotron of Medical Research Council (U.K.) are listed in a table attached. Suitable production method using the cyclotron and the type of reaction for each medical purpose are described in comparison with the other methods or reactions and target materials or nuclides. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails

  14. Electric and Magnetic Vertical Focusing Study for 100 MeV High Intensity Proton Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>For the central region design of cyclotrons, the basic problem in the vertical motion is very different from the one in the radial motion. The reason is that vertical tune is almost zero at the center of cyclotrons,

  15. Radiation effects testing at the 88-inch cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  16. Radiation effects testing at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  17. Electron cyclotron waves, transport and instabilities in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of topics relevant to the magnetic confinement approach to the thermonuclear fusion is addressed. The absorption and emission of electron cyclotron waves in a thermal plasma with a small population of supra-thermal, streaming electrons is examined and the properties of electron cyclotron waves in a plasma with a pure loss-cone distribution are studied. A report is given on the 1-D transport code simulations that were performed to assist the interpretation of the electron cyclotron heating experiments on the TFR tokamak. Transport code simulations of sawteeth discharges in the T-10 tokamak are discussed in order to compare the predictions of different models for the sawtooth oscillations with the experimental findings. 149 refs.; 69 figs.; 7 tabs

  18. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  19. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  20. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  1. Calibration of the simulation model of the VINCY cyclotron magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Saša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The MERMAID program will be used to isochronise the nominal magnetic field of the VINCY Cyclotron. This program simulates the response, i. e. calculates the magnetic field, of a previously defined model of a magnet. The accuracy of 3D field calculation depends on the density of the grid points in the simulation model grid. The size of the VINCY Cyclotron and the maximum number of grid points in the XY plane limited by MERMAID define the maximumobtainable accuracy of field calculations. Comparisons of the field simulated with maximum obtainable accuracy with the magnetic field measured in the first phase of the VINCY Cyclotron magnetic field measurements campaign has shown that the difference between these two fields is not as small as required. Further decrease of the difference between these fields is obtained by the simulation model calibration, i. e. by adjusting the current through the main coils in the simulation model.

  2. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-07-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the 12C6+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  3. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of Te profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities far beyond what has been achieved to date. These include the development of a minilens array configuration with increased sensitivity antennas, a new local oscillator pumping scheme, enhanced electron cyclotron resonance heating shielding, and a highly flexible optical design with vertical zoom capability. Horizontal zoom and spot size (rf bandwidth) capabilities are also being developed with new ECEI electronics. An interface module is under development to remotely control all key features of the new ECEI instrument, many of which can be changed during a plasma discharge for maximum flexibility.

  4. Vertical Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic for TCV Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman T. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD are used to heat the plasma, to tailor the current profiles and to achieve different operating regimes of tokamak plasmas. Plasmas with ECRH/ECCD are characterized by non-thermal electrons, which cannot be described by a Maxwellian distribution. Non-thermal electrons are also generated during MHD activity, like sawteeth crashes. Quantifying the non-thermal electron distribution is therefore a key for understanding EC heated fusion plasmas. For this purpose a vertical electron cyclotron emission (V-ECE diagnostic is being installed at TCV. The diagnostic layout, the calibration, the analysis technique for data interpretation, the physics potentials and limitations are discussed.

  5. Spectra and Neutron Dosimetry Inside a PET Cyclotron Vault Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron field around a PET cyclotron was investigated during 18F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. Pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters, TLD600 and TLD700, were used as thermal neutron detector inside a Bonner Spheres Spectrometer to measure the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations. The hardest spectrum was observed in front of cyclotron target and the softest was noticed at the antipode of target. Neutron doses derived from the measured spectra vary between 11 and 377 mSv/μA-h of proton integrated current, Doses were also measured with a single-moderator remmeter, with an active thermal neutron detector, whose response in affected by the radiation field in the vault room

  6. Next customers to cyclotron center meanwhile are not entered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the financial aspects of construction of the Cyclotron Centre of the Slovak Republic (CC SR) are analysed. This building represents the problems of exploitation of commodity deblocation of Russian Federation debt to Slovakia. The estimated expenses have risen from original planned 2 billion Slovak crowns to 6 billion Slovak crowns. Devices which should be part of centre - a cyclotron used for radiopharmaceuticals production for oncological purposes and a big cyclotron for industrial purposes, a centre of positron emissive tomography (PET), a laboratory of nano-technologies, a source of heavy ions - they indicates that the oncological institutes, departments of health service, of education, of economy, of defence, of environment, also Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic and Slovak Academy of Sciences should become the customers principally. Around 2.2 billion of Slovak crowns from deblocation have been spent for a construction of Cyclotron Centre of SR yet. The national budget has contributed by 95 million Slovak crowns; 90.5 million USD will be obtained from deblocation of Russian debt yet. IAEA has supported this centre by grant of almost 800 thousand USD. Budget of Cyclotron Centre of SR is still rising also because of rising of VAT from 10 percent to 19 percent. VAT will be paid also for goods imported within the framework of deblocation after integration of Slovak Republic to European Union; besides also 10 percent duty is paid. Project of CC SR has not passed the state expert opinion. Agreement for construction of Cyclotron Centre of SR was issued by State Health Institute of Bratislava, therefore it was confirmed also by the main hygienist of Slovak Republic

  7. DOE-1: users guide. [Single-story building in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    DOE-1 is a public-domain computer program that allows users to explore the energy behavior of proposed and existing buildings and their associated heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Incorporating mathematical models and utilizing hourly weather data, DOE-1 calculates the hour-by-hour performance and response of a building whose description has been provided by the user. In addition, DOE-1 can produce an economic analysis of the energy use and the costs and benefits of making alternation in design. DOE-1 is intended to be used by architects, engineers, and others concerned with the energy analysis of buildings and with the consequent economic implications. The source program is available from NESC and DOE-1 can be run in this manner on any CDC computer. The Users Guide example is a single-story office building located in Chicago.

  8. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Chicago, Illinois at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows Chicago, Illinois with part of the shoreline of Lake Michigan at night as photographed during orbit 33 from Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The image was recorded with an image intensifier on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this frame are 41.8 degrees north latitude and 87.7 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired at 1/60-second shutter speed and -2/3 exposure compensation. Digital file name is ESC03032.IMG.

  9. A bright future: innovation transforming public health in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, Bechara; Bhatt, Jay; Mansour, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Big cities continue to be centers for innovative solutions and services. Governments are quickly identifying opportunities to take advantage of this energy and revolutionize the means by which they deliver services to the public. The governmental public health sector is rapidly evolving in this respect, and Chicago is an emerging example of some of the changes to come. Governments are gradually adopting innovative informatics and big data tools and strategies, led by pioneering jurisdictions that are piecing together the standards, policy frameworks, and leadership structures fundamental to effective analytics use. They give an enticing glimpse of the technology's potential and a sense of the challenges that stand in the way. This is a rapidly evolving environment, and cities can work with partners to capitalize on the innovative energies of civic tech communities, health care systems, and emerging markets to introduce new methods to solve old problems. PMID:25423057

  10. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA

  11. The National Medical Cyclotron - An Australian experience in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) in the early 1990's was the practical outcome of a vision, held by nuclear medicine professionals, to complement the available neutron-rich radionuclides produced in Australia, with neutron-deficient radionuclides. The NMC is operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) in Sydney where the PET department is able to use the short-lived radiotracers to good advantage. Neutron-deficient radionuclides, are also produced by the NMC laboratories. The cyclotron-generated radionuclides are used in over 70,000 patient studies per year

  12. Inexpensive rf modeling and analysis techniques as applied to cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and expansion of the circuit analogy method of modeling and analysing multiconductor TEM mode rf resonators is described. This method was used to predict the performance of the NSCL K500 and K1200 cyclotron resonators and the results compared well to the measured performance. The method is currently being applied as the initial stage of the design process to optimize the performance of the rf resonators for a proposed K250 cyclotron for medical applications. Although this technique requires an experienced rf modeller, the input files tend to be simple and small, the software is very inexpensive or free, and the computer runtimes are nearly instantaneous

  13. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  14. Vortex cyclotron resonance in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orbital motion of pancake vortices takes place as a result of momentum exchange with electromagnetic waves. The coherent wave for vortex motion is obtained from the Lorentz-covariant wave equation for vortices. When the static magnetic field is tilted from the c axis, the vortex orbit becomes elliptical due to an interlayer electromagnetic interaction or gauge current. The gauge current also produces a coupling between the vortex cyclotron motion and transverse Josephson plasma, which was experimentally observed. The cyclotron mass of superfluid electrons and the frequency of a transverse Josephson plasma were obtained in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-01-01

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate "cocktails" of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch C...

  16. Production of medical radioisotopes in ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures, targets, and costs are discussed for the production of iodine-123 at the ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron. The cyclotron is a fixed frequency machine producing 22-MeV proton beams with currents of 3 mA. Flat plate targets are used in the bombardment of readily fabricated metals when highest production rates are necessary, while capsule targets are used when flat plate coatings are difficult or when high production rates are not required. Window targets with metal foils or powders, inorganic compounds, or isotopically enriched materials are also used. (PMA)

  17. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE EFFICIENCY IN GENERAL TOKAMAK GEOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green's-function techniques are used to calculate electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in general tokamak geometry in the low-collisionality regime. Fully relativistic electron dynamics is employed in the theoretical formulation. The high-velocity collision model is used to model Coulomb collisions and a simplified quasi-linear rf diffusion operator describes wave-particle interactions. The approximate analytic solutions which are benchmarked with a widely used ECCD model, facilitate time-dependent simulations of tokamak operational scenarios using the non-inductive current drive of electron cyclotron waves

  18. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  19. Cyclotron based nuclear science: Progress report, April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses experiment run on the K500 cyclotron and 88 in cyclotron at Texas AandM University. The main topics of these experiments are: Heavy ion reactions; Nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; Atomic and material science; Nuclear theory; and Superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  20. Mechanical Design of the Injection Beam Line of Small Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The injection beam line is a key device for beam transport of the small medical cyclotron, giving direct influence to the beam quality of the cyclotron. According to the medical needs of the cyclotron, the overall length of the injection beam line is as short as possible,

  1. 75 FR 30073 - National Briquetting Corporation, a Subsidiary of Harsco, Also Known as Performix East Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration National Briquetting Corporation, a Subsidiary of Harsco, Also Known... National Briquetting Corporation, a subsidiary of Harsco, also known as Performix East Chicago,...

  2. 77 FR 65818 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Construction Company will be conducting demolition on portions of the Cline Avenue Bridge in East Chicago, IN... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ] A. Regulatory History and Information...

  3. 76 FR 35000 - Award of an Urgent Single-Source Grant to Heartland Alliance, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ..., Bi- Sexual and Transgender (LGBT) refugee cases to Heartland Alliance, Chicago, IL, for a total of... delivery, specifically targeted at assisting newly arriving LGBT refugees. Heartland Alliance will have...

  4. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  5. The Relationship between Perceived Discrimination and Psychotherapeutic and Illicit Drug Misuse in Chicago, IL, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hunte, Haslyn; Finlayson, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Based on several stress-coping frameworks, recent studies have suggested that perceived experiences of discrimination, a psychosocial stressor, may be associated with various risky health behaviors. The 2001 Chicago Community Adult Health Study (n = 3,101), a face-to-face representative probability sample of adults in Chicago, IL, USA, was used to examine the relationship among lifetime everyday discrimination, major discrimination, and the use of illicit and psychotherapeutic drugs for nonme...

  6. Eve in the renegade city: elite Jewish women’s philanthropy in Chicago, 1890–1900

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the philanthropic organisations and projects with which elite Jewish women in Chicago were concerned during the years 1890–1900. It concentrates on the National Council of Jewish Women, which was founded by a group of Chicago women in 1893 after the Jewish Women’s Congress at the World’s Columbian Exposition. The NCJW was this community’s highest-profile philanthropic organisation, bringing them local, national and international attention. The 1890s were a turbulent d...

  7. The Berlin Großstadt-Dokumente: A forgotten precursor of the Chicago School of Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Jazbinsek, Dietmar; Joerges, Bernward; Thies, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    Die insgesamt 51 Bände der Schriftenreihe Großstadt-Dokumente, die in den Jahren 1904 bis 1908 erschienen sind, fügen sich mosaikartig zu einem Panorama der modernen Metropole. Während die Berliner Reihe von den Vertretern der zeitgenössischen Soziologie in Deutschland ignoriert worden ist, wurde sie von der Gründergeneration der Chicago School of Sociology intensiv rezipiert. Die Rezeption in Chicago war darauf angelegt, aus der Mischform journalistischer, literarischer und wissenschaftliche...

  8. Effect of Variable Energy Served on 24-Hour Energy Intake in 16 Preschools, Chicago, Illinois, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Debbie A. Lown, PhD, RD; Marian L. Fitzgibbon, PhD; Alan Dyer, PhD; Linda Schiffer, MS, MPH; Sandra Gomez, MS, RD; Carol L. Braunschweig, PhD, RD

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The effect of varying portion size in a natural environment on the self-regulation of 24-hour energy intake has not been evaluated. We studied students at 16 preschools in Chicago to determine the effect of meals with variable energy and macronutrients on the amount consumed over a 24-hour period (ie, at preschool and outside of preschool). Methods The food items and portion sizes served at 16 preschools in the Chicago Public Schools early childhood education programs were observ...

  9. 3D computer model of the VINCY cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VINCY Cyclotron magnetic field simulation was performed with the help of the three-dimensional (3D) software. The following aspects of the system were considered: 3D calculation of the magnetic field in the median plane, 3D calculation of the magnetic field in the extraction region, 3D calculation of the stray magnetic field. 8 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-29

    Efforts are reported on the installation and checkout of cyclotron components which had been previously fabricated. Final integration of subsystems and major systems leading to internal beam tests is reported near completion. Progress is reported in relation to control system components, focus and steering magnet design, and rf system testing. (LEW)

  11. Observation of the backward electrostatic ion cyclotron wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The backward branch of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave has been observed, we believe, for the first time. The wave, which was driven by a phased antenna structure inserted in a neon plasma, exists in the parameter ranges 2T/sub i//m/sub i/ 2 Ω/sub i/. Double-tip probe interferomety data agree with the theoretical dispersion relation

  12. Wave propagation through an electron cyclotron resonance layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of a wave beam through an electron cyclotron resonance layer is analysed in two-dimensional slab geometry in order to assess the deviation from cold plasma propagation due to resonant, warm plasma changes in wave dispersion. For quasi-perpendicular propagation, N-parallel to x upsilo

  13. Magnetic field measurements on the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midplane magnetic fields have been measured for the modified flutter pole geometry of the cyclotron magnet at forty-eight excitations with mean inductions spanning the range two to five tesla. Midplane fringing fields have been measured both through the cryostat and beyond the yoke at selected excitations. Measurements of yoke temperature effects and hysteresis are also described

  14. Initial field measurements on the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The midplane magnetic field of the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron has been mapped in detail over the full operating range of 2.5 to 5 tesla. The field measuring apparatus is described and results given include measurements of the field stability, reproducibility and harmonic content. (author)

  15. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  16. New development of neutron radiography with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of neutron radiography testing has been performed for several years by using a small accelerator called 'Baby Cyclotron' manufactured by Japan Steel Works, Ltd. The Baby Cyclotron produces fast neutrons at the rate of 4x1012 n/cm2s, and enables to perform neutron radiography imaging by various techniques. The most important application of this Baby Cyclotron radiography system is the non-destructive testing (NDT) of various explosive devices prepared for space launch vehicles. It is assured that thermal neutron radiography testing is a very useful means for the NDT. Also fast neutron radiography testing is in progress. The fast neutron radiography with a CR39 track-etch image recorder was developed, and it was shown to be the very useful NDT means when the thicker objects used for new H-2 launch vehicles had to be examined. Because thermal neutron radiography has the high detectability of hydrogenous materials, organic elastomers such as O-rings and explosive powder are clearly observable through the opaque steel walls of containers. The Baby Cyclotron and the neutron radiography facility, thermal neutron and fast neutron radiography testings and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-01

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog-digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  18. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals in NPI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišer, Miroslav; Kopička, Karel; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; Lebeda, Ondřej; Panek, T.; Vognar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. A737-A743. ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : cyclotron * radiopharmaceuticals Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003

  19. Remote machining and robotic welding in a proton cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing residual radiation in the TRIUMF meson research facility cyclotron at the University of British Columbia has required development of a remotely operable industrial robot cutting and vacuum tight welding capability for modification and updating of vacuum tank access ports, and for possible repairs of leaks or holes in the vacuum tank periphery

  20. Dynamic effects on cyclotron scattering in pulsar accretion columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, J. J.; Meszaros, P.

    1991-01-01

    A resonant scattering model for photon reprocessing in a pulsar accretion column is presented. The accretion column is optically thin to Thomson scattering and optically thick to resonant scattering at the cyclotron frequency. Radiation from the neutron star surface propagates freely through the column until the photon energy equals the local cyclotron frequency, at which point the radiation is scattered, much of it back toward the star. The radiation pressure in this regime is insufficient to stop the infall. Some of the scattered radiation heats the stellar surface around the base of the column, which adds a softer component to the spectrum. The partial blocking by the accretion column of X-rays from the surface produces a fan beam emission pattern. X-rays above the surface cyclotron frequency freely escape and are characterized by a pencil beam. Gravitational light bending produces a pencil beam pattern of column-scattered radiation in the antipodal direction, resulting in a strongly angle-dependent cyclotron feature.

  1. Cyclotrons with Fast Variable and/or Multiple Energy Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, C

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the principle possibility of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate sector cyclotrons (and/or FFAGs). If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of drifts) and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the reverse bend - even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in $H_2^+$-cyclotrons, which allow to double the charge to mass ratio by stripping. However the principle could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an $H_2^+$-beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies - for instance 15 MeV, 30 MeV and 70 MeV - thus allowing to have beam on several isotope production targets. In this case it is desired ...

  2. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  3. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  4. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities in cyclotron produced Tc-99m

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; van Lier, E. J.; Štursa, Jan; Ráliš, Jan; Zyuzin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2012), s. 1286-1291. ISSN 0969-8051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Technetium-99m * cyclotron * proton irradiation * radionuclidic impurities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2012

  5. Radiation safety and quality control in the cyclotron laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety was determined to maintain quality control in the cyclotron laboratory. Based on the results of 438 runs in the Faraday cup (20 μA for 10 min), 20 runs on 18O-water target (40 μA for 2 h) and 10 runs on 18O-gas targets (30 μA for 45 min), we have established that occupationally exposed workers remain 10 ± 5 times below federal regulatory limits (FRLs) in the cyclotron vault, 30 ± 8 times below FRL in the radiochemistry laboratory and 200 ± 10 times below the FRL outside the cyclotron laboratory during beam operation. (The FRL for unrestricted area are <20 μSv in 1 h.) The non-occupationally exposed workers serving in offices in the vicinity of the cyclotron vault within 100 m distance remained 200 times below the FRL irrespective of beam being on or off, suggesting that routine beam operation of 40 μA for 2 h once a day during office hours is safe provided quality control and system performance measures as discussed in this report are strictly maintained. (authors)

  6. Feasibility study of direct cyclotron production of 227-Th

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozempel, J.; Vlk, M.; Mičolová, P.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Moša, M.; Morgenstern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S191-S192. ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 227Th * alternative method of production 227Th * cyclotron U-120M Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  7. Development of beam instruments at JAERI cyclotron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Ishibori, Ikuo; Agematsu, Takashi; Yokota, Watalu; Nara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A beam phase monitor and two kinds of fluence distribution monitors have been developed for measuring characteristics of cyclotron beams. The beam phase monitor provides a beam phase signal for tuning a beam chopping system and a beam phase selection system. A two-dimensional fluence distribution on a large area is measured with fluence distribution monitors. (author)

  8. Computational tools for cyclotron design, commissioning, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many support systems are required in the design, commissioning, and normal operation of a modern cyclotron. Presented is an overview of the computing environment developed during these various stages at TRIUMF. The current computing environment is also discussed, with emphasis on how one can provide an integrated system which is user-friendly

  9. 10 MeV Medical Cyclotron Prototype Beam Commissioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Feng-ping; GE; Tao; YIN; Zhi-guo; SONG; Guo-fang; ZHANG; Tian-jue; JI; Bin; LI; Peng-zhan; CAO; Lei; HOU; Shi-gang; LIU; Geng-shou; WANG; Feng; LEI; Yu; WU; Long-cheng; WEN; Li-peng; LI; Zhen-guo; CUI; Tao; JIA; Xian-lu; YAO; Hong-juan; PAN; Gao-feng; ZHANG; Su-ping; CAI; Hong-ru; XIE; Huai-dong

    2012-01-01

    <正>A 10 MeV medical cyclotron prototype for the production of short-lived isotopes has been developed independently at CIAE with a time span of 2 years. On the inner target, 8 hours stability test has been finished. The extraction beam is 10 MeV with a beam intensity of 100 μA.

  10. An irradiation facility at the 225 cm cyclotron in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiation facility now in operation at the 225 cm cyclotron of the Research Institute for Physics in Stockholm is described. Irradiations are performed in an unfocused and otherwise lost part of the beam. The target can be inserted and extracted from the irradiation position without disturbing simultaneous in-beam measurements. (Auth.)

  11. Operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1976 is briefly surveyed. The status and the results of the following technical developments are briefly described: 1) Computer aided cyclotron operation; 2) New correction coils for the cyclotron; 3) Non-intercepting measurement of the extraction rate; 4) Lambshift source for polarized deuterons; 5) Improvements of the 6Li3+-Penning ion source; 6) New beam line to an irradiation room for machine parts; 7) Nova 2 computer system for nuclear physics experiments; 8) Routine production of Iodine-123 for nuclear medicine. - In the annual report 1975 we have included a section consisting of a series of brief reports on applied research in progress. This year we give a compilation of the current basic nuclear physics work at our cyclotron. The short papers prepared by the experimental groups are arranged according to the following topics: 1) Experiments using the 156 MeV 6Li3+-beam; 2) Experiments using the 52 MeV polarized deuteron beam; 3) Further nuclear reactions; 4) Nuclear spectroscopy; 5) Measurements of nuclear magnetic moments; 6) Measurements with the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. (orig.)

  12. Cyclotron produced Tc-99m: testing compatibility with established kits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; van Lier, E. J.; Zyuzin, A.; Moša, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S424-S425. ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * Tc-99m * 100Mo Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  13. An ion trap - laser experiment at the INS cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear instrument which comprises an ion guide behind a recoil mass separator, an RF trap, a Penning trap and a UV laser system is being built to perform a laser-microwave double resonance experiment. Initially the instrument will be used to measure hyperfine anomalies of Ca isotopes produced by a cyclotron beam. (author)

  14. 40. anniversary of cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Cyclotron U-150-II of Institute of Nuclear Physics was projected in middle of the last century for nuclear-physical researches in a scientific research institute of electro physical equipment in Leningrad. The Cyclotron can accelerate positive ions with beam energy of the protons 18 MeV, deuterons 20 MeV, alpha particles 40 MeV. Intensity of a beam a little some microampere. The building of a Cyclotron represents an impressive three-floor construction in volume of 2000 m3. The capital equipment, the high-frequency generator, sources of power supplies, vacuum pumps and other technological units are placed on the first and socle floors of a building. The second and third floors served for accommodation of scientific laboratories. A building of a Cyclotron has three experimental halls, where it was possible to carry out physical researches. They have divided from each other, and the main thing from the accelerator, concrete walls with the purpose of reduction of the big radiating background at the working accelerator, preventing realization of experiments. It provided also biological protection of the on duty personnel. The first some years of operation of the Cyclotron have revealed a line of lacks of this machine. For example, for change of energy of a beam of a Cyclotron it took 2-3 weeks. Also, for transition of acceleration of one particles to others it take same time. Time parameters of a beam were unstable. In 1968 reconstruction of the Cyclotron has been started that has allowed to bring in basic changes to parameters U-150-II. The time took on change of an operating mode of a Cyclotron was sharply reduced, and it was possible to reduce it till 10-20 hours, to improve the energy and time resolution of a beam many times over, to reduce angular straggling of particles in a beam. And, all this enormous amount of works was spent by forces of institute. In 70th years the big development was received with works on radiating stability of materials and

  15. Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

  16. Surface cyclotron O-modes at harmonics of electron cyclotron frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of surface waves is of great interest in the branches of plasma physics and solid state physics due to their numerous applications. Surface waves are also widely used in plasma chemistry and technology. RF and microwave gas discharges produced and sustained by surface modes can be useful in semiconductor processing, in pumping laser media, in plasma production, and so on. Application of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) for plasma production is also intensively studied. To describe ECR theoretically one cannot use hydrodynamic approach, only solving the kinetic equation allows to account adequately the effect of finite sizes of Larmor radius of the charged plasma particles. ECR discharges are widely utilized for different technological purposes and even for cleaning inner walls in fusion devices. The goals of the present report are to describe the dispersion properties of the surface cyclotron O-modes, parameters of the gas discharge sustained by these modes and possibility to excite these O-modes by charged particle flow. The SCOM dispersion properties can be studied using kinetic description. Magnitude of their eigenfrequency is mainly determined by the value of external steady magnetic field Bo vector and it is weakly depending on the plasma density. Possibility to apply the SCOM for sustaining microwave gas discharge was shown in the literature. Kinetic modeling is the most correct method for the research into the gas discharges, but it is very expensive in computer time. That is why here we study the properties of the SCOM analytically in the case of main ECR. In conclusion it was shown that SCOM can propagate in bounded magnetoactive plasma in addition to TM and X modes of this type. The SCOM can be excited by charged particle beam propagating above the plasma interface. Their propagation can be a reason of edge plasma heating in fusion devices and they can be applied for sustaining plasma in microwave gas discharge. To sustain a large plasma

  17. Dynamic regimes of cyclotron instability in the afterglow mode of minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, D.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Tarvainen, O.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the dynamic regimes of cyclotron instabilities in non-equilibrium plasma of a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source operated in pulsed mode. The instability appears in decaying ion source plasma shortly (1-10 ms) after switching off the microwave radiation of the klystron, and manifests itself in the form of powerful pulses of electromagnetic emission associated with precipitation of high-energy electrons along the magnetic field lines. Recently it was shown that this plasma instability causes perturbations of the extracted ion current, which limits the performance of the ion source and generates strong bursts of bremsstrahlung emission. In this article we present time-resolved diagnostics of electromagnetic emission bursts related to cyclotron instability in the decaying plasma. The temporal resolution is sufficient to study the fine structure of the dynamic spectra of the electromagnetic emission at different operating regimes of the ion source. It was found that at different values of magnetic field and heating power the dynamic spectra demonstrate common features: Decreasing frequency from burst to burst and an always falling tone during a single burst of instability. The analysis has shown that the instability is driven by the resonant interaction of hot electrons, distributed between the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) zone and the trap center, with slow extraordinary wave propagation quasi-parallel with respect to the external magnetic field.

  18. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. (Includes executive summary). Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project indicate that there are an estimated 50.8 million trees in the Chicago area of Cook and DuPage Counties; 66 percent of these trees rated in good or excellent condition. During 1991, trees in the Chicago area removed an estimated 6,145 tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing valued at $9.2 million dollars. These trees also sequester approximately 155,000 tons of carbon per year, and provide residential heating and cooling energy savings that, in turn, reduce carbon emissions from power plants by about 12,600 tons annually. Shade, lower summer air temperatures, and a reduction in windspeed associated with increasing tree cover by 10 percent can lower total heating and cooling energy use by 5 to 10 percent annually ($50 to $90 per dwelling unit). The projected net present value of investment in planting and care of 95,000 trees in Chicago is $38 million ($402 per planted tree), indicating that the long-term benefits of trees are more than twice their costs

  19. Numerical simulation and analysis of the April 2013 Chicago Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin; Wang, Jiali

    2015-12-01

    The weather event associated to record Chicago floods on April 2013 is investigated by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Observations at Argonne National Laboratory and multi-sensor (weather radar and rain gauge) precipitation data from the National Weather Service were employed to evaluate the model's performance. The WRF model captured the synoptic-scale atmospheric features well, but the simulated 24-h accumulated precipitation and short-period temporal evolution of precipitation over the heavy-rain region were less successful. To investigate the potential reasons for the model bias, four supplementary sensitivity experiments using various microphysics schemes and cumulus parameterizations were designed. Of the five tested parameterizations, the WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) graupel scheme and Kain-Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization outperformed the others, such as Grell-Dévényi (GD) cumulus parameterization, which underestimated the precipitation by 30-50% on a regional-average scale. Morrison microphysics and KF outperformed the others for the spatial patterns of 24-h accumulated precipitation. The spatial correlation between observation and Morrison-KF was 0.45, higher than those for other simulations. All of the simulations underestimated the precipitation over northeastern Illinois (especially at Argonne) during 0400-0800 UTC 18 April because of weak ascending motion or small moisture. All of the simulations except WSM6-GD also underestimated the precipitation during 1200-1600 UTC 18 April because of weak southerly flow.

  20. A summary of the XAFS X Conference in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On August 10-14, 1998, the 10th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS X) was held on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus in Chicago. This is one of the major synchrotron radiation conferences, held every two years since 1981 when the first international meeting of XAFS experts was held in Daresbury, coincident with the operation of the first of the second-generation dedicated synchrotron radiation sources. The XAFS conferences have evolved over the years with the more recent conferences covering not only the advances in instrumentation, theory and method but also their applications in disciplines ranging from biological to environmental sciences. Approximately 360 scientists from 23 countries attended the conference. The program consisted of 467 abstracts for plenary talks, invited talks, contributed talks, and posters. The co-chairs for the conference were B. Bunker, S. Heald, and T. Morrison and the Program Chair was J. Penner-Hahn. The first IXS award for career contributions to the field was presented to F. Lytle who gave a plenary talk on 'The EXAFS Family Tree: History of the Development of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy'. In addition, awards were given for the best poster by a young scientist at each session. The winners were M. Duff, D. Cabaret and S. Rossano. The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) also sponsored poster prizes for the best posters in the areas of biology and instrumentation and methods. These winners were A. Templeton and M. Suzuki

  1. Health department use of social media to identify foodborne illness - Chicago, Illinois, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Mansour, Raed; Choucair, Bechara; Olson, Joe; Nissen, Cory; Bhatt, Jay

    2014-08-15

    An estimated 55 million to 105 million persons in the United States experience acute gastroenteritis caused by foodborne illness each year, resulting in costs of $2-$4 billion annually. Many persons do not seek treatment, resulting in underreporting of the actual number of cases and cost of the illnesses. To prevent foodborne illness, local health departments nationwide license and inspect restaurants and track and respond to foodborne illness complaints. New technology might allow health departments to engage with the public to improve foodborne illness surveillance. For example, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene examined restaurant reviews from an online review website to identify foodborne illness complaints. On March 23, 2013, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) and its civic partners launched FoodBorne Chicago, a website (https://www.foodbornechicago.org) aimed at improving food safety in Chicago by identifying and responding to complaints on Twitter about possible foodborne illnesses. In 10 months, project staff members responded to 270 Twitter messages (tweets) and provided links to the FoodBorne Chicago complaint form. A total of 193 complaints of possible foodborne illness were submitted through FoodBorne Chicago, and 133 restaurants in the city were inspected. Inspection reports indicated 21 (15.8%) restaurants failed inspection, and 33 (24.8%) passed with conditions indicating critical or serious violations. Eight tweets and 19 complaint forms to FoodBorne Chicago described seeking medical treatment. Collaboration between public health professionals and the public via social media might improve foodborne illness surveillance and response. CDPH is working to disseminate FoodBorne Chicago via freely available open source software. PMID:25121710

  2. The internal target assembly for the cyclotron AIC-144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance the amounts (activities) of isotopes produced on the isochronous cyclotron AIC-144 in Cracow, a new internal target assembly has been designed and built in the Institute. The internal space of the target head is efficiently cooled with water. Metallic supports with materials for irradiations are loaded mechanically to the transition chamber which is further connected with the vacuum chamber of the cyclotron. The radial movement of the target head as well as the vertical and horizontal movements of the target support are operated with 3 stepper motors. To reduce radiation risk for the personnel, hand operations have been almost eliminated owing to full automation by OMRON industrial controllers. The assembly has been recently tested for 9 possible breakdown stats, and passed all of them in the simulated activation conditions. (author)

  3. Materials surfaces studies using cyclotron accelerated 14 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of Cyclotron Laboratory efforts to broaden the range of nuclear methods' applications to materials science using various charged particles, nitrogen-14 has been accelerated using the subharmonic regime (10-14 MeV for 14 N 3+ at 11,300 - 13,000 k Hz and B = 11.5 - 13.3 kGs). Results concerning the RBS characterization of metallic glass multilayer structures and Ni - Cr alloys using 14 N ions are presented. A comparison between RBS method performances using alpha particles and nitrogen-14 ions accelerated at the IPNE Cyclotron is also made. Possible new uses of 14 N ion beams, especially in metallic surface treatment, are discussed. (Author)

  4. Vortex dynamics and shear layer instability in high intensity cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Cerfon, Antoine J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the space charge dynamics of high intensity beams in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field in cyclotrons is described by the two-dimensional Euler equations for an incompressible fluid. This analogy with fluid dynamics gives a unified and intuitive framework to explain the beam spiraling and beam break up behavior observed in experiments and in simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that beam break up is the result of a classical instability occurring in fluids subject to a sheared flow. We give scaling laws for the instability and predict the nonlinear evolution of beams subject to it. Our work suggests that cyclotrons may be uniquely suited for the experimental study of shear layers and vortex distributions that are not achievable in Penning-Malmberg traps.

  5. Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

    2014-02-01

    The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

  6. Beam orbit storage effect in the isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BOS-effect is useful to apply in many isochronous cyclotron operated for today. Some general advantages are pointed out below: 1) the storage orbits effect may be utilized in order to increasing the internal space charge in a given extraction zone (for instance medical isotope production and other applications on internal beam); 2) returning of the unextracted beam to the space of quasi stable acceleration region (n ≥ 0), will caused decreasing activity of construction elements of cyclotron. This is very important problem by exploitation on high intensity internal beams; 3) because of avoiding the internal beam losses on constructions elements, as well longitudinal extension of the beam and also change of the angle in radial emittance during the second accelerations process it is to expect a magnifying of the extracted beam. (author). 7 refs, 21 figs

  7. A pythonic integrated solution for virtual prototyping of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual prototyping (VP) is a novel technique in engineering, which is desired to be applied to cyclotron design and development. Some sub-prototyping components, including beam dynamics, magnet, RF system and control system of cyclotrons, have been developed separately, but an integrated platform which encapsulates these different components is required for global system optimization. Considering that the VP integrated platform is a large-scale software and has numerous loose-coupled components, this paper describes the pythonic approach to implement this platform. By mixing the high-level interpreted Python language and the compiled languages like Fortran/C/C++ in an effective method, this approach can achieve a combination of code efficiency, flexibility and compactness

  8. Current performance of the self-extracting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-extracting cyclotron is a 14MeV multi-mA H+ machine from which the beam extracts without a deflector. The development of this prototype has started in 1998, and has now reached a point such that IBA considers to use it as a production machine. It is now installed in an irradiation facility and is equipped with two beam lines and two high power target-system. Beams of more than 1 mA have been extracted and transported to targets Further development is ongoing in order to increase the current on target to at least 2 mA in the coming months. Commercial isotope production will start at the end of this year. This paper will describe the current configuration of the cyclotron and the associated performances. Emphases will be put on reliability and associated problems, beam optics and performances of sub-systems

  9. Verification of the shielding built for a Cyclotron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) resolution 112/2011, administrative controls must be applied during the construction of a cyclotron and documents must be created showing that the facility can operate without radiological risks, referring even to the shielding efficiency. This study aimed to perform the analysis of the construction and efficiency of the bunker built for shielding, in the cyclotron of University of Sao Paulo Medical School Health System. This was possible through the measurements of a radiometric survey in normal working conditions, and testing related to compression resistance and density. The results showed that the compression resistance of the concrete used is higher than the expected value and the average density value obtained is within the tolerated limits. The radiometric survey results showed that the levels of ionizing radiation are well below the established limits. (author)

  10. Examination of the plasma located in PSI Ring Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, N. J.; Adelmann, A.; Schneider, M.; Stingelin, L.

    2016-06-01

    A plasma has been observed inside the vacuum chamber of the PSI Ring Cyclotron. This ionized gas cloud may be a substantial contributor to several interior components having reduced lifetimes. The plasma's generation has been directly linked to the voltage that is applied to the Flat Top cavity through visual confirmation using CCD cameras. A spectrometer was used to correlate the plasma's intensity and ignition to the Flat Top cavity voltage as well as to determine the composition of the plasma. This paper reports on the analysis of the plasma using spectroscopy. The spectrometer data was analyzed to determine the composition of the plasma and that the plasma intensity (luminosity) directly corresponds to the Flat Top voltage. The results show that the plasma is comprised of elements consistent with the cyclotrons vacuum interior.

  11. Physics of electron cyclotron current drive on DIII-D

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, C C; Harvey, R W; Kinsey, J E; Lao, L L; Lohr, J; Luce, T C; Makowski, M A; Prater, R

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage. The narrow width of the measured ECCD profile is consistent with only low levels of radial transport for the current carrying electrons.

  12. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  13. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B

    2000-01-01

    We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra

  14. Micro computer aided beam transport for the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improvement of the beam transport system for the SF cyclotron is described. The system was designed to handle on-line alignment of the beam extracted from the SF cyclotron onto the optical axis of the transport line. It also enables to measure the beam emittance. The measurement of the emittance parameters is in particular necessary to calculate the beam optics. The calculation has been modified to become easy to handle. With the help of the computer-aided on-line beam profile measurement system, the operation of the beam transport system is very subservient to shorten the beam-tuning time and to improve the beam-transmission efficiency and the quality. (author)

  15. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 μs. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array. Unlike conventional ECE diagnostics, the sample volumes of the ECE imaging system are aligned vertically, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the local oscillator frequency, making possible 2D measurements of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. The poloidal/radial wavenumber spectra and correlation lengths of Te fluctuations in the plasma core can also be obtained by properly positioning the focal plane of the imaging system. Due to these unique features, ECE imaging is an ideal tool for plasma transport study. Technical details of the system are described, together with preliminary experimental results. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-1958), Cyclotron and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William T.

    2005-09-01

    On August 8, 2001, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory celebrated the centennial of the birth of its founder (and namesake), Ernest Orlando Lawrence. For the occasion, many speeches were given and old speeches were remembered. We recall the words of the late Luis Alvarez, a Nobel Laureate and one of the Lawrence's closest colleagues: ''Lawrence will always be remembered as the inventor of the cyclotron, but more importantly, he should be remembered as the inventor of the modern way of doing science''. J. L. Heilbron and R. W. Seidel, in the introduction of their book, ''Lawrence and His Laboratory'' stated, ''The motives and mechanisms that shaped the growth of the Laboratory helped to force deep changes in the scientific estate and in the wider society. In the entrepreneurship of its founder, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, these motives, mechanisms, and changes came together in a tight focus. He mobilized great and small philanthropists, state and local governments, corporations, and plutocrats, volunteers and virtuosos. The work they supported, from astrophysics and atomic bombs, from radiochemistry to nuclear medicine, shaped the way we observe, control, and manipulate our environment.'' Indeed, all over the civilized world, the ways we do science changed forever after Lawrence built his famed Radiation Laboratory. In this editorial, we epitomize his legacy of changing the way we do medicine, thereby affecting the health and well being of all humanity. This year marks the 75th anniversary of the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley. Lawrence conceived the idea of the cyclotron early in 1929 after reading an article by Rolf Wideroe on high-energy accelerators. In the spring of 1930 one of his students, Nels Edlefsen, constructed two crude models of a cyclotron. Later in the fall of the same year, another student, M. Stanley Livingston

  17. Nonlinear particle simulation of ion cyclotron waves in toroidal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuley, A., E-mail: akuley@uci.edu; Lin, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, CA-92697 (United States); Bao, J. [Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, CA-92697 (United States); Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y. [Institute of Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-12-10

    Global particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the nonlinear interactions of radio frequency (RF) waves with plasmas in tokamak. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation with realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio. Boris push scheme for the ion motion has been developed in the toroidal geometry using magnetic coordinates and successfully verified for the ion cyclotron and ion Bernstein waves in global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The nonlinear simulation capability is applied to study the parametric decay instability of a pump wave into an ion Bernstein wave side band and a low frequency ion cyclotron quasi mode.

  18. Electron cyclotron emission and absorption experiment on the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cyclotron radiation and absorption measurements on the CASTOR tokamak are reported. Emission spectra were obtained using fast-scanning Fourier spectrometer and InSb detectors, operating in the spectral range 30 to 300 GHz and receiving two orthogonal polarization components simultaneously. In the high plasma loop voltage runaway electrons gave rise to an intense broad-band emission. Runaway particles can be removed by increasing the plasma density. The electron temperature profile was deduced from thermal emission and absorption around second cyclotron harmonics. From the second and third harmonics of the non-thermal emission the energy and number of non-thermal particles can be calculated. During the lower-hybrid-current-drive (LHCD) experiments, the presence of 60 keV electrons with density of 1.1016 m-3 was deduced from emission spectra. (author). 5 figs., 6 refs

  19. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewha...... smaller than that of the beam. The dispersion relation was in good agreement with theory.......Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  20. Examination of the Plasma located in PSI Ring Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, Nathaniel; Schneider, Markus; Stingelin, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    A plasma has been observed inside the vacuum chamber of the PSI Ring Cyclotron. This ionized gas cloud maybe a substantial contributor to several interior components having reduced lifetimes. The plasma's generation has been directly linked to the voltage that is applied to the Flat Top Cavity through visual confirmation using CCD cameras. A spectrometer was used to correlate the plasma's intensity and ignition to the Flat Top Cavity voltage as well as to determine the composition of the plasma. This paper reports on the analysis of the plasma using spectroscopy. The spectrometer data was analyzed to determine the composition of the plasma and that the plasma intensity (luminosity) directly corresponds to the Flat Top voltage. The results showed that the plasma was comprised of elements consistent with the cyclotrons vacuum interior

  1. Microcomputer based control system for the TAMU K-500 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parallel processor control system is being implemented for the K-500 superconducting cyclotron at TAMU. It consists of 10 cost effective personal computers communicating via a local area network. The cyclotron hardware is interfaced to the control system through IEEE-696 (STD bus) I/O cards and a memory mapped, tristate parallel data bus. Most of the software is being written in FORTH. Specific programs for each processor are compiled using tabular information extracted from a database describing the controls and accelerator hardware interfaces. This approach provides considerable flexibility in adapting the software to changing hardware configurations while eliminating the usual computational bottlenecks associated with an on-line data base. (orig.)

  2. Review of The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers by Jane E. Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Lutsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Miller, J. E. 2004. The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 304 pp. Cloth $45 ISBN: 9780226526300, Softcover $17. ISBN: 9780226526317.The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers is a reference work suitable for anyone interested in understanding, using, or promoting quantitative thinking. Its primary aim is to identify and illustrate ways in which information associated with numbers can be conveyed most effectively given a particular communication purpose and context. The book is directed at writers who incorporate numbers in verbal or visual displays in documents, in oral presentations, or on the Web. The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers identifies overarching principles, offers concrete advice, and presents illuminating examples and models. The book can be used for instructional purposes for undergraduates, and a means of doing so is described. The review concludes by considering the book’s contributions to a wider call to help citizens write or argue more effectively by using numbers.

  3. Lessons Learned from Chicago Wilderness—Implementing and Sustaining Conservation Management in an Urban Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wise

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the factors that shaped the biodiversity of Chicago and its hinterland and point out the conservation significance of these ecological systems, addressing why conservation of Chicago’s biodiversity has importance locally and beyond. We highlight Chicago Wilderness (CW, a regional biodiversity conservation alliance committed to protecting nature and enriching the lives of the region’s residents. Chicago Wilderness, with over 250 institutional members, has for over a decade coordinated the efforts of diverse institutions, including federal, state, and local agencies, public land-management agencies, conservation organizations, and scientific and cultural institutions. Chicago Wilderness is committed to using science and emerging knowledge as a foundation for its conservation work. CW has several specialist teams that promote an interdisciplinary approach to conservation; we focus on the work of the CW Science Team, the one team with a research mission. The scientific investigations that are undertaken to provide a knowledge base for the work of Chicago Wilderness have drawn upon a wide variety of conservation paradigms, including that of resilience thinking, which we illustrate in a series of case studies.

  4. Dispersion relation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves using Cluster observations

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhotin, I. P.; S. N. Walker; Shprits, Y. Y.; Balikhin, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-point wave observations on Cluster spacecraft are used to infer the dispersion relation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. In this study we use a phase differencing method and observations from STAFF and WHISPER during a well-studied event of 30 March 2002. The phase differencing method requires the knowledge of the direction of the wave vector, which was obtained using minimum variance analysis. Wave vector amplitudes were calculated for a number of frequencies to infer the...

  5. Radionuclide production and radiopharmaceutical chemistry with BNL cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) radiopharmaceutical chemistry program focuses on production and utilization of radionuclides having a half-life of > 2 hr. However, a major portion of the BNL program is devoted to short-lived radionuclides, such as 11C and 18F. Activities encompassed in the program are classified into seven areas: cyclotron parameters, radiochemistry, design and rapid synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled compounds, radiotracer evaluation in animals, studies in humans, technology transfer, and several other areas

  6. Radio frequency system of the RIKEN ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-frequency system of the RIKEN ring cyclotron (K = 540) is required to work in a frequency range of 20 to 45 MHz and to generate the maximum acceleration voltage 250 kV. A new movable box type variable frequency resonator was designed for that purpose. The final amplifier is capable of supplying RF power of 300 kW. The whole system had been installed at RIKEN in September 1986 and has been working well. (author)

  7. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Automatic system for driving probes of electron cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic system for driving six probes used on electron model of the ring cyclotron is described. This system allows one to move probes one by one or simultaneously. The active forcing of the process of switching on of the current in phase windings is used a driving scheme of step-motors. The shift of probes from one radius to other can be carried out both from the front panel of driving device (autonomous regime), and from the computer

  9. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Pasmanik; A. G. Demekhov; V. Y. Trakhtengerts; M. Parrot

    2004-01-01

    Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The ma...

  10. Topologically-protected entanglement of electron pair cyclotron motions

    OpenAIRE

    Champel, T.; Hernangómez-Pérez, D.; Florens, S.

    2015-01-01

    Considering two-dimensional electron gases under a perpendicular magnetic field, we pinpoint a specific kind of long-range bipartite entanglement of the electronic motions. This entanglement is achieved through the introduction of bicomplex spinorial eigenfunctions admitting a polar decomposition in terms of a real modulus and three real phases. Within this bicomplex geometry the cyclotron motions of two electrons are intrinsically tied, so that the highlighted eigenstates of the kinetic ener...

  11. Multimegawatt DAE$\\delta$ALUS Cyclotrons for Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abs, M; Alonso, J R; Barletta, W A; Barlow, R; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Celona, L; Conrad, J M; Gammino, S; Kleeven, W; Koeth, T; Maggiore, M; Okuno, H; Piazza, L A C; Seidel, M; Shaevitz, M H; Stingelin, L; Yang, J J; Yeck, J

    2012-01-01

    DAE$\\delta$ALUS (Decay-At-rest Experiment for $\\delta_{CP}$ studies At the Laboratory for Underground Science) provides a new approach to the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector. High-power continuous-wave proton cyclotrons efficiently provide the necessary proton beams with an energy of up to 800 MeV to create neutrinos from pion and muon decay-at-rest. The experiment searches for $\\bar{\

  12. Ion cyclotron harmonics in the Saturn downward current auroral region

    OpenAIRE

    Menietti, J.D.; Schippers, P.; Santolík, O; Gurnett, D. A.; Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of intense upgoing electron beams and diffuse ion beams have been reported during a pass by Cassini in a downward current auroral region, nearby a source region of Saturn kilometric radiation. Using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument low frequency waveform receiver and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation (CAPS) instrument we have been able to identify ion cyclotron harmonic waves associated with the particle beams. These observations indicate si...

  13. Ion sources for RFQ accelerators and for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion sources used in conjunction with low energy accelerators, either RF quadrupole linacs or small cyclotrons, are reviewed. The topics covered include low energy accelerators used as injectors to larger accelerators, ion sources for low and medium currents of heavy ions, high-current heavy ion sources, ion sources for pulsed high currents of light ions, and new developments in ion sources such as beams of radioactive ions

  14. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Electron-cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a new plasma startup scenario in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target ("seed plasma"), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and bu...

  16. Occupational radioprotection in the cyclotron laboratory radioisotope production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is operated mainly for radioisotope production, neutron production studies and irradiation damage analysis. The risks associated to the activities developed in these laboratories are exposition to beta, neutron and gama radiation and contamination. The radioprotection program adapted are presented briefly and the results of the air and surface contamination analysis, liquid efluents and dose equivalent of the workers in 1988 are shown. (author)

  17. Cyclotron, positrons and PET [positron emission tomography]. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET (positron emission tomography) is a powerful new scientific tool which is capable of revealing biochemical transformations while they are occurring in the brain and other organs in the living human body. The application of PET to problems in biology and medicine is dominated by the short half-life of the isotopes used to prepare the radiotracers. The most commonly used positron emitting isotopes are carbon-11, fluorine-18, nitrogen-13, and oxygen-15 which have half-lives of 20.4, 110, 10 and 2 minutes, respectively. Their incorporation into radiotracers having diverse chemical structures and biochemical specificities has allowed the study of blood flow, sugar metabolism, oxygen metabolism, neurotransmission, enzyme activity and binding sites for therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse. PET research is most commonly carried out at a Cyclotron-PET Center (cyclotron, positron emission tomography, chemistry laboratory) where the short-lived isotopes can be produced and used efficiently. The number of Cyclotron-PET Centers has grown from 4 in 1976 to several dozen in 1988 and the number is expected to double in the next five years attesting to the vitality of the field and the current and anticipated contributions to research in biology and medicine

  18. PET cyclotron design for decommissioning and waste inventory reduction - 16098

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we will examine the decommissioning and radioactive waste implications of a hypothetical cyclotron facility. from conception through design into operation and finally decommissioning. Supported by the computer codes MCNPX, MCNP and FISPACT we illustrate the induced activity in the cyclotron pit walls. Using the computer codes it is possible to highlight the problems associated with neutron activation of the cyclotron pit walls and the need for specialist shielding materials, such as boronated polyethylene. Using MCNP it is possible to design a vault for cost effective decommissioning through the use of sacrificial layers. This code allows the likely degree of activation and penetration of activation products to be quantified and hence gives an idea of waste disposal costs. In summary, a dedicated PET facility will challenge most RPAs. A wide range of skills are needed which encompass practical operational procedures, through specialist shielding design using Monte Carlo codes to the ability to appear confident to Regulators who may be finding the experience the same steep learning curve. (authors)

  19. Neutron spectra due 13N production in a PET cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during 13N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1 MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for 18F production in a previous work. - Highlights: • MCNPX code was used to estimate the neutron spectra in a PET cyclotron. • Neutrons were estimated when 13N is produced. • Neutron spectra show evaporation and room-return neutrons. • Calculated H*(10) were compared with measured H*(10)

  20. RF control hardware design for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Pengzhan; Wei, Junyi; Xing, Jiansheng; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-01

    The Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility project is being constructed by BRIF division of China Institute of Atomic Energy. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity compact proton cyclotron is built for multiple applications. The first successful beam extraction of CYCIAE-100 cyclotron was done in the middle of 2014. The extracted proton beam energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is more than 20 μA. The RF system of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron includes two half-wavelength cavities, two 100 kW tetrode amplifiers and power transmission line systems (all above are independent from each other) and two sets of Low Level RF control crates. Each set of LLRF control includes an amplitude control unit, a tuning control unit, a phase control unit, a local Digital Signal Process control unit and an Advanced RISC Machines based EPICS IOC unit. These two identical LLRF control crates share one common reference clock and take advantages of modern digital technologies (e.g. DSP and Direct Digital Synthesizer) to achieve closed loop voltage and phase regulations of the dee-voltage. In the beam commission, the measured dee-voltage stability of RF system is better than 0.1% and phase stability is better than 0.03°. The hardware design of the LLRF system will be reviewed in this paper.

  1. Present status of the ring cyclotron vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, is the cascade type, in which the AVF cyclotron that started the operation about 20 years ago is used as the injector, and the ring cyclotron that was completed three years ago is used as the booster, and it has been jointly utilized mainly for the research on atomic nucleus physics. These two cyclotrons are different in their performances and constitution of machinery and equipment, such as the construction of vacuum tanks, sealing types, the kinds of vacuum pumps and the arrangement, but commonness was given to the design concept, operation method, the control of operation, the interlock for the protection of equipment and so on, thus consideration was given to contribute to the operation, monitoring and maintenance by operators. The constitution of the vacuum tanks and their connection, pneumatic expansion seal and the structural materials of the vacuum tanks are described. The constitution of the evacuating system, the operation and monitoring are explained. In three years, the time of the operation of the evacuating system reached 20,000 hours. The degree of attained vacuum has been as designed, and the operation has been carried out satisfactorily without trouble. There was not long stoppage. (K.I.)

  2. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  3. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  4. The electron cyclotron absorption diagnostic at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 20-channel electron cyclotron absorption diagnostic has been developed at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project. It is the first time the electron pressure profile in a tokamak plasma can be measured directly with a time resolution of 1 ms. The diagnostic measures simultaneously the emission and absorption of the second harmonic electron cyclotron frequencies. Microwaves are injected from the high field side and detected at the low field side in the equatorial midplane. The transmitted power is measured after a single pass through the plasma column. The absorption measurements are complicated by nonresonant losses: refraction of the injected microwaves (losses up to 100%), and scattering of microwaves by density fluctuations (losses 2% - 3%). A fast algorithm has been developed to obtain a quantitative measure for these nonresonant losses. This calculation method is based on a parametrization of the experimental data. Combining the electron cyclotron absorption (ECA) measurements and the parametrization provides a reliable tool for determining the optical depth, the electron temperature, and the electron pressure. A good agreement was found between pressure and temperature profiles, measured with ECA and other diagnostics. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work of the Principal Investigator has continued on the development, use and dissemination of numerical tools required in both the planning of electron cyclotron heating experiments and in answering physics questions associated with those experiments. The TORCH code which evolved from the earlier TORAY code has been linked with the BALDUR 11/2 D transport and equilibrium code. This allows us to carry out combined electron cyclotron ray tracing and transport studies for the Compact Ignition Tokamak. Moreover, our concern has not only been with propagation of electron cyclotron radiation into the plasma and the deposition of this radiation there, but also with the excitation and presence of synchrotron radiation and the propagation of that radiation out of the plasma. The ray tracing codes that have been developed for studying ECH heating and current drive, have been generalized and used in our studies to trace the path of synchrotron radiation. This allows us to examine in detail the background as well as the enhanced radiation signals that are detected at the edge of the plasma

  6. Target development for diversified irradiations at a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation facility at an old medical cyclotron (Ep=17 MeV; Ed=10 MeV) was upgraded by extending the beam line and incorporation of solid state targetry. Tests performed to check the quality of the available beam are outlined. Results on nuclear data measurements and improvement of radiochemical separations are described. Using solid targets, with the proton beam falling at a slanting angle of 20°, a few radionuclides, e.g. 75Se, 120I, 124I, etc. were produced with medium currents (up to 20 µA) in no-carrier-added form in quantities sufficient for local use. The extended irradiation facility has considerably enhanced the utility of the medical cyclotron. - Highlights: • Extension of the beam line of an old medical cyclotron. • Incorporation of solid state targetr. • Development of divers target holder systems. • Tests performed to check quality of beam shape, intensity and energy. • Usefulness of the new facility demonstrated by diversified irradiations

  7. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  8. Resonant Cyclotron Scattering and Comptonization in Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, M; Lyutikov, Maxim; Gavriil, Fotis P.

    2006-01-01

    Resonant cyclotron scattering of the surface radiation in the magnetospheres of neutron stars may considerably modify the emergent spectra and impede efforts to constraint neutron star properties. Resonant cyclotron scattering by a non-relativistic warm plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field has a number of unusual characteristics: (i) in the limit of high resonant optical depth, the cyclotron resonant layer is half opaque, in sharp contrast to the case of non-resonant scattering. (ii) The transmitted flux is on average Compton up-scattered by ~ $1+ 2 beta_T$, where $\\beta_T$ is the typical thermal velocity in units of the velocity of light; the reflected flux has on average the initial frequency. (iii) For both the transmitted and reflected fluxes the dispersion of intensity decreases with increasing optical depth. (iv) The emergent spectrum is appreciably non-Plankian while narrow spectral features produced at the surface may be erased. (v) Optical photons are less affected by resonant Comptonization tha...

  9. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  10. Sustaining Chicago's Informal Caregivers: an Age-Friendly Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Hofacker, Jon; Boyken, Lara; Eisenstein, Amy

    2016-08-01

    The concept of age-friendliness has been globally coined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to give value to the physical, social, and environmental factors that can promote or hinder older residents' ability to age in place in cities. The initiative has been very successful in raising awareness among public health policy makers about the generic needs of older adults and urban features that promote active aging. However, the movement has been less focused on highlighting divergent needs of different older adult populations and their informal caregivers. The objective of this mixed method study is to analyze the ratings of 397 caregivers of urban age-friendly features relative to the ratings of 1737 noncaregivers collected as part of a baseline assessment of the age-friendliness of the city of Chicago. Using the approved WHO Vancouver Protocol, the research team also conducted six mixed caregiver/noncaregiver focus groups (n = 84) and three caregiver-only focus groups (n = 21). Survey findings show that informal caregivers rate all eight age-friendly domains with less satisfaction than do noncaregivers. Discussion in focus groups highlighted some of the reasons for these less favorable ratings and foregrounded the domains and themes that mattered most to caregivers. In conclusion, while our study revealed few systematic differences between caregiver and noncaregiver survey satisfaction ratings, caregivers report significantly poorer health than do noncaregivers. In addition, caregiver-only focus groups foregrounded "missing" priority issues specific to caregivers such as respite and the quality of training and flexibility of home help care. Results suggest that one productive next step for researchers would be to widen the usual range of factors considered essential for maintaining the well-being of informal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults. The age-friendly domains provide a starting point for this. Another would be to develop integrated

  11. Atmospheric tracer study of the emissions from the University of Michigan Cyclotron/PET Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Michigan (U of M) Cyclotron/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) facility consists of a cyclotron (Model CS-30, The Cyclotron Corporation), radiochemistry laboratory, and Pet scanner. Accelerator-produced radioactive materials, such as, carbon-11 and oxygen-15 are typically emitted from the Cyclotron/PET facility through short stacks located on the roof. This project studied the dispersion of emissions from the facility within the medical complex. To achieve this purpose, the research project had three phases: a physical modeling study; a preliminary field smoke release study; and, a field study using a tracer gas to simulate emission dispersion from the U of M Cyclotron/PET facility vault stack. The objective was to determine normalized concentrations, under selected wind directions and speeds, for use in establishing radionuclide concentrations at the air intakes of the Cyclotron/PET facility and surrounding buildings and at selected ground-level locations

  12. Considerations, measurements and logistics associated with low-energy cyclotron decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Iowa’s 20-year-old 17 MeV Scanditronix cyclotron underwent decommissioning in the summer of 2011. To satisfy local, state and federal regulations defining removal, transportation and long-term safe and environmentally secure disposal of the 22 ton activated cyclotron, a series of nuclear spectroscopic measurements were performed to characterize the nature and extent of proton and neutron activation of the 22-ton cyclotron, its associated targets, and the concrete wall that was demolished to remove the old cyclotron. Neutron activation of the concrete wall was minimal and below exempt concentrations resulting in standard landfill disposal. The cyclotron assessment revealed the expected array of short and medium-lived radionuclides. Subsequent calculations suggest that meaningful levels residual activity will have decayed virtually to background after 15 years, with the total residual activity of the entire cyclotron dropping below 37 MBq (1 mCi).

  13. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... below, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety..., mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  14. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this... regulations in Sec. 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  15. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any..., transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  16. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ..., transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or..., transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  17. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  18. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ..., mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this... including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  19. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any..., transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  20. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this.... 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within the enforced area... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  1. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... zone that is not being enforced. Entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within an... general regulations in Sec. 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  2. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of ] this..., transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  3. 77 FR 38882 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Corridor Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... process. IDOT proposes to improve high speed passenger rail service between Chicago, Illinois and St..., Alton, IL, Joliet, IL, and Bloomington, IL at times and dates to be announced on the High Speed...

  4. 77 FR 69920 - Notice of Availability of a Final Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ..., for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Corridor Program and Tier 2 Evaluation for the... (Final EIS) has been prepared for the Chicago, Illinois to St. Louis, Missouri High Speed Rail Corridor..., Missouri high-speed rail corridor and a Tier 2 project-level evaluation for the portion of the......

  5. Chicago neoliberalism versus Cowles planning: perspectives on patents and public goods in Cold War economic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Robert; Klaes, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In post-Sputnik America, when many policymakers and social scientists feared the Soviet Union had a technological advantage over the United States, assessing the relative importance of patents for inventive activity and examining whether scientific research constituted a public good were paramount concerns. The neoliberals of the University of Chicago and the planners of the Cowles Commission both spoke to these issues. This paper sheds light on their views on patents and public goods in the late 1950s and early 1960s by examining representatives of Cowles and Chicago, Kenneth Arrow and Ronald Coase, respectively. Furthermore, it evaluates whether their views on patents and public goods clashed with the interests of RAND, at which both Arrow and Coase worked at some point during this time period. The paper argues that the Chicago-neoliberal position of Coase undermined the interests of RAND, while the Cowles-planning conclusions of Arrow furthered those interests. PMID:21732377

  6. Observation of a high-confinement regime in a tokamak plasma with ion cyclotron resonance heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Wagner, F.; Wesner, F.; Bäumler, J.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H. S.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Brocken, H.; Eberhagen, A.; Fritsch, R.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; v. Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hofmann, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Izvozchikov, A.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Keilhacker, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lisitano, G.; van Mark, E.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Müller, E. R.; Murmann, H.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Puri, S.; Rapp, H.; Röhr, H.; Ryter, F.; Schmitter, K.-H.; Schneider, F.; Setzensack, C.; Siller, G.; Smeulders, P.; Söldner, F.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Zasche, D.

    1987-01-01

    The H mode in ion cyclotron-resonance-heated plasmas has been investigated with and without additional neutral beam injection. Ion cyclotron-resonance heating can cause the transition into a high-confinement regime (H mode) in combination with beam heating. The H mode, however, has also been realized-for the first time-with ion cyclotron-resonance heating alone in the D (H)-hydrogen minority scheme at an absorbed rf power of 1.1 MW.

  7. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  8. Soil geochemical signature of urbanization and industrialization – Chicago, Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, W.F.; Horton, John D.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 45 elements in ambient (not obviously disturbed) surface soils were determined for 57 sites distributed throughout the city of Chicago, Illinois in the upper Midwestern United States. These concentrations were compared to soils from 105 sites from a largely agricultural region within a 500-km radius surrounding the city and to soils collected from 90 sites across the state of Illinois. Although the bulk composition of the Chicago urban soils reflects largely natural sources, the soils are significantly enriched in many trace elements, apparently from anthropogenic sources. The median concentration of Pb in Chicago soils is 198 mg/kg, a 13-fold enrichment compared to regional concentrations. Zinc (median 235 mg/kg), Cu (59 mg/kg), and Ni (31 mg/kg) are also enriched from 2- to 4-fold in Chicago soils and all four elements show strong mutual correlations. These elevated concentrations are most likely related to vehicular and roadway sources and represent uneven distribution across the city as airborne material. Other airborne particulate material from a combination of fossil fuel combustion, waste incineration, and steel production may contribute to apparent elevated concentrations in Chicago soil of Fe (median 2.9%), Mo (5 mg/kg), V (82 mg/kg) and S (0.09%). Chicago soils are enriched from about 1.6- to 3-fold in these elements. Enrichments in P and Se may be caused by direct addition of phosphate fertilizer to parklands, lawns and gardens. The density of the sampling (1 site per 10 km2) is inadequate to define the distribution of the observed enrichments within the city or to predict soil compositions for most of the areas between sample sites, but does provide a statistically significant signature of the history of urban and industrial activity within the city in contrast to the surrounding agricultural lands.

  9. Intelligent CAE system of CYCLONE type cyclotron main magnet and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main magnet that represents the feature of the cyclotron is the most important part in a cyclotron construction. Though there are many codes devoted to solve magnetic field computation problems, the results from them depend on the user's skill and experience very much. To help cyclotron magnet designer to get acceptable results, an intelligent CAE (computer aided engineering) system for CYCLONE type cyclotron magnet design and machining has been developed. A reasonable good results in the design could be got even if the designer is a beginner, because of the help from an expert knowledge library installed in the program

  10. Intelligent CAE system of CYCLONE type cyclotron main magnet and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main magnet that features the cyclotron is the most important part in a cyclotron construction. Though there are many codes devoted to solving magnetic field computation problems, the results depend on the user's skill and experience very much. To help a cyclotron magnet designer get acceptable results, an intelligent CAE system for CYCLONE type cyclotron magnet design and machining has been developed. Reasonable good results could be got even the designer with the help from an expert knowledge library installed in the program

  11. Wave propagation and absorption near the electron-cyclotron layer in the 'THOR' device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wave propagation and absorption near the electron-cyclotron frequency in a plasma with parameters as expected in the THOR device are considered. Both the ordinary and extraordinary modes are found to be only weakly damped by cyclotron damping. The extraordinary mode launched from the inside of the torus is expected to be completely absorbed at the electron-cyclotron layer via the Bernstein mode generated by mode conversion at the upper-hybrid layer. This study is preliminary to the application of high frequency microwave radiation to plasma heating near the electron-cyclotron frequency in THOR

  12. Program for the Division of Chemical Education: Chicago, March 25 29, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlecamp, Catherine H.; Bodner, George M.; Jones, Wayne E., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Program for the Division of Chemical Education March 2007 meeting in Chicago. All CHED technical sessions including the High School Program will be held in the McCormick Place Convention Complex North, 2301 South Lake Shore Drive. Exceptions are the Undergraduate Program (in the Westin Hotel Michigan Avenue), the Undergraduate Research Poster Sessions (in the Sheraton Chicago Hotel), and any evening programs. Unless otherwise noted, morning sessions begin at 8:30 a.m., afternoon sessions at 1:30 p.m.

  13. Cyclotron operating mode determination based on intelligent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators are generators that produce beams of charged particles with energies depending on the accelerator type. The MGC-20 cyclotron is a cyclic particle accelerator used for accelerating protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and helium-3 to different energies. Main applications are isotopes production, nuclear reactions studies, and mass spectroscopy studies and other industrial applications. The cyclotron is a complicated machine depends on using a strong magnetic field and high frequency-high voltage electric field together to accelerate and bend charged particles inside the accelerating chamber. It consists of the following main parts, the radio frequency system, the main magnet with the auxiliary concentric and harmonic coils, the electrostatic deflector, and the ion source, the beam transport system, and high precision and high stability DC power supplies.To accelerate a particle to certain energy, one has to adjust the cyclotron operating parameters to be suitable to accelerate this particle to that energy. If the cyclotron operating parameters together are adjusted to accelerate a charged particle to certain energy, then these parameters together are named the operating mode to accelerate this particle to that energy. For example the operating mode to accelerate protons to 18 MeV is named the (18 MeV protons operating mode). The operating mode includes many parameters that must be adjusted together to be successful to accelerate, extract, focus, steer a particle from the ion source to the experiment. Due to the big number of parameters in the operating modes, 19 parameters have been selected in this thesis to be used in an intelligent system based on feed forward back propagation neural network to determine the parameters for new operating modes. The new intelligent system depends on the available information about the currently used operating modes.The classic way to determine a new operating mode was depending on trial and error method to

  14. Concepts and strategies to establish a cyclotron/PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliably radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001 (1) , the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing nations was put into evidence This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues up to the present time, and all indications are that it will continue in the next future. The reasons for this growth are several, amongst them it can be mentioned the fact that the technology involved has became more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several of clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries starting with F-18FDG in 1998, and above all, the clear, irrefutable and demonstrable Conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology and to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognized that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET camera can nevertheless be an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planed for installation in a developing country which frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortages of qualify human resources for advance planning and later, to run efficiently the facility. Several are the steps that needs consideration when planning a cyclotron facility, the most critical ones are a careful definition of the mission and scope of the facility including the utilization programme of the facility as a whole, followed by a

  15. Low power density ion cyclotron arrays for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A low power density, high directivity, FW heating and current drive launching structure is proposed for use in a commercial fusion reactor. • The structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall, is modular, unobtrusive and imposes no specific constraints to the blanket functions. • It may significantly reduce the undesirable effects of FW evanescence in the plasma scrape off layer such as increased thermal wall loading, localized hot spots, impurity production, and enhanced E × B0 particles convection. - Abstract: Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF) Heating and Current Drive (H&CD) is a well established technique of auxiliary heating in present tokamaks, as it features high on-axis heating and current drive efficiencies associated with proven and low cost technology. An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is linked to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, possible voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. Further to previous work (Bosia et al., Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Arrays applicable to Current Drive in Fusion Reactors, in: AIP Proc. of 20th Topical Conf on RF Power in plasmas No. 1580, 2013, 215) developing new concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Heating & Current Drive arrays, based on the use of periodic structures, a practical example for an in-blanket IC array for DEMO1 is presented in this study

  16. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  17. Cyclotron resonance precipitation of energetic electrons from the inner magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotron resonance between trapped energetic electrons and VLF waves produces pitch angle scattering which leads to electron precipitation in the inner magnetosphere. Previous experiments have shown that in the drift loss cone at L values from 1.5 to 1.8 energy spectrum of the electrons above 50 keV is often dominated by a single narrow peak. The center energy of this peak varies with L in a manner characteristic of cyclotron resonance between the electrons and monochromatic VLF waves in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. The source of the waves is probably VLF communication or navigation transmitters. The authors report the results of a study of 680 occurrences of these peaks detected by the low altitude polar orbiting satellite S81-1. The present data, from altitudes between 170 and 270 km, show the resonance peaks only in two restricted longitude zones centered at 100E and 300E; this result contrasts with the previous measurements at higher altitudes, which detected peaks over a wide range of longitudes. The majority of nighttime events were near transmitter locations where the cyclotron resonance condition was met by electrons with pitch angles near the edge of the loss cone. Detailed study of the events occurring near 100E reveals a 27-day periodicity in the frequency of occurrence; peaks are most often observed during minima in solar/geomagnetic activity. The peaks observed at nighttime in both longitude zones have a possible seasonal variation, being most frequent when it is wintertime at the site of the VLF transmitters responsible for the precipitation

  18. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  19. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  20. Radiochemical separation methods for preparation of biomedical cyclotron radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review of the radiochemical methods for preparation of widely used or promising cyclotron-produced radionuclides for nuclear medicine and biomedical or environmental studies is given. The presented data include the current status of the production of some gamma-emitters (97Ru, 111In, 123I, 201Tl), generator-pairs (68Ge/68Ga, 82 Sr/82Rb, 128Ba/128Cs, 178W/178Ta), radioisotopes for metabolism studies (26Al, 67Cu, 237Pu) and actinides tracers for environmental researches (235Np, 236Np, 236Pu). The conditions for preparation of high-purity isotopes have been investigated and procedures including target chemistry design were developed. (author)

  1. Alcator C vertical viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cyclotron emission measured vertically through the center of a tokamak plasma yields detailed information about the electron velocity distribution. A diagnostic developed for this purpose on Alcator C tokamak uses specialized focusing optics to obtain a well collimated viewing chord, a compact viewing dump made of pyrex or Macor to reduce the effects of wall reflection and depolarization, and a rapid-scan polarizing Michelson interferometer - InSb detector system for the spectrum measurement; all constrained by the limited access and the compact size of Alcator C. Results of diffraction analysis are used to evaluate the theoretical performance of the optical system

  2. The operator view of the Superconducting Cyclotron at LNS Catania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper level of a distributed control system designed for the Superconducting Cyclotron (SC), will be discussed. In particular, we will present a detailed description of the operator view of this accelerator along with the tools for I/O points management, data representations, data archiving and retrieval. A dedicated program, developed by us, working under X-Window will be described as a starting point for a new man-machine interface approach in small laboratories opposed to the first industrial available packages. (author)

  3. Radio frequency system of the RIKEN ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-frequency system of the RIKEN ring cyclotron is required to work in a frequency range of 20 to 45 MHz and to generate the maximum acceleration voltage of 250 kV. A new movable box-type variable-frequency resonator which is a compact half wave length coaxial type was developed for the above purpose. Each of two resonators is powered by separate RF power amplifier capable of delivering the power of 300 kW. The whole system was installed in September 1986 and has been working successfully. (author)

  4. Frequency-scanning marginal oscillator for ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Paul R.; Bowers, Michael T.

    1982-07-01

    A number of ion cyclotron resonance applications have arisen in the past few years which require a frequency-scanned detection system. Since the traditional marginal oscillator detector has always been a fixed-frequency detector, alternative detection techniques such as bridge circuit detectors have become widely used. In this paper we present an alternative to the bridge detector, namely, a frequency-scanning marginal oscillator. Requirements and modifications necessary to convert a marginal oscillator to frequency scanning operation are discussed in detail and the necessary circuit diagrams presented. Finally, a theoretical comparison is made between bridge circuit and marginal oscillator sensitivities.

  5. Ballistic bunching theory of electron cyclotron resonance masers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, C. W.; Jeon, S. G.; Park, G. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    A bunching parameter which determines the strength of modulation in electron cyclotron resonance masers (ECRM) is derived using a ballistic bunching theory. Unlike klystrons that utilize space bunching, this bunching parameter strongly depends on the beam velocity ratio due to phase bunching in ECRM. The dependencies of the beam velocity ratio ({approx} {alpha}{sup 2}), the interaction length ({approx} d), and the input drive power ({approx} P{sub in}{sup 1/2}) on the bunching parameter are derived. The orbital phase bunching results calculated using the ballistic bunching theory and a large-signal code are compared and show reasonable agreement.

  6. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Akaki, K; Mase, A; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Nagayama, Y; Kwon, M; Kawahata, K

    2010-10-01

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV. PMID:21033948

  7. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Jeong, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Akaki, K.; Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yoshinaga, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV.

  8. Life Sciences at the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the history and present status of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak (CC SR) are presented. A state run scientific center and production facility ensuring: - the basic and applied research in nuclear physics, chemistry, biology and medicine; - production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals; - and applications of heavy ions and electron accelerator technologies in medicine and material science. Current financial status of the CC SR is following: Deblocation of the Russian; Federation debt to the Slovak Republic (94 %); State budget of the Slovak Republic (3 %); IAEA (3 %)

  9. Electron-cyclotron radiation from mirror plasmas. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working code is described which calculates the electron cyclotron emission from the warm and hot electrons in TMX-Upgrade. It has been used to generate spectra and also to investigate the spatial resolution possible to the diagnostic. The code can be used to find the position of the emitting plasma for a given frequency. Calculations were done of the effect on the spectrum in the parallel direction of the hot electrons. The changes in the spectrum with hot electron energy, distribution function, and density were studied. The hot electron perpendicular spectrum has been calculated, and shows the frequencies at which the spectrum can be expected to diagnose the hot electron energy

  10. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV.

  11. A compact accelerating structure for stacked isochronous cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzler, C. R.; Byeon, J.; McIntyre, P. M.; Rogers, Bob; Sattarov, A.

    2003-03-01

    An accelerator-driven thorium cycle power reactor is being developed, based on a flux-coupled stack of isochronous cyclotrons. (IC) The stack consists of seven independent accelerators (total beam power 15 MW at 1 GeV), stacked on a spacing ˜ 20 cm. The close spacing poses unique problems for the design of the accelerating cavities. We have invented a 4-bar RF dipole structure for the purpose. We have built a cold model and are studying its operating characteristics. The structure will be described. We present measurements of the resonant frequency, parasitic capacitances, and electric and magnetic field distributions in the structure.

  12. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  13. Magnetic field measurement system of the VINCY Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the magnetic field measurement system of the VINCY Cyclotron, main part of the TESLA accelerator installation whose construction has been going on in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Measurement system consists of mechanical structure and control unit for the automatic positioning of the measurement probe in the median plane, between the poles of the magnet, and corresponding measuring instrumentation, based on two digital tesla meters. Concept of the measurement system is defined by the TESLA team, while realisation of the measurement system is performed in co-operation with the LOLA Institute. (author)

  14. Genevieve Forbes Herrick: A "Chicago Tribune" Reporter Covers Women in Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda; Gray, Susanne

    Genevieve Forbes Herrick was one of the foremost women reporters of the "Chicago Tribune" during the 1920s and 1930s. Noted for her particular and consistent attention to women in national politics, her earliest political articles appeared in 1922, when she covered the Cook County primaries with an eye toward women contenders running against the…

  15. An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Seifullah, Allison

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began implementing a schoolwide reform called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations. Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and responsibilities through promotion to mentor or master teacher as well as annual…

  16. Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use in Homeless Youth: A Preliminary Comparison of San Francisco and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernika G. Quimby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18–24 years-old in San Francisco (N = 31 and Chicago (N = 56. Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  17. Catholic Ethos, Public Education: How the Christian Brothers Came to Start Two Charter Schools in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The idea that one of the Catholic Church's most respected religious orders might run a public school sounded odd, maybe even, as Francis Cardinal George, head of the Archdiocese of Chicago, conjectured, illegal. But a decade ago several trends in American education, and in the Catholic Church, made a Catholic-operated public school seem…

  18. 77 FR 15450 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, Illinois, to Omaha, Nebraska, Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28454) (Environmental Procedures), in... system that offers business and leisure travelers shorter travel times, additional train frequencies, and... between Chicago and Omaha to help meet current and future demand for travel in the study area....

  19. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? A Conference Summary. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 236a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth. Speakers included Michael Moskow, Richard Lester, Michael Luger, Sean Safford, Larry Isaak, Stefanie Lenway, Rod Shrader, Brian Fabes, Arthur Rothkopf, Randy Eberts, Gary Fethke, Victor…

  20. Higher Education And Economic Growth. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.…

  1. Basic Skills for 100% Customer Satisfaction at First Chicago Corporation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center--Resources for Education, Des Plaines, IL.

    This document is the final report of a demonstration project during which the corporation First Chicago/NBD and a local education agency developed and delivered basic skills training to the corporation's nonexempt work force. The report describes the following key project activities: basic skill needs analyses for various customer services…

  2. Metropolitan Regions--New Geographies of Inequality in Education: The Chicago Metroregion Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changing nature of metroregions and their schools. It discusses the influence of global neo-liberalism and resistance on processes of social differentiation through case studies of Chicago metroregion communities and schools. Using spatial theory, the paper argues that while the restructuring of metroregions creates…

  3. Rolling up Their Sleeves: Venture Philanthropists Pitch in for Chicago's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Chicago has become a hotbed of "venture philanthropy" in education, as two local foundations contribute not only money, but also the hands-on work of some of the city's wealthiest and most influential residents, to help improve the schools in the nation's third-largest district. These two venture-philanthropy funds consist of the Renaissance…

  4. George Herbert Mead's Lecture on Philosophy of Education at the University of Chicago (1910-1911).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    This paper recounts the influence of two of the great educational philosophers of this century, John Dewey and George Herbert Mead. Both men came to the University of Chicago from teaching at the University of Michigan. The men were life-long personal friends and professional colleagues. Although Mead published little during his life, his…

  5. Beats on the Table: Beat Writing in the Chicago Review and Big Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap van der Bent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Kleine literaire tijdschriften, zogenaamde little magazines, hebben een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de doorbraak, in de loop van de jaren vijftig, van de Amerikaanse Beat Generation. Aangezien grotere uitgeverijen en de gevestigde tijdschriften lange tijd terugschrokken voor de zowel inhoudelijk als formeel van de norm afwijkende uitingen van de Beats, verscheen hun werk aanvankelijk vooral in kleinere tijdschriften als de twee waaraan in dit artikel aandacht wordt besteed: de Chicago Review en Big Table. Aan de hand van een beschrijving van de inhoud van deze twee tijdschriften wordt geprobeerd duidelijk te maken hoe het werk van de Beat Generation zich in deze tijdschriften gaandeweg een eigen plaats verwierf. Speciale aandacht wordt besteed aan de rol van de redacteuren Irving Rosenthal en Paul Carroll; door zijn uitgekiende strategie om voor het omstreden werk van Beat-auteur William S. Burroughs geleidelijk een steeds grotere plaats in te ruimen, bepaalde vooral Rosenthal het veranderende karakter van de Chicago Review. De veranderingen bij dat tijdschrift verliepen niet zonder slag of stoot en waren voor de eigenaar ervan, de University of Chicago, op een gegeven moment aanleiding om de Chicago Review aan censuur te onderwerpen. Ook deze censuur en de reactie erop, de oprichting van Big Table, worden in het artikel belicht.

  6. Examining Education for Latinas/os in Chicago: A CRT/LatCrit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Erica R.; de Bradley, Ann Aviles

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the sociopolitical context of education policy, particularly as it relates to Latina/o education. The authors highlight the status of Latinas/os within the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to examine the impact of education policy designed to benefit few and disenfranchise most. They draw attention to the injustices of Latinas/os…

  7. American Indian Organizational Education in Chicago: The Community Board Training Project, 1979-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, John J.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian organizations in Chicago grew both in size and number during the 1970s. The lasting impact of War on Poverty programs and the passing of the Indian Education Act of 1972 and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 served as significant factors for the development of these organizations. Alternative American Indian…

  8. 76 FR 27125 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Permit Holders, with the provisions of the Act, the rules and regulations thereunder, and the rules of... comply with Section 6(b)(1) of the Act.\\11\\ \\11\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b)(1). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

  9. Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Deborah Kilgore

    2004-01-01

    "Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the…

  10. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC... 21st, 2011. During the enforcement period, Entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or...

  11. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  12. Pime v. Loyola University of Chicago: The Seventh Circuit Extends the BFOQ Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Susan J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The significance of the court decision in Pime vs. Loyola University of Chicago, concerning the university's right to reserve tenure track positions for Jesuit faculty, is in the expansion of the defense relating to bona fide occupational qualifications. It opens other schools to similar litigation. (MSE)

  13. 75 FR 21076 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated: Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... fee cap programs. \\6\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b). \\7\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b)(4). A. Self-Regulatory Organization's... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Strategy Fee Cap Program April 15, 2010... Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change Chicago Board Options...

  14. 77 FR 46781 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Release No. 67209 (June 18, 2012), 77 FR 37724 (``Notice''). II. Description The Exchange proposes to... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...\\ See CBOE Rule 6.13A, Interpretation and Policy .05. CBOE now proposes to eliminate the concept...

  15. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago, Task A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses research conducted at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics. Some of the areas included in this report are: cp violation and cabibbo-kobayashi-maskawa matrix; radiative corrections and electroweak observables; heavy quark symmetry; heavy meson spectroscopy; hadronic string theory; composite models of quarks and leptons; and pedagogical effects

  16. Complete Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Chicago Strain ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Brendan M.; Molini, Barbara J.; Le, HoaVan T.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    In syphilis research, the Nichols strain of Treponema pallidum, isolated in 1912, has been the most widely studied. Recently, important differences among T. pallidum strains emerged; therefore, we sequenced and annotated the Chicago strain genome to facilitate and encourage the use of this strain in studying the pathogenesis of syphilis. PMID:20348263

  17. The Other "Real World": Gentrification and the Social Construction of Place in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Gina M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores competing constructions and understandings of the gentrifying neighborhoods on Chicago's near northwest side, noting how Puerto Rican youth are implicated in these changes. Explores contradictory images of neighborhoods, residents' responses to these changes, and various linguistic attempts to refashion new ethno-racial designations in…

  18. "Venturing in Education": Teaching at the University of Chicago's Laboratory School, 1896-1904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In 1896, John Dewey opened the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago. While much is known about this legendary school and its founder, the teachers whose daily work brought the school to life remain mostly anonymous. This essay attempts to remedy this historical invisibility by investigating four of the Laboratory School teachers--Anna…

  19. When Schools Close: Effects on Displaced Students in Chicago Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Marisa; Gwynne, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Few decisions by a school district are more controversial than the decision to close a school. School staff, students and their families, and even the local community all bear a substantial burden once the decision is made to close a school. Since 2001, Chicago Public Schools (CPS) has closed 44 schools for reasons of poor academic performance or…

  20. Small High Schools on a Larger Scale: The Impact of School Conversions in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph E.; Sporte, Susan E.; de la Torre, Marisa; Easton, John Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines 4 years of small school reform in Chicago, focusing on schools formed by converting large traditional high schools into small autonomous ones. Analyzing systemwide survey and outcome data, the authors assess the assumptions embedded in the reform's theory of change. They find that these schools are characterized by more…