WorldWideScience

Sample records for chiang mai thailand

  1. STIGMA, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE AMONG HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS IN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Murray, Jordan Keith; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2014-01-01

    Our study assessed the influence of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence among people living with HIV in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and whether social support had a moderating effect on this relationship. We recruited 128 patients living with HIV from Sansai Hospital, a community hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and collected data through structured interviews. All forms of HIV-related stigma considered in this study (personalized experience, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attit...

  2. Visit to Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Potgieter

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Nursing at the university was the pioneer of post-basic nursing education in Thailand in 1973. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  3. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  4. Bone mineral density and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Eriko; Morakote, Nuntana; Chaovistsaree, Somsak; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of lifestyle on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 177 young women affiliated with Chiang Mai University hospital were enrolled. Firstly, questionnaires about their lifestyle and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) were examined. The measurement of BMD was assessed by Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Secondly, based on the measurement of BMD, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Low BMD group (L group: less than YAM-1.0SD) and a Normal BMD group (N group: more than YAM-1.0SD). L group (n=23) and N group (n=23) were examined using Osteocalcine (OC), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) as bone turnover markers, and serum Ca, 1,25-(OH)2Vitamin D, Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 (MK-4) as bone turnover related factors. Based on the results, the percentage of Low BMD group was 23.2%. Concerning lifestyle and BMD, the BMD of the low cheese intake group was 99.7± 17.0 and the BMD of the high cheese intake one was 110.0± 23.3 (pVitamin D between L and N groups (p<0.05). It was suggested that BMI, food and fracture experience might affect BMD level and suppression of bone formation might have contributed to the low BMD group among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. PMID:24854992

  5. An ASEAN Ion Beam Analysis Center at Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To contribute to the development of nuclear science and technology in Thailand, a comprehensive ion beam analysis center unique in the ASEAN region has recently been established at Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The center is equipped with a 1.7-MV Tandetron tandem accelerator with an ion beam analysis beam line. The beam line is currently capable of performing ion beam analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), RBS/channeling, Elastic BackScattering (EBS), Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ionoluminescence (IL) with assistance of commercial and in-house-developed softwares. Micro ion beam for MeV-ion mapping using programmable aperture or capillary focusing techniques is being developed. Ion beam analysis experiments and applications have been vigorously developed, especially for novel materials analysis focused on archeological, gemological and biological materials besides other conventional materials.

  6. Chiang Mai transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Neitmann, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Urban development of Chang Mai, Thailands second largest city, seen in relation to its tourist based economy.......Urban development of Chang Mai, Thailands second largest city, seen in relation to its tourist based economy....

  7. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thapana Chontananarth; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods:The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results:A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae;gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions:The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.

  8. DISCRIMINATION 28S RIBOSOMAL GENE OF TREMATODE CERCARIAE IN SNAILS FROM CHIANG MAI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Phalee, Anawat; Noikong-Phalee, Waraporn; Chai, Jong Yil

    2016-03-01

    Trematode cercariae are commonly found in many freshwater gastropods. These cercariae can serve to identify the occurrence of such trematodes as Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchoides sp, and Stellantchasmus falcatus, which are important parasites in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. As the species of these cercariae cannot be identified accurately based on morphology, this study employed sequencing of a fragment of 28S ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to identify the trematode cercariae found in freshwater gastropods in Chiang Mai Province. Eight types of trematode cercariae were identified, namely, distome cercaria (grouped with Philophthalmus spp clade), echinostome cercaria (grouped with Echinostoma spp clade), furcocercous cercaria (grouped with Posthodiplostomum sp/Alaria taxideae/Hysteromorpha triloba clade), monostome cercaria (grouped with Catatropis indicus clade), parapleurolophocercous cercaria (grouped with Haplorchoides sp clade), pleurolophocercous cercaria (grouped with Centrocestusformosanus clade), transversotrema cercaria (grouped with Transversotrema spp clade), and xiphidiocercaria (grouped with Prosthodendrium spp clade). These results provide important information that can be used for identifying these parasites in epidemiological surveys. PMID:27244956

  9. Forensic and phylogeographic characterization of mtDNA lineages from northern Thailand (Chiang Mai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Bodner, Martin; Amory, Sylvain; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander; Horst, David; Horst, Basil; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Parson, Walther; Brandstätter, Anita

    2009-11-01

    The immigration of diverse ethnic groups over the past centuries from surrounding countries into Thailand left footprints in the genetic composition of Thai mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The entire mtDNA control region (1,122 bp) was typed in 190 unrelated male volunteers from the northern Thailand province of Chiang Mai following highest quality standards. For a more precise haplogroup classification, selected single nucleotide polymorphisms from the mtDNA coding region were genotyped. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages. Quasi-median networks were constructed for visualisation of character conflicts. The data were put into population-genetic relationships with other Southeast Asian populations. Although the frequencies of the Thai haplogroups were characteristic for Southeast Asia in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, the Thai population was significantly different from other Southeast Asian populations. This necessitates establishing regional databases, especially for forensic applications. The population data have been submitted to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org) and will be available on publication. PMID:19727793

  10. Parasitic and bacterial contamination in collards using effluent from treated domestic wastewater in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Putsyainant, P; Silprasert, A; Karnchanawong, S

    2001-01-01

    Thailand often has inadequate water supply for agriculture during the dry season. The reuse of treated wastewater treatment plants could solve this problem. Treatment of domestic wastewater of Chiang Mai municipality by the aerated lagoon system (AL) releases more than 25,000 m3 of treated water everyday. The reuse of wastewater in agriculture is an efficient use of water, especially in tropical countries or in drought zones. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using treated wastewater in growing edible vegetables, ie collards (kale), without pathogenic parasite and bacterial contamination. Collards (Brassica oleracea var acephala) were grown using either the treated wastewater from the aerated lagoon system (AL) or ground water (GW). Three cropping times were scheduled in February, May and July, 2000. Samples of water from AL system and GW were taken two times per month (the consecutive weeks) from February to July and examined for bacteria and parasites. Irrigation water (IW) that was normally used in agriculture was also collected, at the same time of the AL and GW collection, for bacteria and parasite investigation. A soil sample was taken before and after each crop for parasite examination. Collards were also collected at the end of the crop for parasite investigation. The results showed that GW seems to be a clean water since no pathogenic bacteria were found although small amount of Escherichia coli was noted in May. For AL and IW, similar number and types of bacteria were found. They were Aeromonas sobria, A. hydrophila, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, non-pathogenic type of Vibrio cholerae. The small number of Salmonella enteritidis gr E was found in AL in April. After investigating 12 samples in 6 months of each kind of water, ie GW, Al, and IW, no parasite was found. Only unidentified free living nematodes were found in IW but those parasites are non pathogenic. A small number of unidentified free

  11. Testing the Framework Species Method for Forest Restoration in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit WANGPAKAPATTANAWONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The framework species method of reforestation, developed by FORRU (Forest Restoration Research Unit has been used successfully to restore evergreen forest on degraded former agricultural sites in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. This paper reports 3 year results of an attempt to duplicate the FORRU reforestation techniques at Ban Toong Yah, Mae Chaem district, at a similar elevation as FORRU’s original plots at Ban Mae Sa Mai, Mae Rim district. Twenty species of framework tree seedlings were planted in June 2002. The 2 year results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. Height growth, root collar diameter, and crown width were also lower. Some seedlings died because they were trampled by cows, which also ate some of the seedlings. However, several sapling species, such as Ficus fistulosa and Phyllanthus emblica, were able to produce new shoots from their axillary buds, after having been browsed by cows. In 2004, 5 well-performed species: Castanopsis tribuloides, Ficus fistulosa, Hovenia dulcis, Ostodes paniculata and Prunus cerasoides, were selected along with 12 never-planted species to be planted in June. The results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. The seedlings achieved an average survival rate of about 50 % after the first growing season. The exposed, windy environment of the planting site might also account for lower than expected growth and survival rates. The FORRU’s recommended methods of site preparation using herbicide and weed suppression using cardboard mulch may be employed to improve seedling survival and growth on this site.

  12. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-01-01

    A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recom...

  13. Opportunities and constraints of organic agriculture in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaphan Pattanapant; Ganesh P. Shivakoti

    2009-01-01

    The application of chemicals in conventional agriculture to increase productivity can result in environmental degradation, bring about economic problems and cause harmful effects on farmers, labourers and consumers. Responding to these problems, a number of nongovernmental organizations and government agencies have been promoting organic agriculture in the province of Chiang Mai in order to assure food safety and at the same time alleviate the poverty of farmers. The present study discusses t...

  14. Serotype- and virulence-associated gene profile of Streptococcus suis isolates from pig carcasses in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawan, Kanruethai; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand. PMID:25367105

  15. Discourse Coalitions and Consumer Understanding of Organic and Pesticide Free Vegetables in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Wyatt

    2010-02-01

    networks will be shown to work as coalitions of actors promoting complementary and competing discursive strategies explains the role of consumer understanding in completing the commodity network. Data for this analysis was derived from a survey instrument used to determine the attitudes and propensities toward the purchase of conventional and alternative vegetables of 324 consumers in the city of Chiang Mai, Thailand Discourse coalitions are responsible for enacting the relationship between regulatory practice, method of certification, and labeling practices. Effective communication of regulatory practices used in certification can be seen by the level of trust consumers have in the marketplaces and labeling.

  16. Ecological status of the lowland deciduous forest in Chang Kian Valley, Chiang Mai, northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawapich Vaidhayakarn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An ecological assessment of lowland deciduous dipterocarp-oak, seasonal, hardwood forest on the base of the east side of Doi Sutep-Pui, Chiang Mai province, was conducted. Seven selected sites representing the most intact condition to the worst one were surveyed. Plant species diversity and abundance declined as fire damage increased. Details on the number of species, their habits, size classes of trees, pioneer vs climax species, woody seedlings, coppices, and herbaceous ground flora are presented. Species lists for all these categories and their abundance are also included. Profile diagrams and photographs of some sites are shown. The conservation value of lowland forests has been largely neglected and now many places require reforestation. The degree of degradation is serious and will continue to deteriorate unless effective protective and remedial action is done

  17. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recommended waistlines, had higher income, usually felt stressed or sick, and who preferred eating fruits/vegetables or routinely drank water tended to have a higher rate of consumption of dietary supplements. Participants gave priority over a product with guaranteed quality when they made decision to purchase dietary supplements, but their purchase was also influenced by the attractiveness of the product and advertisement for it.

  18. Spatial Correlation Analysis between Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) Hazard and Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N. Ha; Tripathi, N. K.

    2014-11-01

    Every year, during dry season, Chiang Mai and other northern provinces of Thailand face the problem of haze which is mainly generated by the burning of agricultural waste and forest fire, contained high percentage of particulate matter. Particulate matter 10 (PM10), being very small in size, can be inhaled easily to the deepest parts of the human lung and throat respiratory functions. Due to this, it increases the risk of respiratory diseases mainly in the case of continuous exposure to this seasonal smog. MODIS aerosol images (MOD04) have been used for four weeks in March 2007 for generating the hazard map by linking to in-situ values of PM10. Simple linear regression model between PM10 and AOD got fair correlation with R2 = 0.7 and was applied to transform PM10 pattern. The hazard maps showed the dominance of PM10 in northern part of Chiang Mai, especially in second week of March when PM10 level was three to four times higher than standard. The respiratory disease records and public health station of each village were collected from Provincial Public Health Department in Chiang Mai province. There are about 300 public health stations out of 2070 villages; hence thiessen polygon was created to determine the representative area of each public health station. Within each thiessen polygon, respiratory disease incident rate (RDIR) was calculated based on the number of patients and population. Global Moran's I was computed for RDIR to explore spatial pattern of diseases through four weeks of March. Moran's I index depicted a cluster pattern of respiratory diseases in 2nd week than other weeks. That made sense for a relationship between PM10 and respiratory diseases infections. In order to examine how PM10 affect the human respiratory system, geographically weighted regression model was used to observe local correlation coefficient between RDIR and PM10 across study area. The result captured a high correlation between respiratory diseases and high level of PM10 in

  19. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25661232

  20. Collaboration between Chiang Mai and Aarhus Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Trisonthi, Chusie; Srithi, Kamonnate;

    2011-01-01

    Thai-Danish botanical research collaboration started over 100 years ago with Schmidts work on the flora of Koh Chang. In the 1950es the collaboration was fortalized with the initiation of the Flora of Thailand project. The collaboration was for many years centered in the Royal Forest Department i...... projects involving ethnobotanical studies are still under way. The funding for these projects has come from the Royal Golden Jubilee Program, Chiang Mai University and Thai Government stipends, and from Aarhus University.....

  1. Pallisentis rexus from the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand: ultrastructural studies on egg envelope development and the mechanism of egg expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkham, W; Whitfield, P J

    2004-03-01

    Pallisentis rexus Wongkham & Whitfield, 1999 (Eoacanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) infects the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa striata, in the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand. All stages of egg development within the body cavity of the female parasite were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in mature eggs after contact with water were also investigated. The mature egg has five egg envelopes separated from each other by four gaps. The fertilization membrane, which is formed first, is pushed centrifugally by other, subsequently formed, envelopes and gaps, which produces a final total shell thickness of 8-36 microm around the acanthor. The disappearance of the outermost layer and the unpleating of an adjacent inner layer causes the expansion of eggs on contact with water. The volume of an expanded egg is approximately 27 times that of an unexpanded one, but the density of eggs is reduced from a value greater than water to one almost equal to water. This is believed to aid the dispersion of eggs. PMID:14972041

  2. A DiscourseAnalysis of Leadership in Non-Profit Cross-Cultural Organizations in Chiang Mai, Thailand : A Minor Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arenander, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This study is a discourse analysis of leadership among Thai staffworking in non-profit cross-cultural organizations in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The purpose is to study the pervading leadership discourses, how these are affected by the fact that they are working in non-profit cross-cultural organizations, and how the staffexperiencesconflicting discourses in the organization. The material consists of six interviews with Thai staff. The result includeseight leadership discourses, where the two gre...

  3. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  4. Flood Hazard Prediction from Soil Properties by Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Mae Rim Watershed,Chiang Mai Province,Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANJIANJIUN; E.BERGSMA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Physiography and soil in Mae Rim watershed,Chiang Mai Province,Thailand were investigated by using aerial photographs and satellite image in conjunction with field work,and soil infiltration rate and soil shear resistance were measured in field. Many factors affecting runoff were analyzed usig the Integrated Land and Water Informaiton System(ILWIS).As a result,a model determining flood hazar was set up.Three mps including runoff curve number map,runoff coefficent map,and flood inumdation map were created,In addition,the time of concentration was predicted.

  5. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. PMID:25935214

  6. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkurawaranon C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaisiri Angkurawaranon,1,2 Anawat Wisetborisut,2 Wichuda Jiraporncharoen,2 Surinporn Likhitsathian,3 Ronnaphob Uaphanthasath,2 Patama Gomutbutra,2 Surin Jiraniramai,2 Chawin Lerssrimonkol,2 Apinun Aramrattanna,2 Pat Doyle,1 Dorothea Nitsch1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. Results: From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%. About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL, and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL, which was found in 19.2% of participants. Discussion: The study of health

  7. Ecological and Genetic Relationship of Chironomus circumdatus (Diptera, Chironomidae From Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Roongruangwongse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides means for more accurate identification of Chironomus circumdatus species for environmental and ecological management by Population of C. circumdatus (86 individuals and water samples were collected from three different sites of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Specimens of Einfeldia sp. were used as an initial out group. The genetic relationship of C. circumdatus specimens from these sources was determined by using DNA sequence analysis of partial mtDNA gene’s Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI. Analysis of genetic distance on the basis of sequence difference for COI mitochondrial gene showed very little genetic difference and the data from phylogenetic analysis revealed a very large genetic difference among all populations of this species for the COI gene sequences. In addition, NJ tree was related to with physicochemical parameters of the water samples.

  8. University Cooperation Platform (UCP) between Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel (Germany) and Chiang Mai University (Thailand): implementation of image-guided gynecological brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galalae, Razvan; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Kimmig, Bernhard; Dunst, Jürgen; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn

    2015-02-01

    Starting in 1999, the University Cooperation Platform (UCP) implemented an exchange program of researchers and clinicians/physicists between the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel in Germany and Chiang Mai University in Thailand, to initiate a sustainable base for long-term development of image-guided brachytherapy and in general for high-technology radiotherapy in Chiang Mai. A series of UCP protocols, based constructively on each other, were performed and evaluated at intermediate term follow-up. The first protocol, addressing computed tomography (CT)-optimized brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer (n = 17), showed a significant reduction of D2cc for the bladder and sigmoid (p IGBT) and whole pelvis intensity-modulated external beam radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) (n = 15) reaffirmed the significant reduction of D2cc doses for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid (p = 0.001 or p 80 Gy for bladder in only 17.2% versus 62.1% in conventional planning, and in rectum EQD2 > 75 Gy in 44.8% versus 79.3%, respectively. In conclusion, analyses revealed excellent results for the high-dose-rate IGBT in patients with advanced gynecological cancer both by using CT and MRI, and/or the combination with WP-IMRT. They also define MRI as gold standard for soft tissue assessment and to determine more accurately HR-CTV. The use of TAUS-guidance adds quality aspects to the "classical" conventional X-ray based planning, especially in terms of real-time measures and adequate soft tissue information, and may lower significantly the dose in OARs. The review of all UCP-results reconfirms the importance of the established program that will continue to operate with subsequent projects. PMID:25829941

  9. Application of Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model in Pang Khum Experimental Watershed, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, L.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Ziegler, A. D.; Sutherland, R. A.; Nullet, M. A.; Larkin, E. D.; Vana, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    Distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) uses a digital elevation model (DEM) and accounts for topographic effects on soil moisture, groundwater, and surface water redistribution in a complex terrain. In this study, DHSVM is used to simulate soil moisture, net radiation and stream flow in a 1-km2 tropical mountainous watershed in Pang Khum, Chang Mai, Thailand. Pang Khum Experimental Watershed (PKEW) has two meteorological stations, four soil moisture stations, and one stream flow station at basin outlet. Meteorological measurements are used as forcing data for DHSVM. The grid resolution for this simulation is 50 m. Initial soil and vegetation parameter settings based on field measurements and literature review are adjusted through model calibration. The model is run for a six month warm-up period, followed by a calibration period of approximately one year. Validation is done for two periods totaling 18 months. At the forested site, net radiation is reasonably well simulated, although underestimated in the dry season, and overestimated in the wet season. At the agricultural site, net radiation is consistently overestimated. Soil moisture is well simulated at the forest site. In the simulation, the water table rises into the soil zone during the wet season, saturating all three soil layers at the agricultural site; measured values remained at unsaturated levels. Baseflow is significantly underestimated in calibration and validation periods. Difficulty in simulating streamflow may be caused by road-related effects in the basin. Our prior field work has shown that the road significantly alters runoff in PKEW. The principal mechanism of road-induced effects is Horton Overland Flow (HOF) generated on the road surface. In its present form DHSVM can account for interception of subsurface flow by roads, but not HOF generated on the road. We do not think subsurface flow interception is important in PKEW, and have therefore not implemented the road in our

  10. Identification of a New Type of Babesia Species in Wild Rats (Bandicota indica) in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Dantrakool, Anchalee; Somboon, Pradya; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Saito-Ito, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    A new type of rodent babesia, which resembled Babesia microti but was phylogenetically placed closest, with the highest level of statistical support, to Babesia canis, a canine babesia, was identified in Thai Bandicota indica in Thai provinces to which malaria is endemic. Close watch should be kept on human babesiosis in Thailand.

  11. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. PMID:27435652

  12. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  13. Removal of surrogates for natural organic matter and the probability of finding trihalomethanes in the produced water supply from small waterworks in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charongpun Musikavong

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes (THMs and surrogate parameters for natural organic matter (NOM including ultraviolet absorption at wavelength 254 nanometer (UV-254, total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in both raw and produced water from two small rural waterworks using raw water from the Aung-Keaw and Mae-Hia reservoirs, Chiang Mai, Thailand were studied. The waterworks processes of these two plants are similar and consist of poly aluminum chloride (PACl coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, chlorination and filtration. The results show that the average values of TOC in raw water from the Aung-Keaw and Mae-Hia reservoirs were 3.52 and 2.59 mg/L, respectively; whereas DOC values were 0.78 and 0.42 mg/L, respectively. The average values of UV-254 of 0.1278 and 0.14471/cm were measured in Aung-Keaw and Mae-Hia raw water, respectively. THMs were not detected in raw water while the average values of 60.0 and 62.5 µg/L of THMs were found in the produced water at the Aung-Keaw and Mae-Hia waterworks, respectively. However, an acceptable quality of water in terms of pH and turbidity was produced in accordance with Thai Drinking Water Standards. The correlation of THMs and TOC in the produced water supply is THMs = 37.70 + 14.32 TOC with an R2 of 0.62. The probability of finding THMsin the produced water supply from those two plants at a level that is lower than the first stage U.S.EPA MCL of 80 µg/L is 85%; whereas that of at a level that is lower than the second stage U.S.EPA MCLG of 40 µg/L is 11%. However, the removal efficiencies of NOM surrogates are as follows: 48 % removal of TOC, 32 %removal of DOC, 47% reduction of UV-254 and 98% removal of turbidity.

  14. Prevalence of infection and molecular confirmation by using ITS-2 region of Fasciola gigantica found in domestic cattle from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anawat Phalee; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the infection ofFasciola gigantica(F. gigantica) in domestic cattle from ChiangMai province and molecular confirmation usingITS-2 region.Methods:The liver and gall bladder ofBubalus bubalis(B. bubalis) andBos taurus(B. taurus) from slaughterhouses were examined adult worms and prevalence investigation.The species confirmation with phylogenetic analysis usingITS-2 sequences was performed by maximum likelihood andUPGMA methods. Results:The total prevalences of infection inB. bubalis andBubalus taurus(B. taurus) were 67.27% and52.94% respectively.The respective prevalence in bothB. bubalis andB. taurus were acquired fromDoi-Saket,Muang, andSanpatong districts, with81.25%,62.50% and60.00% for B. bubalis and62.50%,50.00% and47.06% forBos taurus respectively.The species confirmation ofF. gigantica and some related species by basing on maximum likelihood andUPGMA methods used,4 groups of trematodes weregenerated, firstF. gigantica group including specimen ofChiang Mai, second2 samples of F. hepatica, third group of3 rumen flukes;Orthocoelium streptocoelium, F. elongatus andParamphistomum epliclitum and fourth group of3 minute intestinal flukes;Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmu falcatus,Haplorchoides sp. and liver fluke;Opisthorchis viverrini respectively.Conclusions:These results can be confirmed theGiant liver fluke which mainly caused fascioliasis inChiangMai was identified asF. gigantica and specimens were the same as those ofF. gigantica recorded in other different countries.Nucleotide sequence of ITS-2 region has been proven as effective diagnostic tool for the identification ofF. gigantica.

  15. Development of a NEHRP site classification map of Chiang Mai city, Thailand, based on shear-wave velocity using the MASW technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To account for site amplification and seismic hazard mapping, the shear-wave velocity (Vs) profile to a depth of 30 m (Vs(30)) is an important parameter and can be used to calculate the ground motion for specific site conditions. In this study, the near-surface Vs profiles of soils were collected at 44 sites in Chiang Mai city using the multi-channel analysis of surface-wave technique. The Vs of each tested location was average weighted to Vs(30) based on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) criteria. The average Vs(30) value of the alluvium soils was about 362 m s−1, which falls between NEHRP site classes C and D. The average Vs(30) values of flood plain, fluvial clay and natural levee soils (at 300, 299 and 311 m s−1, respectively) all equated to NEHRP class D. The colluvial deposits in the north-western part of the city were mainly composed of gravel, coarse sand and rock fragments, and were assigned to class C (average Vs(30) of 412 m s−1). Soils with lower Vs values will experience higher earthquake ground shaking than those of the bedrock. Accordingly the major part of Chiang Mai city may experience substantial ground shaking due to the amplification in the soft soils. (paper)

  16. SEXUAL PRACTICES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND: PART OF THE ANTIRETROVIRAL PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Amico, K Rivet; Guptarak, Marisa; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Sangangamsakun, Thirayut; Songsupa, Radchanok; McMahan, Vanessa; Grant, Robert

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the association between participation in a blinded antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical trial and sexual practices among men who have sex with men and transgender women. This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Data included reported PrEP medication adherence and sexual behavior among 114 study participants. Forty-six participants took part in qualitative data collection, 32 were interviewed and 14 participated in one of three focus group discussions. The average percentage of study medication adherence, number of sex partners and rates of sex without a condom were calculated. For qualitative data, content analysis was used to identify repeated normative themes, some of which arose spontaneously from interview interactions. Participants at the Chiang Mai site reported good adherence to the study medication. The sexual risk behavior of these participants had decreased by their final study visit; this was unrelated to level of adherence. Qualitative findings describe sexual practices that were highly contextual; participants used risk assessments to determine sex practices. Condoms were used with casual partners but not necessarily with primary partners. Our findings suggest that while PrEP is an exciting new development for HIV prevention, it must be paired with behavioral interventions to fully address sexual risk among this population. Interventions should provide this population with skills to negotiate condom use with their primary partners as well as in situations in which their sexual partners do not support condom use. PMID:27405136

  17. Consumer preferences, willingness to pay and ability to pay for fresh organic vegetables in Chiang Mai province

    OpenAIRE

    Chanita Panmanee; Aree Cheamuangphan; Kasem Kunasri

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the awareness of environmental and health issues related to food consumption has increased in Chiang Mai, Thailand. This results in the augmentation of quality and chemical-free food products. Fresh organic vegetables thus are the one popular choice for Chiang Mai consumers. The research on demand for fresh organic vegetables has become the keynote for improving these products to meet consumer needs. This paper focuses on consumers’ purchasing decisions and evaluations of willingness...

  18. Sexual identities and lifestyles among non-heterosexual urban Chiang Mai adolescents: implications for health

    OpenAIRE

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexual lifestyles and relationships among more than 1,750 adolescents aged 17-20 years who reside in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand. We focus on respondents’ representations and understandings of their sexual/gender identities derived mainly from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with observations and field notes. Our results show that while many young Thais described themselve...

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae in adults at chiang mai university hospital: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sirisanthana Thira; Nuntachit Nontakan; Bunchoo Manasanant; Jullaket Waree; Chaiwarith Romanee; Supparatpinyo Khuanchai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, is an emerging disease in non-pregnant adults. This study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of S. agalactiae infection in adult patients in northern Thailand. Methods A retrospective study was conducted between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009 at Chiang Mai University Hospital among patients aged ≥15 years, whose clinical specimens obtained from normally s...

  20. Temporal frequency of knockdown resistance mutations, F1534C and V1016G, in Aedes aegypti in Chiang Mai city, Thailand and the impact of the mutations on the efficiency of thermal fogging spray with pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plernsub, Suriya; Saingamsook, Jassada; Yanola, Jintana; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Walton, Catherine; Somboon, Pradya

    2016-10-01

    In Thailand, control of dengue outbreaks is currently attained by the use of space sprays, particularly thermal fogging using pyrethroids, with the aim of killing infected Aedes mosquito vectors in epidemic areas. However, the principal dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is resistant to pyrethroids conferred mainly by mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, F1534C and V1016G, termed knockdown resistance (kdr). The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal frequencies of F1534C and V1016G in Ae. aegypti populations in relation to pyrethroid resistance in Chiang Mai city, and to evaluate the impact of the mutations on the efficacy of thermal fogging with the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Larvae and pupae were collected from several areas around Chiang Mai city during 2011-2015 and reared to adulthood for bioassays for deltamethrin susceptibility. These revealed no trend of increasing deltamethrin resistance during the study period (mortality 58.0-69.5%, average 62.8%). This corresponded to no overall change in the frequencies of the C1534 allele (0.55-0.66, average 0.62) and G1016 allele (0.34-0.45, average 0.38), determined using allele specific amplification. Only three genotypes of kdr mutations were detected: C1534 homozygous (VV/CC); G1016/C1534 double heterozygous (VG/FC); and G1016 homozygous (GG/FF) indicating that the F1534C and V1016G mutations occurred on separate haplotypic backgrounds and a lack of recombination between them to date. The F1 progeny females were used to evaluate the efficacy of thermal fogging spray with Damthrin-SP(®) (deltamethrin+S-bioallethrin+piperonyl butoxide) using a caged mosquito bioassay. The thermal fogging spray killed 100% and 61.3% of caged mosquito bioassay placed indoors and outdoors, respectively. The outdoor spray had greater killing effect on C1534 homozygous and had partially effect on double heterozygous mosquitoes, but did not kill any G1016 homozygous mutants living outdoors. As this selection

  1. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  2. Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai

    OpenAIRE

    Otaki, Y.; Otaki, M.; P. Pengchai; Ohta, Y.; Aramaki, T

    2008-01-01

    The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet, laundry, bath, and kitchen) both in the dry season and in the rainy season was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season could influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season may be smaller than that in the rainy season. It was also examined that whether the d...

  3. Advanced Nuclear Applications in Medicinr at Chiang Mai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic energy applications in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University (CMU) are mainly performed by department of Radiology that is divided into three dicisions: 1) Diagnostic Radiology Division for the applications of X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance, 2) Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Division for cancer treatments by photon accelrator and external radionuclides therapy or brachytherapy, 3) Nuclear Meddicine Division for clinical dignosis by using radionuclide scintigraphy, targeted molecular imaging and internal radionuclide therapy. In the last decade, many advanced medical images for clinical diagnosis included of digital & computed radiology (DR & CR), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and images (DSI), computed tomography (CT) with dual X-rays energies, manetic resonance imaging (MRI), and hybrid images of SPECT/CT were established in Radiology Department and PET/CT Cyclitron Center Chiang Mai University (PCCMU), respectively. For cancer treatments, the frontier technologies in radiation oncligy therapy such as tomotherapy, IMRT, 3D conformal radiation treatment, stereotactic radiationtherapy (SRT), stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS), and radiation biology laboratory were implemented in the department as well. As far as fast development of nuclear technology in medicine, future implementation of advanced nuclear applications in medicine strongly need an intergrated knoowledge from many specialties e.g. computer softeare in image reconstruction, accuracy and and precision technology, production of specific radiotracers for molecular imaging and therapy, techniques in radionuclide productions, innovation of new wquipment or materials for radiationprotection and safety, etc. However the most important factors of nuclear applications in medicine are the vision, mission and the value statements of the organization on the high cost in radiology investment and human resources development. We have to emphasize that people who are involved

  4. Impacts of ecotourism on consumption, poverty and environment in three communities of the Mae Wang watershed, Chiang Mai province

    OpenAIRE

    Phuttipong Pookjohn; Manoj Potapohn; Peter Calkins

    2012-01-01

    The research investigates the impacts of eco-tourism in the Mae Wang Watershed, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. It answers a set of policy-related questions concerning the effects of eco-tourism on consumption, poverty and the natural environment in three village communities, whose residents are of three different ethnic groups: Karen, Hmong and the northern Thai. Detailed analyses presented in this research drew from both secondary data on basic needs and primary data from household ...

  5. Ecosystem Services Tradeoffs: A Case Study of Chiang Khong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisom Intralawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent transformation of land in the Mekong River Basin has been dramatic. The changes have contributed to an increased standard of living resulting from economic and agricultural expansion, increasing urbanization and modernization. However, the changes have also resulted in major degradation of ecosystems and the services which ecosystems provide. Despite acknowledgement of the loss of the ecosystem benefits, the integration of ecosystem services tradeoffs into land use decisions is still limited. Land managers and policy makers are facing challenges in balancing the positive effects of economic development and the long term negative impacts on the environment. This paper is based on a case study of one of the fastest growing towns along the Mekong River, namely Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Data on the change of land use and land cover for different biomes over the past 40 years have been obtained from satellite image classification. The valuation of ecosystem services of different biomes has been quantified in monetary terms. During the last four decades, the estimated change in the value of ecosystem services in Chiang Khong shows a net decline of roughly US$ 440 million - from US$ 1,896 million/year in 1976 to US$ 1,455 million/year in 2015. There is a risk that this decline in ecosystem services will further increase if ecosystem services valuations are not included in decision making processes related to the planned economic development (infrastructure expansion, new industrial park development in Chiang Khong.

  6. Measuring of happiness level of people in Tippanate’s community, Chiang Mai province

    OpenAIRE

    Juthamas Namwong; Kunchon Wattanakul

    2012-01-01

    In this research, there are three purposes: to study a general condition of the residents in Thipanate’s community, to study a level of happiness of those living in Thipanate’s community and to analyze factors (playing an important part) important to the happiness of the population in, Muang district, Chiang Mai. The data was collected via a questionnaire with 300 samples out of the whole Thipanate’s community population of 1,080 people. The finding showed that the numbers of male and female ...

  7. Effect of organic fertiliser residues from rice production on nitrogen fixation of soya (Glycine max L. Merrill), Chiang Mai 60 variety

    OpenAIRE

    Nattida Luangmaka

    2013-01-01

    A field study was undertaken on the residual effect of organic fertilisers applied to the preceding rice cropping on nitrogen fixation of soya in a rice-soya cropping system. The experiment was conducted on a farmer’s lowland paddy in Mae Rim district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Organic fertiliser treatments assigned were: 1) control (no fertiliser), 2) animal manure of cattle (AM), 3) compost (CP), 4) azolla (AZ), 5) AM + CP, 6) AM + AZ, 7) CP + AZ and 8) AM + CP + AZ. Soya seeds were p...

  8. Mapping temporal extent of Chiang Mai floods using coupled 1-D and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowit Boonrawd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupling of a 1-D flood routing model and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation model is applied for mapping spacetime flood extent. The routing model is formulated based on a non-linear storage-discharge relationship which is converted from an observed and synthetic rating curve. To draw the rating curve, required parameters for each reaches are estimated from hydraulic properties, floodplain geometry and vegetation and building cover of compound channels. The shape of the floodplain is defined by using fitting exercise based on the reverse approach between past and simulated inundation flood extent, to solve the current problem of inadequate topographic input data for floodplain. Mapping of daily flood can be generated relying on flat water levels. The quasi 2-D raster model is tested and applied to generate more realistic water surface and is used to estimate flood extent. The model is applied to the floodplains of Chiang Mai, north of Thailand and used to estimate a time series of hourly flood maps. Extending from daily to hourly flood extent, mapping development provides more details of flood inundation extent and depth.

  9. The Chiang Mai Initiative and Its Multilateralization: Toward an Asian Monetary Fund?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwon Cho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a regional self-help system of liquidity support established in the aftermath of the Asian crisis of 1997, the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI and its recent multilateralization have been touted in some quarters as important achievements in a region where institutionalized financial cooperation had been sorely lacking, taking East Asia one step closer to the resuscitation of the still-born Asian Monetary Fund. Against such a sanguine assessment, I argue that the significance of the CMI, even after its multilateralization, is largely limited to symbolism and its practical implications are inconsequential. Despite the progress associated with CMI multilateralization, the underlying political dynamics in the region render East Asia fundamentally incapable of producing a coherent regional solution to the recurring problem of global financial instability.

  10. Construction and performance of the magnetic bunch compressor for the THz facility at Chiang Mai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility at Chiang Mai University has established a THz facility to focus on the study of ultra-short electron pulses. Short electron bunches can be generated from a system that consists of a radio-frequency (RF) gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post-acceleration section. The alpha magnet is a conventional and simple instrument for low-energy electron bunch compression. With the alpha magnet constructed in-house, several hundred femtosecond electron bunches for THz radiation production can be generated from the thermionic RF gun. The construction and performance of the alpha magnet, as well as some experimental results, are presented in this paper.

  11. My space, my body, my sexual subjectivity: social media, sexual practice and parental control among teenage girls in urban Chiang Mai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic study conducted among young women aged 18-21 years in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, explored the parental control mechanisms imposed by Thai middle-class families on the sexuality of their daughters. It addressed the ways in which young women tactically use the social media in order to negotiate the sexual controls they encountered in everyday life. Taking the teenage girls' point of view, this paper argues that, as active agents, young women achieve a certain level of sexual autonomy and construct their own sexual selves in modern northern Thai society, despite their parents' attempts to prevent this. The paper highlights the ways in which social media are used by Thai girls in order to achieve such a goal. Research findings should inform the development of future programmes on sexual health promotion, parental skills and sexual communication between Thai parents and their children. PMID:26489939

  12. LABOUR MARKET AND CORRUPTION ISSUES IN CHIANG RAI, THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repe...

  13. Labour Market And Corruption Issues In Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John WALSH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repeated very regularly and therefore have a significant impact upon the income generating possibilities for local workers and for their future prospects, not to mention the overall competitiveness of the country. The corrupt activities also lead to lower levels of safety in the workplace and for such issues as collective bargaining and freedom of association. The paper attempts to identify the major issues involved and some possible solutions.

  14. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  15. Effect of organic fertiliser residues from rice production on nitrogen fixation of soya (Glycine max L. Merrill, Chiang Mai 60 variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattida Luangmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study was undertaken on the residual effect of organic fertilisers applied to the preceding rice cropping on nitrogen fixation of soya in a rice-soya cropping system. The experiment was conducted on a farmer’s lowland paddy in Mae Rim district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Organic fertiliser treatments assigned were: 1 control (no fertiliser, 2 animal manure of cattle (AM, 3 compost (CP, 4 azolla (AZ, 5 AM + CP, 6 AM + AZ, 7 CP + AZ and 8 AM + CP + AZ. Soya seeds were planted without rhizobial inoculation in December 2011, four months after the application of organic fertilisers. Nodule weight, total shoot nitrogen accumulation and relative ureide index at various growth stages were recorded as the indices of nitrogen fixation. Results of the study demonstrate that the residues from the application the organic fertilisers of narrow C/N ratios during the land preparation for rice cropping four months before soya cultivation promoted nitrogen fixation by native rhizobia.

  16. Petrogenesis and tectonic implication of the Late Triassic post-collisional volcanic rocks in Chiang Khong, NW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Wang, Yuejun; Feng, Qinglai; Zi, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yuzhi; Chonglakmani, Chongpan

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic rocks exposed within the Chiang Khong-Lampang-Tak igneous zone in NW Thailand provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. An andesite sample from the Chiang Khong area yields a zircon U-Pb age of 229 ± 4 Ma, significantly younger than the continental-arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks (ca. 238-241 Ma). The Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are characterized by low MgO (1.71-6.72 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.03-17.76 wt.%). They are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in HFSEs, and have 87Sr/86Sr (i) ratios of 0.7050-0.7065, εNd (t) of - 0.32 to - 1.92, zircon εHf (t) and δ18O values of 3.5 to - 11.7 and 4.30-9.80 ‰, respectively. The geochemical data for the volcanic rocks are consistent with an origin from the enriched lithospheric mantle that had been modified by slab-derived fluid and recycled sediments. Based on available geochronological and geochemical evidences, we propose that the Late Triassic Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are equivalent to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks in the Lancangjiang igneous zone in SW China. The formation of these volcanic rocks was possibly related to the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle during the Late Triassic, shortly after slab detachment, which induced the melting of the metasomatized mantle wedge.

  17. The Development of Thung Fa Bot Weekend Market into Cultural Tourism Attraction in San Pa Tong District, Chiang Mai Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuwanatwichit Thongchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate for the socio-cultural and economic context, along with the issues of tourism potentiality of Thung Fa Bot weekend market into the cultural tourism attraction in San Pa Tong District, Chiang Mai Province. A study was created containing Mixed Methodology Research. The data collection was focus group and in-depth interviews from the target population and questionnaires of stakeholders. The study was determined that context of socio-cultural and economic structure,which was relying on farming in the past. The potentiality level to be the cultural tourist attraction in overall was moderate.the aspect of tourist Attraction and Spirit of a community were in high level. On the other hand Accessibility, Activities and Participation civil organizations were in moderate level. There were only the Amenities and Ancillary Services had shown on low level. The results suggested the need to develop its potentiality of cultural tourist attraction in [1] Amenities and Ancillary Services management at the tourist spots and tourism promoting and [2] Linking network with government agencies, private sectors, and communities to join in tourism management in order to enlarge Thung Fha Bod Weekend Market becoming the greater cultural tourism attraction for the tourists.

  18. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  19. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharee Kantipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

  20. Woody plant diversity in sacred forests and fallows in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junsongduang, A.; Balslev, Henrik; Jampeetong, Arunothai;

    2014-01-01

    forests of both villages were distinct from all the fallow plots as revealed by cluster analysis. Pearson’s correlation test showed that only the Simpson diversity index was significantly and positively related to distances from the fallows to the sacred forest. The percentages of plants originating from...

  1. Peak expiratory flow rate as a surrogate for forced expiratory volume in 1 second in COPD severity classification in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pothirat, Chaicharn

    2015-01-01

    Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Athavudh Deesomchok, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Atikun Limsukon Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: There are limited studies directly comparing correlation and agreement between peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) for severity cla...

  2. Change and Challenges for Foreign Retirees in Thailand. An Interview with Nancy Lindley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The northern city of Chiang Mai in Thailand has become a popular destination for national and international tourists as well as for a growing number of expatriates and retirement migrants. Compared to Thailand’s southern destinations such as Phuket or Pattaya, Chiang Mai features a cooler climate and interesting cultural and environmental surroundings. Therefore, since 2006/07, the city continues to attract many retired expats from several countries all over the world. Nancy Lindley is the head of the Chiang Mai Expats Club and the coordinator of Lanna Care Net, a network, which provides advice and assistance for elderly foreigners. As a retirement migrant from the USA, she gives insight into the expats’ community, reports on the challenges for foreign retirees in Chiang Mai and talks about the elder care system for foreigners. The interview took place in November 2014 in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

  3. Improving surveillance system and surgical site infection rates through a network: A pilot study from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao

    2009-01-01

    Nongyao Kasatpibal1, Mette Nørgaard2, Silom Jamulitrat3, For The Surgical Site Infection Study Group1Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University hospital, Aalborg and Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) provides data upon which interventions to improve patient safe...

  4. Risk factors for hearing loss in infants under universal hearing screening program in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Namwongprom, Sirianong

    2015-01-01

    Watcharapol Poonual,1 Niramon Navacharoen,2 Jaran Kangsanarak,2 Sirianong Namwongprom3 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, 2Department of Otolaryngology, 3Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: To define the risk factors for hearing loss in infants (aged 3 months) under universal hearing screening program. Materials and methods: A total of 3,120 infants (aged 3 months) who underwent hearing screening using a universal hearing screenin...

  5. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  6. Impact of depression and social support on nonadherence to antipsychotic drugs in persons with schizophrenia in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sirijit Suttajit; Sutrak Pilakanta

    2010-01-01

    Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: Little is known about the effect of social support on nonadherence in persons with schizophrenia, especially in developing Asian countries where social support is considered to be imperative. Additionally, the role of depression as a mediator in the association between social support deficits and nonadherence has not been evaluated.Methods: This was a cross-s...

  7. Discovery of a Stegodon-Ailuropoda assemblage in a cave of northern Thailand (Ban Fa Suai, Chiang Dao)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitoun, Valéry; Seveau, A.; Forestier, Hubert; Thomas, H.; Lenoble, A.; Laudet, F.; Antoine, P.O.; Debruyne, R.; Ginsburg, L.; Mein, P.; Winayalai, C.; Chumdee, N.; Doyasa, T.; Kijngam, A.; Nakbunlung, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Cave of the Monk from the village of Ban Fa Suai is an original site discovered by the Thai French Palaeosurvey during one of its field campaign looking for the remains of the first humans in northern Thailand. Preliminary data from geological, palaeontological and technolithic domains of this site are presented in this paper. Focusing on taphonomy it is an opportunity to describe evidence of a Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna in a karstic context and the occurrence of Hoabinhian stone tools ass...

  8. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  9. The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharavichtikul, Ekkasit; Chitapanarux, Taned; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chitapanarux, Imjai [Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Meungwong, Pooriwat [Lampang Cancer Hospital, Lampang (Thailand); Traisathit, Patrinee [Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Galalae, Razvan [aculty of Medicine, Christian-Albrechts University at Kiel, Kiei (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale > or = grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with > or = grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale.

  10. Prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somphon Pharephan; Pannee Sirivatanapa; Sanit Makonkawkeyoon; Wirote Tuntiwechapikul; Luksana Makonkawkeyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alpha-thalassaemias are genetic disorders with high prevalence in northern Thailand. However, common genotypes and current data on the prevalence of α-thalassaemias have not been reported in this region. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of pregnant women who came to Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Universit...

  11. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  12. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013, Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  13. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sombut Boonyaprapa

    2014-01-01

    In 1955, the first nuclear medicine division was established in Thailand by Professor Romsai Suwannik in the Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospil, Mahidol University in Bangkok. In 1959 four years later, the second nuclear medicine division was established in the Department of Radiology, Chulalongkorn Hospital in Bangkok. The third nuclear medicine division was started in Rajvithi Hospital in Bangkok in 1961. The fourth nuclear medicine division was installed in Chiang Mai University which...

  14. Country report of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) of Chiang Mai University, the SURIYA project has been established in 2000 aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of a S-band thermoionic rf-gun and an alpha-magnet as the buncher. The presently obtained results with the SURIYA project, the setup of a linear accelerator is reported. The research on hydrogel: (1) preparation of wound dressing of polyvinyl alcohol/silk fibroin hydrogel by gamma radiation, (2) water vapor permeability studies and bacterial growth suppression of irradiated PVA/SF blend hydrogels for wound-dressing, and (3) synthesis and characterization of PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels using gamma radiation, is introduced. Finally, the report describes the present situation of the air pollution problems in Thailand, including air pollution legislation, pollution emission amounts estimated, and sulfur oxides emission. Thailand has no plan of electron beam treatment of flue gas. (S. Ohno)

  15. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  16. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wichuda Jiraporncharoen; Chaisiri Angkurawaranon; Manoch Chockjamsai; Athavudh Deesomchok; Juntima Euathrongchit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as...

  17. Benzodiazepine prescribing behaviour and attitudes: a survey among general practitioners practicing in northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Critchley Julia; Garner Paul; Srisurapanont Manit; Wongpakaran Nahathai

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Over-prescribing of benzodiazepines appears common in many countries, a better understanding of prescribing practices and attitudes may help develop strategies to reduce prescribing. This study aimed to evaluate benzodiazepine prescribing behaviour and attitudes in general practitioners practising in Chiang Mai and Lampoon, Thailand. Methods Questionnaire survey of general practitioners in community hospitals, to estimate: i) use of benzodiazepines for anxiety/insomnia, pa...

  18. Standplaatsclassificatie en indicatoren van de bladverliezende bossen in Noord-Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf; Swennen, Rony; Muys, Bart

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve natural tropical forest resources, one tends to favour the establishment of forest reserves for conservation and plantations for the production of merchantable timbers. On the other hand, both conservation and production can be implemented in sustainable forest management systems. The development of such systems is hampered by the lack of accurate knowledge on indigenous forest ecology. In the forest of Ban Pong near Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, research was cond...

  19. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  20. Demographic and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Risk among Men and Transgender Women Recruited from Gay Entertainment Venues and Community-based Organizations in Thailand: Implications for HIV Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2012-01-01

    High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Thailand suggest a vital need for targeted interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine and compare sexual risk behaviors, and demographic and behavioral correlates of risk, among MSM and transgender women recruited from gay entertainment venue staff and community-based organization (CBO) participants. We used venue-based sampling across nine sites in Bangkok and Chiang Mai. Among 260 partici...

  1. Can rising tourism income compensate fading agricultural income? A general equilibrium analysis of income distribution and welfare in a rural village in Northern Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpicha Pathompituknukoon; Purich Khingthong; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study applies CGE model to investigate the effects of rising tourism income and fading agricultural income in Mae Kam Pong village in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on 4 issues: the expansion and recession of major economic sectors, income distribution, social welfare of the village, and welfare of the poorest households. Simulations show that services and construction sectors will expand while tea, commerce and tourism sectors will face the recession. Tourism sector will fade out from the villag...

  2. Report on the Fifth International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5 Held in Thailand, 6–8th May, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supayang Voravuthikunchai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 5th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5 was held at the Moevenpick Resort and Spa Karon Beach, Phuket, Thailand on 6–8 May 2014. NATPRO was established in 2005 by Professor Maitree Suttajit, Mahasarakham University with the aim of building research networking on natural products. NATPRO 2, 3 and 4 were subsequently organized by Naresuan University, Rangsit University and Chiang Mai University in 2008, 2011 and 2012, respectively. [...

  3. The social network index and its relation to later-life depression among the elderly aged ≥80 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1 Saiyud Moolphate,2 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,3 Chitima Katonyoo,2 Songyos Khamchai,4 Pongsak Wannakrairot1 1Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Public Health, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Chiang Mai Provincial Health Office, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Having a diverse social network is considered to be beneficial to a person’s well-being. The significance, however, of social network diversity in the geriatric assessment of people aged ≥80 years has not been adequately investigated within the Southeast Asian context. This study explored the social networks belonging to the elderly aged ≥80 years and assessed the relation of social network and geriatric depression. Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. A representative sample of 435 community residents, aged ≥80 years, were included in a multistage sample. The participants’ social network diversity was assessed by applying Cohen’s social network index (SNI. The geriatric depression scale and activities of daily living measures were carried out during home visits. Descriptive analyses revealed the distribution of SNI, while the relationship between the SNI and the geriatric depression scale was examined by ordinal logistic regression models controlling possible covariants such as age, sex, and educational attainment. Results: The median age of the sample was 83 years, with females comprising of 54.94% of the sample. The participants’ children, their neighbors, and members of Buddhist temples were reported as the most frequent contacts of the study participants. Among the 435 participants, 25% were at risk of social isolation due to having a “limited” social network group (SNI 0–3, whereas 37% had a “medium” social network

  4. Thailand conference prevention efforts point to home. International (Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    There are an estimated 800,000 cases of HIV and 24,000 cases of advanced AIDS in Thailand, with some studies projecting that infection rates in Thailand could rise to as high as 4 million by the year 2000 if there is no change in sex behavior. Poverty and unprotected sexual intercourse with HIV-infected prostitutes are two major contributory factors in the high incidence and prevalence of HIV infection in the country. The World Health Organization estimates that 33% of the projected HIV cases worldwide will be in Asia by the year 2000, with India and Thailand taking the lead. More than 2000 delegates from 60 countries attended the Third International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific held September 17-22, 1995, in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Participants discussed how AIDS is affecting the economic and social fabric of their countries. An estimated 2.5 million Asians are infected with HIV. One former government minister believes that the adverse effects of AIDS upon tourism, foreign investments, remittances from abroad, and the mortality of young, productive Thais has cost Thailand 10 years of development. Thailand has gone the farthest among Asian/Pacific countries to stem the spread of HIV, but much remains to be accomplished. Social prejudice against people with HIV remains prevalent throughout Thailand. PMID:12290611

  5. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007. PMID:24559201

  6. Distribution, quantitative load and characterization of Salmonella associated with swine farms in upper-northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Kumpapong, Kittipong; Sinthuya, Danai; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Nuanualsuwan, Supachai; Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Molla, Bayleyegn Z.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48~4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean ± standard...

  7. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of less than 70 mg/dL is associated with fewer cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients: a real-life cohort in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwong D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dujrudee Chinwong,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Surarong Chinwong,1 Khanchai Siriwattana,4 Siriluck Gunaparn,5 John Joseph Hall,6 Arintaya Phrommintikul5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Center of Excellence in Applied Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand; 4Division of Medicine, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 6Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Background: Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or mortality; however, the LDL-C goal for therapy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients is controversial and varies among guidelines. This study aimed to assess the effect of reaching an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L on first composite cardiovascular outcomes in routine clinical practice in Thailand.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using medical charts and the electronic hospital database of patients diagnosed with ACS and treated with statins at a tertiary care hospital in Thailand between 2009 and 2012. After admission, patients were followed from the date of LDL-C goal assessment until the first event of composite cardiovascular outcomes (nonfatal ACS, nonfatal stroke, or all-cause death. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders were used.Results: Of 405 patients, mean age was 65 years (60% males. Twenty-seven percent of the patients attained an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL, 38% had LDL-C between 70 and 99 mg/dL, and 35% had LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Forty-six patients experienced a composite

  8. Nuclear data activities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Research Reactor-1 (TRR-1) in Bangkok went critical for the first time in October 1962. This event initiated subsequent development of nuclear technology in Thailand. In 1972 a small 14 MeV neutron generator of modest flux was installed at Chiang Mai University. The (n,2n) cross sections from the reactions of 14.3 MeV neutrons with K-39, Fe-54, and Zr-90 were first measured with this neutron generator. The Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) was subsequently established in 1984 with the aim to promote fast neutron studies. The main equipment consist of new medium-size neutron generator with a nanosecond pulsing system, contemporary spectrometers, based on or coupled to desktop computer. Various excitation functions of fast neutron induced reactions were studied. A program to measure and analyse 14 MeV neutron induced neutron emission cross sections was initiated and is at present being actively pursued. The spectrum of nuclear data activities in Thailand shall be presented in this presentation. (author)

  9. The Problems of English Education in Secondary Public School in Chiang Mai, Thailand%泰国清迈公立中学英语教学问题及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美灵[泰; 杨体荣

    2016-01-01

    本文通过数据分析,揭示了泰国清迈公立中学英语教学存在的诸多问题,并从不同层面分析了导致英语教学成效低下的主要原因,政府层面主要有教育政策变化过快、学校方面主要有更换校长频繁、教师流动与短缺等,此外还进一步分析了泰国传统教学为英语教学带来的不利影响。泰国清迈公立中学英语教学效率低下的教训值得我们引以为戒。%The study aimed to explore the main causes of problems in organizing English education in public schools. The results showed that the problems of teaching English in schools were the changes of educational policies, the switch of school administrators, teacher transference and teacher shortages. The lack of strategies in planning to improve English teaching systematically was also a part of the causes. Moreover, the schools had problems in hiring foreign teachers since they were infirm in quality and the budget was unstable. In addition, teachers attached to the traditional style of teachings did not improve the teaching style, technology and researches. Most of the teachers glued to the contents in the original books. Students also had little opportunities to practice their skills in English. They were lack of analytical thinking and adaptation which leaded to the bad attitudes towards English language. Therefore, the teaching results did not reach the standards and performance indicators. Lastly, the administrator rarely monitored and evaluated the teachings both by Thai and foreign teachers since there were not experts in this ifeld.

  10. Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Northern Provinces of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supot Teachavorasinskun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are quite a few active faults recently found in the western and northern parts of Thailand, which could possibly induce earthquakes of magnitude (ML of 5.5-6.5. Although seismic design code has been enforced in the area since 1980, the fundamental knowledge on dynamic soil behavior has not been extensively attained. Approach: Collection of existing borehole information in the targeted areas to form a typical subsoil profile. This borehole information, together with analytical result obtained from logistic regression based on worldwide liquefaction database was used to conduct an effective stress analysis. Result: Literature reviews of the existing boreholes from the two largest provinces in the north, Chiang-Mai and Chiang-Rai, revealed that the areas were underlain by layers of loose to medium dense sand found at shallow depths. The corrected SPT N-value of those sand layers varies in the range of 5-20. A simple tool correlating the liquefaction probability, which correlated excess pore water pressure and peak ground acceleration, was proposed for the studied areas. Conclusion: The proposed correlation provided preliminary tool to evaluate risk of the shallow foundation from partial liquefaction in the two northern provinces of Thailand.

  11. Development of Basic Literacy Learning Materials for Minority Peoples in Asia and the Pacific. Final Report of the Second Sub-Regional Workshop (Chiang Rai, Thailand, February 22-March 5, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A report of a regional workshop on development of instructional materials for basic literacy education of minority groups in Asia and the Pacific is presented. Countries represented include: China; Indonesia; Laos; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar (Burma); Philippines; Vietnam; and Thailand. The workshop's objectives were to discuss the need for…

  12. Natural processes involved in the formation of Pleistocene bone assemblages in continental South-East Asian caves : the case of the cave of the monk (Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand).

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Zeitoun, Valéry; Laudet, Frédéric; Seveau, Arnoult; Doyasa, Tasana

    2006-01-01

    A large paleontological assemblage typical of Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna was discovered in the Cave of the Monk, in northern Thailand. Geological and taphonomic approaches were conducted in order to determine site formation processes. A sedimentological study indicated that the fossiliferous layer resulted from mediumsize burrowing animals occupying the cave. Bone surface analysis confirmed that Porcupine was the main, if not exclusive, bone accumulator. A bone accumulation rate was calculated...

  13. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombut Boonyaprapa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the first nuclear medicine division was established in Thailand by Professor Romsai Suwannik in the Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospil, Mahidol University in Bangkok. In 1959 four years later, the second nuclear medicine division was established in the Department of Radiology, Chulalongkorn Hospital in Bangkok. The third nuclear medicine division was started in Rajvithi Hospital in Bangkok in 1961. The fourth nuclear medicine division was installed in Chiang Mai University which is the first University located outside of Bangkok in 1965 by Professor Dusadee Prabhasavat and Professor Sanan Simarak, ten years after the first nuclear medicine division in Siriraj Hospital. At the present in Thailand, there are twenty-five organizations providing clinical nuclear medicine services. Five medical faculties provide three years nuclear medicine residency training. There are eight companies which supply radiopharmaceuticals and/or nuclear medicine instruments one of these belongs to governmental office of atomic for peace (OAP of Thailand. In conclusion: Nuclear medicine researches and clinical practices in Thailand had been progressed from the past to the present time and will more progress in the near future, which certainly is the part of Asian countries and ARCCNM.

  14. Diagnostic indicators for peptic ulcer perforation at a tertiary care hospital in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chutikarn Suriya1, Nongyao Kasatpibal2, Wipada Kunaviktikul2, Toranee Kayee31Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 2Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, 3Department of Surgery, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandIntroduction: Limited data currently exists regarding the diagnostic indicators of peptic ulcer perforation for early detection among patients in Thailand. Delayed diagnosis and treatment for an ulcer can be life-threatening, resulting in shock or death.Objective: To determine the diagnostic indicators of peptic ulcer perforation.Material and methods: A cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand from 2005 to 2009. Peptic ulcer patients aged 15 years and over admitted to the surgical department were included. The diagnostic indicators used criteria of the patients' final diagnoses and operations, coded according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, which included patient profiles, gender, age, coexisting illnesses, personal habits, signs and symptoms, laboratory investigations, radiological finding, and treatment role. Exponential risk regression analyses to obtain relative risk (RR estimates for diagnostic indicators were analyzed using Stata® statistical software package, version 11 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX.Results: The study included 1290 patients. Of these, 57% reported perforated peptic ulcer. Multivariate analysis showed five diagnostic indicators: signs and symptoms including intense abdominal pain (RR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–2.06, tenderness (RR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.17–3.21, and guarding (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.05–2.20; X-ray with free air (RR = 2.80, 95% CI 2.08–3.77; and referral from other hospitals (RR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03–1.82.Conclusion: Five diagnostic indicators for peptic ulcer perforation monitoring were suggested from this study. Improving diagnostic

  15. Correlation of Tectono-Stratigraphic Units in Northern Thailand with Those of Western Yunnan (China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A tentative correlation scheme for the tectono-stratigraphic units of Northern Thailand and those of Western Yunnsn (China) is proposed. We point out that a correlation between the Changning-Menglian belt in Western Yunnan and the Nan-Uttaradit zone in Northern Thailand (or and a "cryptic suture" in the Chiang Rai-Chiang Mai region) is unlikely, for it would demand a "suture" which cuts across a zone with high-grade metamorphics and granite intrusions (Doi lnthanon-Lincang unit).Therefore, the northern continuation of the Lampang region is situated in the Simao region of Yunnan,as indicated by a very similar development during Permian and Triassic (Lampang-Yunxian unit). The Nan-Uttaradit zone is considered to be the easternmost part of this unit, and its northern continuation should be traceable via Luang Prabang in Laos into the southeastern parts of the Simao basin. Here,however, outcrops of this unit have not yet been found. The same is the case with the Phetchabun unit which follows to the east. Both units are probably hidden under a thick cover of Mesozoic red beds. The whole region was characterized by a highly mobile tectonic development with alternating phases of compressional and extensional deformation.

  16. Time to relapse and remission of bipolar disorder: findings from a 1-year prospective study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelahanaj T

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thawatchai Leelahanaj,1 Ronnachai Kongsakon,2 Somrak Choovanichvong,3 Sookjaroen Tangwongchai,4 Suchat Paholpak,5 Thoranin Kongsuk,6 Manit Srisurapanont7 For the Thai Bipolar Registry Study Group 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Srithanya Hospital, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 6Prasrimahabhodi Psychiatric Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand; 7Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background and methods: This study aimed to determine time to relapse and remission of mood episodes in Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD. The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a multicenter, prospective, naturalistic, observational study conducted in Thailand. Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders bipolar disorder. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder, current psychiatric comorbidity, mood relapse, and mood remission were determined by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Relapse and remission were assessed every 2 months. Results: Of 424 BD participants, 404 (95.3% were BD I, and 258 (60.8% were female. At entry, 260 (61.3% had recovered, and 49 (11.6% were recovering. During 1-year follow-up (381.7 person-years, 92 participants (21.7% had 119 relapses or 0.31 (95% confidence interval 0.25–0.35 episodes per person-year. Among 119 relapses, 58 (48.7%, 39 (32.7%, and 21 (17.6% of them were depressive, hypomanic, and manic episodes, respectively. Using the Kaplan–Meier method, we found that 25% of the participants relapsed in 361 days. Of the 400 participants who reached remission, 113 (28.2% had mood relapses. Of 173 mood events accountable for remission analysis, the

  17. [AIDS research and prevention strategies in Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisch, H

    1997-04-01

    The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic. PMID:12293692

  18. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand were collected: A. maenas Doubleday, A. selene Hübner and A. rhodopneuma Röber. A. maenas was the most widespread species in the country with an average of 0.001037 individuals/spot sample and was found all year round. The highest abundance was in Narathiwat province, the northernmost border of the Sundaic region. A. selene was found at higher latitudes ranging from 20 °N at Doi Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai to 13 °N at Prachub Kirikhan province with an average of 0.003303 individuals/spot sample and were found all year round, with the highest abundance in July. By applying IUCN Categories & Criteria A. maenas and A. selene were designated as Vulnerable (VU and Near Threatened (NT species respectively. A. rhodopneuma moths were found only at Doi Phuka National Park, Nan province with 0.000263 individuals/spot sample from February to April and are therefore designated as a Critically Endangered (CR species. A. sinensis was not found during this study and is therefore assigned the status of extinct (EX.

  19. Ecosystem Services Tradeoffs: A Case Study of Chiang Khong, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Apisom Intralawan; Ithiphat Rueangkitwat

    2016-01-01

    The recent transformation of land in the Mekong River Basin has been dramatic. The changes have contributed to an increased standard of living resulting from economic and agricultural expansion, increasing urbanization and modernization. However, the changes have also resulted in major degradation of ecosystems and the services which ecosystems provide. Despite acknowledgement of the loss of the ecosystem benefits, the integration of ecosystem services tradeoffs into land use decisions is sti...

  20. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Saensak S; Vutyavanich T; Somboonporn W; Srisurapanont M

    2013-01-01

    Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang M...

  1. Morphometric and genetic variation of small dwarf honeybees Apis andreniformis Smith, 1858 in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ATSALEK RATTANAWANNEE; CHANPEN CHANCHAO; SIRIWAT WONGSIRI

    2007-01-01

    The small dwarf honey bee, Apis andreniformis, is a rare and patchily distributed Apis spp. and is one of the native Thai honey bees, yet little is known about its biodiversity. Thirty (27 Thai and 3 Malaysian) and 37 (32 Thai and 5 Malaysian) colonies of A.andreniformis were sampled for morphometric and genetic analysis, respectively. For morphometric analysis, 20 informative characters were used to determine the variation. After plotting the factor scores, A. andreniformis from across Thailand were found to belong to one group, a notion further supported by a cluster analysis generated dendrogram.However, clinal patterns in groups of bee morphometric characters were revealed by linear regression analysis. The body size of bees increases from South to North but decreases from West to East, although this may reflect altitude rather than longitude. Genetic variation was determined by sequence analysis of a 520 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit b (cytb). DNA polymorphism among bees from the mainland of Thailand is lower than that from Phuket Island and Chiang Mai. Although two main different groups of bees were obtained from phylogenetic trees constructed by neighbor-joining and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages programs, no clear geographic signal was present. Thus, while the minor group (B) contained all of the samples from the only island sampled (Phuket in the south), but not the southern mainland colonies, it also contained samples from the far northern inland region of Chiang Mai, other samples of which were firmly rooted in the major group (A).

  2. Benzodiazepine prescribing behaviour and attitudes: a survey among general practitioners practicing in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Critchley Julia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over-prescribing of benzodiazepines appears common in many countries, a better understanding of prescribing practices and attitudes may help develop strategies to reduce prescribing. This study aimed to evaluate benzodiazepine prescribing behaviour and attitudes in general practitioners practising in Chiang Mai and Lampoon, Thailand. Methods Questionnaire survey of general practitioners in community hospitals, to estimate: i use of benzodiazepines for anxiety/insomnia, panic disorder, depression, essential hypertension, and uncomplicated low back pain and ii views on the optimal duration of benzodiazepine use. Results Fifty-five of 100 general practitioners returned the completed questionnaires. They reported use of benzodiazepines for anxiety/insomnia (n = 51, 93%, panic disorder (n = 43, 78%, depression (n = 26, 43%, essential hypertension (n = 15, 27 % and uncomplicated low back pain (n = 10, 18%. Twenty-eight general practitioners would prescribe benzodiazepines for non-psychiatric conditions, 17 for use as muscle relaxants. Seventy-five per cent, 62% and 29% of the general practitioners agreed or totally agreed with the use of benzodiazepines for insomnia, anxiety and depression, respectively. Practitioners agreed that prescribing should be less than one week (80%; or from 1 week to 1 month (47%; or 1 to 4 months (16%; or 4 to 6 months (5% or more than 6 months (2%. Twenty-five general practitioners (45% accepted that they used benzodiazepines excessively in the past year. Conclusion A considerable proportion of general practitioners in Chiang Mai and Lampoon, Thailand inappropriately use benzodiazepines for physical illnesses, especially essential hypertension and uncomplicated low back pain. However, almost half of them thought that they overused benzodiazepines. General practitioner's lack of time, knowledge and skills should be taken into account in improving prescribing behaviour and attitudes.

  3. Impact of depression and social support on nonadherence to antipsychotic drugs in persons with schizophrenia in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirijit Suttajit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: Little is known about the effect of social support on nonadherence in persons with schizophrenia, especially in developing Asian countries where social support is considered to be imperative. Additionally, the role of depression as a mediator in the association between social support deficits and nonadherence has not been evaluated.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 75 participants at a university hospital in Thailand. Logistic regression was used to determine whether depression and a deficit in social support were associated with nonadherence, and whether depression mediated this association.Results: There were strong relationships between nonadherence and major depressive episodes (odds ratio [OR] 9.5, confidence interval [CI] 2.3–38.9, living alone (OR 21.8, CI 3.5–143.0, and dissatisfaction with support from family (OR 10.0, CI 1.9–53.1. The OR of the association between social support deficits and nonadherence decreased by nearly one half after adjusting for depression.Discussion: Depression and social support deficits were significantly associated with nonadherence in persons with schizophrenia. Depression is important in mediating the association between social support deficits and nonadherence. Enhancing social support, as well as early detection and effective intervention for depression should be emphasized in interventions to improve adherence in persons with schizophrenia.Keywords: nonadherence, schizophrenia, depression, social support, antipsychotic drugs

  4. Quetiapine monotherapy in acute treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Maneeton N; Maneeton B; Woottiluk P; Likhitsathian S; Suttajit S; Boonyanaruthee V; Srisurapanont M

    2016-01-01

    Narong Maneeton,1 Benchalak Maneeton,1 Pakapan Woottiluk,2 Surinporn Likhitsathian,1 Sirijit Suttajit,1 Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee,1 Manit Srisurapanont1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Psychiatric Nursing Division, Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Some studies have indicated the efficacy of quetiapine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Objective: The purpose o...

  5. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  6. MAI per NILDE

    OpenAIRE

    Buoso, Paolo; Rossi, Paola

    2008-01-01

    State of the art of MAI, the Italian Meta-Opac service managed by AIB (Italian Library Association) and CILEA is presented, toghether with a detailed outline and objectives of the project "MAI for NILDE".

  7. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. METHODS: In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP guided this work. RESULTS: Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. DISCUSSION: Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical

  8. Sirenomelia type VI (sympus apus) in one of dizygotic twins at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokeaingtong, Kwannapas; Kaewchai, Sirirat; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Khuwuthyakorn, Varangthip

    2015-01-01

    Those born with sirenomelia, a rare congenital anomaly, have features resembling a mermaid. Characteristics of sirenomelia are a single lower limb, sacral and pelvic bone defects, and anorectal and urogenital malformations. There is an increased incidence of sirenomelia in males and twins. This case was a preterm male, dizygotic twin and product of in vitro fertilisation. The baby was born by caesarean section due to breech presentation. He was found to have a fused lower extremity and absent external genitalia and anus. The baby passed away shortly after birth due to severe respiratory failure. Radiographic findings showed small lung volume and pneumothoraces. There were multiple segmental fusions of the vertebrae. Single femur and single tibia were presented in a fused lower limb. Autopsy demonstrated large intestinal atresia, intra-abdominal testes, absence of kidney, ureter and bladder, single umbilical artery, agenesis of blood vessels at lower extremity and agenesis of sacrum and coccyx. PMID:25976191

  9. Risk factors associated with injection initiation among drug users in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyanon Vinai

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circumstances surrounding injection initiation have not been well addressed in many developing country contexts. This study aimed to identify demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics related to injection initiation among drug users in northern Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,231 drug users admitted to the Northern Drug Treatment Center in Mae Rim, Chiang Mai, Thailand, between February 1, 1999 and December 31, 2000. A multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the independent effects from potential risk factors of transition into injection. Results After controlling for other covariates, being 20 years of age or older, single, ever receiving education, urban residence, and having a history of smoking or incarceration were significantly associated with higher likelihood of injection initiation. Multiple sex partners and an experience of sex abuse were associated with an increased risk of injection initiation. Comparing to those whose first drug was opium, individuals using heroin as their initiation drug had greater risk of injection initiation; conversely, those taking amphetamine as their first drug had less risk of injection initiation. Age of drug initiation was negatively associated with the risk of injection initiation: the older the age of drug initiation, the less the risk of injection initiation. Conclusion Injection initiation was related to several demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics. Understanding these factors will benefit the design of approaches to successfully prevent or delay transition into injection.

  10. Diabetes prevention education program for community health care workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 4-month training program on the knowledge of CHCWs. CHCWs from 69 communities in Chiang Mai province in Thailand were assigned to the intervention group (IG, n=35) or control group (CG, n=34). All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline and at 4-months. The intervention group received a training program of 16 sessions of 2.5 h each within a 4-month period. A mix of classroom and E-learning approaches was used. All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline, 4-month, and follow-up at 8-month. Assessment was based on a pretested examination addressing understanding of nutritional terms and recommendations, knowledge of food sources related to diabetes prevention and diet-disease associations. Overall, the knowledge at baseline of both groups was not significantly different and all CHCWs scored lower than the 70% (mean (SD), 56.5% (6.26) for IG and 54.9% (6.98) for CG). After 4-month, CHCWs in the IG demonstrated improvement in total scores from baseline to 75.5% (6.01), Peffective in improving CHCWs' health knowledge relevant to diabetes prevention. The innovative learning model has potential to expand chronic disease prevention training of CHCWs to other parts of Thailand. PMID:21971628

  11. Characterization of GPS-TEC in a low-latitude region over Thailand during 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh Chowdhary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first results of vertical total electron content (VTEC data from (1 a dual-frequency GPS receiver installed at the Chiang Mai University in Chiang Mai (CHGM, 18.480 N, 98.570 E as part of SCINDA (Scintillation Network and Decision Aid and (2 the International GNSS Service (IGS station Pathum Wan (CUSV, 13.735 N, 100.533 E with magnetic latitude of 8.69°N and 3.92°N respectively in Thailand, from August 2010 to July 2012. In the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region, these two stations are separated at a distance of 668 km. Observed GPS-TEC values were found to be the highest between 1500 and 1900 Local Time (LT throughout the study period at both the stations. The GPS-TEC data from both the stations was plotted diurnal, monthly and seasonal analyses were performed. The equinox (March, April, September, and October and solstice (January, February, June, July, and December periods had maximum and minimum diurnal peak variations, respectively, of the GPS-TEC. High TEC values are attributed to extreme solar ultra-violet ionization coupled with upward vertical E×B drift. A comparison of the GPS-TEC data from both the stations for the study period shows that the CHGM station recorded higher values of TEC than the CUSV station because of the formation of an ionization crest over the CHGM station. The GPS-TEC values also exhibited an increasing trend-because of the approach of solar cycle 24. For data validation, the diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variations in the measured TEC were compared with the TEC modelled in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI models (IRI-2007 and the recently released IRI-2012 model. The IRI-2007 shows good agreement with the data from 2010 to 2011 from both stations and IRI-2012 agrees well with the data from 2012 onwards compared to IRI-2007.

  12. Direktsaat Mais im Biolandbau

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli; Böhler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Der Mais ist für die Fütterung von Wieder- als auch Nichtwiederkäuer eine sehr wertvolle Pflanze. Der Mais ist eine wärmeliebende Pflanze und kann den organischen Stickstoff sehr gut verwerten. Im Biolandbau wird für den Maisanbau aufgrund der einfacheren Unkrautregulierung standardmässig der Pflug verwendet. Bezüglich Bodenerosion, Verdichtung und Abschwemmung ist aber gerade beim Maisanbau der Pflugeinsatz nicht optimal. Zusätzlich stellt der Mais sehr hohe Ansprüche an die Nährstoffversorg...

  13. Integrated Livelihoods and Landscape Approach for Smallholders in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Joehl Cadena, Angela; Pond, David; Rattanasorn, Tawatchai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies and techniques researched and implemented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in villages in the vicinity of Doi Mae Salong in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. The strategies revolve around the paradigm linking poverty alleviation, conservation and landscape restoration. IUCN and its partners specifically researched and implemented schemes directed toward diversification of the household economy through alternative and sustainable inte...

  14. Factors enhancing production efficiency of farmer households who are members of saving groups in Upper Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aree Cheamuangphan; Aree Wiboonpongse; Yaovarate Chaovanapoonphol; Songsak Sriboonchitta

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to evaluate production efficiency of farmer households and to analyze factors affecting production efficiency of farmer households being saving group members in upper northern areas. The data are collected from 399 farmer households in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces and assessed by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Tobit model. The results reveal that farmer households have production efficiency in quite low level. Moreover, age of household head,...

  15. Floodplain sediment from a 100-year-recurrence flood in 2005 of the Ping River in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Wood

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropical storm, floodwater, and the floodplain-sediment layer of a 100-year recurrence flood are examined to better understand characteristics of large monsoon floods on medium-sized rivers in northern Thailand. Storms producing large floods in northern Thailand occur early or late in the summer rainy season (May–October. These storms are associated with tropical depressions evolving from typhoons in the South China Sea that travel westward across the Indochina Peninsula. In late September, 2005, the tropical depression from Typhoon Damrey swept across northern Thailand delivering 100–200 mm/day at stations in mountainous areas. Peak flow from the 6355-km2 drainage area of the Ping River upstream of the city of Chiang Mai was 867 m3s−1 (river-gage of height 4.93 m and flow greater than 600 m3s−1 lasted for 2.5 days. Parts of the city of Chiang Mai and some parts of the floodplain in the intermontane Chiang Mai basin were flooded up to 1-km distant from the main channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the floodwater were measured and estimated to be 1000–1300 mg l−1.

    The mass of dry sediment (32.4 kg m-2, measured over a 0.32-km2 area of the floodplain is relatively high compared to reports from European and North American river floods. Average wet sediment thickness over the area was 3.3 cm. Sediment thicker than 8 cm covered 16 per cent of the area, and sediment thicker than 4 cm covered 44 per cent of the area. High suspended-sediment concentration in the floodwater, flow to the floodplain through a gap in the levee afforded by the mouth of a tributary stream as well as flow over levees, and floodwater depths of 1.2 m explain the relatively large amount of sediment in the measured area.

    Grain-size analyses and examination of the flood layer showed about 15-cm thickness of massive fine-sandy silt on the levee within 15

  16. Achievements of grain legume variety improvement using induced mutation of the IAEA/RAS/5/040 project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project aims to form a regional cooperation network of mutation germplasm with emphasis on seed-propagated crops among the member states in Asia and Pacific during 2002-2006. It comprised of two components: the establishment and implementation of mutant multi-location trials and the establishment of mutation germplasm network. Thailand participated two crops, soybean and mungbean, of both components. Significant achievements are summarized. Soybean mutant multi-location trials: two introduced mutants were well adapted in the upper and lower north of Thailand. DT84 from Vietnam produced similar yield and matured 18 days earlier than Chiang Mai 60. Bangsakong from Korea gave 11% greater yield with 12 days earlier than Sukhothai 2. Soybean mutants resistant to Soybean Crinkle Leaf: the disease caused by virus and transmitted by whitefly is a major disease in Thailand. Seed of line CM9238-54-1(ST) was irradiated with 200 gray. Mutant lines were selected under natural field infections and tested in laboratory. Six mutant lines resistant to the disease were finally selected. Soybean mutants with high grain protein: seed of vars Chiang Mai 60, SSRSN19-35-4 and EHP275 was irradiated with 200 gray. Pedigree method of selection was used and grain protein of mutants was analysed. The results of a preliminary trial showed that 32 selected mutant lines gave 0.8, 2.0 and 1.0% higher grain protein than the original parents of 41.8, 40.3 and 41.9%, respectively. Soybean mutants with high seed germination and vigor: seed of Chiang Mai 60, a high yielding variety with poor seed germination and vigor, was irradiated with 100 gray. Pedigree selection method was used in late generations. Accelerated Aging Test was also used to test the seed vigor of the mutant lines. In dry season trial, eight mutant lines had seed germination of 65-75% compared with the parent of 30%. In rainy season, 12 mutant lines had seed germination of 75-89% whereas the parent had only 41%. Mungbean mutant

  17. Decoding Mai Jia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuLiu

    2004-01-01

    Mai Jia has won great success with his novel Decoding overnight. As a mominee of the Mao Dun Literary Prize in 2003 and one of the five candidates for the final of "The 6th China's Books Award", Decoding was ranked the first one in "The chart of China's novels in 2002". It was not only reprinted in 27 newspapers and

  18. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Eric Chiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Mark; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present this interview with Eric Chiang, Associate Professor of Economics, Director of Instructional Technology, and Technology Director for the Online MBA Program at Florida Atlantic University. He has authored 26 peer-reviewed research publications and is the author of "CoreEconomics," an economic principles textbook now in…

  19. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  20. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichuda Jiraporncharoen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3% participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.

  1. Distribution, quantitative load and characterization of Salmonella associated with swine farms in upper-northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Kumpapong, Kittipong; Sinthuya, Danai; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Nuanualsuwan, Supachai; Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Molla, Bayleyegn Z; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48 ˜ 4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.11 ± 0.57. AMP/S/TE (ampicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline) was the highest frequency antimicrobial resistance pattern found in this study. In addition, Salmonella Rissen was the primary serotype in this region. PFGE results indicated the occurrence of infection by cross contamination among pig farms. Our study showed that pork is easily contaminated with this pathogen. Farm control programs must be based on strict biosecurity and hygienic measures, which could further reduce the contamination pressure at slaughterhouses or retail shops. PMID:24675839

  2. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  3. Urinary pesticide metabolites in school students from northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn; Barr, Dana B

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated exposure to pesticides among secondary school students aged 12-13 years old in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Pesticide-specific urinary metabolites were used as biomarkers of exposure for a variety of pesticides, including organophosphorus insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and selected herbicides. We employed a simple solid-phase extraction with analysis using isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A total of 207 urine samples from Thai students were analyzed for 18 specific pesticide metabolites. We found 14 metabolites in the urine samples tested; seven of them were detected with a frequency > or=17%. The most frequently detected metabolites were 2-[(dimethoxyphosphorothioyl) sulfanyl] succinic acid (malathion dicarboxylic acid), para-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCY; metabolite of chlorpyrifos), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (c-DCCA and t-DCCA; metabolite of permethrin) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; metabolite of pyrethroids). The students were classified into 4 groups according to their parental occupations: farmers (N=60), merchants and traders (N=39), government and company employees (N=52), and laborers (N=56). Children of farmers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of pyrethroid insecticide metabolites than did other children (pmetabolite concentrations. Males had significantly higher values of PNP (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.009); however, no other sex-related differences were observed. Because parental occupation and agricultural activities seemed to have little influence on pesticide levels, dietary sources were the likely contributors to the metabolite levels observed. PMID:18760967

  4. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this

  5. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (panimal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (panimal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  6. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  7. Coalition formation to address structural determinants of methamphetamine use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Nancy; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thomson, Nicholas; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan; Galai, Noya; Celentano, David D; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Despite two recent government-sponsored 'wars on drugs', methamphetamine use continues to be a pervasive problem in Thailand. Out of concern for reported human rights abuses, there has been a call from the international community to take a different approach from the government's 'zero tolerance'. This paper describes the adaptation of the Connect to Protect® coalition formation process from urban U.S. cities to three districts in northern Thailand's Chiang Mai province, aimed to reduce methamphetamine use by altering the risk environment. Project materials, including manuals and materials (e.g. key actor maps and research staff memos), were reviewed to describe partnering procedures and selection criteria. Potential community partners were identified from various government and community sectors with a focus on including representatives from health, police, district and sub-district government officials. Of the 64 potential partners approached, 59 agreed to join one of three district-level coalitions. Partner makeup included 25% from the health sector, 22% who were sub-district government officials and 10% were representatives from the police sector. Key partners necessary for endorsement of and commitment to the coalition work included district-level governors, police chiefs and hospital directors for each district. Initial coalition strategic planning has resulted in policies and programs to address school retention, youth development initiatives and establishment of a new drug treatment and rehabilitation clinic in addition to other developing interventions. Similarities in building coalitions, such as the need to strategically develop buy-in with key constituencies, as well as differences of whom and how partners were identified are explored. PMID:24493782

  8. Mai og den magre hader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Per

    2006-01-01

    Anm. af Erik Knudsen og A.M. Mai (red.): Virkeligt. Om Erik Knudsens digtning Udgivelsesdato: september......Anm. af Erik Knudsen og A.M. Mai (red.): Virkeligt. Om Erik Knudsens digtning Udgivelsesdato: september...

  9. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Screening plans for disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expert advised Thai scientists at DOA Chiang Mai, Kasetsart University and elsewhere on new techniques in plant pathology, plant biochemistry and biological methods. The expert presented several seminars and met with various research groups around the country and with many individual researchers and students. The expert offered advice on solving specific problems, especially in relation to plant improvement and selection using phytotoxins

  10. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  11. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thongkhao Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj Sumet; Choowong Montri; Thitimakorn Thanop; Charusiri Punya

    2015-01-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity su...

  12. Comparison of self-reported professional competency across pharmacy education programs: a survey of Thai pharmacy graduates enrolled in the public service program

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpradit N; Suttajit S; Hunnangkul S; Wisaijohn T; Putthasri W

    2014-01-01

    Nithima Sumpradit,1,2 Siritree Suttajit,3 Saowalak Hunnangkul,4 Thunthita Wisaijohn,1 Weerasak Putthasri1 1International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Introduction: Thai pharmacy education consists of two undergraduate programs, a ...

  13. Mapping temporal extent of Chiang Mai floods using coupled 1-D and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation models

    OpenAIRE

    Kowit Boonrawd; Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-01-01

    A coupling of a 1-D flood routing model and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation model is applied for mapping spacetime flood extent. The routing model is formulated based on a non-linear storage-discharge relationship which is converted from an observed and synthetic rating curve. To draw the rating curve, required parameters for each reaches are estimated from hydraulic properties, floodplain geometry and vegetation and building cover of compound channels. The shape of the floodplain...

  14. Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Morley, Christopher K.; Searle, Michael P.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221-210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32-26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83-67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34-24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene-Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene

  15. Achievements of Grain Legume Variety Improvement Using Induced Mutation of the IAEA/RAS/5/040 Project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA/RAS/5/040 project aims to form a regional cooperation network of mutation germplasm with emphasis on seed-propagated crops among the Member States in Asia and Pacific commencing in 2002 and ending in 2006. It comprised of two components, the establishment and implementation of mutant multi-location trials and the establishment of mutation germplasm network. Thailand participated with two major grain legume crops, soybean and mungbean, of both components. Significant achievements are summarized. Soybean mutant multi-location trials: Two introduced mutants, DT84 from Vietnam and Bangsakong from Korea were well adapted in the upper and lower north of Thailand. DT84 produced similar yield and matured 18 days earlier than Chiang Mai 60 whereas Bangsakong gave 11% greater yield with 12 days earlier than Sukhothai. Soybean mutants resistant to Soybean Crinkle Leaf: The disease, caused by virus, is a major disease in Thailand. It is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Seed of a soybean linecm9238-54-1(ST) was irradiated with 200 gray. A number of mutant lines were selected under natural field infections and tested in laboratory. Six mutant lines resistant to the disease were finally selected. Soybean mutants with high grain protein: The government policy is to increase grain protein soybean for soy food products. Seeds of three soybean varieties namely Chiang Mai 60, SSRSN19-35-4 and EHP275 were irradiated with 200 gray. Pedigree method of selection was used and grain protein of the mutants was analysed. Thirty two mutant lines were selected. The result of a preliminary trial showed that the lines gave average grain protein of 0.8, 2.0 and 1.0% higher than the original parents of 41.8, 40.3 and 41.9%, respectively. Soybean mutants with high seed germination and vigor: Chiang Mai 60, a high yielding soybean variety, has a poor character of seed germination and vigor. Seed of Chiang Mai 60 was irradiated with 100 gray. Pedigree method of selection was used in late

  16. Sensitivity of erythemal UV/global irradiance ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist

    2014-11-01

    Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) irradiance were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV irradiance. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV irradiance at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.

  17. Determination of Angstrom's turbidity coefficient over Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Kumharn, W.; Laksanaboonsong, J. [Silpakorn Univ., Nakhon Pathom (Thailand). Dept. of Physics

    2003-09-01

    Values of the Angstrom's turbidity coefficient, {beta}, at 53 meteorological stations covering Thailand were determined by using three different methods. A selection of the methods was based on input data available at each station. It was started with the calculation of {beta} at Nakhon Pathom (13.81 {sup o}N and 100.4 {sup o}E) using narrow-band spectral irradiance data obtained from a multi-filter rotating shadow band radiometer. Langley's method was employed to calculate {beta} from the spectral data. The values of {beta} derived from this method were used as references to validate a method for computing {beta} from broad-band direct irradiance proposed by Louche et al. (Solar Energy 38(2)89). It was found that this method was valid for a tropical climate. Then Louche et al.'s method was used to calculate {beta} at meteorological stations situated at four main cities, namely Chiang Mai (18.78 {sup o}N, 98.98 {sup o}E) located in the north, Ubon Rachathani (15.25 {sup o}N, 104.87 {sup o}E) in the northeast, Songkhla (7.20 {sup o}N, 100.60 {sup o}E) in the south and Bangkok in the central region. Based on values of {beta} of these cities, a new model relating {beta} to visibility, suitable for the tropical climate was developed. This model was used to estimate {beta} at the other 48 meteorological stations where the visibility was routinely observed. Finally, seasonal variations of {beta} were investigated. It was found that for the stations in the north, the northeast and the central region, the values of {beta} are relatively high in the dry season (November-April). They decrease in the wet season (May-October). For most stations in the south, {beta} was relatively low and remained nearly constant all year round. It was also inferred that the northeast monsoon and the southwest monsoon had a strong influence on the seasonal variations of {beta}. (Author)

  18. Direktsaat von Mais im Biolandbau

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli; Hegglin, Django; Böhler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Der Mais ist für die Fütterung von Wieder- als auch Nichtwiederkäuer eine sehr wertvolle Pflanze. Im Biolandbau wird für den Maisanbau aufgrund der einfacheren Unkrautregulierung standardmässig der Pflug verwendet. Bezüglich Bodenerosion, Verdichtung und Abschwemmung ist aber gerade beim Maisanbau der Pflugeinsatz nicht optimal. Die Direktsaat von Mais löst diese Probleme weitgehend und erhöht auch im Biolandbau die Akzeptanz, da auf dem geschlossenen Boden auch die Ernte bodenschonender durc...

  19. Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Thailand has a high burden HIV epidemic among MSM and TG. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir-emtricitabine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM and TG in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Determinants of PrEP acceptability are needed to gauge the potential uptake of this prevention strategy. METHODS: From January to February 2012, 238 MSM and TG participants, who self-reported as HIV-uninfected or of unknown status, completed a self-administered survey on hand-held computers. Participants were recruited by venue-day-time sampling and asked to rate their likelihood of using oral PrEP for HIV prevention with an efficacy of 50%. PrEP acceptability was defined as being "very likely" to use PrEP. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to identify correlates of acceptability. RESULTS: 131 MSM and 107 TG responded, with mean ages of 23.7 and 21.8, respectively. 24% of MSM engaged primarily in receptive anal sex vs. 74% of TG. 21% of MSM and 44% of TG reported regular medication use. Prior awareness of PrEP was high at 66% among both MSM and TG respondents. 41% of MSM and 37% of TG were "very likely" to use PrEP. Among MSM, factors associated with PrEP acceptability included a prior history of STIs (AOR 4.6; 95%CIs 1.7-12.6, previous HIV testing (AOR 2.4 95%CIs 1.1-5.3, regularly planned sex (AOR 2.8 95%CIs 1.1-7.2, and infrequent sex (AOR 2.9 95%CIs 1.3-6.3. Among TG, factors associated with acceptability included prior awareness of PrEP (AOR 3.3; 95%CIs 1.2-9.0 and having private insurance (AOR 5.0; 95%CIs 1.3-19.0. CONCLUSION: MSM and TG in Northern Thailand are distinct groups in terms of sexual behaviors, patterns of medication use, and correlates of PrEP acceptability. Efforts to maximize PrEP uptake should include expanded HIV testing services and the provision of financial subsidies to reduce the cost of PrEP.

  20. Dialectal influence on chronic pulmonary disease assessment test: the reliability and validity study

    OpenAIRE

    Pothirat C; Chaiwong W; Phetsuk N; Liwsrisakun C; Bumroongkit C; Deesomchok A; Theerakittikul T; Limsukon A

    2015-01-01

    Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Athavudh Deesomchok, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Atikun Limsukon Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients living in many countries are familiar with local dialects rather than the official language. We, therefore, compare the ...

  1. Quetiapine for acute bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Suttajit S; Srisurapanont M; Maneeton N; Maneeton B

    2014-01-01

    Sirijit Suttajit, Manit Srisurapanont, Narong Maneeton, Benchalak Maneeton Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Precise estimated risks and benefits of quetiapine for acute bipolar depression are needed for clinical practice. Objective: To systematically review the efficacy and the tolerability of quetiapine, either as monotherapy or combination therapy, for acute bipolar depression. Methods: We included all randomized, contro...

  2. Introduction to Problem Based Learning for Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon; Rosenørn, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Documentation material and working papers for the workshop "Introduction to Problem Based Learning for Engineering Education" held at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 6 - 10 October 2003. The material support the workshop where the participants go through a complete pre-planning cycle...

  3. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  4. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first time.

  5. HIV incidence, risk factors, and motivation for biomedical intervention among gay, bisexual men, and transgender persons in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat Chariyalertsak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG persons is high and increasing in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic, socioeconomic, sexual behavior and interest in future HIV prevention trials among gay and bisexual MSM and TG presenting for HIV testing (VCT and pre-screening for the iPrEx pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis trail. METHODS: In 2008-09, MSM/TG participants attending VCT were interviewed and tested for HIV and STI. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were done to assess associations with HIV infection. RESULTS: A total of 551 MSM clients (56.1% gay, 25.4% TG, and 18.5% bisexual (BS were enrolled. The mean age was 23.9 years. HIV prevalence among MSM overall was 12.9% (71/551; 16.5% among gay men, 9.3% among TG, and 6.9% among BS. Consistent use of condom was low, 33.3% in insertive anal sex and 31.9% in receptive anal sex. Interest in participation was high, 86.3% for PrEP, 69.7% for HIV vaccine trials, but 29.9% for circumcision. HIV was independently associated with being gay identified, aOR 2.8, p = 0.037 and with being aged 25-29, aOR 2.7, p = 0.027. Among repeat testers, HIV incidence was 8.2/100 PY, 95% CI, 3.7/100PY to 18.3/100PY. CONCLUSION: HIV risks and rates varied by self-reported sexual orientation and gender identity. HIV was associated with sexual practices, age, and being gay-identified. These are populations are in need of novel prevention strategies and willing to participate in prevention research.

  6. Valtsitud vask ja golfi geomeetria / Mai Shein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šein, Mai, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Lühidalt klassikalise golfiklubi arhitektuurist ning Eestisse projekteeritud golfiklubist. Projekt valmis Mai Sheini Arhitektuuribüroos arhitektide Mai Sheini ja Jaan Tiidemanni poolt. Sisekujunduse autor on sisearhitekt Nauris Briedis Ars Interjöörprojektist.

  7. A social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With HIV-incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in Bangkok among the highest in the world, a topical rectal microbicide would be a tremendous asset to prevention. Nevertheless, ubiquitous gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of existing HIV preventive interventions highlight the need to address multi-level factors that may impact on rectal microbicide implementation. We explored the social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among MSM and transgender women in Chiang Mai and Pattaya, Thailand. Methods: We used a qualitative approach guided by a social ecological model. Five focus groups were conducted in Thai using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim in Thai and translated into English. We conducted thematic analysis using line-by-line and axial coding and a constant comparative method. Transcripts and codes were uploaded into a customized database programmed in Microsoft Access. We then used content analysis to calculate theme frequencies by group, and Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test to compare themes by sexual orientation/gender expression and age. Results: Participant's (n=37 mean age was 24.8 years (SD=4.2. The majority (70.3% self-identified as gay, 24.3% transgender women. Product-level themes (side effects, formulation, efficacy, scent, etc. accounted for 42%, individual (increased sexual risk, packaging/portability, timing/duration of protection 29%, interpersonal (trust/communication, power/negotiation, stealth 8% and social–structural (cost, access, community influence, stigma 21% of total codes, with significant differences by sexual orientation/gender identity. The intersections of multi-level influences included product formulation and timing of use preferences contingent on interpersonal communication and partner type, in the context of constraints posed by stigma, venues for access and cost. Discussion

  8. An open-label, prospective study to evaluate social function and overall improvement of extended-release paliperidone treatment in Thai schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Charnsil C; Vongpanich S

    2013-01-01

    Chawanun Charnsil,1 Salinee Vongpanich21Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Medical Affairs Department, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Previous studies with extended-release (ER) paliperidone have reported an effective outcome in terms of personal and social functioning improvement and also reported schizophrenia symptom improvement. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate improvements in symptom control and social functio...

  9. Tallinna Golfiklubi / Mai Šein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šein, Mai, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Arhitektuur, sisearhitektuur, tehnilisi näitajaid. Niitväljal asuva golfiklubi projekteeris Arhitektibüroo Mai Sein OÜ, arhitektid Mai Sein, Jaan Tiidemann. Sisekujundus OÜ ARS Interjöörprojekt, sisearhitekt Nauris Briedis. Konstruktiivse osa projekt Civen OÜ, insener Paavo Pikand. Projektijuht Enn Einla. Ehitas AS Gustaf. Projekt ja hoone valmis 1998. 6 illustratsiooni

  10. Protein Content in High-Protein Soybean Mutants in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies have been initiated to enhance nutritional quality of seed protein content in soybean varieties using induced mutation techniques. Approximately 5,000 seeds of uniform size of each variety were irradiated with Gamma-rays at a dose of 200Gy at Kasetsart University. The Kjeldahl method was used to analyze seed protein percentages. Experiment I. Seed of three soybean varieties, Chiang Mai 60, SSRSN35-19-4 and EHP275 were irradiated. M1 to M4 generations were grown at Nakhon Ratchasima Field Crops Research Center during 2004-2007. The Pedigree method of selection was used. In the M2, M3 and M4 generation, selected mutant lines had 1.9-2.6%, 1.5-2.3% and 0.8-2.2% higher seed protein content than the three checks, respectively. In a preliminary trial, the high protein mutant lines were tested for their protein yield. The mutants had average protein content of 42.5%, 42.4% and 42.9% whereas the check varieties had average protein content of 41.8, 40.3% and 41.9%, respectively. There were six, 18 and eight promising mutant lines selected from Chiang Mai 60, SSRSN35-19-4 and EHP 275, respectively. The mutant lines produced both high seed protein content and high yield. They will be tested in replicated trials in the research centers and farmer fields. Experiment II. cm9238-54-1 (ST) was a promising soybean line to be released for farmers. It gave 5-10% higher grain yield than cv Chiang Mai 60, the most popular variety in the northern and central regions. However, this line was susceptible to Soybean Crinkle Leaf (SCL) Disease. M1 plants generated by induced mutation were grown in the dry season of 2003 at Sukhothai Technical and Production Resources Service Center (TPRSC). The M2 and M3 seed were sown in the dry and rainy seasons of 2004 and selected M4 lines were tested for grain yield in four environments, dry and rainy season 2005, rainy season 2006 and dry season 2007 at Lop Buri TPRSC. From the 2006 to 2007 trials, six selected lines were found to be

  11. Mai Murdmaa neljas puutepunkt antiiktragöödiaga / Mai Murdmaa ; intervjueerinud Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murdmaa, Mai, 1938-

    2010-01-01

    5. veebruaril Kumus auditooriumis esietenduvast Mai Murdmaa tantsulavastusest "Phaidra", mis on loodud Euripidese teose "Hippolytose" põhjal, osades Kaie Kõrb, Anatoli Arhangelski ja Aleksandr Prigorovski

  12. Seasonal and diurnal biting activities and zoonotic filarial infections of two Simulium species (Diptera: Simuliidae in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Y.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and daily biting activity patterns, and natural filarial infections of adult black flies attracted to human bait were investigated at Ban Pang Faen, a rural area in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. Collections were carried out twice a month from 06-00 to 18-00 hours from January 2005 to February 2006. Among ten Simulium species collected, S. nodosum and S. asakoae were predominant occupying 57.3% and 37.2% of the total 16, 553 females, respectively. These two predominant species showed different patterns in seasonal abundance: majority of S. nodosum (86.7% were collected in hot season (from mid February to mid May, while most of S. asakoae (74.5% were collected in rainy season (from mid May to mid October. For the daily biting activity, S. nodosum had two patterns: the main one was unimodal with a peak from 17-00 to 18-00, and the other was bimodal and had the major peak from 16-00 to 18-00 and the minor one from 07-00 to 09-00. The pattern of S. asakoae was mostly unimodal with a peak from 06-00 to 10-00. The filarial larvae found in S. nodosum and S. asakoae were morphologically different from each other. The short and thick infective larvae found in S. asakoae differed from all known filarial larvae; it is suggested that they might be a bird parasite, Splendidofilariinae or Lemdaninae. The infection of the mammophilic S. nodosum with large Onchocerca type infective larvae was confirmed in this area. Natural filarial infections were found in each month (except December in either S. nodosum or S. asakoae or in both. Monthly infection rates with all stages of larvae were 0.6-5.0% for S. nodosum, and 1.0-4.0% for S. asakoae. It is suggested that people in this village are exposed to the risk of infection with zoonotic filariae throughout the year.

  13. Zinc fortification of whole rice grain through parboiling process

    OpenAIRE

    Prom-u-thai, Chanakan; Rerkasem, Benjavan; ÇAKMAK, İsmail; Cakmak, Ismail; Huang, Longbin

    2009-01-01

    Chanakan Prom-u-thai1*, Benjavan Rerkasem1, Ismail Cakmak2, Longbin Huang3 1Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand 2 Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul 34956, Turkey 3 The University of Queensland, Center for Mined Land Rehabilitation, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia Abstract The present study evaluated the effectiveness of Zn fortification in parboiling process for improving Zn densi...

  14. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    OpenAIRE

    Wongpakaran N; Wongpakaran T; Boonyanaruthee V; Pinyopornpanish M; Intaprasert S

    2015-01-01

    Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs) diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD) project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive ...

  15. Quetiapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of delirium: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maneeton B; Maneeton N; Srisurapanont M; Chittawatanarat K

    2013-01-01

    Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Manit Srisurapanont,1 Kaweesak Chittawatanarat2 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Atypical antipsychotic drugs may have low propensity to induce extrapyramidal side effects in delirious patients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability between quetiapine and haloperidol in controlling delirious behavior. Methods: A 7-day prospective, double-bli...

  16. Predictors of quality of life among individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Suttajit S; Pilakanta S

    2015-01-01

    Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak Pilakanta Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: The study reported here aimed to evaluate both biological and psychosocial factors as predictors for quality of life as well as to examine the associations between the factors and quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: Eighty individuals with schizophrenia were recruited to the study. The Thai version of the World Health Organization Qua...

  17. The influence of comorbid personality disorders on recovery from depression

    OpenAIRE

    Wongpakaran T; Wongpakaran N; Boonyanaruthee V; Pinyopornpanish M; Intaprasert S

    2015-01-01

    Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: The impact of personality disorders on the treatment of and recovery from depression is still a controversial topic. The aim of this paper is to provide more information on what has led to this disagreement.Materials and methods: Clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)...

  18. Analysis of production and environmental effects of Nile tilapia and white shrimp culture in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, J.G.; Falconer, L.; Kittiwanich, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Two case studies from Southeast Asia are used to analyse production, environmental effects, and economic optimisation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) pond culture. A projection of these data is made for the whole of Thailand. The results are analysed on a...... regional scale based on site selection using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). Farm-scale culture was simulated for (i) tilapia monoculture in Chiang Rai; (ii) shrimp monoculture in Chanthaburi; and (iii) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) of tilapia and shrimp in Chon Buri. Together, these...... provinces produced 17,500 tonnes of tilapia in 2012, with a significant proportion exported to North America and Europe. Growth models for both species were developed, calibrated, and validated, and used to simulate population dynamics of cultivated animals, and sediment diagenesis and eutrophication in...

  19. Renewable energy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following article should represent an overview of the situation of the energy sector in Thailand (I), in particular is referred to the recent Energy Plan 2036 (II.). The focus of this plan - and, accordingly, this paper - is on renewable energy. In addition to the general importance of renewable energy for Thailand the article should deal in detail with the various funding opportunities that the Thai government makes available to investors (III). In addition, under IV. the foreign Investors restrictions in force and possible exemptions thereof are discussed. Finally, it should, as far as possible, a view be given to future developments (V.).

  20. Budgeting in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jón R. Blöndal; Sang-In Kim

    2005-01-01

    Thailand has a sophisticated budget formulation process which has delivered solid fiscal results over time. This article discusses aspects of the budget process, including strategic performance budgeting, central development planning, the steps in the budget preparation timetable, and the roles of the spending ministries, the Bureau of the Budget and the Central Fund.

  1. Educational Reorganization in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, Leslie R.

    The Comprehensive School Project, the benchmark in the steady trend toward diversification of the Thailand secondary school curriculum, is the focus of this paper. In the first part three stages of educational development are examined and discussed, followed by education in the present period, the 1960 national scheme of education, and the…

  2. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world. PMID:12286018

  3. The social network index and its relation to later-life depression among the elderly aged ≥80 years in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Katonyoo, Chitima; Khamchai, Songyos; Wannakrairot, Pongsak

    2016-01-01

    Background Having a diverse social network is considered to be beneficial to a person’s well-being. The significance, however, of social network diversity in the geriatric assessment of people aged ≥80 years has not been adequately investigated within the Southeast Asian context. This study explored the social networks belonging to the elderly aged ≥80 years and assessed the relation of social network and geriatric depression. Methods This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. A representative sample of 435 community residents, aged ≥80 years, were included in a multistage sample. The participants’ social network diversity was assessed by applying Cohen’s social network index (SNI). The geriatric depression scale and activities of daily living measures were carried out during home visits. Descriptive analyses revealed the distribution of SNI, while the relationship between the SNI and the geriatric depression scale was examined by ordinal logistic regression models controlling possible covariants such as age, sex, and educational attainment. Results The median age of the sample was 83 years, with females comprising of 54.94% of the sample. The participants’ children, their neighbors, and members of Buddhist temples were reported as the most frequent contacts of the study participants. Among the 435 participants, 25% were at risk of social isolation due to having a “limited” social network group (SNI 0–3), whereas 37% had a “medium” social network (SNI 4–5), and 38% had a “diverse” social network (SNI ≥6). The SNI was not different among the two sexes. Activities of daily living scores in the diverse social network group were significantly higher than those in the limited social network group. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis models revealed a significant negative association between social network diversity and geriatric depression. Conclusion Regular

  4. Oligarchy in Thailand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern conception of oligarchy, which can be housed under an authoritarian regime as easily as it can under a liberal democratic one, can affect our understanding of the potential national political repercussions of extreme inequalities of wealth. This article has two goals: (1 to conceptually analyse the meaning of oligarchy; and (2 to make a descriptive case for its use in the Thai context. The test case of contemporary Thailand shows what exactly an oligarch or oligarchy means under a military regime and the potential effects for national politics of an oligarchy based on material wealth. Utilizing Jeffrey A. Winters’ Aristotelian-grounded conception of oligarchy for the contemporary world, this article argues that some political outcomes in Thailand are inexplicable without recourse to a modern variant of oligarchic theory and analysis.

  5. Village power in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  6. Thailand and brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.

  7. Bat consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases.Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to under...

  8. Thailand : Investment Climate Assessment Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an up-to-date assessment of the investment climate of Thailand. As the socio-economic framework in which enterprises operate including infrastructure, policies and regulations improving the investment climate is helpful for productivity and economic growth. The report is based mainly on the results of the second round of the Thailand Productivity and Investment Climate...

  9. CDM Country Guide for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Thailand

  10. TENNIS IN THAILAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Q:Howdoyouthinkoftheprotoumamentslike ATP Bangkok Open.Do you think it’s helpful to Thailand local tennis development? A:Professional tournaments are an excellent opportunity for cities to showcase ’top level’ tennis and inspire young players toward a lifetime pursuit of the sport as well as their own unique character. Tournaments are also helpful for coaches in their development work with players.To improve their students performance,an indepth study of the best players is useful and necessary.

  11. The Bongkot field, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladier, C. [Tour Total, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The paper relates to the development of the Bongkot gas field located offshore in the gulf of Thailand approximately 600 km south of Bangkok and 180 km off the coast, at a water depth 75 to 80 m. It consists of a multitude of small geological structures where gas accumulations are found in multi-faulted reservoirs. The gas is mainly characterized by a high CO{sub 2} content (4-50%) and a low condensate yield. Possible improvements or new concepts for future developments are outlined. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  12. 泰国北部山区的蔬菜种子生产%Vegetable seed production in the North Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikornpun,M.; 钟利

    2004-01-01

    By the financial support from the International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada to the Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, production of some vegetable seeds was tested on highland and lowland in the North of Thailand. Results showed that the highland was more suitable, climatically, than the lowland for seed production of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and leaf mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in terms of seed yields/area. In October, seed yield of Chinese radish at Mae Hae (highland, 1,000 m asl) was 3.66 t/ha while the yield at Hoay Luk (lowland, 800 m asl) was 2.1 t/ha. In November the yield on the highlands was 2.83 to 3.01 t/ha while the lowland was only 1.05 t/ha. The same potential was observed on leaf mustard.Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var.pekinensis L.) seed production was also tested on the highland. However, when seed production was considered economically on the highland, only Chinese radish and leaf mustard seed production was profitable, but not for Chinese cabbage.F1 hybrid seed production of tomato (Lycoperisicon esculentum M.) was tested on the low and highlands. In first year, lowland seed yields were 34.34 to 47.41 kg/ha,while in the second year the low and highlands seed yields were 64.74 and 93.36 kg/ ha,for the two varieties tested. Both the low and highlands were suitable for the seed production of F1 hybrid tomato.F1 hybrid watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was tested on the lowland while F1 hybrid squash (Cucubita pepo) was tested on the highland. Seed yield of watermelon was 73.65 kg/ha and squash was 71 kg/ha. The lowlands and highlands were suitable for the seed production of F1 hybrid watermelon and squash, respectively.%由加拿大国际发展研究中心(IDRC)资助,泰国清迈大学农学院在泰国北部的高海拔山区和低海拔坝区进行蔬菜种子生产比较试验,结果表明山区较坝区更适合萝卜和叶用芥菜的种子生产.在10月份,Mae Hae

  13. Thailand : Northeast Economic Development Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report is about balanced economic development in the Northeast of Thailand. It is about growth and poverty reduction, cities and villages, enterprises and workers, skills and education, infrastructure and trade, and rice and silk. Northeast economic development is only part of Thailand's development challenge, but it is among the most important. We look back at how the Northeast has fared in terms of growth, poverty reduction and social capital over the last decades relative to other reg...

  14. Thailand: Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment (FSSA) on Thailand. The assessment reveals that the soundness of Thailand’s financial system has been strengthened since the financial crisis of the late 1990s. Substantial progress has been made in upgrading the regulatory and supervisory system and improving macroeconomic management. Banking fundamentals have strengthened, with most Thai banks reporting high levels of capital and solid profitability. Private co...

  15. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Winai PRALOMKARN; Supakorn, China; Dolrudee BOONSANIT

    2012-01-01

    The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been f...

  16. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

  17. TRANSFORM DOMAIN SMART ANTENNAS ALGORITHM FOR MAI SUPPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke; Shi Xinhua; Zhang Eryang

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Access Interference(MAI) is the major factor that degrades the performance of a CDMA system. In this paper, a novel transform domain algorithm combined with parameter estimation for MAI suppression is proposed. Compared with the method that combines an adaptive array antenna with parameter estimation for interference suppression, it converges faster with the same Bit Error Rate(BER) performance.

  18. Tšernobõli järelkajad / Mai Treial

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treial, Mai, 1952-

    2001-01-01

    Siiani ei ole õiguslikku alust, kuidas Tšhernobõli aatomielekrijaama avarii tagajärgede likvideerimisel osalenute meditsiinilisi uuringuid korraldatakse. Sotsiaalminister Eiki Nestori vastusest Mai Treiali arupärimisele 18. aprillil. Autor: ERL. Parlamendisaadik. Ilmunud ka: ERL Teataja, mai, nr. 5, lk. 7

  19. Geochemical associations and availability of cadmium (Cd) in a paddy field system, Northwestern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kosolsaksakul, Peerapat

    2014-01-01

    The Mae Tao watershed, northwestern Thailand, has become contaminated with cadmium (Cd) from the zinc mining activities area in the nearby Thanon-Thongchai mountains. Consumption of Cd-contaminated rice has led to documented human health impacts. The aim of this study was to clarify transfer pathways from creek and canal waters to the paddy field soils near Baan Mae Tao Mai village and to determine the relationship between Cd forms in the soil and uptake by rice plants. Soils, ...

  20. Descriptions of odonate nymphs from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdpibule, V; Nicharat, S; Sucharit, S

    1979-12-01

    The descriptions of odonate nymphs from Thailand are presented. The insects of the Order Odonata both naiads and adults may serve as the second intermediate host of some intestinal parasites in Thailand. PMID:538504

  1. Wood Resources of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to 'The Book of Siamese Plant Names' issued by the Royal Forest Department in 1948, exactly one thousand species of trees in Thailand had been identified before that date. Many more species, including such remarkable ones as Prunus .javanica (T & B) Mig. and Betula anoides Ham., which are typical of the temperate zone, were later added to the list. Of the total number mentioned, 280 species have been registered under the Thai Forest Act as reserved species which cannot be cut without permission from the authority. Timbers of real commercial value, however, are comparatively few in number and those with high production figures for the fiscal year 1966 are listed in Table I where the wood density of each species is also given. Only twenty years ago, very few species superior in natural durability, strength, dimensional stability and working quality were offered in local timber markets, including Bangkok. Recently, as the demand for timbers increased enormously and with the development of wood-consuming industry, nearly all tree species have become valuable. Some soft species, such as Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl., which were previously considered to be unusable, have also become important raw materials for pulp and paper, plywood and particle-board manufacturing. Trees of smaller size are also continuously needed for the fabrication of construction materials

  2. Thailand's nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Thailand, is charged with three main tasks, namely, Nuclear Energy development Plan, Utilization of Nuclear Based technology Plan and Science and Technology Plan. Its activities are centred around the research reactor TRR-1/M1. The main areas of contribution include improvement in agricultural production, nuclear medicine and nuclear oncology, health care and nutrition, increasing industrial productivity and efficiency and, development of cadre competent in nuclear science and technology. The office also has the responsibility of ensuring nuclear safety, radiation safety and nuclear waste management. The office has started a new project in 1997 under which a 10 MWt research reactor, an isotope production facility and a waste processing and storage facility would be set up by General Atomic of USA. OAEP has a strong linkage with the IAEA and has been an active participant in RCA programmes. In the future OAEP will enhance its present capabilities in the use of radioisotopes and radiation and look into the possibility of using nuclear energy as an alternative energy resource. (author)

  3. Clinical indicators for severe prognosis of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwongpan P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pamornsri Sriwongpan,1,2 Pornsuda Krittigamas,3 Pacharee Kantipong,4 Naowarat Kunyanone,5 Jayanton Patumanond,1 Sirianong Namwongprom1,61Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 3Department of General Pediatrics, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Medical Technology, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The study explored clinical risk characteristics that may be used to forecast scrub typhus severity under routine clinical practices.Methods: Retrospective data were collected from patients registered at two university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in the north of Thailand, from 2004 to 2010. Key information was retrieved from in-patient records, out patient cards, laboratory reports and registers. Patients were classified into three severity groups: nonsevere, severe (those with at least one organ involvement, and deceased. Prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were analyzed by a multivariable ordinal continuation ratio regression.Results: A total of 526 patients were classified into nonsevere (n = 357, severe (n = 100, and deceased (n = 69. The significant multivariable prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were increased body temperature (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45–0.74, P < 0.001, increased pulse rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, P < 0.001, presence of crepitation (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.52–6.96, P = 0.001, increased percentage of lymphocytes (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98, P = 0.001, increased aspartate aminotransferase (every 10 IU/L (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02–1.06, P < 0.001, increased serum albumin (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27–0.80, P = 0

  4. Nuclear knowledge management in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from fossil fuels is reaching its limits. The prospective technologies for long term supply of the world economy with energy on a sustainable basis are varied, with widely differing promises and problems. In recent years, advocates from the Government of Thailand have promoted the use of renewable sources (such as biomass or hydropower) and inexhaustible resources (such as solar energy and wind power) as the solution to the oil crisis problem. In addition, the continued and increasing use of fossil fuels is causing the problem of carbon dioxide emission and its potential impact on the climate. In the absence of public policies that promote renewable energy, Thailand is viewing nuclear energy as an alternative source for tomorrow's energy requirements. In order to play a significant role along with other energy sources, nuclear technology must be recognized by the public as a mature and safe technology. Nuclear knowledge management together with promotional policies from both the government and private sector will determine the possibility of nuclear energy becoming an alternative source for Thailand. Nuclear knowledge management is being carried out at several institutes in Thailand, including Chlalongkorn University, Kasetsart University, Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP), Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (AEDE) and Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). At present, most of the support regarding nuclear knowledge management in Thailand is coming from the IAEA, European Union member States, the Republic of Korea, India, China, the Russian Federation and Japan. Current measures to raise the awareness of the public on nuclear issues include cooperation between the universities and dissemination of information from sources, such as the IAEA International Nuclear Information System, and the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN). (author)

  5. The refugee situation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D

    1985-01-01

    This statement by Dennis Gallagher, Director of the Refugee Policy Group, discusses the refugee situation in Thailand. Laotians have been entering Thailand in increasing numbers; some 86,000 Laotians are now in Thailand whereas there were 67,000 in November, 1983. The time is well past for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Thai government to initiate screening for new arrivals from Laos to determine whether or not they are refugees. The question needs to be examined as to what national interest and humanitarian obligation Thailand has to afford safe havens for refugees and others from Indochina. While the Thai government does not want the Khmer resistance to be crippled, it also must be concerned that providing the resistance with a base of operations of Thai territory could invite attack by the Vietnamese. Refugee resettlement alone has not and cannot resolve the refugee problem in Thailand; a more comprehensive approach is required. In areas where there is a substantial number of Indochinese who are unlikely to be resettled, projects need to be developed and funded that contribute to a more productive life for them and, preferably, for the broader region in which they reside. It is important that modification of policies occur within a comprehensive framework rather than on a piecemeal basis. Encouraging the Thais to accept supporting self-reliance projects will not happen if commitments to resettlement are not sustained. That the refugee situation in Thailand is complex and is constantly evolving argues for policies that permit more options for addressing it. PMID:12178936

  6. Renewable energy in Thailand; Renewable Energy in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morstadt, Till [Lorenz and Partners, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-01-15

    The following article should represent an overview of the situation of the energy sector in Thailand (I), in particular is referred to the recent Energy Plan 2036 (II.). The focus of this plan - and, accordingly, this paper - is on renewable energy. In addition to the general importance of renewable energy for Thailand the article should deal in detail with the various funding opportunities that the Thai government makes available to investors (III). In addition, under IV. the foreign Investors restrictions in force and possible exemptions thereof are discussed. Finally, it should, as far as possible, a view be given to future developments (V.). [German] Der nachfolgende Beitrag soll einen Ueberblick ueber die Situation des Energiesektors in Thailand darstellen (1.), wobei insbesondere Bezug genommen wird auf den kuerzlich veroeffentlichten Energieplan 2036 (II.). Der Fokus dieses Planes - und dementsprechend dieses Beitrages - liegt auf erneuerbaren Energien. Neben der allgemeinen Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer Thailand soll detailliert auf die einzelnen Foerdermoeglichkeiten eingegangen werden, die die thailaendische Regierung Investoren zur Verfuegung stellt (111.). Zudem werden unter IV. die fuer auslaendische Investoren geltenden Beschraenkungen und moegliche Befreiungen hiervon eroertert. Abschliessend soll, soweit moeglich, ein Ausblick auf zukuenftige.Entwicklungen gegeben werden (V.).

  7. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25...

  8. Adaptive Resource Allocation For MAI Minimization In Wireless Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdul Waheed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Coding-based solutions for MANETs have emerged as a basic solution to current high rate data accessing in adhoc network. This has become essential related to the absence of centralized control such as a monitoring station. A code assignment protocol is needed to assign distinct codes to different terminals. This problem is less effective in small networks, but becomes dominative in large networks where the numbers of code sequence are lesser than the number of terminals to code, demanding reuse of the codes. The issue of code allocation in communication is focused in this paper with the evaluation of MAI in wireless network. Unlike previously proposed protocols in this paper a focus for the multiple access interference (MAI, thereby addressing the limiting near-far problem that decreases the throughput performance in MANETs is made. The code assignment scheme is developed for the proper usage of users code under MANETs communication to minimize the MAI impact.

  9. North Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA

  10. Ombra mai fù : The interactive Singing Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Carl; Unander-Scharin, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    OMBRA MAI FÙ This sensual tree, built of copper, reacts on the closeness of the audience. When the audience approach, the tree performs the Largo by Handel with its trembling loudspeaker-leafs. In this aria, Xerxes gives voice to his love for a tree that allows him to seek refuge in its shadow.     OMBRA MAI FÙQC 20120209This sensual tree, built of copper, reacts on the closeness of the audience. When the audience approach, the tree performs the Largo by Handel with its trembling loudspea...

  11. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Todsadee Areerat; Kameyama Hiroshi; Ngamsomsuk Kamol; Yamauchi Koh-En

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract...

  12. Lapsena Raplas nukumaju ehitanud Mai Sheinist sai arhitekt / Maire Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Maire, 1961-

    2009-01-01

    Raplas sündinud Mai Šeinist, kes on 1996. aastast omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo juhataja. Arhitekti kooliajast, eelistustest arhitektuuris, projekteerimisel, arvamus Rapla kesklinna arhitektuurist. M. Šeini tähtsamate projektide ja võistlustel osalemiste loetelu

  13. Sünteesiasaavutuse poolel teel : Mai Murdmaa "Antigone" / Heili Einasto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einasto, Heili

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Draamateater etendab Kumu auditooriumis Jean Anouilh' näidendi põhjal Sophoklese kooriosaga nüüdistantsulavastust "Antigone", milles teevad kaasa ka draamanäitlejad ja EMTA lavakunstikooli I kursuse tudengid. Lavastaja, koreograaf, libreto ja lavakujunduse autor Mai Murdmaa

  14. Myanmar migrant laborers in Ranong, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    FUJITA, Koichi; Endo, Tamaki; Okamoto, Ikuko; Nakanishi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Miwa; 藤田, 幸一; 遠藤, 環; 岡本, 郁子; 中西, 嘉宏; 山田, 美和

    2010-01-01

    Thailand is the major destination for migrants in mainland Southeast Asia, and Myanmar (Burmese) migrants account for the dominant share. This paper sheds light on the actual working conditions and the life of Myanmar migrants in Thailand, based on our intensive survey in Ranong in southern Thailand in 2009. We found a wide range of serious problems that Myanmar migrants face in everyday life: very harsh working conditions, low income, heavy indebtedness, risk of being human-trafficking victi...

  15. Infrared view of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Bight of Bangkok and the city of Bangkok, Thailand are visible in this west looking view. The city, of almost four million people, long famous as a jewelry, silver and bronze ware trading center is also a major rice grower. Situated in a vast lowland ideal for rice agriculture, it is now a major export commodity. The vast network of canals are used for irrigation and drainage and the deforested hills of the Bilauktaung Range are seen nearby.

  16. Nuclear data needs in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major nuclear facilities in Thailand are composed of nuclear research reactor, neutron generators, electron linear accelerators and 1 GeV Synchrotron facility, which is under construction. The other small facilities are radioisotope sources and X ray tubes for X ray diffraction and fluorescence studies. Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is the function arm for nuclear institutions in Thailand. Its major roles are nuclear regulatory, coordinating for nuclear affairs and foreign relations, R and D for nuclear science and technology and giving nuclear services. Nuclear data activities concerning Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) are for examples: neutronics and thermalhydraulics for reactor operation, neutron energy spectrum and neutron flux measurement for neutron activation analysis and isotope production, neutron and gamma doses, shielding and material testing for radiation safety, and neutron beam experiments. OAEP is taking part in the areas of regional cooperation on utilization of nuclear research reactors, education and training, sharing of research reactor experimental facilities, establishment of nuclear data program and information exchange. The nuclear data reports have been shared among institutions in Thailand through OAEP, which is served as a central nuclear data depository including e.g., INIS, IAEA-NDS, Joint Research Centre Commission of the European Communities and Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC). This report shows the nuclear facilities in Thailand, the roles of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace on nuclear data depository and nuclear power development program. The main activities at the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 concerning nuclear data needs for specific uses in both theoretical and experimental aspects are also described. (J.P.N.)

  17. Nuclear data needs in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongkum, S. [Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-03-01

    The major nuclear facilities in Thailand are composed of nuclear research reactor, neutron generators, electron linear accelerators and 1 GeV Synchrotron facility, which is under construction. The other small facilities are radioisotope sources and X ray tubes for X ray diffraction and fluorescence studies. Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is the function arm for nuclear institutions in Thailand. Its major roles are nuclear regulatory, coordinating for nuclear affairs and foreign relations, R and D for nuclear science and technology and giving nuclear services. Nuclear data activities concerning Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) are for examples: neutronics and thermalhydraulics for reactor operation, neutron energy spectrum and neutron flux measurement for neutron activation analysis and isotope production, neutron and gamma doses, shielding and material testing for radiation safety, and neutron beam experiments. OAEP is taking part in the areas of regional cooperation on utilization of nuclear research reactors, education and training, sharing of research reactor experimental facilities, establishment of nuclear data program and information exchange. The nuclear data reports have been shared among institutions in Thailand through OAEP, which is served as a central nuclear data depository including e.g., INIS, IAEA-NDS, Joint Research Centre Commission of the European Communities and Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC). This report shows the nuclear facilities in Thailand, the roles of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace on nuclear data depository and nuclear power development program. The main activities at the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 concerning nuclear data needs for specific uses in both theoretical and experimental aspects are also described. (J.P.N.)

  18. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Since 1998, significant corporate governance reforms have been introduced and are underway, including reforms in the structure and function of the board of directors of listed companies, the establishment of the Thai Institute of Directors Association and the Department of Special Investigation, the adoption by the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) of 15 principles of good corporate governance, and draft legislation to reinforce the rights of minority shareholders. In addition, the Securities ...

  19. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Veerachai Tanpipat; Prayoonyong Nuchaiya; Kiyoshi Honda

    2009-01-01

    To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots) quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected ...

  20. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerachai Tanpipat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected areas of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Three areas were selected as test sites for validation guidelines. Both ground and aerial field surveys were also conducted in this study by the Forest Fire Control Division, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conversation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. High accuracy of 91.84 %, 95.60% and 97.53% for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 fire seasons were observed, resulting in increased confidence in the use of MODIS hotspots for forest fire control and management in Thailand.

  1. Integrating GIS with AHP and Fuzzy Logic to generate hand, foot and mouth disease hazard zonation (HFMD-HZ) model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphutthanon, R.; Tripathi, N. K.; Ninsawat, S.; Duboz, R.

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this research was the development of an HFMD hazard zonation (HFMD-HZ) model by applying AHP and Fuzzy Logic AHP methodologies for weighting each spatial factor such as disease incidence, socio-economic and physical factors. The outputs of AHP and FAHP were input into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) process for spatial analysis. 14 criteria were selected for analysis as important factors: disease incidence over 10 years from 2003 to 2012, population density, road density, land use and physical features. The results showed a consistency ratio (CR) value for these main criteria of 0.075427 for AHP, the CR for FAHP results was 0.092436. As both remained below the threshold of 0.1, the CR value were acceptable. After linking to actual geospatial data (disease incidence 2013) through spatial analysis by GIS for validation, the results of the FAHP approach were found to match more accurately than those of the AHP approach. The zones with the highest hazard of HFMD outbreaks were located in two main areas in central Muang Chiang Mai district including suburbs and Muang Chiang Rai district including the vicinity. The produced hazardous maps may be useful for organizing HFMD protection plans.

  2. Proceedings SPRAY 2010, 3.-5. Mai 2010, Heidelberg

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Fritsching

    2010-01-01

    SPRAY 20109. Workshop über Sprays, Techniken der Fluidzerstäubung und Untersuchungen von SprühvorgängenHeidelberg, 3. - 5. Mai 2010Die Spray-Workshops sollen Ingenieuren und Wissenschaftlern aus Forschung und Industrie Gelegenheit bieten, sich mit aktuellen Problemen und Lösungsansätzen der Fluidzerstäubung, den entsprechenden Messtechniken sowie der physikalischen Modellbildung von Sprayprozessen und deren numerischer Behandlung auseinander zu setzen. Der Workshop Spray 2010 in Heidelberg wa...

  3. Pensionid poliitilisest tõmbetuulest välja / Mai Treial

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treial, Mai, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 18. mai 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 18. mai 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 22. mai 2007, lk. 6; Sakala, 23. mai 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 25. mai 2007, lk. 6; Vooremaa, 26. mai 2007, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 29. mai 2007, lk. 2; Oma Saar, 30. mai 2007, lk. 5; Teataja : Eestimaa Rahvaliidu ajaleht, juuni, nr. 6, 2007, lk. 3. Rahvaliidu ettepanekust riikliku pensionikindlustuse seaduse täiendamise eelnõu kohta: pensioni baasosa osakaalu tuleks suurendada neljal järgmisel aastal

  4. Nuclear power project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thailand has been highly relied on fossil fuels for electricity generation. In fact 66% of today's electric power is supplied from natural gas. With current unprecedented increase of oil and gas prices, the country is in need of alternative energy sources more than ever. The Government recognizes the problem and seeks sustainable solution not only to improve energy security but also to reduce greenhouse gases emission, the root of threatening global warming problem. For base load power generation, however, nuclear power is perhaps the only practical option currently available. As a result, in Thailand Power Development Plan 2007-2021 (PDP 2007), there will be a 1,000 MWe nuclear power plant commercialized in 2020 and another in 2021. By the end of 2021, nuclear share of electricity generation of Thailand will be about 5%. Due to the fact that this is Thailand's first nuclear power plant, necessary infrastructures are not currently in place. To cope with this requirement, on April 11, 2007, the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) appointed the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Preparation Committee (NPIPC) to develop the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Establishment Plan (NPIEP). NPIEP comprises two major plans: nuclear power infrastructure and nuclear power utility preparation plans. Required infrastructures include: legal and regulatory systems and international commitments; industrial infrastructure and commerce; technology development and transfer and human resources development; nuclear safety and environmental protection; and public relations and public acceptance. Utility planning comprises preparations for setting up organizational structure to accommodate a nuclear power project, technology selection, assessment of nuclear safety and technical aspects of nuclear power generation, and implementation of project feasibility study and site selection. NPIEP had been effectively developed under guidelines and technical support from the International Atomic

  5. Knowledge Management in Higher Education in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumjit, Surat

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how knowledge management (KM) is applied to higher education in Thailand, and it will also examine whether higher education in Thailand is ready to combine KM with their educational missions in terms of teaching, research, administration, and strategic planning. Knowledge creation and social networking frameworks are used to…

  6. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  7. Thailand : Country Development Partnership for Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Competitiveness has emerged as a key issue confronting policymakers in Thailand. The Government's reform program will be extended by explicitly incorporating into the competitiveness framework measures that address the remaining constraints on competitiveness. The three critical areas that could constrain Thailand's medium term competitiveness include: 1) The need to strengthen the knowled...

  8. Thailand's cash crisis hits Asian hydro plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights the impact of Thailand's economic crisis on the state run Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) hydroelectric power developments plans. The three economic scenarios (rapid, moderate, slow) used by EGAT, and the moderate recovery scenario that the Thai government has instructed EGAT to use are discussed. The predicted rising of energy consumption, the delay to EGAT power development programme, plans for constructing plants using renewable energy, the supply of electricity from Laos, and future developments are considered. The restructuring of Thailand's electricity sector is reviewed, and Thailand's decision to request the assistance of the International Monetary Fund is noted. Thailand's power capability is briefly explored, and a diagram showing the transmission system and existing and future hydroelectric power plants is presented. (UK)

  9. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  10. Nuclear Power Project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  11. Thailand; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that in 2012, Thailand’s economy rebounded strongly from the devastating floods, with real GDP growing by 6.5 percent. Private consumption rose 6.7 percent, reflecting pent-up demand and government measures, including the rice pledging scheme, where the government was committed to buying rice from farmers at a set price above the prevailing market price, and the first-car buyer scheme. On the back of reconstruction spending, private investment gr...

  12. Music Healing Rituals in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussakorn Binson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the music healing rituals from North, Northeast and Southern Thailand. In general, these healing rituals bring together supportive elements from the family, the community and spiritual entities with the shaman as a conductor. Shaman utilizes music in corporate the community as a whole including elicits the support from the spiritual entitles. Traditional music healing process played the role as enticement to recruit spirits, distract the patients from experiencing unpleasant in their body. Even in today’s modern society these healing rituals have persisted, as they are inseparable from these regions’ animistic beliefs system.

  13. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The...... crustacean, the remainder hide under shale, rocks and coral blocks, often in small intra- or interspecific family flocks. The behaviour was also noted for some of the species. It is presumed that galeommatid species go through a lengthy planktonic phase....

  14. Utilization of NAA in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is more than sixty years old, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is still widely used and continues to develop all over the world. Up to now, no other new analytical methods have been able to replace it for some applications. In Thailand, NAA is a very popular nuclear technique for analysis of Trace elements in various samples and various fields by using the Thai Research Reactor-1/modification-1 (TRR-1/M-1) as following: 1. Geological field, 2. Environmental field, 3. Biological field, 4. Industrial field and 5. Training and Technology Transfer. (author)

  15. Encerramento do foramen oval patente : risco ou mais-valia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Rute Carlos Vieira de

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: O Foramen Oval Patente é uma anomalia congénita com elevada prevalência na população geral (≈25%). Na maioria dos casos é um achado incidental sem necessidade de tratamento. Porém, esta patologia foi associada a inúmeras condições patológicas major, nomeadamente, embolia paradoxal, enxaqueca, síndrome de descompressão em mergulhadores e síndrome de platipneia-ortodoxa. Esta anomalia é mais prevalente em pacientes com história de acidente vascular cerebral de idade inferior a 50 an...

  16. Miks on Savisaar ja proua Bush Birma kallal / Mai Loog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loog, Mai, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 29. mai lk. 7. Birma sõjaväeline valitsus otsustas taas pikendada aasta võrra Nobeli rahupreemia laureaadi ja demokraatliku opositsiooni liidri Aung San Suu Kyi 11-aastast koduaresti, mille vastu astusid välja USA senaatorid presidendiproua Laura Bushi juhtimisel kui ka Tallinna linnapea Edgar Savisaar koos Pariisi ja Rooma linnapeadega. Birma hunta plaanitavast konstitutsioonist, kus aatomienergia on pandud riigikaitse ja julgeoleku alla. Venemaa aatomienergia agentuuri Rosatomi lepingust Birma huntaga aatomienergia tootmiseks

  17. Edible Cyanobacteria (Nostochopsis spp. from Glass House, Queen Sirikit Botanical Garden, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manita Motham

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nostochopsis spp. are edible and rare cyanobacteria which form thick mucilaginous colonies, 0.1-8 cm in size, attached on the rocks or cobbles in transparent shallow streams or rivers. They are classified in the Order Nostocales, Family Hapalosiphonaceae. The objective of this study was to investigate the colonial growth, pigments and quality of water in the ponds at 3 glass houses in the Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden, Chiang Mai Province in which these cyanobacteria were growing during April-June 2012. The three glass houses were; the Aquatic house, the Bromeliad house and Orchids and Fern house. Ten colonies from each sampling site were measured once a week. The average increase in colonial size was found to be 0.17±0.06, 0.30±0.08 and 0.15±0.08 cm/week respectively. Chlorophyll, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and carotenoid were highest in the samples from Aquatic house as 16.22±4.28, 11.95±8.55, 73.62±4.07 and 12.70±1.54 mg/g.dw, respectively. These cyanobacteria grew at 22-30°C, pH 6.17-8.75 and conductivity 112-171 µs/cm. The water quality was clean-moderate and in oligo-mesotrophic status.

  18. La relégation (loi du 27 mai 1885)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Lucien Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    La loi du 27 mai 1885 (lire le texte), dite loi sur la relégation des récidivistes, entraîne « l’internement perpétuel sur le territoire des colonies ou possessions françaises » des délinquants et criminels multirécidivistes . L’enjeu de cette loi est de « débarrasser » le sol de la France métropolitaine des petits délinquants et vagabonds par une mécanique qui est unique dans l’histoire du droit pénal français. En effet, cette loi établie une « présomption irréfragable d’incorrigibilité », c...

  19. La relégation (loi du 27 mai 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Lucien Sanchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La loi du 27 mai 1885 (lire le texte, dite loi sur la relégation des récidivistes, entraîne « l’internement perpétuel sur le territoire des colonies ou possessions françaises » des délinquants et criminels multirécidivistes . L’enjeu de cette loi est de « débarrasser » le sol de la France métropolitaine des petits délinquants et vagabonds par une mécanique qui est unique dans l’histoire du droit pénal français. En effet, cette loi établie une « présomption irréfragable d’incorrigibilité », c...

  20. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkhao, Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Choowong, Montri; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-11-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity survey and test pits were carried out along three transect lines together with systematic collection of undisturbed and disturbed residual soil samples. As a result, the average moisture content in soil is 24.83% with average specific gravity of 2.68,whereas the liquid limit is 44.93%, plastic limit is 29.35% and plastic index is 15.58%. The cohesion of soil ranges between 0.096- 1.196 ksc and the angle of internal friction is between 11.51 and 35.78 degrees. This suggests that the toughness properties of soil change when moisture content increases. Results from electrical resistivity survey reveal that soil thicknesses above the bedrock along three transects range from 2 to 9 m. The soil shear strength reach the rate of high decreases in the range of 72 to 95.6% for residual soil from shale, siltstone and sandstone, respectively. Strength of soil decreaseswhen the moisture content in soil increases. Shear strength also decreases when the moisture content changes. Therefore, the natural soil slope in the study area will be stable when the moisture content in soil level is equal to one, but when the moisture content between soil particle increases, strength of soil will decrease resulting in soil strength decreasing.

  1. Sexual behavior and HIV infection among pregnant hilltribe women in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keereekamsuk, Tawatchai; Jiamton, Sukhum; Jareinpituk, Sutthi; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2007-11-01

    A case-control study was carried out to determine factors associated with HIV infection among pregnant hilltribe women who attended the antenatal clinics of six hospitals in northern Thailand (Mae Suai, Wieng Pa Pao, Mae Sai, Mae Chan, Wieng Kaen, Mae Fa Luang, and Chiang Rai hospitals) between 1 January 2005- 31 May 2007. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysis was by univariate (p-value = 0.100) and multivariate analysis (p-value = 0.050) in the model of unconditional multiple logistic regression. The ratio of cases to controls was 1:4. The sample consisted of 255 subjects; 51 cases and 204 controls. The mean age of the women was 26.9 years (min = 15, max = 52, and SD 7.3). The majority of the women were Lahu (49.8%) or Akha (36.9%). Nearly half the women were Christian (48.2%), followed by Buddhist (42.4%). Most of the women were not educated (60.4%). The largest group for family income was 10,000-49,999 baht/year (62.6%). After controlling for family income, family debt, education, occupation and household members, the findings showed that the "not married to debut partner" group were at greater risk than the "married to debut partner" group by 6.6 times (OR(adj) = 6.6, 95% CI = 2.9-14.9). The "use of alcohol" group were at higher risk by 4.5 times (OR(adj) = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-10.3) compared to the no alcohol use group, and a history of genital ulcer group had an increased risk of 6.3 times (OR(adj) = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.2-31.1) the chance of having HIV infection compared to no history of genital ulcers in pregnant hilltribe women. PMID:18613547

  2. Current particle and nanoparticle technology in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

    2008-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to key Thai organizations, including research institutions and academic departments, active in particle technology. This is followed by a description of the latest trend of powder technology and nanoparticle technology in Thailand.

  3. Urban asylum seekers and refugees in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vera den Otter

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS ) in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.

  4. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  5. CGE analysis of trade liberalization in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    durongkaveroj, wannaphong

    2014-01-01

    As the world becomes interdependent in economic dimension, external sector today is widely accepted as a national economic motivator. Trade polices yield the various effects on economy. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effects of free trade policy in Thailand to its top 5 trading partners on economic performance and the level of household income through CGE model using GTAP. The study reveals that the most worthy trading policy for Thailand, aimed at raising its national prosperit...

  6. Domestic Violence Behaviors between Spouses in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kasetchai Laeheem; Kettawa Boonprakarn

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review concepts, theories, and research reports related to domestic violence between spouses in Thailand, especially its meanings, types, causes, and effects. It is a documentary research, which concludes descriptive analysis to obtain a body of knowledge using a holistic approach. The outcomes of the research reveal that domestic violence between spouses in Thailand is patterns and ways that individuals use force to hurt others’ health, physically, mentally, and sexually...

  7. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jirarattanasopa P; Panon N; Hiranyachattada S; Bhurayanontachai P

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210&n...

  8. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jirarattanasopa, Pichai

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 2...

  9. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  10. Urban development discourses, environmental management and public participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of political influence and power struggles in connection with environmental projects through the lenses of a low-income settlement in the City of Chiang Mai, North Thailand. That low-income settlement has been an object of intervention in four different projects....../programmes in the last five years, namely (a) the Urban Community Environmental Activities (UCEA) project, a community driven initiative implemented with the support of the public organisation Community Organisation Development Institute (CODI) and the NGO People's Organisation for Participation (POP); (b) the Chiang...

  11. The results of treatment for thyrotoxicosis at Bach Mai hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the results of treating hyperthyroidism with 131I. Patient selection for tre treatment is based on clinical features and laboratory test results such as thyroid uptake, scintigraphy and RIA determinations of thyroid hormones. The average dose is 6.2±1.1 m Ci (that is 233.1±40.7 MBq). The average number of doses is 1.3 for one patient. The results are as follows: - Euthyroid status after 4 years follow-up from the 131I dose administration: 72.3 - Persistent or recurrent hyperthyroidism: 20 %. - Hypothyroid complication appears 6 years after the administration of 131I dose: 14 %. So the cumulative hypothyroid rate is: 2.3 % per year. - Serious complications were not observed in any patient. Hyperthyroidism is a common health problem in Vietnam (1). In the past, only antithyroid drugs and surgery were used. 131I was first introduced to Vietnam in the Nuclear Medicine Department in Bach Mai in 1971 and thereafter widely applied in the country. (Author)

  12. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  13. The status of Thailand Y2K Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report divided into two parts deals with the general status of Y2K issues in Thailand and its effects in nuclear safeguards and physical protection and control of nuclear materials. It includes a description of safeguards in Thailand, Y2K action plan, contingency (emergency) plan, Thailand Y2K status report and the Thailand answer sheet about safeguards Y2K problem

  14. GERDAU S.A.: a empresa brasileira mais internacionalizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVA STAL

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Muitas empresas dos países em desenvolvimento não se consideram aptas a explorar outrosmercados devido à distância tecnológica entre as empresas globais e os seus padrões locais. Oartigo mostra que existe espaço para a inovação empresarial oriunda de países emdesenvolvimento, e ela é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo sucesso de suasempresas na conquista do mercado mundial. Descreve o processo de expansão internacionalda Gerdau S.A., que começou com exportações e evoluiu para a aquisição de empresassiderúrgicas na América Latina, América do Norte e Europa, num total de 32 usinas em 10países, sendo 21 no exterior, que empregam mais de 32 mil funcionários. Hoje, a empresapossui valor de mercado estimado em 10 bilhões de dólares e 111.000 acionistas. Analisa-sesua estratégia de internacionalização à luz das teorias econômicas, comportamentais eestratégicas e verifica-se que a trajetória internacional pode ser explicada por aspectoscaracterísticos de cada uma dessas teorias. Um traço importante na cultura da empresa é atransferência de seu modelo de negócios, estrutura, valores e tecnologia para as empresasadquiridas, sem deixar de considerar as necessárias adaptações às culturas locais.

  15. Role of nuclear energy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy in Thailand can be highlighted when the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established since 1961 for taking role of nuclear safety regulation, conducting research and promotion for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Its main facilities were the 1 megawatt Thai Research Reactor-1 (TRR-1) and the Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator. Since then there have been substantial progress made on utilization of nuclear energy in various institutions and in private sectors. Nowaday, there are around 500 units of nuclear energy users in Thailand, i.e. 100 units in medicine, 150 units in education and 250 units in industry. In terms of nuclear power for electricity generation, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has conducted the activities to support the nuclear power plant project since 1972 however, because there is widespread public concerned about nuclear safety, waste disposal and recently economic problems in Thailand, nuclear energy option is not put in immediate plan for alternative energy resource. Within the short future, increased in economical, demand fir electricity and safe operation of nuclear plants will likely be demonstrated and recognized. Nuclear energy should remain as an option in the long-term energy strategies for Thailand. (author)

  16. Prognostic factors of tumor recurrence in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantraworasin A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apichat Tantraworasin,1 Somcharean Seateang,1 Nirush Lertprasertsuke,2 Nuttapon Arreyakajohn,3 Choosak Kasemsarn,4 Jayanton Patumanond5 1General Thoracic Unit, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Cardiovascular Thoracic Unit, Department of Surgery, Lampang Hospital, Lampang, Thailand; 4Cardiovascular Thoracic Unit, Department of Surgery, Chest Institute, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 5Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC have an excellent outcome; however tumor recurs in 30%-77% of patients. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathologic features of patients with any operable stage of NSCLC to identify the prognostic factors that influence tumor recurrence, including intratumoral blood vessel invasion (IVI, tumor size, tumor necrosis, and nodal involvement. Methods: From January 2002 to December 2011, 227 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups: the “no recurrence” group and the “recurrence” group. Recurrence-free survival was analyzed by multivariable Cox regression analysis, stratified by tumor staging, chemotherapy, and lymphatic invasion. Results: IVI, tumor necrosis, tumor diameter more than 5 cm, and nodal involvement were identified as independent prognostic factors of tumor recurrence. The hazard ratio (HR of patients with IVI was 2.1 times higher than that of patients without IVI (95% confident interval [CI]: 1.4–3.2 (P = 0.001.The HR of patients with tumor necrosis was 2.1 times higher than that of patients without tumor necrosis (95% CI: 1.3–3.4 (P = 0.001. Patients who had a maximum tumor diameter greater than 5 cm had significantly higher risk of recurrence than

  17. Revisitando a prospect theory: seriam os contadores mais racionais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jose Cardoso da Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A Prospect Theory, teoria psicológica de tomada de decisões desenvolvida por Amos Tversky e Daniel Kahneman, apresenta que o ser humano é mais avesso ao risco em situação de ganhos do que de perdas, o que aqueles pesquisadores denominaram de efeito framing, residindo, portanto, nas heurísticas (crenças individuais o catalisador do fenômeno. Carvalho Junior (2009 afirma que o ser humano não é totalmente racional ao tomar decisão, notadamente em ambiente empresarial. Já Miranda et al. (2010 concluem que possuir conhecimentos em ciências contábeis ajudaria os agentes a tomarem melhores decisões de investimento, na presença de sunk costs. A partir disso, construiu-se o problema desta pesquisa: o aprendizado formal de contabilidade minimiza os vieses cognitivos provocados pelo efeito framing em decisões que envolvam risco financeiro? Foram analisadas as respostas de 222 indivíduos, solicitados a responder três questões, uma que sugeria risco financeiro (cenário de perda e uma livre de risco (cenário de ganho, e uma de autoavaliação do respondente. As formações acadêmicas, além de Contabilidade, se concentravam principalmente em Administração e Economia, com escolaridade variando de graduação em curso até possuidores do título de Doutor. Os dados coletados receberam tratamento estatístico com a utilização do software SPSS v. 16. Subsidiariamente à principal hipótese deste estudo, foram analisadas ainda outras três hipóteses, que avaliavam se o efeito framing poderia ser afetado, respectivamente, pelo gênero, pelo nível de escolaridade ou pela idade dos indivíduos pesquisados. Com base nos resultados obtidos, não foi possível em nenhum dos casos rejeitar a hipótese nula de cada uma das variáveis dummy o que induz à conclusão, considerando-se a amostra analisada, que nenhuma daquelas variáveis influenciaria de maneira significativamente estatística o comportamento daqueles respondentes pesquisados.

  18. Princess of Thailand returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 17 November 2015, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited CERN. Princess Sirindhorn was visiting the Laboratory for the fifth time, following her last visit in 2010.   Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (center) witnesses the signing of the collaboration agreement between CERN and SLRI, represented by Rolf Heuer (right) and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn (left) respectively. The Princess was accompanied by a delegation that included the Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Thailand, Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, and a large group of Thailand’s Diplomatic Representatives in Switzerland. Upon her arrival, Princess Sirindhorn was welcomed by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Director-General Designate, Fabiola Gianotti. At CERN, the Princess was given a brief update on the Laboratory’s activities since her last visit, in April 2010. Later on, she witnessed the signature of the f...

  19. Thailand [Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to apply the 'Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development' (ISED) framework initiated by IAEA to Thailand. It assesses the sustainable energy development performance of Thailand focusing on energy conservation and efficiency policy. The main reasons for focusing on energy efficiency issues are the following: - Thailand has been a good example in terms of energy conservation efficiency policy implementation. - The policy was introduced in the early 1990s so programs are already in full-scale implementation, and the ISED concept can be applied to assess the effectiveness of the policy. - Energy data are well established at the aggregate and sectoral level. - It is expected that the analytical framework developed in this study can be applied to other countries

  20. Applied atmospheric resources research program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, J. G.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Dennis, A. S.; Silverman, B. A.

    1989-08-01

    The Royal Thai Government requested assistance of the United States Agency for International Development for the development and implementation of a more comprehensive scientific approach to the design, operation, and evaluation of Thailand's weather modification program. Upon visiting Thailand, a team of American scientists recommended a 5-year developmental program to improve Thai technical capabilities through training, additional equipment, and a demonstration cloud seed project. The program will test for an increase in rainfall from: (1) warm clouds seeded with hygroscopic agents; and (2) cold clouds seeded for dynamic effects with glaciogenic materials. The field program will be conducted in the Nam Mae Tun River Watershed of western Thailand. The primary response variable is rainfall measured by rain-gauge-adjusted radar. Given equal numbers of warm and cold cloud units and typical operations problems and weather variability, at least four seasons of field experimentation are required.

  1. Opisthorchiasis in Thailand: Review and current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa

    2008-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini (O.viverrini)remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR,Vietnam and Cambodia. The infection is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangitis,obstructive jaundice, hepatornegaly, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma. The liver fluke infection was induced by eating raw or uncooked fish products that is the tradition and popular in the northeastern and northern region, particularly in rural areas of Thailand.Health education programs to prevent and control opisthorchiasis are still required in high-risk areas.

  2. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampornrat, Pantip [Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-10-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  3. Upgrade survives downturn: Bhumbiol dam in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woeber, Georg [Hydro Refurbishment, Elin Energieversorgung (Austria)

    1999-10-01

    Refurbishing of the Bhumbiol dam in Thailand is described. The dam and power station were completed in 1964. The station has an installed capacity of 736MW, which is about one-third of the country's total hydro capacity. In 1980, the owners (The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) decided to renovate two units and contracts went to Elin Energieversorgung of Austria for generators and power plant equipment and to Voest Alpine Machinery and Construction for turbines and auxiliary equipment. In 1995 the same companies received orders for renovation of another two units. The remaining two units are also to be renovated despite the financial crisis in Southeast Asia. (UK)

  4. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  5. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  6. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death. PMID:7822995

  7. Control of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum musae on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Using Antagonistic Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Supuk Mahadtanapuk; Mondhon Sanguansermsri; Robert W. Cutler; Vicha Sardsud; Somboon Anuntalabhochai

    2007-01-01

    Over 400 bacterial strains, isolated from leaf surfaces of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and hot springs in the Chiang Mai province of northern Thailand, were screened in vitro for antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum musae, an anthracnose fungus. Three isolates provided greater than 75% growth inhibition of the fungus in vitro and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. Using in planta tests, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were shown to ...

  8. Oblongionosides A-F, megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Croton oblongifolius Roxburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshige, Yuya; Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2012-08-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Croton oblongifolius Roxburgh, collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand, six megastigmane glycosides, named oblongionosides A-F were isolated together with eight known compounds, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Absolute structures were determined by HPLC analyses and application of the modified Mosher's method. PMID:22683317

  9. Rethinking Conceptions of Borders in the Greater Mekong Subregion: An Interview With Chayan Vaddhanabhuti (RCSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Napakadol Kittisenee

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Chayan Vaddhanabhuti is Director of the Regional Centre for Social Science and Sustainable Development (RCSD), Thailand. The RCSD was established in 1998 at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, in response to the need for integration of social science and natural science knowledge in order to gain a better understanding of sustainable development in upper Mainland South-East Asia. Chayan Vaddhanabhuti has long been dedicated to the fi eld of social sciences, development i...

  10. Promoting Food Safety and Food Security in Rural Tourism Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Sikhiram N.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at two villages, Ban Mae Kampong, Mae On, Chiang Mai and Ban Pa Miang, Muang, Lampang, Northern Thailand. This community is supported by Thai government tourism ministry to develop their skills in order to create and offer rural tourism. The study focus on community member groups who are involved with rural tourism activities; Homestay members, food preparation management members, tour guides, community leader groups, in order to assess the acceptance, collaboration a...

  11. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

  12. Increase of food stuff production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project is submitted in Thailand that is considered the large-scale and technically complicated, which realization solves about 60 specific management and scientific problems. Productivity, dependable water supply of soils and diseases of domestic animals are referred to traditional problems solved by scientists engaged in this project using nuclear methods

  13. Return of IAEA assistance team from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document informs about the return from Thailand of the IAEA team sent (upon the request of the Thai Government under the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency) to Bangkok to help Thai counterparts in the wake of an accident involving a discarded radioactive cobalt 60 source used in hospitals

  14. Healthy Schools Promotion: An Experience in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erawan, Prawit

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of health education in schools has been operated continuously in Thailand with expecting to enhance a healthy society based on the definition of health under the new trend "A comprehensive and integrated health and social dimensions of body, mind and soul into a lifestyle linked and interrelated the human relationship with a…

  15. Thailand NR Supply Better than Anticipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Learned from the media, though suffering from the attack of the rainstorm and flood, the Thailand NR is in better supply than anticipation this year. In the situation of the demand anxiety resulted from the European debt crisis and the sufficient inventory in China, the in- creasing supply makes the price under further pressure.

  16. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  17. The Teaching Practicum in Thailand: Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairee, Chatpong; Sanitchon, Nalinee; Suphanangthong, Irada; Graham, Steve; Prompruang, Jidapa; de Groot, Freek Olaf; Hopkins, Dave

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the teaching practicum in Thailand as it occurs in three settings: "Rajabhats"--four-year universities which offer an additional period of teaching practice, and where the vast majority of EFL teachers are educated; regular universities; and a TESOL short course certificate program for non-Thais preparing to teach English as…

  18. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus distribution, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nitatpattana, Narong; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Souris, Marc; Barbazan, Philippe; Yoksan, Sutee; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003-2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype 1, which shows a switch from genotype I I I incidence that started during the 1980s.

  19. Kingdom of Thailand : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Thailand has made great efforts over the past ten years to improve the quality of corporate financial reporting. Considerable progress has been made on various fronts to strengthen the institutional framework of accounting and auditing, and to move towards converging Thai national accounting and auditing standards with international benchmarks. This report focuses on areas where stakeholde...

  20. Approaches to Lao Minors Working in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have observed in Thailand a growing number of working Lao minors. By law, these may be regarded as victims of human trafficking. This paper observes, however, that some older teenagers who are still under 18 may be seeking and finding legitimate working positions. The phen

  1. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  2. An assessment of Thailand's biofuel development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S.; Salam, P. Abdul; Shrestha, Pujan;

    2013-01-01

    authors estimate that sustainably-derived agricultural crop residues alone could amount to 10.4 × 106 bone dry tonnes per year. This has the technical potential of producing 1.14-3.12 billion liters per year of ethanol to possibly displace between 25%-69% of Thailand's 2011 gasoline consumption as...

  3. Safety Concerns in Today’s Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lareta R. Etumyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the wonderful features of Thailand as the country, attracting tourists from different world regions. But at the same time the country faces many problems in regard to safety, such as political instability, crime situation and natural hazards. The article recommends the safest tourist destinations.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipanmekaporn T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanyong Pipanmekaporn,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,2 Sirirat Mueankwan,3 Piyawat Dendumrongkul,2 Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,3 Nantiya Khongpheng,3 Nongnut Duangsoy31Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU, when compared to the diagnoses made by delirium experts.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in both surgical intensive care and subintensive care units in Thailand between February–June 2011. Seventy patients aged 60 years or older who had been admitted to the units were enrolled into the study within the first 48 hours of admission. Each patient was randomly assessed as to whether they had delirium by a nurse using the Thai version of the CAM-ICU algorithm (Thai CAM-ICU or by a delirium expert using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.Results: The prevalence of delirium was found to be 18.6% (n=13 by the delirium experts. The sensitivity of the Thai CAM-ICU’s algorithms was found to be 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] =64.0%-99.8%, while the specificity was 94.7% (95% CI =85.4%-98.9%. The instrument displayed good interrater reliability (Cohen’s κ=0.81; 95% CI =0.64-0.99. The time taken to complete the Thai CAM-ICU was 1 minute (interquatile range, 1-2 minutes.Conclusion: The Thai CAM-ICU demonstrated good validity, reliability, and ease of use when diagnosing delirium in a surgical intensive care unit setting. The use of this diagnostic tool should be encouraged for daily, routine use, so as to promote the early detection

  5. 78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles Riggle (Malaysia), Brandon ] Farlander (Thailand), or... stainless pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ The notice...

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in pigs in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial and community-associated pathogen. Recently, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA has emerged and disseminated in Europe and North America and now constitutes a considerable zoonotic burden in humans with risk factors of pig exposure, whereas the extent of the livestock reservoir is relatively unknown on other continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March through April 2011, MRSA was identified in pigs from 3 out of 30 production holdings in Chang Mai Province, Thailand. Representative isolates were subjected to molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility testing; all isolates had genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of LA-MRSA previously characterized in the region: they belonged to ST9, lacked the lukF-lukS genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and were resistant to multiple non-β-lactam antimicrobials. However, unlike other Asian LA-MRSA-ST9 variants, they were spa type t337 and harbored a different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IX. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A novel MRSA-ST9 lineage has been established in the pig population of Thailand, which differs substantially from LA-MRSA lineages found in other areas of the continent. The emergence of novel LA-MRSA lineages in the animal agriculture setting is worrisome and poses a serious threat to global public health.

  7. E-Learning Readiness in the Academic Sector of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohajaratsang, Thanomporn

    2009-01-01

    As e-learning in the academic sector serves as a crucial driving force in the development of e-learning in Thailand, this article looks at e-learning readiness in Thailand with a focus on the academic sector. The article is divided into four parts: (1) a brief history of e-learning in Thailand; (2) the infrastructure related to e-learning…

  8. Ethnic Violence in Southern Thailand: the Anomaly of Satun

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    This research uses a historical comparative analysis to investigate the differences between two specific Muslim-majority regions of Thailand the province of Satun, along the western coast of southern Thailand, and provinces of Yala, Narathiwat, Pattani, and Songkhla, which border the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the Gulf of Thailand. The formation of ethnic identities in Satun and Patani has followed different paths over time, and these variations in development have produced dramatically ...

  9. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; Panto, Sitthiphon

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  10. Que idade tem o trabalhador mais velho? Um contributo para a definição do conceito de trabalhador mais velho

    OpenAIRE

    Fula, António; Amaral, Virgílio Ribeiro; Abrãao, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo procura contribuir para a definição do conceito de trabalhador mais velho, através da identificação das idades que definem esta fase da vida. Explora ainda a possibilidade de este conceito ser definido com recurso a uma linha imaginária que recuará no tempo de modo a proteger a auto- -estima e auto-imagem positiva. Participaram neste estudo 177 pessoas, com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 76 anos. A idade do trabalhador mais velho foi concebida como um intervalo,...

  11. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  12. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  13. 泰国清莱府和平村阿卡人语言使用状况探析%An Investigation of Akha People's Language Use:A Case Study at Heping Village of Chiang Rai Province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石常艳; Pengkham Chanluun; Khongkham Thampunya

    2016-01-01

    泰国清莱府美瑶镇和平村阿卡人的语言使用有两种不同的表现:一是阿卡人全民使用母语,母语熟练,语言稳固,阿卡语在和平村保持着很旺盛的生命力,但是青少年的母语能力相对较低;二是大多数阿卡人兼用泰语、拉祜语和其他语言,泰语是主要的兼用语.

  14. Agri-aqua farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Buendia, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems have been in existence in Thailand for centuries. This country has the most varied integrated farming operations in southeast Asia; pig, cattle, buffalo, chicken, duck, vegetable, aquatic plant, rice and orchard in combination with fish are practices. The systems most preferred by subsistence farmers are rice-fish, duck-fish and chicken-fish culture. A brief outline is given of these 3 systems.

  15. The International Demand for Thailand's Rice Exports

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The familiar 'small country' assumption is tested empirically in this paper, focussing upon the long-run international demand for Thailand's rice exports and drawing upon recent developments in the statistical analysis of economic time series. A relatively robust long-run price elasticity of export demand is obtained, at just under 2. The literature on the export demand for manufactured goods has shown the central importance of the 'normalisation' used during estimation. Our results suggest t...

  16. Credit Card Usage and Knowledge in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangsutisearee, Wanna

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...

  17. The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Anders; Andersson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data-set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hot spot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in lang...

  18. Working Morale on Hospitality Employees in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suchanan Suksaranruedee; Usaporn Sucaromana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of working morale among hospitality employees in the Pattaya district, Thailand, and to compare the differences between the working morale of the employees based on gender and years of work experience. The instrument used for collecting data was a questionnaire. This instrument comprised of 40 items that were grouped into eight aspects: (a) career advancement, (b) satisfaction with job position, (c) satisfaction with job responsibility, (d) s...

  19. Kontraktdyrkning af kartofler i det nordlige Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Carina Wedell

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation is an analysis of contract farming of potatoes in Northern Thailand for the agrobusiness company Frito Lay, a subsidiary to Pepsi International, in three villages. The dissertation is based on primarily qualitative empirical data, collected during three months of fieldwork conducted in spring 2003. The presentation and analysis of the empirical data is structured according to an analytical framework based on three theoretical approaches; livelihood analysis co...

  20. Ongkharak nuclear research center in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project for the building of a new nuclear research center to be build in Thailand is discussed. The main facilities of this project are (1) a research reactor as the core of the Nuclear Research Center; (2) an isotope production facility; (3) a centralized waste processing and storage facility; (4) supporting facilities such as nuclear chemistry and physics laboratories, radiation protection buildings, construction and maintenance workshops, a computer center, administration and management buildings, cyclotron building

  1. Present status of radiation utilization in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present development of radiation utilization in Thailand covers two main areas, i.e. (1) production and utilization of radioisotopes and (2) radiation processing and technology. Radioisotope production from 2 megawatts Thai Research Reactor (TRR1/M1) is being studied, directed toward expanding the varieties of radioisotopes, improvement of quality, and technological development on quantity producing to meet the total national needs. However a large amount of radioisotopes is also imported mainly for industrial and medical applications. Radioisotopes and radiations are utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy from 30 hospitals and institutions. X-ray photographing, X-ray computer tomography and others are typical use for medical examination purposes, while Co-60 gamma rays and electron beam are in used for curing. Since 1972, Thailand has been participated to the IAEA/RCA Industrial Project, through the liaison of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), and increases the awareness of industry to the economic benefits through the uses of nuclear technology. More than 60 companies are using radioisotopes for gauging, examination purposes and production controls, while these radioisotopes are mostly imported. Nuclear techniques in agriculture are addressed concerns with optimizing fertilizer application, determination soil-water-nitrogen fixation relationships, improving animal health and reproduction, measurement of toxic residues, appropriated food preservation techniques and breeding plant for better yield and disease resistance. The eradication of fruit flies by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) with gamma rays has been successfully applied in northern and middle part of Thailand. The progress and present status of radiation utilization and processing in Thailand will be introduced. (author)

  2. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai; Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet). Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainl...

  3. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-01-01

    The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, M...

  4. Cancer survival in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamporn, S; Black, R J; Sankaranarayanan, R; Kamsa-ad, S; Parkin, D M; Vatanasapt, V

    1995-05-01

    Thailand is one of the few developing countries for which population-based cancer survival data are available. Using clinical follow-up information and reply-paid postal enquiries, 10,333 residents of Khon Kaen province registered with cancer in the period 1985-1992 were followed-up to the end of 1993. The sites of the most common cancers in the province were liver (5-year relative survival rate 9.2%), cervix (60.1%), lung (15.4%), breast (48.1%) and large bowel (41.9%). Results for Khon Kaen were compared with age-standardized survival data for the US and Scotland. Survival was consistently higher for US whites compared to Khon Kaen residents for those cancers whose prognosis is associated with early diagnosis (breast, cervix and large bowel) or the availability of intensive therapy (leukaemia and lymphoma). The main implication of these results for cancer control in Thailand is that the interventions of greatest potential benefit are those designed to promote early detection. More than one-third of all cancers in Thailand are liver tumours: primary prevention through control of hepatitis-B infection and liver fluke infestation is the only effective strategy for their control. PMID:7729937

  5. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  6. Poliitiline mäsu 9. mai pärast / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Erimeelsused Vene Erakonna Eestis ja Reformierakonna Narva osakonna vahel, ei suudeta jõuda kokkuleppele 9. mai tähistamise suhtes. Politsei algatas väärteomenetluse Vene Erakonna Eestis poolt Narvas korraldatud aktsiooni asjas

  7. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  8. Status and problem of radiation education in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of radiation and its application and protection have been routinely taught, discussed and transferred to end users and the public. Limited resource and a strategic plan are identified to be the major obstacle to fully implementation of radiation education in Thailand. Current strategic planning on radiation education in Thailand will be discussed. (author)

  9. Composition of human excreta - a case study from Souther Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouw, Nanette L..; Danteravanich, S.; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    In Thailand, human excreta might be recycled into agricultural soils as a supplement to commercial fertiliser and thereby enrich the general fertility of the soils. However, for Thailand an adequate knowledge of the quality of human excreta, in order to assess its fertiliser potential, is not ava...

  10. An Expert System Adviser for Tourists Planning To Visit Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanosatha, Vinita

    This document reports on an examination of the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of an interactive computer program. The program is called an expert system adviser, and is for tourists planning on visiting Thailand. The expert system contains well-organized information that provides detailed coverage of Thailand. The…

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block rubb

  12. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Thailand in 1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodhidatta, L.; Echeverria, P; Hoge, C W; Pitarangsi, C; Serichantalergs, O; Henprasert-Tae, N.; Harikul, S.; Kitpoka, P.

    1995-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 first appeared in India and Bangladesh in 1992. Surveillance for O139 was started at three hospitals in Thailand in 1993. By 1994 all three hospitals surveyed in Thailand had experienced an increase in Vibrio cholerae O139 infections.

  13. Status and problem of radiation education in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramrattana, Manoon [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Vibhavadee Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-09-01

    Knowledge of radiation and its application and protection have been routinely taught, discussed and transferred to end users and the public. Limited resource and a strategic plan are identified to be the major obstacle to fully implementation of radiation education in Thailand. Current strategic planning on radiation education in Thailand will be discussed. (author)

  14. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemling Markus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Methods Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. Results In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Conclusion Through an

  15. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM) chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie) into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Through an adequate choice of acupuncture material (gold needles) as well as of

  16. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirarattanasopa P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area.Results: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 µm, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001 and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02. Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age.Conclusion: Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 µm every year and 14.59 µm with 1 mm increase in axial length. Keywords: choroidal thickness, enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography, swept-source optical coherence tomography

  17. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  18. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampornrat, Pantip [Nuclear Material Sciences Section, Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-10-01

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  19. Problems of tuberculosis treatment in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittinandana, A

    1989-11-01

    Problems of tuberculosis treatment in Thailand are an obstacle in the national tuberculosis control programme. Reasons concerning the problems on the health provider side being the most important are the budget and the health personnel attitude and behavior, convenience of service, distance of service, health provider-consumer social relation, social support and health service quality. On the health consumer side are patient attitude and behavior and patient economy. The most important understanding to the problems is the socio-economic status of the nation and health providers are responsible for the problems. PMID:2483957

  20. Benzodiazepines misuse: The study community level Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkot Sukdepat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Benzodiazepines (BZD misuse, abuse, and dependence are becoming a new problem in medicine, in Thailand, and the pharmacoepidemiology knowledge is insufficient. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of benzodiazepine use, misuse, abuse, and dependence in the general population of the Ubon Rachathani province, in Thailand. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of benzodiazepine use, misuse, abuse, and dependence in the general population. Settings and Design: The cross-sectional household survey research was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009, with a target population age of 15 years and above. This took place in Ubon Ratchathani Province, in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A total sample size of 2280 were selected from three-stage stratified random sampling. BZD were identified with an accuracy of generic name, trade name, and drug characteristics. The DSM-IV questionnaire was used to define misuse, abuse, and dependence. The accuracy of dependence was interpreted with the help of the judgment of a psychiatric nurse. Statistical analysis: For the statistical analyses, prevalence was estimated with weight adjustment, variances estimated by the Teylor Series Linearization method, and interpreted with 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: There were 46,805 current users [3.9% (95% CI: 2.2-6.4], 26,404 misusers [2.2% (95% CI: 1.6-6.2], 7,203 abusers [0.6% (95% CI: 0.1 - 4.1], and 2,402 with dependence [0.2% (0.1-9.2]. When considering the group of current users in this study, 57.2% misusers, 16.6% abusers, and 5.9% with dependence were found, respectively. Conclusions: All prevalence of use was higher than previously reported, in Thailand, while more than half of the current users had a behavior of misuse. Surveillance of misuse should be undertaken in the current use. The medical professional should counsel the patient on the harm of misuse and limit the amount of medicine, with necessary dispensing.

  1. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  2. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Sangariyavanich, Archara [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  3. Two new sacoglossans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Swennen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new sacoglossans were found in brackish mangrove habitats near Pattani in the southern part of the Gulf of Thailand. Both are small species (< 10 mm) living hidden in clay with small green algae high in the intertidal zone becoming not submerged for days. They have black pigment on the dorsal side and their bodies clearly consist of two parts. One is named Gascoignella nukuli n. sp., which looks similar to G. aprica Jensen, 1985 from Hong Kong, but differs in radula, penial spine, body...

  4. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  5. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand, the current status of a new research reactor project at Ongkarak for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future as well as the organizational reformation of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). (author)

  6. Drug targeting in cancer therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka; Strohalm, Jiří; Hoste, K.; Jelínková, Markéta; Hovorka, Ondřej; Kovář, Marek; Plocová, Daniela; Šírová, Milada; Šťastný, Marek; Ulbrich, Karel

    Chiang Mai : Chiang Mai University, 2000, s. 35-40. [Takeo Wada Cancer Research Symposium. Chiang Mai (TH), 30.11.2000-01.12.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV307/96/K226; GA MZd NC5050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : monoclonal antibodies * antitumor immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. Computer Supported Indexing: A History and Evaluation of NASA's MAI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, June P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer supported or machine aided indexing (MAI) can be categorized in multiple ways. The system used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) is described as semantic and computational. It's based on the co-occurrence of domain-specific terminology in parts of a sentence, and the probability that an indexer will assign a particular index term when a given word or phrase is encountered in text. The NASA CASI system is run on demand by the indexer and responds in 3 to 9 seconds with a list of suggested, authorized terms. The system was originally based on a syntactic system used in the late 1970's by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). The NASA mainframe-supported system consists of three components: two programs and a knowledge base (KB). The evolution of the system is described and flow charts illustrate the MAI procedures. Tests used to evaluate NASA's MAI system were limited to those that would not slow production. A very early test indicated that MAI saved about 3 minutes and provided several additional terms for each document indexed. It also was determined that time and other resources spent in careful construction of the KB pay off with high-quality output and indexer acceptance of MAI results.

  8. THEOS: The1st Thailand EO System and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    Thailand has engaged in remote sensing satellite technological and scientific development many years since early 1980s. Thailand Landsat Station was established as a regional center of data processing and dissemination for Thai scientists for data applications. Over the years, GISTDA and Thai user community have been gaining technical experience and expertise in satellite data applications around the country such natural resources and environmental management, forest inventory, forest change detections, soil mapping, land-use and land cover mapping, crop type mapping, coastal shrimp farming, flood zone mapping, base mapping, water and drought management. The Government of Thailand realizes that remote sensing satellite technology is an important mechanism for social and economic development of the country. So the 1st Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) development program was approved by the Government since 2003. THEOS system is sub-synchronous satellite orbiting around the earth at 822 km. altitude same as SPOT satellites. It carries two imaging instruments; 2-m Panchromatic telescope with 22 km. swath width and 15-m resolution camera with four-multi-spectral band and 90-km swath wide. THEOS is scheduled to launch around March 2008. A number of technological and scientific activities has been implementing for Thailand and international scientific user community. Therefore THEOS is strong endorsement from the Government of Thailand on the value of remote sensing technology. This paper presents Thailand EO activities including THEOS System and its plans.

  9. Probability seismic hazard maps of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinda Sutiwanich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard maps of southern Thailand were obtained from the integration of crustal fault, areal and subductionsource models using probability seismic hazard analysis and the application of a logic tree approach. The hazard maps showthe mean peak ground and spectral accelerations at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 second periods with a 10%, 5%, 2% and 0.5% probabilityof exceedance in 50-year hazard levels. The highest hazard areas were revealed to be in the Muang, Phanom, and Viphavadidistricts of Surat Thani province, the Thap Put district of Phang Nga province, and the Plai Phraya district of Krabi province.The lowest hazard areas are in the southernmost part of Thailand e.g. Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces. The maximumvalues of the mean peak ground acceleration for the 475–9,975 yr return period are 0.28-0.52 g and the maximum spectralaccelerations at 0.2 seconds for the same return period are 0.52-0.80 g. Similar hazard is also obtained for different returnperiods. Presented seismic hazard maps are useful as a guideline for the future design of buildings, bridges or dams, for rocksites to resist earthquake forces.

  10. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, Map Ta Phut and Prachuab ports since these top three ports are considered important in terms of their steel throughput in Thailand. The transport costs associated with the shipment and inland transport together with port tariffs were calculated for the proposed scenarios of steel hub establishment andthese were compared with the existing situation without steel hub. The findings showed that a steel hub located near Laem Cha Bang port was the optimal option involving a saving of 9.4% on the total system costs incurred under the existing situation.

  11. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  12. Fotofestivalid Poolas : Krakov ja Lódź, mai 2009 / Marge Monko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Monko, Marge, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Krakovi fotokuu (5.-31. mai) ja Lódźi fotofestivali (7.-31. mai) näitustest. Juudi päritolu fotograafi Weegee (sünd. 1899) näitusest, sakslase Bettina Flitneri seeriast "Boatpeople", Martin Kollari projektist "Twelve stars", Elodie Pong'i videost "I am a bomb", John Goto seeriast "John Goto's New World of Circus", Andrej Balco portreeseeriast "Doméstikas", Péter Pukluse tööst "Intimacy - no title", leeduka Petras Saulenase tööst "L'herbe est l'herbe mais ce n'est pas l'herbe", Ungari kunstnike näitusest "The Sunny Side", Oliver Kerni näitusest "The Glass Key"

  13. Structural Transformation — How Does Thailand Compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klyuev

    2015-01-01

    Thailand stands out in international comparison as a country with a high dispersion of productivity across sectors. It has especially low labor productivity in agriculture—a sector that employs a much larger share of the population than is typical for a country at Thailand’s level of income. This suggests large potential productivity gains from labor reallocation across sectors, but that process—which made a significant contribution to Thailand’s growth in the past—appears to have s...

  14. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

  15. VIH/SIDA: narrativas de homens homossexuais com mais de 50 anos

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Fabiana Andresa Aranha de

    2011-01-01

    O VIH/SIDA nas últimas décadas tem afetado um elevado número de pessoas idosas. No entanto, há uma lacuna considerável de estudos na área e em especial quando o foco são homens homossexuais com mais de 50 anos. Neste sentido, este estudo teve como objetivo explorar experiências de homens homossexuais com mais de 50 anos com VIH/SIDA. O método escolhido para atingir o objetivo do estudo foi a história oral, na medida em que permitiu conhecer as narrativas de homens homossexuais, a partir das s...

  16. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  17. A risk-scoring scheme for suicide attempts among patients with bipolar disorder in a Thai patient cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patumanond J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chidchanok Ruengorn1,2, Kittipong Sanichwankul3, Wirat Niwatananun2, Suwat Mahatnirunkul3, Wanida Pumpaisalchai3, Jayanton Patumanond11Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: In Thailand, risk factors associated with suicide attempts in bipolar disorder (BD are rarely investigated, nor has a specific risk-scoring scheme to assist in the identification of BD patients at risk for attempting suicide been proposed.Objective: To develop a simple risk-scoring scheme to identify patients with BD who may be at risk for attempting suicide.Methods: Medical files of 489 patients diagnosed with BD at Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital between October 2006 and May 2009 were reviewed. Cases included BD patients hospitalized due to attempted suicide (n = 58, and seven controls were selected (per suicide case among BD in- and out-patients who did not attempt suicide, with patients being visited the same day or within 1 week of case study (n = 431. Broad sociodemographic and clinical factors were gathered and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, to obtain a set of risk factors. Scores for each indicator were weighted, assigned, and summed to create a total risk score, which was divided into low, moderate, and high-risk suicide attempt groups.Results: Six statistically significant indicators associated with suicide attempts were included in the risk-scoring scheme: depression, psychotic symptom(s, number of previous suicide attempts, stressful life event(s, medication adherence, and BD treatment years. A total risk score (possible range -1.5 to 11.5 explained an 88.6% probability of suicide attempts based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Likelihood ratios of suicide attempts with low risk scores (below 2

  18. Invisible in Thailand: documenting the need for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Green

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Rescue Committee (IRC has conducted asurvey to document the experiences of Burmese people livingin border areas of Thailand and assess the degree to whichthey merit international protection as refugees.

  19. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance in Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of malaria transmission in Thailand and Indonesia to assist in the understanding and reducing the incidence of the deadly disease. Satellite observations are being integrated into this work, and this is described herein.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium...) Growing conditions. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be grown in a... Thailand. (b) Treatment. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be treated...

  1. Challenges and opportunities for protecting geographical indications in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthaporn Ngokkuen; Ulrike Grote

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the legal framework for the protection of geographical indications (GIs) in Thailand is analysed and challenges the country has been facing in that regard are discussed. Although the legal protection of GIs is ensured by the World Trade Organization, unresolved issues remain concerning GI protection in Thailand. Biopiracy, existing conflicts of interests concerning different types of intellectual property rights (trademarks and patents versus GIs) and the rise in regional and b...

  2. International spillovers, productivity growth and openness in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Rattsø, Jørn; Stokke, Hildegunn Ekroll

    2002-01-01

    The present paper addresses the growth process of Thailand... After all the theoretical growth modeling and the cross-country growth regressions, we suggest to go back to the country level to understand the growth dynamics. The focus is on endogenous productivity growth in transition towards long run balanced growth. Thailand has had remarkable economic growth of about 6-7% and well above world averages for 40-50 years, in transformation from a ‘rice economy' to industrialization. Interesting...

  3. Effectiveness of monetary policy communication in Indonesia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sahminan Sahminan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of Bank Indonesia's and Bank of Thailand's monetary policy communication. We focus on two channels of communication: monetary policy statements, and inter-meeting statements. Although the structure of Bank Indonesia's and Bank of Thailand's monetary policy statements have some differences, most of the statements contain policy inclination. In addition, during inter-meeting periods, members of their board of governors often convey statements that ...

  4. Rural-to-Urban Migration and Sexual Debut in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, P.; VanLandingham, M.; Phuengsamran, D.

    2014-01-01

    Migration from one’s parents’ home and sexual debut are common features of the transition to adulthood. Although many studies have described both of these features independently, few have examined the relationship between migration and sexual debut in a systematic manner. In this study, we explore this link for young adults in Thailand. With relatively high rates of internal migration, rapid modernization, a moderate HIV epidemic, and a declining average age of sexual debut, Thailand presents...

  5. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  6. Detection of Zika Virus Infection in Thailand, 2012–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Buathong, Rome; Hermann, Laura; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Nisalak, Ananda; Fernandez, Stefan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Akrasewi, Passakorn; Plipat, Tanarak

    2015-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in t...

  7. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wilawan Thipmontree; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Wiwit Tantibhedhyangkul; Chuanpit Suttinont; Ekkarat Wongswat; Saowaluk Silpasakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI) admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40%) and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1%) were the two major ...

  8. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis-associated cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand and Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mairiang, Eimorn; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Hotez, Peter J.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; Laos). Currently, more than 600 million people are at risk of infection with these fish-borne trematodes and/or their close relatives. Opisthorchiasis has been studied extensively in Thailand, where about 8 million people are infected with the liver fluke. Here we review the pathogenesis, control and re-emergence of O. viverrini infection, in p...

  9. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. Methods A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determin...

  10. Income Security for the Elderly in Thailand 【Review】

    OpenAIRE

    Phananiramai, Mathana

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the concept and types of scheme used to generate income security for theelderly, its sensitivity to demographic and economic changes, the nature of pension reforms in LatinAmerican and the income security for the elderly in Thailand. Currently, the formal income securitysystem for the elderly in Thailand consisted of 3 schemes: the pension scheme for government officials,provident fund and pension for non-agricultural private employees. Problems in each scheme were di...

  11. Quality Management And Trust Of Internet Banking In Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kanokkarn Snae Namahoot; Tipparat Laohavichien

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship among the quality management trust and behavioral intention to use internet banking of customers in Thailand. Using a structured questionnaire primary data were collected from 400 internet banking users from both public and private banks randomly selected from various parts of Thailand. Multiple regression was used to study the effect of quality management on trust and the effect of trust on behavioral intention to use inter...

  12. Collaborative water governance in Thailand : much ado about nothing?

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjina, Sukit

    2015-01-01

    The river basin committee (RBC) framework was first introduced in Thailand in 2002, and the current one adopted in 2007 has been implemented in all 25 river basins located in the country ever since. By all accounts, the RBC framework is innovative as far as Thailand’s administrative system and water resource sector are concerned. It was only recently that the former started to promote non-public sector participation, and the underlying legal framework expressly requires that representatives o...

  13. Mental Health of Muslim Nursing Students in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 1...

  14. Thailand, A beauty hub for everyone? : Internationalizing Thai Aesthetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...

  15. Market Analysis of Solar Water Heating in Hospitality Industry, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pongthong, Sansanee

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the strategic market approach for investing in solar water heating in the hosptality industry in Thailand. The main question in this study is ‘What are the market strategies for potential market segment for SWH in Thailand?’ This study focuses on the marketing strategy planning to the Thai market. The thesis follows the qualitative study design where the data was collected by observing the market and interviewing main stakeholders and possible customers of Solar Wate...

  16. Asian Summer Monsoon and its Associated Rainfall Variability in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2010-01-01

    The Asian monsoon is an important component of the Earth's climate. Its associated rainfall variability is a crucial fac¬tor for Thailand's socio-economic development, water resources and agricultural management. An analysis shows that the Thailand rainfall annual cycle is in phase with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). On the basis of the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, the dominant spatial-temporal interannual variability in ...

  17. Human Rights and the role of courts in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tamisanont, Choocheewan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyse the subject of the problems involved in protecting human rights in Thailand and the role of the courts according to the Thai Constitution. The author discusses four selected issues of human rights protection in Thailand: the citizens’ insufficient awareness of human rights, the ineffectiveness of law enforcement,the possible conflicts linked to traditional beliefs and the problems of applying double standards. The article also presents the structure...

  18. Impacts of Decentralization on Environmental Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soparatana Jarusombat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process, institutional and legal framework within which the environmental management operates in Thailand. It specifically focuses on the decentralization within central and local government’s role in environmental management. The methods of this research use literature review. The aim of the paper is to examine how interface between the central and local loci of power have affected pieces of legislation relating to management of the environment by central and local government in Thailand.

  19. Review of Rice Policies in China, Thailand and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Xie; Orachos Napasintuwong

    2014-01-01

    China, Thailand, and Vietnam are key players in world rice market in terms of production and trade. In the past few decades, rice policies in these three countries have changed significantly resulted in changes in production, exports and influences in the world market. This paper reviews major rice policy reforms in China, Thailand and Vietnam during past five decades. It is observed that although each country has practiced different policies at different periods, with the economic developmen...

  20. Incense and Joss Stick Making in Small Household Factories, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    S Siripanich; Siriwong, W.; P Keawrueang; M Borjan; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense and joss stick are generally used in the world. Most products were made in small household factories. There are many environmental and occupational hazards in these factories.Objective: To evaluate the workplace environmental and occupational hazards in small household incense and joss stick factories in Roi-Et, Thailand.Methods: Nine small household factories in rural areas of Roi-Et, Thailand, were studied. Dust concentration and small aerosol particles were counted thro...

  1. Multifunctional coating MAI D5 intended for the protection of refractory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhestkov, B. E.; Terent'eva, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    A thin-layer heterophase MAI D5 coating intended for the protection of carbon-containing composite materials (C-C-, C-SiC-, SiC-SiC-composite material) and refractory metal-based alloys against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion is tested. The coating is formed from a specially developed Si-Ti-Mo-B-Y microcomposition powder material. A new approach to creating self-healing heterophase coatings is used. At operating temperatures, the structure and phase composition of the MAI D5 coating provides rapid self-healing of random defects on the coating surface and in the base material owing to the presence of a silicon-containing eutectic, which favors rapid recovery of a protective amorphous silica layer consumed during operation. Under operating conditions, the coating undergoes self-organization to form a multilayer system with a number of functional oxide micro-, submicro-, and nanolayers. Samples with the MAI D5 coating are subjected to combined tests on bench plants located at MAI and TsAGI under conditions emulating the re-entry of a hypersonic aircraft, when its surface temperature reaches 2400 K. Certification tests are performed in wind tunnels located at TsAGI during a simultaneous action of a hypersonic dissociated-air flow and mechanical loads. The protection of heat-loaded structural elements in space vehicles made of ultrahigh-temperature materials against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion by the MAI D5 coating in hypersonic dissociated-air flows is shown to be efficient.

  2. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) determination by a radioimmunoassay on dried blood spots was selected as the screening method for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand. Blood from the infant's heel was obtained in 7814 newborns on the fifth day of life. Infants with TSH values greater than 25 mU/L were recalled for a more careful clinical examination and to have their T4 (thyroxine) and TSH re-estimated. Fifty-four infants with TSH values between 25 and 50 mU/L were found to be normal at re-evaluation. These are still being followed longitudinally for full confirmation. Two with values above 50 mU/L, although clinically euthyroid, were found to be hypothyroid by T3, T4, thyroid scintigraphy and bone age on roentgenography. Replacement therapy has been started. We have shown that a screening program for neonatal hypothyroidism can be done, and is probably worthwhile and perhaps even cost-effective

  3. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  4. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, C. [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-03-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  5. Thailand: fertile ground for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thailand's Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is bringing the benefits of food irradiation and nuclear-based agricultural techniques to the population. One of the most successful OAEP programs involves irradiating a popular Thai delicacy, 'nham' (fermented raw pork) which is otherwise often contaminated with salmonella, and sometimes with trichinella. Irradiated nham has proven popular with Thai consumers. Other nuclear techniques are being applied as follows: neutron densitometry and isotope tracer techniques are providing a better understanding of the relationships between soil, fertilizer and plants; radioimmunoassay of progesterone is improving breeding of cattle and buffaloes; seed irradiation is producing improved varieties of plants; irradiation is being used to sterilize control fruit flies

  6. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  7. Indonesia & Thailand: “Maltreatment”/ “Forced Labor”/ “TIP” in fisheries in Indonesia/Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pisawat Sukonthapan

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on “trafficking in persons” (TIP) in fisheries in Indonesia and Thailand. This The article refers to key international instruments on TIP and continues by discussing recent cases of TIP in fisheries in Indonesia that were reported in the first half of year 2015. It also explores national domestic legislation of Indonesia and Thailand in relation of measures to combat trafficking in the region. Bilateral and multilateral treaties such as the Treaty between the Governme...

  8. Current and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand were presented. Included number of printing houses, export, main export market and the role of radiation curing in printing and packaging industries of Thailand

  9. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... States is materially injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\...

  10. Assessing Sediment-Nutrient Export Rate and Soil Degradation in Mai-Negus Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Even though soil degradation challenges sustainable development, the use of degradation indicators such as nutrient export (NE) and nutrient replacement cost is not well documented at landform level. This study is aimed to investigate the extent of soil degradation, NE rates, and their replacement cost across landforms in the Mai-Negus catchment, northern Ethiopia. Different erosion-status sites (aggrading, stable, and eroded) in the landforms were identified, and soil samples were randomly c...

  11. Välis- ja kodueesti kunst kui tervik : sõnum Torontost / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2003-01-01

    30. X Tartu Kunstimajas Osvald Timmase näitusel kunstniku loomingule pühendatud õhtust, kus esinesid Mai Levin ja kunstniku vend Evald Timmas, näidati slaide ning Ain Habichti tehtud koduvideosid O. Timmasest ja Abel Leest. A. Lee ja O. Timmas on olnud 1952. a. Torontos loodud Colour and Form Society presidendid. Väliseesti kunsti tuleks käsitleda koos kodueesti kunstiga

  12. The Study of Hypermarket in Thailand: The Influence of Store Environments on Consumer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lertsakdumrongkul, Vorapop

    2013-01-01

    The growth of retail business in Thailand is increasing significantly, especially hypermarket. The first hypermarket in Thailand was introduced in last two decades, and has enormous influence on both Thai people’s lifestyles and retail store businesses in Thailand. The objective of this study is to investigate consumer behavior of store selection by focusing on alternative evaluation stage in consumer decision-making model. The research examines consumer evaluation of hypermarket in Thailand ...

  13. A new species oc Cladocroce Topsent, 1892 (Porifera, Haplosclerida) from the Gulf of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Putchakarn, Sumaitt; Weerdt, de, Wallie H.; Soncheang, Pichai; Van, Soest

    2004-01-01

    A new sponge species, Cladocroce burapha n. sp. (Chalinidae, Haplosclerida, Porifera), is described from Chonburi province, eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand, Thailand. The new species can be separated from other Cladocroce species by a combination of characters, including growth form, form and size of the spicules, and habitat. This is the first record of the genus Cladocroce from Thailand.

  14. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Review, 72 FR 1982, 1983 (January 17, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final... Administrative Review, 72 FR 64580 (November 16, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand:...

  15. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48226 (September 22, 2009).\\1\\ The...

  16. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On... Review, 75 FR 23673 (May 4, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time...: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The POR is August 1,...

  17. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). \\2\\ See Notice of... the Antidumping Duty Order on Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12... From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On September 29, 2010, we published a notice of...

  18. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12, 2010). These deposit requirements, when imposed, shall... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the...

  19. 78 FR 35253 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist... INFORMATION CONTACT: Edythe Artman (Malaysia), Victoria Cho (Thailand), or Fred Baker (Vietnam), at (202) 482... stainless pressure pipe (welded stainless pipe) from Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic...

  20. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that...

  1. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam....

  2. [HIV infection, gonorrhea and syphilis from Thailand to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O

    1999-10-30

    Thailand, a popular tourist destination for Norwegians, is experiencing an increasing epidemic of HIV infection. We used the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases to assess the connections between the Norwegian and Thai epidemics. Before 1999, 1,869 cases of HIV-infection had been reported in Norway. From 1993 to 1998, 1,334 cases of gonorrhoea and 62 cases of syphilis were reported. We studied cases with a Thai patient or source partner and cases acquired in Thailand. 56 (3%) of HIV-infection cases, 64 (5%) of gonorrhoea cases and two (3%) of syphilis cases were connected to Thailand. All the Norwegians who acquired HIV in Thailand were males, with a median age of 39. Eight of them were diagnosed in 1998 as compared to 16 during the previous ten-year period. 21 Thai women and seven males were diagnosed with HIV infection in Norway, eight in 1998 and 20 in the previous ten-year period. The Norwegian HIV epidemic is influenced by the Thai epidemic. Norwegian men are infected in Thailand during holidays. Thai women come with their Norwegian partner to Norway and later discover their HIV status. We recommend raising the awareness of the Thai epidemic among Norwegian tourists. Immigrants to Norway from highly endemic countries should be offered HIV counselling and testing. PMID:10592752

  3. Article title - Potential evaluation of rolling stock manufacturing in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiprasit Koetniyom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the capital city of Thailand, the first electric railway system so called Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS has been established since 1999. And Thai Government has the master plan to develop the network for such mass transport system in order to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. However, experience and technology knowledge of the rolling stock are still unknown among Thai industries. Besides, the automotive industry in Thailand has shown robust growth despite the political conflict and economic situation. With contribution of component and material suppliers for automotive industry, Thailand has possibly high potential to develop and build the train with local contents based on the international railway industry standards, etc. For this reason, this research focuses on essential component structures for the train, international standards for railway industry and relevant technologies for product, production and testing. In addition, the questionnaire for the component and material suppliers in Thailand has been established under international standards and essential car train components. As a result, it reveals that there are high potential possibilities to support the rolling stock industries under the knowledge of relevant standards in some product modules of the body-strength-structure and auxiliary groups. However, the core knowledge and technologies for the product designs and testing in Thailand are the least in the least in the platformsuspension group.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, C; Juanga, J P; Visvanathan, C

    2007-12-01

    The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with the high fraction of organic waste and a common disposal of open dumping is the current scenario in many areas in Thailand. As a response to this problem, the country's Pollution Control Department (PCD) aims to reduce the MSW generation rate to less than 1 kg/capita/day, increase the collection efficiency, and improve the recovery of recyclables. For many years, more than 60% of the solid waste disposal system in Thailand has been carried out by open dumping. According to the survey conducted by this study, in 2004 there were 425 disposal sites (95 landfills; 330 open dumps) in Thailand and an estimated methane emission of 115.4 Gg/year was generated based on this practice. It has been estimated that the anticipated methane emission in Thailand will rise from 115.4 Gg/year to 118.5 Gg/year if the largest open dumpsites in provinces with no existing landfill are upgraded to sanitary landfill; and it will increase to 193.5 Gg/year if the existing sanitary landfill is upgraded to integrated waste management facilities. Moreover, Bangkok metropolitan have the highest methane emission (54.83 Gg/year) among all the regions in Thailand. The methane emission forecast of 339 Gg/year by 2020 (based on LandGEM methodology) provides a stimulus to create a comprehensive plan to capture and utilize methane as an energy source. PMID:17492361

  5. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,2 Putipong Bookkamana,3 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Sirina Satthapisit,5 Daochompu Nakawiro,6 Thanita Hiranyatheb,6 Kulvadee Thongpibul7 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, Kingdom of Thailand; 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen Regional Hospital, Khon Kaen, Kingdom of Thailand; 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 7Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand Purpose: Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders.Participants and methods: An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36, the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed.Results: Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive

  6. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  7. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first double-axis neutron spectrometer in Thailand was installed at the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1) in 1968. It was about a decade that this diffractometer had supported a number of the magnetic materials researches. During 1975-1977, the reactor was modified into a TRIGA MARK III type with nominal power of 2 MW. Meanwhile the diffractometer was dismantled, since then neutron scattering activities had ceased for many years. As the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace recognized the important role of neutron scattering techniques in materials research, therefore in 1992, a spectrometer upgrade program has been setup in order to improve the performance of the obsolete diffractometer. At present, installation and alignment of the diffractometer have been completed. This report gives brief description about the past activities as well as current status of the upgraded diffractometer. Additionally, the Office of Atomic Energy is in process of establishing a new Nuclear Research Center. Its main facility is a multipurpose 10 MW TRIGA reactor. The reactor will be equipped with a High Resolution Powder Diffractometer. The HRPD is anticipated to be ready for operation soon after the commission of the reactor. Feature of the HRPD including its potential utilization are also presented in this report. (author)

  8. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) determination by radioimmunoassay of dried blood spots was selected as the screening method for congenital hypothyroidism in southern Thailand. Blood from infant's heel was obtained from 7814 new-born children in the fifth day of life. Infants with TSH values greater than 25 mU/L were recalled for a more careful clinical examination and their thyroxine (T4) and TSH re-estimated. Fifty-four infants with TSH values between 25 and 50 mU/L were found to be normal upon re-evaluation. These are still being observed over a longer term for full confirmation. Two infants with values above 50 mU/L, although clinically euthyroid, were found to be hypothyroid according to levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and T4, thyroid scintigraphy and roentgenographic assessment of bone age. Replacement therapy has been started. It is shown that a screening programme for neonatal hypothyroidism is feasible, probably worth while and perhaps even cost effective. (author)

  9. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the study conducted in co-operation with several agencies and organizations from Thailand and covers the energy and electricity requirements and the optimal expansion plans for the power generating system for this country up to year 2011. It is emphasized that the study was carried out by a team of experts from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), the National Energy Administration (NEA) and the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), who were fully responsible for all phases of the study, including the production of the present report. The IAEA's responsibility was to provide overall co-ordination and general guidance during the conduct of the study, as well as training and assistance in the implementation and use of the IAEA's computerized planning methodologies on the computer facilities of Thailand. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Two new species of Tetrastigma (Miq. Planch. (Vitaceae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsakorn Kochaiphat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Tetrastigma from Thailand, T. calcicola Kochaiph. & Trias-Blasi sp. nov. and T. jaichagunii C.L.Li ex Kochaiph. & Trias-Blasi sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Tetrastigma calcicola sp. nov. is a slender climber restricted to the open areas on limestone mountains at high elevation in the northern part of Thailand. The other species, T. jaichagunii sp. nov., is similar to T. harmandii Planch., but differs from it by having more densely verrucose young branches, broader leaflets, 4-lobed thick discs, bigger globose berries and oblongoid seeds. This species occurs along streams or in forest margins in evergreen forest and it is widely distributed in several parts of Thailand.

  11. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  12. Geographic distribution of wolbachial infections in mosquitoes from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun

    2013-11-01

    Members of the genus Wolbachia are inherited intracellular bacterial endosymbionts that infect a diverse range of arthropods. Here I report the results of a survey of these endosymbionts in different mosquito species from six geographic regions of Northern, Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Thailand. Using gene amplification assays with wsp and groE gene primers, wolbachiae were detected in 999 mosquitoes representing 28 species of 1622 specimens collected representing 74 species of wild-caught mosquitoes from all regions of Thailand. Results using wsp primers were similar to those using groE primers in all cases. Wolbachiae had not been reported previously from five of the species tested, namely, Aedes lineatopennis, Aedes vexans, Aedes vittatus, Culex pallidothorax and Culex whitmorei. Infections were found in all major disease vector genera except Anopheles. These results indicate that wolbachial infections are distributed throughout many mosquito species in Thailand. PMID:23660513

  13. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  14. The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

  15. Patrocínios desportivos dimensões mais valorizadas numa celebridade desportiva por um patrocinador

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Hugo Miguel Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Projecto de Mestrado em Marketing Desportivo Na gestão de carreiras de atletas a dimensão do patrocinador é frequentemente descurada. O presente estudo pretende identificar as dimensões mais valorizadas numa celebridade desportiva por parte de um patrocinador. Muitos patrocinadores evitam utilizar celebridades desportivas na sua estratégia de comunicação por diversas razões. As novas realidades desportivas associadas ao consumo de doping, o risco de lesão, o abandono prematuro, as atit...

  16. Thailand national programme of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheosakul, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data has been used to delineate floating rice regions with a clear distinction between irrigated and nonirrigated areas and recognition of orchard and horitcultural crops. Alluvial fans marking the ancient river outlets in the northwestern portion of the Central Plain of Thailand and the shape and size of the flood plains in the central region have been identified and outlined. A new forestry map was constructed using band 5 and band 7 imagery combined with ground observations. A geologic map of Thailand has been constructed from ERTS imagery.

  17. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai Pachirat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  18. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  19. Energy Conservation through Value-Engineering for SMEs in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asavatesanupap, Channarong; Santikunaporn, Malee; Wangskan, Prapat [Thammasat University (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency, Thailand launched the energy conservation through value-engineering program for Small and Medium sized Enterprises, SMEs. The program aims to improve energy efficiency of machines and production processes as well as to raise awareness of energy saving for employees at work. In this program, there were 25 participants coming from SMEs in the central area of Thailand. The energy conservation measures were implemented 153 measures and the total estimated energy saving potential is 236.32 toe/yr. The other aspects of benefit and outcome of this program which may lead to future improvement are discussed in this paper.

  20. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  1. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit, Staffan Laestadius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  2. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  3. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL; Nopachon TUBTIM; Sungwol RATANACHAN

    2007-01-01

    Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand wer...

  4. Modeling Malaria Transmission in Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Malaria Modeling and Surveillance is a project in the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Applications Program. The main objectives of this project are: 1) identification of the potential breeding sites for major vector species: 2) implementation of a malaria transmission model to identify they key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementation of a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. Remote sensing and GIs are the essential elements of this project. The NASA Earth science data sets used in this project include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP and SIESIP. Textural-contextual classifications are used to identify small larval habitats. Neural network methods are used to model malaria cases as a function of precipitation, temperatures, humidity and vegetation. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Examples for spatio-temporal modeling of malaria transmissions in Southeast Asia are given. Discrete event simulations were used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results are in good agreement with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired by Coleman et al. over 4.5 years in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in western Thailand. Application of our models is not restricted to Southeast Asia. The model and techniques are equally applicable to other regions of the world, when appropriate epidemiological and vector ecological parameters are used as input.

  5. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  6. DETECTION OF PUTATIVE ANTIMALARIAL-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM VIVAX IN ANOPHELES VECTORS AT THAILAND-CAMBODIA AND THAILAND-MYANMAR BORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattaprasert, Pongruj; Chaksangchaichot, Panee; Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Suparach, Nutjaree; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring of multidrug-resistant (MDR)falciparum and vivax malaria has recently been included in the Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC) of the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly at the Thailand-Cambodia and Thailand-Myanmar borders. In parallel to GPARC, monitoring MDR malaria parasites in anopheline vectors is an ideal augment to entomological surveillance. Employing Plasmodium- and species-specific nested PCR techniques, only P. vivax was detected in 3/109 salivary gland DNA extracts of anopheline vectors collected during a rainy season between 24-26 August 2009 and 22-24 September 2009 and a dry season between 29-31 December 2009 and 16-18 January 2010. Indoor and out- door resting mosquitoes were collected in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province (border of Thailand-Myanmar) and Bo Rai District, Trat Province (border of Thailand-Cambodia): one sample from Anopheles dirus at the Thailand-Cambodia border and two samples from An. aconitus from Thailand-Myanmar border isolate. Nucleotide sequencing of dihydrofolate reductase gene revealed the presence in all three samples of four mutations known to cause high resistance to antifolate pyrimethamine, but no mutations were found in multidrug resistance transporter 1 gene that are associated with (falciparum) resistance to quinoline antimalarials. Such findings indicate the potential usefulness of this approach in monitoring the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites in geographically regions prone to the development of drug resistance and where screening of human population at risk poses logistical and ethical problems. Keywords: Anopheles spp, Plasmodium vivax, antimalarial resistance, Greater Mekong Sub-region, nested PCR, vector surveillance PMID:27244954

  7. Improving the Sensitivity of Matrix-Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry Using Ammonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubatyi, Nicholas D; McEwen, Charles N

    2015-10-01

    In matrix-assisted ionization (MAI), analyte incorporated in a small molecule matrix is introduced into an aperture linking atmospheric pressure with the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Gas-phase analyte ions are spontaneously produced without use of a laser or high voltage. Here we investigate analyte and background ion abundances upon addition of ammonium salts to various MAI matrix/analyte solutions. Regardless of the ammonium salt or matrix used, chemical background ions are suppressed and/or analyte ion abundance improved for basic small molecules, peptides, and proteins. Background ion abundances increase with increasing inlet temperature, but are suppressed with addition of any of a variety of ammonium salts without much effect on the total ion abundances of the analyte ions. However, at lower inlet temperature using the matrices 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 1,2-dicyanobenzene, and 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN), analyte ion abundance increases and any chemical background decreases upon addition of ammonium salt. The improvement in sensitivity using 3-NBN with ammonium salt allows full acquisition mass spectra consuming as little as 1 fmol of ubiquitin. More complete peptide coverage for 100 fmol of a BSA tryptic digest, and increased sensitivity of drugs spiked in urine and saliva were observed after ammonium salt addition to the 3-NBN matrix. PMID:26122522

  8. Radiation protection Aspects Using the Thermal Waters from the Felix-1 Mai-Oradea Geothermal Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The geothermal 'Felix-1 Mai-Oradea' deposit is situated in the western part of Romania and it is well known long years ago. The waters of this deposit are used in the medical treatments in the two resorts (Felix and 1 Mai) and for heating and swimming pools in Oradea town. The deposit depth (2500-3000 m) determines a high temperature (66-900 deg. C) of these waters also a mineral content of 200-1400 mg/l, the main components being Ca and Mg. First time, during some years, the thermal water was directly used in the central heating radiators from 'Nufarul' residential district. At present a heating switch installation is utilised. The high radium content of these thermal waters comparatively with Italian or Japanese thermal waters suggested us a study of radium deposition on the inner walls of the pipes also in the inner central heating radiators. Analysing these depositions using a high resolution Ge-Li detector, the radium-226 and small quantities of radium-224 and 223 isotopes were registered. Average radium-226 deposition was 1200 Bq/kg. (author)

  9. Level of agreement between self-rated and clinician-rated instruments when measuring major depressive disorder in the Thai elderly: a 1-year assessment as part of the THAISAD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Kamonporn Wannarit,2 Nattha Saisavoey,2 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,3 Nattaporn Apisiridej,4 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana,12 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Raviwan Nivataphand,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan4 1Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 2Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 3Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 4Trang Hospital, Trang, Kingdom of Thailand; 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, Kingdom of Thailand; 6Khon Kaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, Kingdom of Thailand; 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, Kingdom of Thailand; 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, Kingdom of Thailand; 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, Kingdom of Thailand; 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand Purpose: Whether self-reporting and clinician-rated depression scales correlate well with one another when applied to older adults has not been well studied, particularly among Asian samples. This study aimed to compare the level of agreement among measurements used in assessing major depressive disorder (MDD among the Thai elderly and the factors associated with the differences found. Patients and methods: This was a prospective, follow-up study of elderly patients diagnosed with MDD and receiving treatment in Thailand. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17, 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30

  10. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries. PMID:22442643

  11. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis: Distribution of trichinosis in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya Jatesadapattaya Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa

    2008-01-01

    Trichinosis is among the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper investigates the distribution of the disease in regions of north, northeast, central and south Thailand. Between the earliest recorded of outbreak of trichinosis in Mae Hong Son Province in 1962 and 2006, there have been 135 outbreaks involving 7340 patients and 97 deaths in Thailand. The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. Most infected patients were in the 35-44 year age group, and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women during 1962-2003, with no significant sex difference during 2004-2006. Outbreaks were most common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where raw and under-cooked pork and/or wild animals are eaten. Human infections occur annually in northern Thailand during communal feasts celebrating the Thai New Year. Trichinosis causes have been reported every year, supporting the need for planning education programs.

  12. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  13. Counseling in Thailand: Development from a Buddhist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.; Pokaeo, Soree

    2012-01-01

    The authors present historical and current accounts of the counseling profession in Thailand. In addition to the influences of Buddhism on counselor training and practices, professional issues such as licensure, professional organizations, and the relationship between counselors and other mental health professionals are summarized. The role of…

  14. Giant trees from the Middle Pleistocene of Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Marc; Boonchai, Nareerat; Ferguson, David K.; Jia, Hui; Songtham, Wickanet

    2013-04-01

    Giant fossil trees from the Middle Pleistocene of Thailand are described. The longest log is measured at 72.2 m. Morphological analysis suggests that the original trees towered to more than 100 m, in a wet tropical forest. As contemporaneous archaic pebble tools were reported in the same area, the subtropical rainforest was no impenetrable ecological barrier to a population of Homo erectus.

  15. Thailand Insurance Regulation: Highlights & Time to Go Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalap Sukpaiboonwat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Thailand’s insurance regulatory highlights and compares with 15 Asian countries. The comparison focuses on government regulators, minimum capital requirements, solvency regulation, policyholder protection fund and foreign ownership restrictions. Because of different complexity in insurance business and economic culture in each countries, the policymakers appoint insurance regulator who works under various departments, different from country to country, such as The Ministry of Finance (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand, a Central Bank (Malaysia, and Singapore, and some other Government Agencies (China, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and Hong Kong. For licensed insurers, the highest minimum paid-up capital is USD52 million in Taiwan, and the lowest paid-up capital is USD1 million in Hong Kong due to Hong Kong liberalizing insurance market requiring no restriction in investment. Risk Based Capital has been evolving rapidly across Asian countries particularly in Japan, Indonesia, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea, The Philippines and Thailand. The protection funds for policyholders in the event of insurer insolvency were already established in most countries except Cambodia and Laos, who require deposit protection fund with local government. Regarding foreign ownership regulation, there are no restrictions in Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Vietnam; whilst other countries, namely China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand, gradually release the market access restrictions. In assessing insurance regulation, this is helpful for understanding the current insurance legislation and future development for Thailand insurance regulation.

  16. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis-associated cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mairiang, Eimorn; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Hotez, Peter J; Brindley, Paul J

    2011-09-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; Laos). Currently, more than 600 million people are at risk of infection with these fish-borne trematodes and/or their close relatives. Opisthorchiasis has been studied extensively in Thailand, where about 8 million people are infected with the liver fluke. Here we review the pathogenesis, control and re-emergence of O. viverrini infection, in particular in Thailand and, to a lesser extent in Lao PDR given the contiguous geographical range of O. viverrini through these two regions. We also review the association of O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer, and highlight new findings on pathogenesis of liver fluke-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis. Last, we comment on national control strategies in Thailand for the control of O. viverrini infection aimed at reduction in the prevalence of O. viverrini-associated liver cancer in the longer term. PMID:20655862

  17. Distance education in Library and Information Science in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchanand, Chutima

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents distance education in library and information science at tow open universities in Thailand, namely Ramkhamhaeng University (RU) and Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU). The teaching system, degree offered and degree requirements of each university are described in detail.

  18. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  19. Thailand : Building Partnerships for Environmental and Natural Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This Strategy Note sets out a framework for World Bank involvement in the environment sector in the immediate to medium term. It elaborates upon and reinforces the environmental objectives specified in Thailand's Eighth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1997-2001) and the World Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for 1998. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1 pro...

  20. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  1. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  2. In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdier Valérie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc. Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that

  3. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  4. Annexe 9. Europe 1 : le dossier de Guy Thomas (18 mai 1979, 07 h 15)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Le journaliste Guy Thomas diffusait chaque matin sur EUROPE 1, à une heure de grande écoute, une émission au cours de laquelle il dénonçait le mauvais fonctionnement de l’administration. Ses critiques, généralement bien fondées, étaient redoutées par les services. Nous n’en avons que davantage apprécié l’émission que Guy Thomas a consacrée, le 18 mai 1979, au premier bilan de la Direction générale pour les relations avec le public. Guy Thomas. – ...Voilà une expérience bien intéressante. Cell...

  5. Les juristes italiens et le «Long Mai 68»

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Le « Long Mai 68 » avaient été confisqués par l’Etat – en matière de divorce, d’avortement, de la propagande contraceptive, et de l’objection de conscience. Elles ont garanti les droits des malades mentaux par la fermeture des asiles d’aliénés, abolis en 1973 grâce à la loi Basaglia-Ongaro. Elles devaient, enfin, étendre en 1978 la  citoyenneté L’année 1968 a ouvert la voie à un processus de changement d’une immense portée dans une société encore marquée par les institutions autoritaires héri...

  6. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  7. Asian Summer Monsoon and its Associated Rainfall Variability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian monsoon is an important component of the Earth's climate. Its associated rainfall variability is a crucial fac¬tor for Thailand's socio-economic development, water resources and agricultural management. An analysis shows that the Thailand rainfall annual cycle is in phase with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM and the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM. On the basis of the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis, the dominant spatial-temporal interannual variability in summer monsoon rainfall (Jun.-Sep. during 1975-2006 could be explained by the first two EOF modes, accounting for 34% of the total variance. The EOF1 was spatially dominated by strong positive signals in the central and east, whereas the EOF2 exhibited dipole variability. The coefficient time series of EOF1 significantly correlated posi¬tively with ISM index, but negatively with WNPSM index. The results suggest that summer monsoon rainfall in Thailand is higher (lower than normal during the strengthening (weakening of ISM. In contrast, rainfall in the north-east (central is surplus (deficit during the strengthening (weakening of WNPSM. These findings imply that, on an interannual time scale, ISM and WNPSM exert their influence to a different extent on summer monsoon rainfall in Thailand. A clear picture of linking mechanisms and interactions with another climate mode in the Indo-Pacific sector needs to be understood. This knowledge is essential for effectively adapting to climate-related hazards and rainfall extremes and for better management of water resource and agriculture in Thailand, especially under current/future warming conditions.

  8. After the forest. AIDs as ecological collapse in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, A D

    1992-01-01

    Numerous parallels can be drawn between the systematic destruction of Thailand's forests and the emergence, in the same time period, of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an irreversible societal crisis. Both the disintegration of the body's defense system implicit in AIDS and the erosion of Thailand's ecosystem provoked by deforestation policies are examples of assaults by capitalist economic policies on previously self-regulating systems. Centralization and industrial development have driven a substantial proportion of young Thai villagers to the cities, where they sell their labor as sex workers (there may be as many as 2 million prostitutes in Thailand) or become heroin users. Conservative estimates project 1.6 million AIDS-infected Thais by the end of 1995. Just as generally benign conditions such as the common cold can annihilate a body ravaged by the AIDS virus, Thailand's ecosystem, degraded by unregulated logging and state-subsidized, for-profit rubber planting, is no longer able to absorb natural occurrences such as heavy rainfall. The loss of forestland--the traditional source of food, shelter, tools, and medicine and the repository of cultural icons--has forced villagers to obtain cash to meet their needs, and Thailand's sex industry offers one of the highest rates of remuneration. Legislation enacted in response to AIDS and deforestation shares an emphasis on the victims (e.g., the prostitutes and not their clients or the owners of sex establishments, and impoverished forest squatters rather than plantation companies and land speculators). A powerful, combative environmental movement is successfully resisting government attempts to destroy living communities. Needed as well is resistance on the part of women growing up in the age of AIDS to societal definitions that polarize females (virgins and prostitutes) and uphold one-sided monogamy. PMID:12286883

  9. STUDY OF MAIS (MEANINGFUL AUDITORY INTEGRATION SCALE SCORE POST UNILATERAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PRELINGUAL DEAF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Lala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate speech perception skills in everyday situations following Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in prelingual deaf patients in relation to the age of implantation. Method: 45 prelingual deaf patients who underwent unilateral Cochlear Implantation under B.J. Medical College Cochlear and Hearing Implant Programme from April 2007 to August 2010 were included in the study. Participants were divided into 5 groups on basis of age at which participants underwent implantation: ≤3 years, 3 to 6 years, 6 to 9 years, 9 to 12 years, 12 to 15 years. The MAIS Questionnaire was administered before implantation unaided and at three post-implant switch-on time periods 6 months, 1 year and 2 years with Cochlear Implant alone. The study was retrospective and prospective comparative interventional type. Significance of difference between individual preoperative and postoperative scores was evaluated using the post hoc test of repeated measure analysis. Results: Pre-op average MAIS Questionnaire score was ≤8/40 in all implanted age groups with score increasing over time to attain average score ranging from 34 to 37.44/40 in all implanted age groups after two years of implantation. The score increased significantly (p<0.05 in all implanted age groups from pre- to post-CI. Improved ratings were found for those implanted at younger age (≤3 years than those implanted later. Discussion: There is significant improvement in speech perception skills in everyday situations after cochlear implantation which continues to improve over time. Better results were seen in those implanted at younger age.

  10. Rethinking Conceptions of Borders in the Greater Mekong Subregion: An Interview With Chayan Vaddhanabhuti (RCSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napakadol Kittisenee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Chayan Vaddhanabhuti is Director of the Regional Centre for Social Science and Sustainable Development (RCSD, Thailand. The RCSD was established in 1998 at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, in response to the need for integration of social science and natural science knowledge in order to gain a better understanding of sustainable development in upper Mainland South-East Asia. Chayan Vaddhanabhuti has long been dedicated to the fi eld of social sciences, development issues, and engaged himself extensively with ethnic groups both within Thailand and beyond. In this interview he introduces the work of RSCD and discusses the changing perceptions of the concept of ‘border’ in the context of Thailand and the Greater Mekong Subregion.

  11. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 10, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue includes reports of the Task Force Meeting on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment (Chiang Mai, Thailand, February 1986), of the first Research Coordination Meeting on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities (Chiang Mai, Thailand, February 1986), and of the ASEAN Workshop on Food Irradiation (Bangkok, Thailand, November 1985). This Newsletter also contains a publication by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in the Federal Register, Vol. 51, No. 75 (Friday, April 18, 1986) 21 CFR Part 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food, Final Rule, which lists general provisions for food irradiation and permitted applications of ionizing radiation for (a) control of Trichinella spiralis in pork carcasses or fresh, non-heat processed cuts of pork carcasses (min. dose 0.3 kGy - max. dose 1 kGy); (b) growth and maturation inhibition of fresh foods (max. dose 1 kGy); (c) disinfestation of anthropod pests in food (max. dose 1 kGy); (d) microbial disinfestation of dry or dehydrated enzyme preparations (max. dose 10 kGy); (e) microbial disinfection of dry or dehydrated aromatic vegetable substances, culinary herbs, seeds, spices, teas, vegetable seasonings, and blends of these aromatic substances, (max. dose 30 kGy). Provisions for labelling of irradiated foods at retail level are contained in the rule

  12. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in raw, processed, and ready-to-eat seafood and seafood products

    OpenAIRE

    Thararat Chitov

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence (by means of the presence-absence test) and level (by means of a plate count technique) of selected potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in processed and ready-to-eat seafood, and some raw seafood normally used as raw materials or ingredients in these products, that were commercially available in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The level of Vibrio in raw seafood was found to range from 50 to 104 cfu/g. V. alginolyticus was the most frequently found species, follo...

  13. Carbon sequestration potential in aboveground biomass of Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terakunpisut, J. [Kasetsart Univ. Kamphaeng Saen, Nakornpratom (Thailand). Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science; Gajaseni, N.; Ruankawe, N. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Biology Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Increasingly convincing evidence shows that the Earth is getting warmer and in the future warming could have serious effects on humans. Atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the primary and best studied greenhouse gas, has increased by about 30% from the start of the industrial revolution to 1992 due to fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework, in which Thailand is a member, is to stabilize the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will not cause dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The emission reduction of greenhouse gases from members of industrialized countries is called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Thailand ratified the Kyoto Protocol August 28, 2002, and therefore will voluntarily participate in CO{sub 2} reduction. There are two alternatives to reduce CO{sub 2}: decreasing carbon source and increasing carbon sink. The world's forests are prominent sites to study climate change, not only in terms of total net carbon emissions but also in terms of global storage capacity, important for climatic regulation. This study assessed the potential of carbon sequestration on aboveground biomass in the different forest ecosystems in Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand. The assessment was based on a total inventory for woody stem at {>=}4.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equation and aboveground carbon stock was calculated by multiplying the 0.5 conversion factor to the biomass. As the results, carbon sequestration showed varied in different types of forests. Tropical rain forest (Ton Mai Yak station) higher carbon stock than dry evergreen forest (KP 27 station) and mixed deciduous forest (Pong Phu Ron station) as 137.73 {+-} 48.07, 70.29 {+-} 7.38 and 48.14 {+-} 16.72 tonne C/ha, respectively. Habitat variability caused differences of biomass accumulation, species composition and the

  14. Effect of global warming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai

    2010-08-01

    scenarios reported relatively lower value of 18-59 cm per century. The North Atlantic thatis surrounded by glaciers might see a SLR due to ice melting related to an increase of the temperature in the Atlantic Ocean.Nevertheless, the lack of data on global warming in the tropics especially in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, which haveno glaciers, might put a different view on the conclusions derived from temperature and arctic data. Six decades of comprehensiveinformation from the Gulf of Thailand regarding oceanographical and meteorological data is revealing a much lowerSLR. The mean monthly sea levels in six decades at Sattahip and Ko Lak showed no increasing trend, while those rises atSamut Prakan and Samut Sakhon are due to land subsidence from excessive groundwater pumping.

  15. Internal and External factors hampering SME growth : a qualitative case study of SMEs in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete, Leon; Grimsholm, Elin

    2010-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand are very important to economic growth and considerably essential to generate employment as in many other developing countries. SMEs account for 99.5% of the overall enterprises in Thailand while their contribution to the overall employment account for around 76% of all jobs. However, SMEs growth rate is still at a low level. Hence, this is qualitative study of the external and internal factors hampering the growth of SMEs in Thailand. Rega...

  16. The Development of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand: A Social Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of gender reassignment in Thailand during the period of 1975–2012, in terms of social attitude, epidemiology, surgical patients’ profile, law and regulation, religion, and patients’ path from psychiatric assessment to surgery. Thailand healthcare for transsexual patients is described. Figures related to the number of sex reassignment surgeries performed in Thailand over the past 30 years are reported. Transsexual individuals are only apparently integrated wi...

  17. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1) To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2) To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3) To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of ...

  18. Healthcare utilization and cost of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    P Dilokthornsakul; R Sawangjit; C Inprasong; S Chunhasewee; P Rattanapan; T Thoopputra; N Chaiyakunapruk

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening dermatologic conditions. Although, the incidence of SJS/TEN in Thailand is high, information on cost of care for SJS/TEN is limited. This study aims to estimate healthcare resource utilization and cost of SJS/TEN in Thailand, using hospital perspective. Methods: A retrospective study using an electronic health database from a university-affiliated hospital in Thailand was undertaken. Patients ...

  19. An investigation of entrepreneurial motivation and business growth : boutique hotels in Northern Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernbumroong, Sainatee

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, Thailand has faced many negative situations such as natural disasters and political disturbances, which have had serious impacts on all parts of the nation including its economic progress. In Northern Thailand, the role of the hospitality and tourism sector is claimed to be particularly significant as an industry which has protected the Northern region from severe economic disaster. Recently, however, the number of boutique hotels in Northern Thailand has shown very rap...

  20. Geochemical associations and availability of cadmium (Cd) in a paddy field system, northwestern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mae Tao watershed, northwest Thailand, has become contaminated with cadmium (Cd) as a result of zinc ore extraction (Padaeng deposit) in the nearby Thanon-Thongchai mountains. Consumption of contaminated rice has led to documented human health impacts. The aim of this study was to elucidate transfer pathways from creek and canal waters to the paddy field soils near Baan Mae Tao Mai village and to determine the relationship between Cd speciation in the soil and uptake by rice plants. Transfer mainly occurred in association with particulate matter during flooding and channel dredging and, in contrast with many other studies, most of the soil Cd was associated with exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions. Moreover, there was a linear relationship between soil total Cd and rice grain Cd (R2 = 0.715), but a stronger relationship between both the Tessier-exchangeable soil Cd and the BCR-exchangeable soil Cd and rice grain Cd (R2 = 0.898 and 0.862, respectively). - Highlights: • Cd associated with clays and carbonates in canal sediments and paddy field soils. • SEM–EDX and sequential extraction results for sediments and soils agree well. • Linear relationship between Cd in soil and in rice grains from the same fields. • Uptake of Cd by rice plants strongly linked to soil Cd speciation. - Cd was mainly associated with carbonates and clays. The strong relationship between soil and rice grain Cd was primarily due to the prevalence of easily extractable-Cd within the soil

  1. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3–6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. Design and setting MAIS 3–6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Participants Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3–6 injured, in light truck vehicles–passenger cars (LTV–PC) side impact crashes. Outcome measures Distribution of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. Results The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3–6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants were zones ‘D’ and ‘Y’, and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone ‘B’. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants was zone ‘E’, whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone ‘G+M’. Conclusions The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV–PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck

  2. La Nube, a Maneira Mais Emocionante De Se Experimentar Espelhos Planos

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, J J

    2009-01-01

    PORTUGUES Uma experiencia que parte do uso de um espelho plano colocado horizontalmente na altura do nariz do observador, que fornece uma nova dimensao a experiencia de se ver imagens com espelhos simples, serve para discutir o que ainda pode ser feito para que o estudante ganhe uma visao mais profunda e conceitual no aprendizado de fisica. A enfase esta na ideia de independencia mental, que inclui a de que novos resultados podem surgir na analise de experimentos que nao necessariamente precisam ser feitos com elementos novos ou de sofisticada realizacao. ENGLISH TRANSLATION The experience of employing a plane mirror located at the height of the nose of an observer, giving a new dimension to the experiences made with simple mirrors, is used as an example into the discussion of what can be done for the student to reach a deeper and conceptual insight in learning Physics. The main idea lays on the mental independence, which includes that new results can come through the analysis of experiments which not necessa...

  3. Measurement of slow-moving along-track displacement from an efficient multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Min-Jeong; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Won, Joong-Sun; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Lu, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has demonstrated outstanding measurement accuracy of along-track displacement when compared to pixel-offset-tracking methods; however, measuring slow-moving (cm/year) surface displacement remains a challenge. Stacking of multi-temporal observations is a potential approach to reducing noise and increasing measurement accuracy, but it is difficult to achieve a significant improvement by applying traditional stacking methods to multi-temporal MAI interferograms. This paper proposes an efficient MAI stacking method, where multi-temporal forward- and backward-looking residual interferograms are individually stacked before the MAI interferogram is generated. We tested the performance of this method using ENVISAT data from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, where displacement on the order of several centimeters per year is common. By comparing results from the proposed stacking methods with displacements from GPS data, we documented measurement accuracies of about 1.03 and 1.07 cm/year for the descending and ascending tracks, respectively—an improvement of about a factor of two when compared with that from the conventional stacking approach. Three-dimensional surface-displacement maps can be constructed by combining stacked InSAR and MAI observations, which will contribute to a better understanding of a variety of geological phenomena.

  4. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 90 28' N and 130 15' N longitudes 1000 35' E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C14, Sr90, Pu239,240, Po210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  5. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  6. Domestic ducks and H5N1 influenza epidemic, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Thaweesak; Jam-on, Rungroj; Sae-Heng, Numdee; Meemak, Noppadol; Hulse-Post, Diane J; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine M; Webster, Robert G

    2006-04-01

    In addition to causing 12 human deaths and 17 cases of human infection, the 2004 outbreak of H5N1 influenza virus in Thailand resulted in the death or slaughter of 60 million domestic fowl and the disruption of poultry production and trade. After domestic ducks were recognized as silent carriers of H5N1 influenza virus, government teams went into every village to cull flocks in which virus was detected; these team efforts markedly reduced H5N1 infection. Here we examine the pathobiology and epidemiology of H5N1 influenza virus in the 4 systems of duck raising used in Thailand in 2004. No influenza viruses were detected in ducks raised in "closed" houses with high biosecurity. However, H5N1 influenza virus was prevalent among ducks raised in "open" houses, free-ranging (grazing) ducks, and backyard ducks. PMID:16704804

  7. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Chulalongkorn Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-02-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  8. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis. PMID:27086437

  9. An Analysis of Inequality of Economic Opportunity in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montchai Pinitjitsamut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the socioeconomic and family backgrounds that affect individual economic opportunity in term of labor income on and above average income in different regions of Thailand. The results present that both age and marital status have positive impact to individual’s economic opportunity. Because it related to the necessity in personal family life. People works in Bangkok not necessary to get economic opportunity greater than others. Most inequality indicators show the inequality situation in Thailand still not as high as expectation. However, ordinary person usually get only less than 50% (0.4855 opportunity to get earning equal or more the average. Also, the society should concern the inequality of economic opportunity in optimal level which make equality parameter not greater than 0.5. This will create the mechanism to minimize the level of inequality, as a whole.

  10. Philanthropy, politics and promotion: Philip Morris' "charitable contributions" in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-08-01

    The efforts of members of the tobacco industry to portray themselves as responsible corporations via ostensible commitment to improved labour practices and public philanthropy have attracted growing criticism. This is particularly true of corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes undertaken in emerging nations that are designed to rehabilitate the tobacco industry's image among public, government and market opinions in North America and western Europe. In the case of Thailand, sponsorship of arts events and community groups has been one avenue of promoting the industry in a regulatory environment that severely curtails promotion and advertising. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Art Award, sponsored by Philip Morris (PM) has provided one such outlet for 10 years. Analysis of PM funding announcements since the end of the ASEAN art programme in Thailand reveals that recent donations to tobacco-related community organisations reinforces the extent to which seemingly generous acts are driven by corporate self-interest rather than social responsibility. PMID:18653794

  11. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  12. Utilization of trauma guidelines by ER nurses in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krongdai Unhasuta RN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To improving trauma nursing practice in Thailand and other countries. Methods:As part of a larger study of 164 ER nurses, 83 nurses provided narrative responses to questions of CNPG utilization and barriers to implementation. Using a qualitative descriptive design and analysis, three major themes were identified: Guidelines reflect good practice; Nurses do not always follow guidelines; and System problems limit use. Results: The results suggest optimized guideline adherence would require using judgment in following CNPG; ensuring organized teamwork is essential; and providing maximum resources would promote optimal care.Conclusion: Clinical nursing practice guidelines (CNPG) have been developed in Thailand for resuscitation care of emergency room (ER) trauma patients. However, many nurses do not use guidelines effectively.

  13. Epiphytic macrolichens as indicators of environmental alteration in northern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiphytic lichens were sampled on mango trees (Mangifera spp.) in 32 sites in urban centres and surrounding rural areas in seven provinces of upper northern Thailand. Species were recorded on each tree and frequency estimated in a grid of ten 100-cm2 units. Analysis of macrolichen data showed that lichen diversity was inversely correlated with human population, and that lichen diversity was lowest in the cities with the highest population. The distribution and frequencies of species belonging to families Physciaceae and Parmeliaceae contributed to the groups identified by cluster analysis that corresponded to gradients in rainfall and population density. Comparison with modelled pollution data and local pollution records showed greater correspondence of lichen data with the effects of PM10 than with anthropogenic sulphur. - Epiphytic lichens in urban and rural areas of northern Thailand can be used as indicators of the levels of pollution associated with increasing population

  14. Shigella from Humans in Thailand During 1993 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Vieira, Antonio; Pornreonwong, S.; Pulsrikarn, C.; Sawanpanyalert, P.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    In Thailand during 1993-2006, a total of 9063 Shigella isolates from different medical centers were serotyped and trends over time and. spatial clustering analyzed. Of 3583 cases with age information, 1315 (37%) cases were from children between 0 and 4 years and 684 (1.9%) from children between 5...... and 8 years. Most infections were recorded during 1993-1994 (> 1500 per year), decreasing to <200 in 2006. The relative species distribution also changed. During 1993-1994, Shigella flexneri accounted for 2241 (65%) of 3474 isolations. This proportion decreased to 64 (36%) of 176 infections in 2006....... Most infections occurred during July and August, and fewest in December. S. flexneri clustered around Bangkok, and Shigella sonnei in southern Thailand. Most S. flexneri infections were caused by serotype 2a (1590 of 4035) followed by serotype var X (1249). For both serotypes, a pronounced decrease in...

  15. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  16. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  17. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

  18. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in Thailand: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Itharattana, Kajonwan

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in Thailand. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely rice, maize, soybean, milk and milk products, at the national level and the farm level. The analysis includes ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  19. Micronutrient problems in Thailand - extent, past and present research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient problems in Thailand are briefly discussed, particularly with reference to rice. At present, the relative amounts of zinc in rice-growing areas (soils) are being analyzed for total and available zinc. Fertilizer (N, P, K) uptake by rice is being studied in the field by means of zinc-65. Observations on the relative uptake of P by rice associated with different zinc levels are made on pot cultures, using phosphorus-32

  20. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004–May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 viru...

  1. Measuring the Degree of Market Concentration in Thailand Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalap Sukpaiboonwat; Chucheep Piputsitee; Arunee Punyasavatsut

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates market structure of life insurance and non-life insurance industry in Thailand. This paper uses the Concentration Ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index to measure the degree of market concentration. The paper also analyzes various data from all type of insurance premium, balance sheet and income statement to measure the concentration and competition trend. An analysis of life insurance premium, group market is unconcentrated where as ordinary and industry markets ar...

  2. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil industry towards sustainability.In order to fulfill these research aimsdetailed case studies have be...

  3. 10 Years after the Crisis: Thailand's Financial System Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Lukas; Suwanaporn, Chodechai

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the framework of long-term financial system development to describe and assess the reform process in Thailand after 1997. The present financial reforms are well in line with the pattern of financial development found in the academic literature. A detailed analysis of capital markets, specialized financial institutions and supervisory regulation shows recent advancements and open issues. The rapid rise of non-banks financial institutions can serve as a paradigmatic example of m...

  4. Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Northern Provinces of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Supot Teachavorasinskun; Pichai Pattararattanakul; Pulpong Pongvithayapranu

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: There are quite a few active faults recently found in the western and northern parts of Thailand, which could possibly induce earthquakes of magnitude (ML) of 5.5-6.5. Although seismic design code has been enforced in the area since 1980, the fundamental knowledge on dynamic soil behavior has not been extensively attained. Approach: Collection of existing borehole information in the targeted areas to form a typical subsoil profile. This borehole information, together with a...

  5. Statistical Modelling of CO2 Emissions in Malaysia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tay Sze Hui; Shapiee Abd Rahman; Jane Labadin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is an environmental problem which leads to Earth’s greenhouse effect. Much concerns with carbon dioxide emissions centered around the growing threat of global warming and climate  change. This paper, however, presents a simple model development using multiple regression with interactions for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in Malaysia and Thailand. Five indicators over the period 1971-2006, namely  energy use, GDP per capita, population density, combustible ...

  6. Material Flow Analysis for Industrial Waste Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Plubcharoensuk, Patsarporn; NAKAYAMA, Hirofumi; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is an excellent tool in supporting decision making regarding waste management problems. MFA allows the calculation of the amount and composition of wastes by balancing the process of waste generation and the process of waste treatment. MFA can be used to analyze wastes flow because inputs-outputs of waste treatment can be linked. The industrial waste management system in Thailand is still lacking comprehensive data on industrial waste generation and flow. Therefor...

  7. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  8. Overview of contract farming in Thailand: Lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Wiboonpoongse, Aree

    2008-01-01

    Contract farming is a means to assist small growers in gaining market access and reducing price risk, and as such it has attracted attention from development agencies and governments in developing countries. This paper reviews literature related to contract farming in Thailand and adds updated information based on field visits in 2007. Special attention is given to roles played by government in the initial stage of contract farming development. Conclusively, it is important for the public sec...

  9. Saving Thailand's Temple: How much are people willing to pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Udomsak Seenprachawong

    2006-01-01

    Ancient temples are among Southeast Asia's most important cultural artifacts. They are priceless in terms of their historical and religious importance. They are also vital foreign currency earners as key destinations for tourists. Unfortunately, many temples are in poor condition and deteriorating. One of the key challenges across the region is how to finance the conservation of this cultural heritage. This study from Thailand has looked at how much Thais would be willing to pay (WTP) to cons...

  10. Sustainability Assessment of a Biorefinery Complex in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pariyapat Nilsalab; Kritana Prueksakorn; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Sébastien Bonnet

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a biorefinery complex in Thailand was assessed vis-à-vis sustainability. The complex studied includes plantations of sugarcane and a biorefinery system composed of several units including, a sugar mill, power plant, ethanol factory and fertilizer plant. The assessment aimed at evaluating the environmental and socio-economic implications relating to molasses-based ethanol production and use, and maximized utilization of the biomass materials produced as part of the biorefinery c...

  11. Perceptions of Gender and Sexual Minorities in Rural Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This research examines perceptions of gender and sexual minorities in a community in rural Thailand and considers to what degree society's perceptions of gender and sexual minorities are influential in their self-identification and the potential impact this has on the social space available to gender and sexual minorities. To do so, this thesis triangulates the experiences related by adult gender and sexual minorities with the understandings and perceptions of students and teachers. This thes...

  12. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  13. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  14. Economic analysis of several types of malaria clinics in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Ettling, M. B.; Thimasarn, K.; Shepard, D. S.; Krachaiklin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The costs of three types of malaria clinics in Maesot District, north-west Thailand, for a one-year period in 1985-86 were compared from the institutional, community and social (institutional plus community) perspectives. The greatest number of patients at the lowest average institutional cost per smear and per positive case diagnosed (US$ 0.82) were seen at the large central clinic in Maesot town. The peripheral clinic in Popphra, a subdistrict town, had moderate institutional costs per smea...

  15. Reinventing Siam: Ideas and Culture in Thailand, 1920-1944

    OpenAIRE

    Subrahmanyan, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    AbstractReinventing Siam: Ideas and Culture in Thailand, 1920-1944byArjun SubrahmanyanDoctor of Philosophy in HistoryUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Peter Zinoman, ChairIn 1932, a small group of civilian and military bureaucrats staged a coup that deposed the Thai absolute monarchy and introduced a constitutional democracy. The dominant historiography of this event has focused on elite politics, and identified the coup as a "revolution" that fundamentally changed Thai history. My ...

  16. Adjustment and recovery in Thailand two years after the tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhiprabha, Bhanupong

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Thailand's responses to the December 2004 tsunami and evaluates its reconstruction effort two years after the disaster, supplementing publicly available data with information from a field survey. Though the immediate response to the disaster can be considered a success, and much progress has been made with reconstruction, poor coordination among agencies has hampered effective and equitable delivery. Most households saw the tsunami as a 'temporary shock', and were primaril...

  17. Case Reports of Neuro-Chikungunya in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chusri, Sarunyou; Siripaitoon, Pisud; Hirunpat, Siriporn; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in reports of neurologic complications as major causes of morbidity and mortality in chikungunya virus infection. As a part of 2004–2009 global outbreaks, an unprecedented large chikungunya epidemic occurred in Southern Thailand during 2008–2009 in which 49,069 cases were reported. During this period, we encountered two patients with meningoencephalitis and another patient with myeloneuropathy among 1,018 cases diagnosed as chikungunya in our hospital. The cli...

  18. The Political Economy of Industrial Development in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shangmao

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, governments around the world have emphasized the core concepts of globalization. Many governments initiated a series of political policies regarding liberalization and privatization in response to the inevitable phenomenon. In Southeast Asia, Thailand participated in the development as well by reconstructing its financial system to allow greater foreign capital for investments. Unfortunately, the importance of prudential regulations was underestimated, and the neglect thereaf...

  19. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  20. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Noree, T; Hanefeld, J.; Smith, R.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and informatio...

  1. A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Panto, Sitthiphon; Pan, Rong

    2009-01-01

    With the help of consumer decision making theory, factors were being investigated. An additional questionnaire was being distributed to collect primary data. The secondary data from reliable sources was used to have a better understanding of Swedish travelling behaviour. It showed that among eight factors “motivation or energizers factor” has the most influence or effect on Swedish traveler’s decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination.

  2. Aural myiasis caused by Parasarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Thomson) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Tem-Eiam, N; Limpavithayakul, M; Boongunha, N; Poolphol, W; Sukontason, K L

    2014-09-01

    Herein is reported the first case in Thailand of aural myiasis caused by the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Thomson). A 5-day-old infant was taken to hospital with a slightly bloody ear. Two fly larvae exiting the ear and another recovered by a physician were alive, and confirmed as P. dux species from adult examination results. This case brought attention to the need for protection against synanthropic flies, particularly for infants and/or hearing impaired patients. PMID:25382476

  3. Roads, population pressures, and deforestation in Thailand, 1976-89

    OpenAIRE

    Cropper, Maureen; Griffiths, Charles; Mani, Muthukumara

    1997-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is considered one of the major environmental disasters of the 20th century, although there have been few careful studies of its causes. This paper examines the causes of deforestation in Thailand between 1976 and 1989, a period when the country lost 28% of its forest cover. This paper takes the perspective that, in the long run, the determinants of deforestation are the determinants of land use change. While logging and fuelwood gathering may remove forest cover, regrow...

  4. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  5. Human Trafficking and Tourism : Case: Thailand in the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is published and evaluated in May 2015. The subject of the thesis is the connections between human trafficking and tourism, the case being sex tourism in Thailand and the media observations regarding it. The goals of the thesis are to clarify the subject from multiple points of views and make a structured analysis of the past, the present and the future of the matter. The methods used for the thesis are the following; qualitative approach to evaluate the structured media observati...

  6. An outbreak of artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria in Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Imwong; Thantip Jindakhad; Chanon Kunasol; Kreepol Sutawong; Phisitt Vejakama; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria is an increasing problem in Southeast Asia, but has not been associated with increased transmission of the disease, yet. During a recent outbreak in 2014 in Ubon Ratchatani, Eastern Thailand, parasites from 101 patients with falciparum malaria were genotyped for antimalarial drug resistance markers. Mutations in the Kelch13 marker for artemisinin resistance were present in 93% of samples, mainly C580Y from 2 major clusters as identified by microsatelli...

  7. Atypical lymphocytes in malaria mimicking dengue infection in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Polrat Wilairatana; Noppadon Tangpukdee; Sant Muangnoicharoen; et al

    2010-01-01

    Polrat Wilairatana1, Noppadon Tangpukdee1, Sant Muangnoicharoen1, Srivicha Krudsood2, Shigeyuki Kano31Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria usually present with acute febrile illness and thrombocytop...

  8. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Charernjiratrakul, W.; Kantachote, D.; Asavaroungpipop, N.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beve...

  9. How to market budget hotels in Thailand to international people

    OpenAIRE

    Pitakanonda, Weetara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to suggest how to market budget hotels in Thailand to international people by regarding two main areas, namely the factors controlled by hotels (Marketing mix), and individual aspects of consumer behaviour. Furthermore, another purpose of this paper is to investigate the important aspects needed by international guests in order to provide important information to budget hotel owners to develop their businesses so as to provide the best services to cust...

  10. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the terminal report of a United Nations Development Program project to improve food and agricultural production in Thailand by means of nuclear and related technology. The project resulted in improved mutant material to be made available to plant breeders as well as in reports and recommendations on soil-water-plant management practices and livestock management. An additional benefit has been the specialized training that has been provided to many researchers in the country through the project

  11. Financial reporting by small and medium enterprises in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ploybut, Sutthirat

    2012-01-01

    The increasing complexity of financial reporting requirements, especially accounting standards, leads many countries to consider moving to simpler reporting requirements for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in order to reduce reporting burdens. In response to such concern, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) also released the IFRS for SMEs, an international accounting standard intended for SMEs worldwide. In Thailand, SMEs are required by law to prepare and publish general ...

  12. Telecommunication industry in Thailand as potential market for Abloy Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffrén, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    The commission company made a decision to proceed with a market research about telecommunication industry in Thailand as a potential market. The telecommunication industry is fast growing and demanding market around the world. In several Asian countries, such as in Malaysia and Singapore, government has regulated that data protection on private and public data must be secured by telecommunication providers. There are many reasons which can cost major issues and damage for connections and for ...

  13. Conservation and Export Development of Mon Pottery in Central Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Pongmonjit; Kla Somtrakool; Wilailak Ratanapeantamma

    2015-01-01

    The development of Mon pottery in central Thailand for export purposes can be achieved through community participation and development guidelines where 1) local craftsmen and potters transmit their knowledge to community youths and junior craftsmen, provide hands on training and action learning where the trainees can visualize the process and techniques, 2) Produce innovative products according to market trends and consumer demands. The products should be extended to decorations and art such ...

  14. Predictors of malaria-association with rubber plantations in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Satitvipawee, Pratana; Wongkhang, Warunnee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Hoithong, Penprapai; Bhumiratana, Adisak

    2012-01-01

    Background The national Global Fund-supported malaria (GFM) program in Thailand, which focuses on the household-level implementation of vector control via insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)/long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) combined with indoor residual spraying (IRS), has been combating malaria risk situations in different provinces with complex epidemiological settings. By using the perception of malaria villagers (MVs), defined as villagers who recognized malaria burden and had local und...

  15. Tackling Industrial Pollution In Thailand - Can A Voluntary Approach Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Kanittha Tambunlertchai

    2010-01-01

    Thailand, like many developing nations, is facing a wide range of environmental challenges, many of which are caused by industrial pollution. The country has found that traditional command and control legislation is not effectively tackling this problem. It is therefore promoting various voluntary environmental programmes as a way for businesses to improve their environmental performance. To provide more information on the effectiveness of this approach, and to see how to maximize its impact,...

  16. Capacity of Thailand to Contain an Emerging Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Putthasri, Weerasak; Lertiendumrong, Jongkol; Chompook, Pornthip; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Coker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Southeast Asia will likely be the epicenter of the next influenza pandemic. To determine whether health system resources in Thailand are sufficient to contain an emerging pandemic, we mapped health system resources in 76 provinces. We used 3 prepandemic scenarios of clustered cases and determined resource needs, availability, and gaps. We extended this analysis to a scenario of a modest pandemic and assumed that the same standards of clinical care would be required. We found that gaps exist i...

  17. Seizure Of Live Otters In Bangkok Airport, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Chris R.; Panjit Tansom

    2013-01-01

    On 22 January, 2013, TRAFFIC reported that the Royal Thai Customs officers working at the Wildlife Checkpoint of Bangkok’s Suvarnabhumi International Airport discovered 11 live otters when they scanned a bag that had been left at the oversized luggage area of the airport. The otters, six Smooth Otters Lutrogale perspicllata and five Oriental Small-clawed Otters Aonyx cinereus were all juveniles and are suspected to have been smuggled out of Thailand, bound for Japan to be sold as exotic pets....

  18. The 2011 Thailand flood: climate causes and return periods

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, E. L.; Saunders, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Thailand is one of the wealthiest and most developed countries in southeast Asia. However, its tropical location and the influence of seasonal monsoon rains and local topography make it prone to floods. The floods in 2011 were especially severe, causing estimated losses of US $30 billion (economic; Swiss Re, 2012) and US $12 billion (insured; Swiss Re, 2012). The insured loss ranks easily as the highest-ever worldwide from a freshwater flood disaster (Swiss Re, ...

  19. Incense and Joss Stick Making in Small Household Factories, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Siripanich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incense and joss stick are generally used in the world. Most products were made in small household factories. There are many environmental and occupational hazards in these factories.Objective: To evaluate the workplace environmental and occupational hazards in small household incense and joss stick factories in Roi-Et, Thailand.Methods: Nine small household factories in rural areas of Roi-Et, Thailand, were studied. Dust concentration and small aerosol particles were counted through real time exposure monitoring. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used for quantitative measurement of heavy metal residue in incense products.Results: Several heavy metals were found in dissolved dye and joss sticks. Those included barium, manganese, and lead. Rolling and shaking processes produced the highest concentration of dust and aerosols. Only 3.9 % of female workers used personal protection equipment.Conclusion: Dust and chemicals were major threats in small household incense and joss stick factories in Thailand. Increasing awareness towards using personal protection equipment and emphasis on elimination of environmental workplace hazards should be considered to help the workers of this industry.

  20. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether, which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorghum, etc. The popular raw materials used in ethanol production in Thailand are molasses and cassava. Molasses are a by-product of sugar production process. They are the sugarcane residues that can no longer be extracted for more sugar. In many countries including Thailand, molasses are used as raw material to produce ethanol (1 ton of molasses can produce 260 liters of ethanol used in gasohol production. In this research, the researcher found that the problem of excess supply and low price of sugarcane can be solved if gasohol E20 or higher was used to replace the Octane 91 gasoline and Octane 95 gasoline.

  1. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilawan Thipmontree

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40% and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1% were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3% was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%. Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001. In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death.

  2. Advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand: redefining policy directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Román Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thailand faces a significant burden in terms of treating and managing degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, incidences of rare diseases are rising. Many of these—such as diabetes, cancer, and inherited inborn metabolic diseases—have no definite treatments or cure. Meanwhile, advanced health biotechnology has been found, in principle, to be an effective solution for these health problems. Methods Qualitative approaches were employed to analyse the current situation and examine existing public policies related to advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand. The results of this analysis were then used to formulate policy recommendations. Results Our research revealed that the system in Thailand in relation to advanced health biotechnologies is fragmented, with multiple unaddressed gaps, underfunding of research and development (R&D, and a lack of incentives for the private sector. In addition, there are no clear definitions of advanced health biotechnologies, and coverage pathways are absent. Meanwhile, false advertising and misinformation are prevalent, with no responsible bodies to actively and effectively provide appropriate information and education (I&E. The establishment of a specialised institution to fill the gaps in this area is warranted. Conclusion The development and implementation of a comprehensive national strategic plan related to advanced health biotechnologies, greater investment in R&D and I&E for all stakeholders, collaboration among agencies, harmonisation of reimbursement across public health schemes, and provision of targeted I&E are specifically recommended.

  3. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed. PMID:26479089

  4. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  5. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipmontree, Wilawan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Tantibhedhyangkul, Wiwit; Suttinont, Chuanpit; Wongswat, Ekkarat; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI) admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40%) and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1%) were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3%) was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%). Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001). In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death. PMID:25141000

  6. Considerações a respeito da vida de mulheres trabalhadoras de mais idade das camadas populares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Teresa de Sá Leitão Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo propõe discutir a maior visibilidade das mulheres que têm mais de 60 anos nas últimas décadas, focalizando as condições de vida desse contingente feminino das camadas populares. Nesta análise, focalizam-se as novas frentes de inserção delas na sociedade, a iniquidade de acesso à escolarização e as dificuldades encontradas no trabalho e de ter melhores rendimentos. Identifica que, devido à desigualdade social, há a prevalência dessas mulheres no trabalho doméstico remunerado e de outros de natureza informal; o que dificulta que possam ter seus direitos trabalhistas garantidos, assim como as dificuldades encontradas pelas mais pobres, no que tange a relações mais igualitárias. Trata-se de um trabalho de natureza qualitativa, do tipo bibliográfico exploratório.

  7. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khoa; Pophristic, Milan; Horan, Andrew J.; Johnston, Murray V.; McEwen, Charles N.

    2016-06-01

    First results are reported using a simple, fast, and reproducible matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) sample introduction method that provides substantial improvements relative to previously published MAI methods. The sensitivity of the new MAI methods, which requires no laser, high voltage, or nebulizing gas, is comparable to those reported for MALDI-TOF and n-ESI. High resolution full acquisition mass spectra having low chemical background are acquired from low nanoliters of solution using only a few femtomoles of analyte. The limit-of-detection for angiotensin II is less than 50 amol on an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Analysis of peptides, including a bovine serum albumin digest, and drugs, including drugs in urine without a purification step, are reported using a 1 μL zero dead volume syringe in which only the analyte solution wetting the walls of the syringe needle is used in the analysis.

  8. [The version and academic characteristics of Mai jue kan wu (Correcting Errors in Pulse Study in Verse)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianjü; Hu, Fanglin; Xiang, Chen

    2014-09-01

    Mai jue kan wu (Correcting Errors in Pulse Study in Verse) was written by Dai Qizong of the Yuan Dynasty without block-printing when completed. It was reviewed and checked by Wang Ji, attached with the main discourses on pulse taking from various scholars of pulse taking and Jiao shi huo mai lun (On Pulse-taking with Corrections on Its Popular Difficult Issues) and was block-printed in 1523. This book corrects the fallacies on the descriptions of pulse shape and pulse body reflecting its underlying diseases appeared in Mai jue (Pulse Study in Verse), refutes its classification of the so-called "Seven exterior", "Eight interior" and "Nine dao (channels)". It also creates the measures for the studies of pulse-taking, including "differentiating, combining, doubling, comparing and classifying". PMID:25579217

  9. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  10. Algumas memórias do cinema cubano mais polêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel del Río

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a fundação, em 1959, do Instituto Cubano da Arte e Indústria Cinematográficas (Icaic, apareceu um grupo de filmes dedicados a incentivar a polêmica social e a fustigar os erros do socialismo na Ilha. Este texto se propõe a analisar alguns dos principais vetores de pensamento que gravitaram sobre alguns desses filmes (documentários e de ficção capazes de levantar a polêmica, sobretudo, em seu caráter de espelhos fiéis da realidade. Também se tenta demonstrar o vertical compromisso com a realidade e seus dilemas quotidianos que tem caracterizado o melhor cinema cubano - quer dizer, o cinema cubano mais polêmico -, amparado numa política institucional decidida a demonstrar, coerentemente, a relevância artística e social de um cinema anticonformista que revele e denuncie um cinema que critique e questione, profundamente ligado ao compromisso, ao esforço coletivo para atingir uma sociedade mais justa, igualitária e humanista. Desde PM até Fresa y chocolate [Morango e chocolate], passando por Un día de noviembre e Papeles secundarios, o texto se propõe a interpretar as nuanças de cada polêmica, enquanto descreve os aportes de tais filmes à fibra medular da cultura cubana.Desde la fundación, en 1959, del Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos (Icaic han aparecido un grupo de filmes dedicados a incentivar la polémica social y a fustigar los errores del socialismo en la Isla. Este texto se propone analizar algunos de los vectores principales de pensamiento que gravitaron sobre algunos de los filmes (documentales y de ficción capaces de levantar la polémica, sobre todo en cuanto a su carácter de espejos fieles de la realidad. También se intenta demostrar el vertical compromiso con la realidad y sus dilemas cotidianos que ha caracterizado al mejor cine cubano - es decir, al cine cubano más polémico - amparado en una política institucional decidida a demostrar, coherentemente, la relevancia art

  11. Problemas ginecológicos mais freqüentes em mulheres soropositivas para o HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Victor Hugo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar os achados ginecológicos mais freqüentes de uma coorte de 300 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, acompanhadas ambulatorialmente. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo e descritivo de mulheres HIV-soropositivas atendidas em clínica ginecológica, no período de novembro de 1996 a dezembro de 2002. As pacientes foram submetidas ao protocolo de atendimento ginecológico que incluiu anamnese, exame ginecológico, colpocitologia oncótica (Papanicolaou, pesquisa de HPV (PCR e colposcopia. A biópsia cervical, quando necessária, foi realizada. Os dados foram armazenados e analisados no Epi-Info, versão 6.0. RESULTADOS: a idade média foi 34,5 anos. Destaca-se o pequeno número de parceiros sexuais, média de três parceiros, e a predominância do contágio heterossexual: 271 (90,6% pacientes adquiriram o vírus por meio do contato sexual com seus parceiros. Foi alta a prevalência de neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais (NIC, representando 21,7% do total da amostra. Dentre as 109 pacientes submetidas a PCR encontraram-se 89 (81,7% com algum genótipo do HPV. Esfregaço inflamatório à citologia esteve presente em 69% das pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: a infecção pelo HIV se associa com freqüência a NIC e a processos infecciosos genitais, em especial o HPV.

  12. MAIS(F) : Moodle - Android : interface simplificado para utilização de fóruns

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, José Maurício

    2016-01-01

    É crescente a utilização dos dispositivos móveis com ecrãs maiores e melhores, mais memória, maiores capacidades multimédia e métodos mais refinados para introduzir dados. Dispositivos que integram comunicações, acesso à internet e diversos tipos de sensores possibilitarão, seguramente, abordagens inovadoras e criativas em atividades pedagógicas, em contraste com as utilizações atuais nos computadores pessoais. A análise das aplicações que atualmente integram os módulos do Moodle nos dispo...

  13. Nährstoffumsetzungen im Verdauungstrakt des Rindes nach Einsatz unterschiedlicher Mengen an Mais- oder Weizenstärke

    OpenAIRE

    Matthé, Angelika

    2001-01-01

    Ziel des Projektes war es, die Nährstoffumsetzungen im Verdauungstrakt des Rindes nach Einsatz unterschiedlicher Mengen an Mais- und Weizenstärke als langsam bzw. schnell abbaubare Stärkequelle zu bestimmen. In drei Versuchen wurde die Anflutung von Stärke u.a. Nährstoffen am Duodenum nach Verabreichung stärkereicher Kraftfutter gemessen (Versuch 1) sowie unterschiedliche Mengen Mais- und Weizenstärke (750 bis 2000 g je Tier und Tag) in das Duodenum von Jungbullen bzw. Milchkühen...

  14. Chinese culture and demographic trends in Thailand and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, J

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese nationality contributes to over 5 million of 10% of the total population of Thailand and almost 35% of the total population of Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to summarize the nature and extent of Chinese influence on Thai and Malay culture. Migration of Chinese to southeast Asia dates back 2000 years; on the Malay peninsula, the first arrivals were in 1349. In Malaysia, arrivals began in the 15th century. The reasons were population pressure, floods, and famines. Social and political unrest also accounted for migration between 1855 and 1970. The Chinese in Malaysia are characterized as having a lower population growth rate than Malays and an abnormal sex ratio of 1000:930 in 1957, but severe ratios of 8 men to 1 woman in the 1820s. Islam forbids intermarriages. The Chinese have benefited from improvement in health care and had a low birth rate of 25/1000 in 1980. Migration has traditionally been from south China, and included migrations from Fujian, Hakkas, Guangdong, Chaozhou, and Hainan. The Chinese have maintained their own culture among the Muslim population. In Thailand, migrations occurred during the 13th century, following the collapse of Nan-Chao in 1253, but are first recorded during the Ming dynasty at the end of the 16th century. There are larger numbers of Chinese in Thailand than Malaysia. Chinese assimilated and the current rate of annual growth is estimated at 2%. The sex ratio was 1.4:1 in the late 1940s. 50% of the Chinese live in Bangkok and central Thailand. Older traditions are still maintained in Bangkok. There is the Chaozhou opera on Chinese New Year's Day and marriage is still preferred within one's own dialect. After 1946, the Chinese were not permitted to receive their education in their native language. By the third generation, there is greater assimilation. The minority of minorities in Malaysia were the Baba, who spoke better Malay than other Chinese. In Thailand, the comparable minority is the Yunnan who do not belong

  15. Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  16. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 53953 (September 2, 2010). The administrative... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit...

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Genetically Distinct Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in the Eastern Region of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheun-Arom, Thaniwan; Temeeyasen, Gun; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Tripipat, Thitima; Sangmalee, Suphattra; Vui, Dam Thi; Chuanasa, Taksina; Tantituvanont, Angkana

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continued to cause sporadic outbreaks in Thailand since 2007. Previously, PEDV in Thailand was a new variant containing an insertion and deletion in the spike gene. Herein, full-length genome sequences are reported for two variants of PEDV isolates from pigs displaying diarrhea in Thailand. PMID:26112783

  18. 75 FR 69519 - 2010 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Reviews of the Philippines and Thailand: Identification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2010 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Reviews of the Philippines and Thailand... IPR issues, Out-of-Cycle Reviews would be conducted for the Philippines and Thailand. USTR requests... decision regarding whether the Philippines and Thailand should be identified under Section 182 of the...

  19. Regional and International Networking to Support the Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavansiri, Direk; Bull, Trevor

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand is a new regulatory agency. The structure of the energy sector; the tradition of administration; and, the lack of access to experienced personnel in Thailand all pose particular challenges. The Commission is meeting these challenges through regional and international networking to assist in developing policies and procedures that allow it to meet international benchmarks.

  20. Uveitis in Thailand : emphasis on clinical patterns and novel developments in diagnostics using intraocular fluid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathanapitoon, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on the so far unknown causes of uveitis in Thailand and describe their clinical manifestations. We found out that intraocular infections were the second most common cause of blindness and low vision in a tertiary center in northern Thailand. These infections predominantly c