WorldWideScience

Sample records for chi square distributions

  1. A proposal for a different chi-square function for Poisson distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Jr., F. M. L.; Barbi, M; Vale, M. A. B. do

    1999-01-01

    We obtain an approximate Gaussian distribution from a Poisson distribution after doing a change of variable. A new chi-square function is obtained which can be used for parameter estimations and goodness-of-fit testing when adjusting curves to histograms. Since the new distribution is approximately Gaussian we can use it even when the bin contents are small. The corresponding chi-square function can be used for curve fitting. This chi-square function is simple to implement and presents a fast...

  2. A proposal for a different chi-square function for Poisson distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain an approximate Gaussian distribution from a Poisson distribution after doing a change of variable. A new chi-square function is obtained which can be used for parameter estimations and goodness-of-fit testing when adjusting curves to histograms. Since, the new distribution is approximately Gaussian we can use it even when the bin contents are small. The corresponding chi-square function can be used for curve fitting. This chi-square function is simple to implement and presents a fast convergence of the parameters to the correct value, especially for the parameters associated with the width of the fitted curve. We present a Monte Carlo comparative study of the fitting method introduced here and two other methods for three types of curves: Gaussian, Breit-Wigner and Moyal, when each bin content obeys a Poisson distribution. It is also shown that the new method and the other two converge to the same result when the number of events increases

  3. The rate of convergence of some asymptotically chi-square distributed statistics by Stein's method

    OpenAIRE

    Gaunt, Robert E.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    We build on recent works on Stein's method for functions of multivariate normal random variables to derive bounds for the rate of convergence of some asymptotically chi-square distributed statistics. We obtain some general bounds and establish some simple sufficient conditions for convergence rates of order $n^{-1}$ for smooth test functions. These general bounds are applied to Friedman's statistic for comparing $r$ treatments across $n$ trials and the family of power divergence statistics fo...

  4. A Simple Chi-Square Statistic for Testing Homogeneity of Zero-Inflated Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, William D.; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Beyl, Robbie A.; Romer, Jacob E.

    2015-01-01

    Zero-inflated distributions are common in statistical problems where there is interest in testing homogeneity of two or more independent groups. Often, the underlying distribution that has an inflated number of zero-valued observations is asymmetric, and its functional form may not be known or easily characterized. In this case, comparisons of the groups in terms of their respective percentiles may be appropriate as these estimates are nonparametric and more robust to outliers and other irreg...

  5. Dos and don'ts of reduced chi-squared

    CERN Document Server

    Andrae, Rene; Melchior, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Reduced chi-squared is a very popular method for model assessment, model comparison, convergence diagnostic, and error estimation in astronomy. In this manuscript, we discuss the pitfalls involved in using reduced chi-squared. There are two independent problems: (a) The number of degrees of freedom can only be estimated for linear models. Concerning nonlinear models, the number of degrees of freedom is unknown, i.e., it is not possible to compute the value of reduced chi-squared. (b) Due to random noise in the data, also the value of reduced chi-squared itself is subject to noise, i.e., the value is uncertain. This uncertainty impairs the usefulness of reduced chi-squared for differentiating between models or assessing convergence of a minimisation procedure. The impact of noise on the value of reduced chi-squared is surprisingly large, in particular for small data sets, which are very common in astrophysical problems. We conclude that reduced chi-squared can only be used with due caution for linear models, w...

  6. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica reg-sign computer programs which are provided

  7. Chi-squared goodness of fit tests with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nikulin, MS

    2013-01-01

    Chi-Squared Goodness of Fit Tests with Applications provides a thorough and complete context for the theoretical basis and implementation of Pearson's monumental contribution and its wide applicability for chi-squared goodness of fit tests. The book is ideal for researchers and scientists conducting statistical analysis in processing of experimental data as well as to students and practitioners with a good mathematical background who use statistical methods. The historical context, especially Chapter 7, provides great insight into importance of this subject with an authoritative author team

  8. The Shape of the Noncentral Chi-square Density

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yaming

    2011-01-01

    A noncentral chi-square density is log-concave if the degree of freedom is nu>=2. We complement this known result by showing that, for each 00 such that the chi-square with nu degrees of freedom and noncentrality parameter lambda has a decreasing density if lambda <= lambda_nu, and is bi-modal otherwise. The critical lambda_nu is characterized by an equation involving a ratio of modified Bessel functions. When an interior mode exists we derive precise bounds on its location.

  9. Chi-squared and Associations in Tabular Audiology Data

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad N. Anwar; Michael P. Oakes; Ken McGarry

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have used the chi-squared test and Yule’s Q measure to discover associations in tables of patient audiology data. These records are examples of heterogeneous medical records, since they contain audiograms, textual notes and typical relational fields. In our first experiment we used the chi-squared measure to discover associations between the different fields of audiology data such as patient gender and patient age with diagnosis. Then, in our second experiment we used Yule’s...

  10. 改进卡方检验%A Modified Chi-Squared Goodness-of-Fit Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴家佳; 杨爱军

    2009-01-01

    In goodness-of-fit tests,Pearson's chi-squared test is one of most widely used tools of formal statistical analysis.However,Pearson's chi-squared test depends on the partition of the sample space.Different constructions of the partition of the sample space may lead to different conclusions.Based on an equiprobable partition of sample space,a modified chi-squared test is proposed.A method for constructing the modified chi-squared test is proposed.As an application,the proposed test is used to test whether vectorial data come from an uniformity distribution defined on the hypersphere.Some simulation studies show that the modified chi-squared test against different alternative is robust.

  11. Chi-Square Goodness-if-Fit Tests for Randomly Censored Data

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, M. G.; Thomas, D R

    1986-01-01

    Two Pearson-type goodness-of-fit test statistics for parametric families are considered for randomly right-censored data. Asymptotic distribution theory for the test statistics is based on the result that the product-limit process with MLE for nuisance parameters converges weakly to a Gaussian process. The Chernoff-Lehmann (1954) result extends to a generalized Pearson statistic. A modified Pearson statistic is shown to have a limiting chi-square null distribution.

  12. Chi-square Fitting When Overall Normalization is a Fit Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Byron

    2015-01-01

    The problem of fitting an event distribution when the total expected number of events is not fixed, keeps appearing in experimental studies. In a chi-square fit, if overall normalization is one of the parameters parameters to be fit, the fitted curve may be seriously low with respect to the data points, sometimes below all of them. This problem and the solution for it are well known within the statistics community, but, apparently, not well known among some of the physics community. The purpose of this note is didactic, to explain the cause of the problem and the easy and elegant solution. The solution is to use maximum likelihood instead of chi-square. The essential difference between the two approaches is that maximum likelihood uses the normalization of each term in the chi-square assuming it is a normal distribution, 1/sqrt(2 pi sigma-square). In addition, the normalization is applied to the theoretical expectation not to the data. In the present note we illustrate what goes wrong and how maximum likeliho...

  13. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-06-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  14. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-04-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  15. Clarification of the use of chi-square and likelihood functions in fits to histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the problem of fitting curves to histograms in which the data obey multinomial or Poisson statistics. Techniques commonly used by physicists are examined in light of standard results found in the statistics literature. We review the relationship between multinomial and Poisson distributions, and clarify a sufficient condition for equality of the area under the fitted curve and the number of events on the histogram. Following the statisticians, we use the likelihood ratio test to construct a general Z2 statistic, Zsub(lambda)2, which yields parameter and error estimates identical to those of the method of maximum likelihood. The Zsub(lambda)2 statistic is further useful for testing goodness-of-fit since the value of its minimum asymptotically obeys a classical chi-square distribution. One should be aware, however, of the potential for statistical bias, especially when the number of events is small. (orig.)

  16. A Chi-Square Program for a Microcomputer Using a Tape Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Ralph Mason

    1979-01-01

    A program is described utilizing a microcomputer and tape drive with any contingency or chi-square table from 2x2 to 8x8. It requires only the entering of the number of rows and number of columns, plus one-time entry of cell frequencies. (Author/JKS)

  17. R by C Chi-Square Analysis with Small Expected Cell Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A nonasymptotic Chi-Square analysis algorithm is presented to investigate r by c contingency tables where small expected cell frequencies render the usual asymptotic analysis inappropriate. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided for analyzing the tables having highly disproportionate or small marginal totals. (Author/GDC)

  18. A chi-squared-transformed subspace of LBP histogram for visual recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianfeng; Jiang, Xudong; Yuan, Junsong

    2015-06-01

    Local binary pattern (LBP) and its variants have been widely used in many recognition tasks. Subspace approaches are often applied to the LBP feature in order to remove unreliable dimensions, or to derive a compact feature representation. It is well-known that subspace approaches utilizing up to the second-order statistics are optimal only when the underlying distribution is Gaussian. However, due to its nonnegative and simplex constraints, the LBP feature deviates significantly from Gaussian distribution. To alleviate this problem, we propose a chi-squared transformation (CST) to transfer the LBP feature to a feature that fits better to Gaussian distribution. The proposed CST leads to the formulation of a two-class classification problem. Due to its asymmetric nature, we apply asymmetric principal component analysis (APCA) to better remove the unreliable dimensions in the CST feature space. The proposed CST-APCA is evaluated extensively on spatial LBP for face recognition, protein cellular classification, and spatial-temporal LBP for dynamic texture recognition. All experiments show that the proposed feature transformation significantly enhances the recognition accuracy. PMID:25769153

  19. chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} decay angular distributions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Palisoc, C P

    2003-01-01

    We consider the hadroproduction of chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} mesons and their subsequent radiative decays to J/psi mesons and photons in the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics, and study the decay angular distributions, by means of helicity density matrices, in view of their sensitivity to color-octet processes. We present numerical results appropriate for the Fermilab Tevatron.

  20. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    CERN Document Server

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. Especially, we focus on if the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock data of polarization spectrum and the one from RM CL...

  1. Chi Square Feature Extraction Based Svms Arabic Language Text Categorization System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelwadood M.A. MESLEH

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to implement a Support Vector Machines (SVMs) based text classification system for Arabic language articles. This classifier uses CHI square method as a feature selection method in the pre-processing step of the Text Classification system design procedure. Comparing to other classification methods, our system shows a high classification effectiveness for Arabic data set in term of F-measure (F=88.11).

  2. Chi-square goodness of fit tests for weighted histograms. Review and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weighted histograms are used for the estimation of probability density functions. Computer simulation is the main domain of application of this type of histogram. A review of chi-square goodness of fit tests for weighted histograms is presented in this paper. Improvements are proposed to these tests that have size more close to its nominal value. Numerical examples are presented in this paper for evaluation of tests and to demonstrate various applications of tests

  3. Asymptotic Expansions of the Probability Density Function and the Distribution Function of Chi-Square Distribution%卡方分布密度函数与分布函数的渐近展开

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 王梦婕

    2014-01-01

    通过对χ2分布概率密度函数的自变量进行标准化变换,将其展开成如下形式:2nχ2( x;n)=1+r1(t)n +r2(t)n +r3(t)n n +r4(t)n2éëùûφ(t)+o 1n2(),其中n为自由度,φ(t)为标准正态分布的密度函数,ri(t)(1≤i≤4)均为关于t的多项式。从该展开式得到χ2分布密度函数的一个近似计算公式。进一步建立φ( t)的幂系数积分递推关系,得到χ2分布函数的渐近展开式。最后通过数值计算验证了这些结果在实际应用中的有效性。%Through the transformation of the independent variable of χ2 distribution probability density function,degree of freedom of which is n,the equation can be expanded as follows: 2nχ2(x;n)=f(t;n)= 1+r1(t)n +r2(t)n +r3(t)n n +r4(t)n2éë ùûφ(t)+o 1n2( ) ,here,φ(t) is a density function of standard normal distribution;ri(t) is a 3i order polynomial of t(1≤i≤4). An approximate formula can be obtained from the expansion of the distribution density function. We further establish the integral recurrence relations of the power coefficients of the standard normal density function and obtain the asymptotic expansion of the distribution function ofχ2 . Finally,the effectiveness of these results in practical application was verified by the numerical calculations.

  4. Exact Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Probability Test for 3 by 2 Cross-Classification Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Subroutines to calculate exact chi square and Fisher's exact probability tests are presented for 3 by 2 cross-classification tables. A nondirectional probability value for each test is computed recursively. (Author/GDC)

  5. Statistics of the Chi-Square Type, with Application to the Analysis of Multiple Time-Series Power Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sturrock, P A

    2003-01-01

    It is often necessary to compare the power spectra of two or more time series: one may, for instance, wish to estimate what the power spectrum of the combined data sets might have been, or one may wish to estimate the significance of a particular peak that shows up in two or more power spectra. Also, one may occasionally need to search for a complex of peaks in a single power spectrum, such as a fundamental and one or more harmonics, or a fundamental plus sidebands, etc. Visual inspection can be revealing, but it can also be misleading. This leads one to look for one or more ways of forming statistics, which readily lend themselves to significance estimation, from two or more power spectra. The familiar chi-square statistic provides a convenient mechanism for combining variables drawn from normal distributions, and one may generalize the chi-square statistic to be any function of any number of variables with arbitrary distributions. In dealing with power spectra, we are interested mainly in exponential distri...

  6. Reconstructing Chi-squared Intra-table Distances in the Analysis of a Set of Contingency Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Zárraga Castro, María Amaya; Goitisolo Lezama, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    To study similarities among the set of rows -and columns- of a contingency table, Correspondence Analysis uses chi-squared distances between row profiles -and column profiles- of that table. This article presents a factor analysis for the study of a set of contingency tables in which, unlike more classical methods such as the analysis of juxtaposition and Intra Analysis; the existing relationships within each table -defined across the chi-squared distances-, are not altered.

  7. Use of the Chi-square Test to Determine Significance of Cumulative Antibiogram Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco J. Perla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An important function of a hospital’s Infectious Disease and Pharmacy programs is to review and compare the most recent antibiogram with that of the previous year to determine if significant changes in antibiotic susceptibility results are noted and to communicate this information and its consequences to the medical staff. However, there are currently no formal analytical (decision-making models in use to determine if the rate of resistance to an antibiotic from one year to the next has significantly changed more or less than one would expect due to sampling error and test reliability. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate the utility of using a well-established and simple nonparametric statistical technique (chi-square for analyzing annual variations in cumulative antibiogram data and to determine whether such variations are significantly different from chance and to what to degree. The chi-square model outlined here is a simple, practical, quick, low burden and easy to understand and execute approach that greatly improves the analysis of antibiogram data and decision-making by practitioners. More work and research is needed to develop additional inferential statistical methods and models that can be applied to antibiogram data.

  8. An Efficient Algorithm for Auto Upload and Chi - Square Test on Application Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada Kembhavi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper weproposed a novel algorithm for autouploading the data in the cloud environment withoutanylicense considerationand suggest a novelframework where data is auto upload after a properauthentication and processing their task (gatheringand sharing inthe cloudenvironment.Here wepresent the authenticationprocess with autouploading process.We also use the traditionalmethod of data uploading, data gathering andsharing.So that we compare our statistics. We useobject orientedprograming (OOP programsas adata which is used for data sharing and gathering.We use java programs for comparison.Thenweapply Chi-Square test, to test the hypothesis forcorrectness. Then we check the program capabilityunder three parameters; first is F-measure (FM,second is odds ratio (OR and third is power (PO.Based on the three parameters we can find the betterapplication software as a service approach. Basedon the above phenomena we can compare theexecutiontimein different operating applicationwith the help of software quality metrics

  9. Chi-square analysis of the reduction of ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yuan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the reduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI using chi-square analysis. Cells were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 μM Cr(VI for 12, 24, or 36 h. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT experiments and measurements of intracellular ATP levels were performed by spectrophotometry or bioluminescence assays following Cr(VI treatment. The chi-square test was used to determine the difference between cell survival rate and ATP levels. For the chi-square analysis, the results of the MTT or ATP experiments were transformed into a relative ratio with respect to the control (%. The relative ATP levels increased at 12 h, decreased at 24 h, and increased slightly again at 36 h following 4, 8, 16, 32 μM Cr(VI treatment, corresponding to a "V-shaped" curve. Furthermore, the results of the chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant difference of the ATP level in the 32-μM Cr(VI group (P < 0.05. The results suggest that the chi-square test can be applied to analyze the interference effects of Cr(VI on ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes. The decreased ATP levels at 24 h indicated disruption of mitochondrial energy metabolism and the slight increase of ATP levels at 36 h indicated partial recovery of mitochondrial function or activated glycolysis in L-02 hepatocytes.

  10. An Efficient Algorithm for Auto Upload and Chi-Square Test on Application Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada Kembhavi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a novel algorithm for auto uploading the data in the cloud environment without any license consideration and suggest a novel framework where data is auto upload after a proper authentication and processing their task (gathering and sharing in the cloud environment. Here we present the authentication process with auto uploading process. We also use the traditional method of data uploading, data gathering and sharing. So that we compare our statistics. We use object oriented programing (OOP programs as a data which is used for data sharing and gathering. We use java programs for comparison. Then we apply Chi-Square test, to test the hypothesis for correctness. Then we check the program capability under three parameters; first is F-measure (FM, second is odds ratio (OR and third is power (PO. Based on the three parameters we can find the better application software as a service approach. Based on the above phenomena we can compare the execution time in different operating application with the help of software quality metrics.

  11. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests. PMID:17165404

  12. Asymptotic Chi-Square Tests for a Large Class of Factor Analysis Models

    OpenAIRE

    Amemiya, Yasuo; Anderson, T W

    1990-01-01

    Three types of asymptotic $\\chi^2$ goodness-of-fit tests derived under the normal assumption have been used widely in factor analysis. Asymptotic behavior of the test statistics is investigated here for the factor analysis model with linearly or nonlinearly restricted factor loadings under weak assumptions on the factor vector and the error vector. In particular the limiting $\\chi^2$ result for the three tests is shown to hold for the factor vector, either fixed or random with any distributio...

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping using decision-tree based CHi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) and Logistic regression (LR) integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article uses methodology based on chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID), as a multivariate method that has an automatic classification capacity to analyse large numbers of landslide conditioning factors. This new algorithm was developed to overcome the subjectivity of the manual categorization of scale data of landslide conditioning factors, and to predict rainfall-induced susceptibility map in Kuala Lumpur city and surrounding areas using geographic information system (GIS). The main objective of this article is to use CHi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) method to perform the best classification fit for each conditioning factor, then, combining it with logistic regression (LR). LR model was used to find the corresponding coefficients of best fitting function that assess the optimal terminal nodes. A cluster pattern of landslide locations was extracted in previous study using nearest neighbor index (NNI), which were then used to identify the clustered landslide locations range. Clustered locations were used as model training data with 14 landslide conditioning factors such as; topographic derived parameters, lithology, NDVI, land use and land cover maps. Pearson chi-squared value was used to find the best classification fit between the dependent variable and conditioning factors. Finally the relationship between conditioning factors were assessed and the landslide susceptibility map (LSM) was produced. An area under the curve (AUC) was used to test the model reliability and prediction capability with the training and validation landslide locations respectively. This study proved the efficiency and reliability of decision tree (DT) model in landslide susceptibility mapping. Also it provided a valuable scientific basis for spatial decision making in planning and urban management studies

  14. A DoS/DDoS Attack Detection System Using Chi-Square Statistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yie Leu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, users can easily access and download network attack tools, which often provide friendly interfaces and easily operated features, from the Internet. Therefore, even a naive hacker can also launch a large scale DoS or DDoS attack to prevent a system, i.e., the victim, from providing Internet services. In this paper, we propose an agent based intrusion detection architecture, which is a distributed detection system, to detect DoS/DDoS attacks by invoking a statistic approach that compares source IP addresses' normal and current packet statistics to discriminate whether there is a DoS/DDoS attack. It first collects all resource IPs' packet statistics so as to create their normal packet distribution. Once some IPs' current packet distribution suddenly changes, very often it is an attack. Experimental results show that this approach can effectively detect DoS/DDoS attacks.

  15. Quantum key distribution by swapping the entanglement of {chi}-type state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Gan, E-mail: gaogan0556@163.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tongling University, Tongling 244000 (China)

    2010-06-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution protocol using entanglement swapping of {chi}-type state; in this protocol, Alice and Bob transmit a particle sequence to each other and perform {chi}-type state measurements. Alice's and Bob's roles are completely symmetric.

  16. A DoS/DDoS Attack Detection System Using Chi-Square Statistic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Yie Leu; I-Long Lin

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, users can easily access and download network attack tools, which often provide friendly interfaces and easily operated features, from the Internet. Therefore, even a naive hacker can also launch a large scale DoS or DDoS attack to prevent a system, i.e., the victim, from providing Internet services. In this paper, we propose an agent based intrusion detection architecture, which is a distributed detection system, to detect DoS/DDoS attacks by invoking a statistic approach that compa...

  17. F-Test Alternatives to Fisher's Exact Test and to the Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity in 2x2 Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, John E.; Starbuck, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for homogeneity in two-by-two tables is developed. The method provides for Type I error rates which are closer to the stated alpha level than either of the alternatives. (JKS)

  18. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

  19. NON-PARAMETRIC LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChaiGenxiang; HuaHong; ShangHanji

    2002-01-01

    By using the non-parametric least square method, the strong consistent estimations of distribution function and failure function are established, where the distribution function F(x)after logist transformation is assumed to be approximated by a polynomial. The performance of simulation shows that the estimations are highly satisfactory.

  20. Block Least Mean Squares Algorithm over Distributed Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Panigrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a distributed parameter estimation problem, during each sampling instant, a typical sensor node communicates its estimate either by the diffusion algorithm or by the incremental algorithm. Both these conventional distributed algorithms involve significant communication overheads and, consequently, defeat the basic purpose of wireless sensor networks. In the present paper, we therefore propose two new distributed algorithms, namely, block diffusion least mean square (BDLMS and block incremental least mean square (BILMS by extending the concept of block adaptive filtering techniques to the distributed adaptation scenario. The performance analysis of the proposed BDLMS and BILMS algorithms has been carried out and found to have similar performances to those offered by conventional diffusion LMS and incremental LMS algorithms, respectively. The convergence analyses of the proposed algorithms obtained from the simulation study are also found to be in agreement with the theoretical analysis. The remarkable and interesting aspect of the proposed block-based algorithms is that their communication overheads per node and latencies are less than those of the conventional algorithms by a factor as high as the block size used in the algorithms.

  1. Finding a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution using least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  2. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  3. Ground Reaction Forces and Plantar Pressure Distribution Generated by Two Tai Chi Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Shiu Hong Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan, Tai Chi (TC) in short, is a popular form of Chinese martial arts which have been practised by millions of people and provides various health benefits, such as improving balance control, strengthening leg muscles, reducing fear of falling, enhancing flexibility and many more. The American Geriatrics Society and the British Geriatrics Society have recommended TC as a suitable exercise for preventing falls of older people. However, it is not clear which TC components are the most ...

  4. Topology of neutral hydrogen distribution with the Square Kilometer Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Wu, Fengquan; Chen, Xuelei; Wang, Xin; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    Morphology of the complex HI gas distribution can be quantified by statistics like the Minkowski functionals, and can provide a way to statistically study the large scale structure in the HI maps both at low redshifts, and during the epoch of reionization (EoR). At low redshifts, the 21cm emission traces the underlying matter distribution. Topology of the HI gas distribution, as measured by the genus, could be used as a "standard ruler". This enables the determination of distance-redshift relation and also the discrimination of various models of dark energy and of modified gravity. The topological analysis is also sensitive to certain primordial non-Gaussian features. Compared with two-point statistics, the topological statistics are more robust against the nonlinear gravitational evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortion. The HI intensity map observation naturally avoids the sparse sampling distortion, which is an important systematic in optical galaxy survey. The large cosmic volume accessible to SKA w...

  5. Stratospheric Assimilation of Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Pt. 2; Chi-Square Validated Results and Analysis of Variance and Correlation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Richard; Chang, Lang-Ping

    1998-01-01

    A Kalman filter system designed for the assimilation of limb-sounding observations of stratospheric chemical tracers, which has four tunable covariance parameters, was developed in Part I (Menard et al. 1998) The assimilation results of CH4 observations from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Sounder instrument (CLAES) and the Halogen Observation Experiment instrument (HALOE) on board of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are described in this paper. A robust (chi)(sup 2) criterion, which provides a statistical validation of the forecast and observational error covariances, was used to estimate the tunable variance parameters of the system. In particular, an estimate of the model error variance was obtained. The effect of model error on the forecast error variance became critical after only three days of assimilation of CLAES observations, although it took 14 days of forecast to double the initial error variance. We further found that the model error due to numerical discretization as arising in the standard Kalman filter algorithm, is comparable in size to the physical model error due to wind and transport modeling errors together. Separate assimilations of CLAES and HALOE observations were compared to validate the state estimate away from the observed locations. A wave-breaking event that took place several thousands of kilometers away from the HALOE observation locations was well captured by the Kalman filter due to highly anisotropic forecast error correlations. The forecast error correlation in the assimilation of the CLAES observations was found to have a structure similar to that in pure forecast mode except for smaller length scales. Finally, we have conducted an analysis of the variance and correlation dynamics to determine their relative importance in chemical tracer assimilation problems. Results show that the optimality of a tracer assimilation system depends, for the most part, on having flow-dependent error correlation rather than on evolving the

  6. Approximating Probability Levels for Testing Null Hypotheses with Noncentral F Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared two approximations for normalizing noncentral F distributions: one based on the square root of the chi-square distribution (SRA), the other derived from a cube root of the chi-square distribution (CRA). The CRA was superior, and generally provided an excellent approximation for noncentral F. (Author/BW)

  7. The probability distribution function for the sum of squares of independent random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateev, Yury; Dmitriev, Dmitry; Tyapkin, Valery; Kremez, Nikolai; Shaidurov, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the probability distribution function is derived for the sum of squares of random variables for nonzero expectations. This distribution function enables one to develop an efficient one-step algorithm for phase ambiguity resolution when determining the spatial orientation from signals of satellite radio-navigation systems. Threshold values for rejecting false solutions and statistical properties of the algorithm are obtained.

  8. A note on the best invariant estimation of continuous probability distributions under mean square loss

    OpenAIRE

    Schürmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We consider the nonparametric estimation problem of continuous probability distribution functions. For the integrated mean square error we provide the statistic corresponding to the best invariant estimator proposed by Aggarwal (1955) and Ferguson (1967). The table of critical values is computed and a numerical power comparison of the statistic with the traditional Cram\\'{e}r-von Mises statistic is done for several representative distributions.

  9. Singular Value Decomposition of the Radial Distribution Function for Hard Sphere and Square Well Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Travis

    2013-01-01

    We compute the singular value decomposition of the radial distribution function for hard sphere, and square well solutions. We find that decomposes into a small set of basis vectors allowing for an extremely accurate representation at all interpolated densities and potential strengths. In addition, we find that the coefficient vectors describing the magnitude of each basis vector are well described by a low-order polynomial. We provide a program to calculate in this compact representation for...

  10. Mean square displacement evaluation by elastic neutron scattering self-distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazù, Salvatore; Maisano, Giacomo; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    In the present work an operational recipe for the mean square displacement (MSD) determination, highlighting the connection between elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) intensity profiles and the associated self-distribution function, is presented. The determination of the thermal behavior of the total MSD and of its partial contributions is tested on EINS data collected by the backscattering spectrometer IN13 (ILL, Grenoble) on a model system such as PolyEthylene Glycol with a mean molecular weight of 400 Dalton (PEG 400).

  11. Expected distributions of root-mean-square positional deviations in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jed W

    2014-06-19

    The atom positional root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) is a standard tool for comparing the similarity of two molecular structures. It is used to characterize the quality of biomolecular simulations, to cluster conformations, and as a reaction coordinate for conformational changes. This work presents an approximate analytic form for the expected distribution of RMSD values for a protein or polymer fluctuating about a stable native structure. The mean and maximum of the expected distribution are independent of chain length for long chains and linearly proportional to the average atom positional root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF). To approximate the RMSD distribution for random-coil or unfolded ensembles, numerical distributions of RMSD were generated for ensembles of self-avoiding and non-self-avoiding random walks. In both cases, for all reference structures tested for chains more than three monomers long, the distributions have a maximum distant from the origin with a power-law dependence on chain length. The purely entropic nature of this result implies that care must be taken when interpreting stable high-RMSD regions of the free-energy landscape as "intermediates" or well-defined stable states. PMID:24655018

  12. Slip distribution of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake from GPS observation using least squares inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Puspita, Yolanda Adya

    2016-05-01

    Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations showed significant crustal displacements as a result of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake. The Least Square Inversion method of Mentawai earthquake slip distribution from SuGAR observations yielded in an optimum value of slip distribution by giving a weight of smoothing constraint and a weight of slip value constraint = 0 at the edge of the earthquake rupture area. A maximum coseismic slip of the inversion calculation was 1.997 m and concentrated around stations PRKB (Pagai Island). In addition, the values of dip-slip direction tend to be more dominant. The seismic moment calculated from the slip distribution was 6.89 × 10E+20 Nm, which is equivalent to a magnitude of 7.8.

  13. Asymptotic distribution for a discrete version of integrated square error of multivariate density kernel estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider the weighted average square error An([pi]) = (1/n) [Sigma]nj=1{fn(Xj) -; f(Xj)}2[pi](Xj), where f is the common density function of the independent and identically distributed random vectors X1,..., Xn, fn is the kernel estimator based on these vectors and [pi] is a weight function. Using U-statistics techniques and the results of Gouriéroux and Tenreiro (Preprint 9617, Departamento de Matemática, Universidade de Coimbra, 1996), we establish a central limit theorem f...

  14. Distribution of error in least-squares solution of an overdetermined system of linear simultaneous equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Probability density functions were derived for errors in the evaluation of unknowns by the least squares method in system of nonhomogeneous linear equations. Coefficients of the unknowns were assumed correct and computational precision were also assumed. A vector space was used, with number of dimensions equal to the number of equations. An error vector was defined and assumed to have uniform distribution of orientation throughout the vector space. The density functions are shown to be insensitive to the biasing effects of the source of the system of equations.

  15. Chi activity during transduction-associated recombination.

    OpenAIRE

    Dower, N. A.; Stahl, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chi is a genetic element that stimulates phage lambda recombination by the Escherichia coli recBC pathway during lytic infection [Stahl, F. W. (1979) Annu. Rev. Genet. 13, 7--24]. Herein we show that chi in lambda prophage influences exchange distribution in P1 phage-mediated transduction and in conjugation. This demonstration encourages the view that chi may influence genetic exchange in E. coli in the total absence of lambda.

  16. Healing of subsurface damage after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. H.; Rau, R.; Dreger, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    Observation of six M 4.6 repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan from 1991 to 2007 reveals a unique temporal and spatial variation in seismic wave character associated with the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes that occurred ~90 km away. Post-Chi-Chi events have reduced waveform similarity, suggesting a sudden change of seismic wave propagation properties after the Chi-Chi event. The changes in seismic character are widely distributed over Taiwan and remain significant in 5 years after Chi-Chi. Since 2004, the waveform similarity gradually recovered to the pre-Chi-Chi level. The most recent repeating event occurred on 15 November 2007 reveals only a subtle variation in seismic character compared to the pre-Chi-Chi event. This indicates that the damaged rock has been regaining the strength with time. The healing of subsurface damage zone, however, is not fully complete even 8 yr after the Chi-Chi earthquake. Using cross correlation function derived time-lag between the pre- and post- Chi-Chi events, we also identify a ~1 sec delay for the 2001 repeating event at a number of stations. Such a large delay shown in different parts of seismograms for different stations may indicate a broad range of fluid-filled scatterers along the travel path. For the station with the longest distance from the M 4.6 event (~200 km), PNG station on Penghu island off the western coast of Taiwan, the 1sec delay appears on early P wave coda. This suggests that the scatterers are likely located down to a depth of at least 20 km.

  17. The ordered distribution of natural numbers on the square root spiral

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Harry K

    2007-01-01

    Natural numbers divisible by the same prime factor lie on defined spiral graphs which are running through the Square Root Spiral (also named as the Spiral of Theodorus or Wurzel Spirale or Einstein Spiral). Prime Numbers also clearly accumulate on such spiral graphs. And the square numbers 4, 9, 16, 25, 36,... form a highly three-symmetrical system of three spiral graphs, which divides the square-root-spiral into three equal areas. A mathematical analysis shows that these spiral graphs are defined by quadratic polynomials. Fibonacci number sequences also play a part in the structure of the Square Root Spiral. Fibonacci Numbers divide the Square Root Spiral into areas and angle sectors with constant proportions. These proportions are linked to the golden mean (or golden section), which behaves as a self-avoiding-walk-constant in the lattice-like structure of the square root spiral.

  18. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, J.H. (US Army (US))

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred.

  19. A Cautionary Note on Using G[squared](dif) to Assess Relative Model Fit in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert; Cai, Li

    2006-01-01

    The likelihood ratio test statistic G[squared](dif) is widely used for comparing the fit of nested models in categorical data analysis. In large samples, this statistic is distributed as a chi-square with degrees of freedom equal to the difference in degrees of freedom between the tested models, but only if the least restrictive model is correctly…

  20. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  1. Analysis of composite tube sheets with a square array of holes under uniformly distributed load. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end closures of calandria of reactor generally consists of two thick tube sheet having a square array of holes. At the location of these holes, the tube sheets are connected by lattice tubes. When such a structure is subjected to external loads, restraint is exerted by lattice tube, the shell connecting the tube sheets. The paper summarises different methods of solution adopted by a designer to find out the elastic deformation, stress distribution when the structure is subjected to uniformly distributed load. Assumptions and limitations of different methods which include some classical methods and others developed by the authors have been highlighted. The results obtained for some specific geometries by different methods have been compared. (author)

  2. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Do Phuc Nguyen; Thi Anh Dao Nguyen; Thi Hien Le; Nguyen Minh Doan Tran; Thanh Phong Ngo; Van Chinh Dang; Takao Kawai; Masashi Kanki; Ryuji Kawahara; Michio Jinnai; Shinya Yonogi; Yuji Hirai; Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Yuko Kumeda

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken ...

  3. Estimation of Slip Distribution of the 2007 Bengkulu Earthquake from GPS Observation Using Least Squares Inversion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehammad Awaluddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS observations showed significant crustal displacements as a result of the Bengkulu earthquake occurring on September 12, 2007. A maximum horizontal displacement of 2.11 m was observed at PRKB station, while the vertical component at BSAT station was uplifted with a maximum of 0.73 m, and the vertical component at LAIS station was subsided by -0.97 m. The method of adding more constraint on the inversion for the Bengkulu earthquake slip distribution from GPS observations can help solve a least squares inversion with an under-determined condition. Checkerboard tests were performed to help conduct the weighting for constraining the inversion. The inversion calculation of the Bengkulu earthquake slip distribution yielded in an optimum value of slip distribution by giving a weight of smoothing constraint of 0.001 and a weight of slip value constraint = 0 at the edge of the earthquake rupture area. A maximum coseismic slip of the optimal inversion calculation was 5.12 m at the lower area of PRKB and BSAT stations. The seismic moment calculated from the optimal slip distribution was 7.14 x 1021 Nm, which is equivalent to a magnitude of 8.5.

  4. Uncertainty squared: Choosing among multiple input probability distributions and interpreting multiple output probability distributions in Monte Carlo climate risk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, P.; Mastrandrea, M.

    2006-12-01

    Simple probabilistic models which attempt to estimate likely transient temperature change from specified CO2 emissions scenarios must make assumptions about at least six uncertain aspects of the causal chain between emissions and temperature: current radiative forcing (including but not limited to aerosols), current land use emissions, carbon sinks, future non-CO2 forcing, ocean heat uptake, and climate sensitivity. Of these, multiple PDFs (probability density functions) have been published for the climate sensitivity, a couple for current forcing and ocean heat uptake, one for future non-CO2 forcing, and none for current land use emissions or carbon cycle uncertainty (which are interdependent). Different assumptions about these parameters, as well as different model structures, will lead to different estimates of likely temperature increase from the same emissions pathway. Thus policymakers will be faced with a range of temperature probability distributions for the same emissions scenarios, each described by a central tendency and spread. Because our conventional understanding of uncertainty and probability requires that a probabilistically defined variable of interest have only a single mean (or median, or modal) value and a well-defined spread, this "multidimensional" uncertainty defies straightforward utilization in policymaking. We suggest that there are no simple solutions to the questions raised. Crucially, we must dispel the notion that there is a "true" probability probabilities of this type are necessarily subjective, and reasonable people may disagree. Indeed, we suggest that what is at stake is precisely the question, what is it reasonable to believe, and to act as if we believe? As a preliminary suggestion, we demonstrate how the output of a simple probabilistic climate model might be evaluated regarding the reasonableness of the outputs it calculates with different input PDFs. We suggest further that where there is insufficient evidence to clearly

  5. Distributed Least-Squares Estimation of a Remote Chemical Source via Convex Combination in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Li Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of locating a continuous chemical source using the concentration measurements provided by a wireless sensor network (WSN. Such a problem exists in various applications: eliminating explosives or drugs, detecting the leakage of noxious chemicals, etc. The limited power and bandwidth of WSNs have motivated collaborative in-network processing which is the focus of this paper. We propose a novel distributed least-squares estimation (DLSE method to solve the chemical source localization (CSL problem using a WSN. The DLSE method is realized by iteratively conducting convex combination of the locally estimated chemical source locations in a distributed manner. Performance assessments of our method are conducted using both simulations and real experiments. In the experiments, we propose a fitting method to identify both the release rate and the eddy diffusivity. The results show that the proposed DLSE method can overcome the negative interference of local minima and saddle points of the objective function, which would hinder the convergence of local search methods, especially in the case of locating a remote chemical source.

  6. 分布函数的非参数最小二乘估计%NON-PARAMETRIC LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴根象; 花虹; 尚汉冀

    2002-01-01

    By using the non-parametric least square method, the strong consistent estimations of distribution function and failure function are established,where the distribution function F(x) after logist transformation is assumed to be approximated by a polynomial.The performance of simulation shows that the estimations are highly satisfactory.

  7. Mahalanobis' Distance Beyond Normal Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Based on the reasoning expressed by Mahalanobis in his original article, the present article extends the Mahalanobis distance beyond the set of normal distributions. Sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness are studied, and some properties derived. Since many statistical methods use the Mahalanobis distance as e vehicle, e.g. the method of least squares and the chi-square hypothesis test, extending the Mahalanobis distance beyond normal distributions yields a high ratio of output to...

  8. Inferential procedures in stable distributions for class frequency data on incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Herman; Kloek, Teun

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses inferential procedures for the family of stable distributions, when the data are tabulated in the form of interval frequencies. The estimation criteria used are minimum chi-square and multinomial maximum likelihood. In evaluating the theoretical probabilities corresponding to the intervals, use is made of the inversion theorem for characteristic functions. Chi-square tail probabilities for independent samples are pooled by means of theKolmogorov statistic. As ...

  9. Digital squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

    1988-01-01

    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages. ....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept......Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages...

  10. Measures in progress for distribution facilities automation and cost reduction. Direct supply of 400V to South Port Cosmo Square, Osaka; Susumu haiden setsubi no jidoka, cost teigen taisaku. Nanko cosmo square ni okeru 400 volt chokusetsu kyokyu no donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., has been working to elevate the distribution voltage of 6kV to 20kV, which is to respond to increasing demand for power. Using the experience of this approach, the corporation has designated Cosmo Square as a model area and plans to directly supply 400V to the area which is the voltage that clients demand. In this report, the plan is summarized and some examples of power receiving equipment newly developed for Cosmo Square are described. Cosmo Square has been developed to be a new base of international business, and lotting-out is now in progress. Upon completion, the center will be a group of gigantic buildings of which more than half will be creating a contract demand of 1000kW or more per building, and is expected to be consuming a total of 190MW finally. Power facilities under construction are to handle 20kV, and the voltage of 20kV will be stepped down to 400V for directly supply to 50-2000kW consumers. It is expected that, in this way, there will be various merits embodied, such as an extensive cost reduction in the construction of receiving equipment and other devices, efficient utilization of 230/400V appliances now in popular use, and reduction in safety-related expenditures. 4 figs.

  11. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  12. Economic-statistical design of variable parameters non-central chi-square control chart Projeto econômico-estatístico de gráficos de controle qui-quadrado não-central com parâmetros variáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Sacramento de Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production processes are monitored by control charts since their inception by Shewhart (1924. This surveillance is useful in improving the production process due to increased stabilization of the process, and consequently standardization of the output. Control charts keep track of a few key quality characteristics of the outcome of the production process. This is done by means of univariate or multivariate charts. Small improvements in control chart methodology can have significant economic impact in the production process. In this investigation, we propose the monitoring of a single variable by means of a variable parameter non-central chi-square control chart. The design of the chart is accomplished by means of optimizing a cost function. We use here a simulated annealing optimization tool, due to the difficulty of classical gradient based optimization techniques to handle the optimization of the cost function. The results show some of the drawbacks of using this model.Processos de produção são monitorados por gráficos de controle desde a sua introdução por Shewhart (1924. Este monitoramento é útil na melhoria do processo de produção devido à crescente estabilização do processo, e consequentemente, padronização do produto. Gráficos de controle mantêm vigilância de características de qualidade de um processo de produção. Isto é feito por intermédio de gráficos univariados ou multivariados. Melhorias na metodologia de gráficos de controle podem levar a um impacto econômico significativo no processo de produção. Neste artigo, propomos um gráfico de controle de parâmetros variáveis baseado na estatística qui-quadrado nãocentral para monitorar uma característica de qualidade de interesse. O projeto do gráfico é realizado através da otimização de uma função custo. O algoritmo simulated annealing é usado devido à dificuldade dos métodos clássicos de otimização baseados no gradiente, de lidarem com a

  13. Rolling Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Derek; Knights, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate what loci are produced when a square of side-length one is allowed to rotate around a square of side-length n, where n is a whole number. We find that if i = 1, 2, 3 or 4 (mod 4), the loci obtained for n [congruent to] i (mod 4) all have the same symmetry and we show how the perimeter of each class can be determined. We also…

  14. Creating Magic Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Betty Clayton

    1990-01-01

    One method of making magic squares using a prolongated square is illustrated. Discussed are third-order magic squares, fractional magic squares, fifth-order magic squares, decimal magic squares, and even magic squares. (CW)

  15. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Yi-jian; Wu, Yong-shi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl support the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula reproduces the Parke-Taylor formula for Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for gravitational amplitudes. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly M\\"obius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other $(n-3)!-1$ solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes.

  16. The CHI 2013 interactive schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satyanarayan, Arvind; Strazzulla, Daniel; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted;

    2013-01-01

    available. The CHI'13 Interactive Schedule helps attendees navigate this wealth of video content in order to identify events they would like to attend. It consists of a number of large display screens throughout the conference venue which cycle through a video playlist of events. Attendees can interact with...... these displays using their mobile devices by either constructing custom video playlists or adding on-screen content to their personal schedule....

  17. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  18. Distribution of poles in a series expansion of the asymmetric directed-bond percolation probability on the square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Norio

    1998-12-01

    We investigate numerically the percolation probability of the asymmetric directed-bond percolation on the square lattice with two parameters p and q based on Guttmann and Enting's procedure (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 344). A series in the form of 0305-4470/31/48/001/img1 is derived by using the finite transfer-matrix method. The denominator of 0305-4470/31/48/001/img2 is directly calculated from the determinant of the transfer matrix and it leads to a proof that poles all lies on the unit circle in the complex q plane. The solvability of the bond directed percolation is also discussed.

  19. Democracy Squared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    On-line political communities, such as the Norwegian site Demokratitorget (Democracy Square), are often designed according to a set of un-reflected assumptions about the political interests of their potential members. In political science, democracy is not taken as given in this way, but can be...... represented by different models which characterize different relationships between politicians and the citizens they represent. This paper uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis to analyze the communication mediated by the Democracy Square discussion forum in the first ten months of its life. In...... the quantitative analysis, citizens’ and politicians’ contributions are analyzed against four different democracy models: Consumer, Demo-Elitist, Neo-Republican and Cyber-Democratic. Whereas politicians’ contributions mainly reflected the Demo-Elitist model, citizens’ contributions tended to reflect...

  20. All SQUARE

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    With the existing Systems for using the accelerated protons, it is possible to supply only one slow ejected beam (feeding the East Hall) and, at the same time, to have only a small percentage of the beam on an internal target (feeding the South Hall). The arrangement will be replaced by a new System called SQUARE (Semi- QUAdrupole Resonant Extraction) which will give greater flexibility in supplying the three areas.

  1. Tai Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that tai chi can be effective in helping sleep, while reducing stress, anxiety and depression. "The mind component [of tai chi] promotes psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and improved perceptions of health," said Wang. Dr. Matthew Hepinstall, an ...

  2. Percolation of randomly distributed growing clusters: Finite-size scaling and critical exponents for the square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, N.; Maragakis, M.; Kosmidis, K.; Argyrakis, P.

    2010-10-01

    We study the percolation properties of the growing clusters model on a 2D square lattice. In this model, a number of seeds placed on random locations on the lattice are allowed to grow with a constant velocity to form clusters. When two or more clusters eventually touch each other they immediately stop their growth. The model exhibits a discontinuous transition for very low values of the seed concentration p and a second, nontrivial continuous phase transition for intermediate p values. Here we study in detail this continuous transition that separates a phase of finite clusters from a phase characterized by the presence of a giant component. Using finite size scaling and large scale Monte Carlo simulations we determine the value of the percolation threshold where the giant component first appears, and the critical exponents that characterize the transition. We find that the transition belongs to a different universality class from the standard percolation transition.

  3. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

    2011-06-01

    Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

  4. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  5. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Phuc Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%. The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%, followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%, beef (18/74, 34.3%, and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%. A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%, CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%, and CIT (118/342, 34.5% groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1% in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7% were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.. These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli.

  6. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  7. A Study on Near-Fault Mortality from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, C.; Tien, Y.; Teng, T.

    2004-12-01

    A new approach for estimating the relations between mortality and strong shaking from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake is introduced. We have finished the database giving the attributes of victims through a compilation of various after-earthquake survey documents. This survey was a comprehensive filed visit confirming exact locations of victims and their possible cause of death. Among the total 2492 victims of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 2039 victims (81.8% of the total) were located by using GPS. Through the attributive database of victims, digital maps and Geographic Information Systems, we can easily map the spatial distribution and the cause of death data of victims with accuracy of the smallest administrative districts in Taiwan. Moreover, a regression analysis gives correlated equations for the mortality as functions of the distance to the Chelungpu fault. We find that the percentage of the mortality M can be expressed as:\\[M=\\frac{(1.626+0.0007\\timesd)} {(1+0.0125\\timesd)}\\] Here d is the closest distance to the fault in meter. As expected, the shorter distance to the Chelungpu fault causes the higher mortality. We device three disastrous levels and then suggest the orders and scopes of the earthquake disaster rescue according to the regression curve of the mortality and the closest distance to the fault. The difference in mortality between hanging-wall and footwall areas is also discussed and different regression curves of hanging-wall and footwall areas are suggested. In near-fault regions, the mortality for the residents lived in hanging-wall block (1348) is significantly higher than that in the footwall block (557). The death ratio of hanging-wall vs. footwall block is approximately 2.4:1. Finally, we gathered the data of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data for the mainshock of Chi-Chi earthquake at the 63 seismic stations on both sides of the causal fault. The regression curve of the PGA and mortality as functions of the closest distance to the

  8. Effects of the hanging wall and footwall on peak acceleration during the Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan Province, earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The M=7.6 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake, Taiwan Province, on September 21, 1999 (local time) is a thrust fault style earthquake. The empirical attenuation relations of the horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations (PGA) for the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake are developed by regression method. By examining the residuals from the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake-specific peak acceleration attenuation relations, it is found that there are systematic differences between PGA on the hanging-wall and footwall. The recorded peak accelerations are higher on the hanging-wall and lower on the footwall. The clear asymmetry of PGA distribution to the surface rupture trace can also be seen from the PGA contour map. These evidences indicate that the PGA attenuates faster on the hanging-wall than on the footwall. In the study of near-source strong motion, seismic hazard assessment, scenario earthquake and seis-mic disaster prediction, the style-of-faulting must be considered in order that the attenuation model can reflect the characteristic of ground motion in various seismic environmental regions.

  9. Least square fitting with one parameter less

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Bernd A

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that whenever the multiplicative normalization of a fitting function is not known, least square fitting by $\\chi^2$ minimization can be performed with one parameter less than usual by converting the normalization parameter into a function of the remaining parameters and the data.

  10. Wigner quasi-probability distribution for the infinite square well: energy eigenstates and time-dependent wave packets

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, M; Robinett, R W

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum, P_W^(n)(x,p), for the energy eigenstates of the standard infinite well potential, using both x- and p-space stationary-state solutions, as well as visualizing the results. We then evaluate the time-dependent Wigner distribution, P_W(x,p;t), for Gaussian wave packet solutions of this system, illustrating both the short-term semi-classical time dependence, as well as longer-term revival and fractional revival behavior and the structure during the collapsed state. This tool provides an excellent way of demonstrating the patterns of highly correlated Schrodinger-cat-like `mini-packets' which appear at fractional multiples of the exact revival time.

  11. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson, Sunny Yim

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis. PMID:20531257

  12. Typical reconstruction performance for distributed compressed sensing based on ℓ2,1-norm regularized least square and Bayesian optimal reconstruction: influences of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yoshifumi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    A signal model called joint sparse model 2 (JSM-2) or the multiple measurement vector problem, in which all sparse signals share their support, is important for dealing with practical signal processing problems. In this paper, we investigate the typical reconstruction performance of noisy measurement JSM-2 problems for {{\\ell}2,1} -norm regularized least square reconstruction and the Bayesian optimal reconstruction scheme in terms of mean square error. Employing the replica method, we show that these schemes, which exploit the knowledge of the sharing of the signal support, can recover the signals more precisely as the number of channels increases. In addition, we compare the reconstruction performance of two different ensembles of observation matrices: one is composed of independent and identically distributed random Gaussian entries and the other is designed so that row vectors are orthogonal to one another. As reported for the single-channel case in earlier studies, our analysis indicates that the latter ensemble offers better performance than the former ones for the noisy JSM-2 problem. The results of numerical experiments with a computationally feasible approximation algorithm we developed for this study agree with the theoretical estimation.

  13. Higher-order multipole amplitude measurement in psi ' -> gamma chi(c2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    Using 106 x 10(6) psi' events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, the higher-order multipole amplitudes in the radiative transition psi' -> gamma chi(c2) -> gamma pi(+)pi(-)/gamma K+K- are measured. A fit to the chi(c2) production and decay angular distributions yields M2

  14. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  15. Site responses in the Taipei basin during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 20, 1999 a magnitude ML 7.3 earthquake struck Taichung and Nantou in central Taiwan. Taipei basin located more than 100 km from the epicenter but also had many buildings damaged during the earthquake. In this study we use the main shock and aftershocks data of Chi-Chi earthquake to analyze the site effect of Taipei basin. The results show that the dominant low frequency band response is located in the western part of Taipei basin and Songshan area; the main high frequency band response areas are near the edge of basin. Another hand, comparing the results of amplification pattern with the location of damaged buildings found that the tall damaged buildings are located at the high response areas of low frequency band and the low-rise damaged structures are located at the high response areas of higher frequency band. From these results we can find the relationship between the site amplification and damaged structure distribution in the Taipei basin area during earthquakes. (authors)

  16. A Comparison of the Exact Kruskal-Wallis Distribution to Asymptotic Approximations for All Sample Sizes up to 105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Seaman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors generated exact probability distributions for sample sizes up to 35 in each of three groups ("n" less than or equal to 105) and up to 10 in each of four groups ("n" less than or equal to 40). They compared the exact distributions to the chi-square, gamma, and beta approximations. The beta approximation was best in…

  17. Distribución de las transformaciones lineales de los residuos mínimos cuadrados studentizados internamente = Distribution of linear transformations of internally studentized least squares residuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Pynnönem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los residuos de regresión por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios tienen una distribución que depende de un parámetro escalar. El término “Studentización” se utiliza comúnmente para describir una cantidad U dependiente de un parámetro de escala dividida por una estimación de escala S, de forma que el ratio resultante, U/S, sigue una distribución que no tiene el inconveniente del parámetro de escala desconocido. La Studentización externa hace referencia a un ratio en que el numerador y el denominador son independientes, mientras que la Studentización interna se refiere al ratio en que ambos son dependientes. La ventaja de la Studentización interna es que puede utilizarse cualquier estimador de escala común, mientras que en la Studentización externa, cada residuo es obtenido por un estimador de escala diferente, con el fin de alcanzar la independencia. Con errores de regresión normales, la distribución conjunta de un conjunto arbitrario (linealmente independiente de residuos Studentizados internamente está bien documentada. Sin embargo, en algunas aplicaciones una combinación lineal de residuos internamente Studentizados puede resultar útil. Sus limitaciones han sido bien documentadas, pero la distribución no parece haberse derivado en la literatura. Este trabajo contribuye a la literatura existente, en el sentido de obtener la distribución conjunta de una transformación arbitraria lineal de residuos de regresión por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios internamente Studentizados con distribución esférica de error. Todas las principales versiones de los residuos de regresión internamente Studentizados que se han utilizado comúnmente en la literatura son casos especiales de la transformación lineal.Ordinary least squares regression residuals have a distribution that is dependent on a scale parameter. The term 'Studentization' is commonly used to describe a scale parameter dependent quantity U divided by a scale estimate S such

  18. Chi-Nu Level 2 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Robert Cameron [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Hye Young [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Donnell, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Neudecker, Denise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ching-Yen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bucher, Brian Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buckner, Matthew Quinn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, Roger Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-09-18

    This series of slides presents information on Chi-Nu measurements and analysis of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for neutron energy below 1 MeV for 235U. A key focus of the Chi-Nu measurement is to address the energy dependence of the low-energy emissions. The 235U PFNS evaluation is in progress. Chi-Nu delivered preliminary experimental data and input for part of the old experimental data base. The 239Pu PFNS evaluation is finalized and submitted for testing. Data from 252Cf spontaneous fission will also be obtained.

  19. EXACT SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.G.S.David Sam Jayakumar; A.Sulthan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the sampling distribution of sample coefficient of variation from the normal population. We have derived the relationship between the sample coefficient of variation, standard normal and chi-square variate. We have derived density function of the sample coefficient of variation in terms of the confluent hyper-geometric distribution. Moreover, the first two moments of the distribution are derived and we have proved that the sample coefficient of variation (cv...

  20. Effective Field Theory and $\\chi$pt

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Barry R.

    2000-01-01

    A brief introduction to the subject of chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$pt) is given, including a discussion of effective field theory and application to the upcoming Bates virtual Compton scattering measurement.

  1. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  2. Unifying Least Squares, Total Least Squares and Data Least Squares

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paige, C. C.; Strakoš, Zdeněk

    Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002 - (van Huffel, S.; Lemmerling, P.), s. 25-34 ISBN 1-4020-0476-1. [International Workshop on TLS and Errore-in-Variables Modelling. Leuven (BE), 27.08.2001-29.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030801 Grant ostatní: NSERC(CA) OGP0009236 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : scaled total least squares * ordinary least squares * data least squares * core problem * orthogonal reduction * singular value decomposition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ production at $e^+e^-$ colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Czyz, Henryk; Tracz, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Direct, resonant production of the charmonium states $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ in electron-positron annihilation is investigated. Depending on details of the model, a sizeable variation of the prediction for the production cross section is anticipated. It is demonstrated that resonant production could be observed under favorable circumstances.

  4. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  5. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dennis A

    2004-11-01

    Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Reiki are complementary therapies that are gaining popularity with patients. Although these therapies seem simple and attractive in their philosophy and are easy to apply,more objective, well-designed research is needed to prove their efficacy and to gain acceptance from the medical community. PMID:15458751

  6. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Lan; Ssu-Yuan Chen; Jin-Shin Lai; Alice May-Kuen Wong

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to heal...

  7. Effect of near-fault earthquake on bridges: lessons learned from Chi-Chi earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the lessons learned and actions that have been taken related to the seismicdesign of bridge structures after the Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. Much variable near-fault ground motion data was collected fromthe rupture of Chelungpu fault during the Chi-Chi earthquake, allowing the seismic response of bridge structures subjected to thesenear-fault ground motions to be carefully examined. To study the near-fault ground motion effect on bridge seismic design codes, atwo-level seismic design of bridge structures was developed and implemented. This design code reflects the near-fault factors in theseismic design forces. Finally, a risk assessment methodology, based on bridge vulnerability, is also developed to assist in decisionsfor reducing seismic risk due to failure of bridges.

  8. A precursory ULF signature for the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Akinaga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ULF emission data at Lunping (epicentral distance, 120 km have been analysed for the Chi-Chi earthquake (with magnitude 7.6 and depth of 11 km in Taiwan which occurred on 21 September 1999. Simple intensity analyses have not yielded any significant results but we have found, based on the analysis of polarization (the ratio of vertical magnetic field component Z to the horizontal component G, that the polarization (Z/G showed a significant enhancement for two months before the earthquake. This kind of temporal evolution of polarization seems to be very similar to previous results, so that it is highly likely that this phenomenon may be associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. Also, the comparison of the results of polarization analyses, by changing the signal threshold, has given us an approximate intensity of the seismogenic emission of the order of the monthly mean value.

  9. Geometry of Fractal Squares

    OpenAIRE

    Roinestad, Kristine A

    2010-01-01

    This paper will examine analogues of Cantor sets, called fractal squares, and some of the geometric ways in which fractal squares raise issues not raised by Cantor sets. Also discussed will be a technique using directed graphs to prove bilipschitz equivalence of two fractal squares.

  10. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

    2006-01-01

    The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

  11. A Novel Latin Square Image Cipher

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yue; Noonan, Joseph P; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C L Philip

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a symmetric-key Latin square image cipher (LSIC) for grayscale and color images. Our contributions to the image encryption community include 1) we develop new Latin square image encryption primitives including Latin Square Whitening, Latin Square S-box and Latin Square P-box ; 2) we provide a new way of integrating probabilistic encryption in image encryption by embedding random noise in the least significant image bit-plane; and 3) we construct LSIC with these Latin square image encryption primitives all on one keyed Latin square in a new loom-like substitution-permutation network. Consequently, the proposed LSIC achieve many desired properties of a secure cipher including a large key space, high key sensitivities, uniformly distributed ciphertext, excellent confusion and diffusion properties, semantically secure, and robustness against channel noise. Theoretical analysis show that the LSIC has good resistance to many attack models including brute-force attacks, ciphertext-only at...

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHI518 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI518 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11768-1 CHI518P (Link to Original ... CVRY YFKALVYSGKINKANLGMTKLPPPTKKMTKAAREALGSE--- ---skw *rnh*yqtnr*ckr*yfngscsfeccne*rskt*hcls*swscfgssnd*s ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHI394 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI394 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16405-1 CHI394P (Link to Original ... sntvedctfdasglvyypkvynlkyskktkniw*ryshywlif kiiwws*fpy *fh*ck*tfcc--- ---TTFIGVRSGPSTTLTYIKPMISEIPTIENKIEK ...

  14. CHI3L1 nuclear localization in monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Michelino; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Distefano, Gisella; Basile, Maria Sofia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    Chitinase-3-like-1 protein (CHI3L1) is a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) highly expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases at infectious and non-infectious etiology. CHI3L1 is produced by a wide variety of cells including monocyte-derived macrophages cell lines such as polarized M1 and M2 type macrophages, osteoclasts and Kupffer cells. In this study we have examined the expression of CHI3L1 during the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) through a combination of factors and cytokines. Our result showed, for the first time, that CHI3L1 is expressed during the process of differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in time dependent manner. Furthermore, the CHI3L1 is evenly distributed in cytoplasm and in the nucleus of both the iDCs and mDCs. These results suggest that CHI3L1 may play crucial role in the DCs immunoresponse. PMID:26466985

  15. Nonperturbative and spin effects in the central exclusive production of tensor \\chi_c(2^+) meson

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, R S; Teryaev, O V

    2009-01-01

    We discuss central exclusive production (CEP) of the tensor $\\chi_c(2^{+})$ meson in proton-(anti)proton collisions at Tevatron, RHIC and LHC energies. The amplitude for the process is derived within the $k_t$-factorisation approach. Differential and total cross sections are calculated for several unintegrated gluon distributions (UGDFs). We compare exclusive production of all charmonium states $\\chi_c(0^+), \\chi_c(1^+)$ and $\\chi_c(2^+)$. Good description of the recent Tevatron data is achieved both with Martin-Ryskin phenomenological UGDF and UGDF based on unified BFKL-DGLAP approach. Unlike for Higgs production, the main contribution to the diffractive amplitude of heavy quarkonia comes from nonperturbative region of gluon transverse momenta $Q_{\\perp}<1 \\GeV$. At $y \\approx$ 0, we predict the contribution of $\\chi_c(1^+,2^+)$ to the $J/\\Psi + \\gamma$ channel to be larger than that of the $\\chi_c(0^+)$ one. This is partially due to a significant contribution from lower polarization states $\\lambda=0$ fo...

  16. Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake of September 21, 1999. Findings for the nuclear installations in Switzerland: short report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    problems with the electricity distribution system would be smaller in Switzerland than in Taiwan because the density of the grid is higher in Switzerland and connected to the neighbour countries. Furthermore, the Swiss NPP sites are located within the major electricity user centers. However, similar damage at the Swiss distribution system (transmission towers, switch gears, substations) is probable in a strong earthquake and can cause a sudden loss of power. Provident reflections would be beneficial in order to reduce the possibility of the trip of a NPP caused by such external problems. The evaluation of the strong-motion records at the Taiwanese NPP sites took several weeks. This could be avoided by the use of a modern instrumentation and evaluation procedure. In Switzerland, not all NPPs are prepared in a best possible way in this respect, too. The large amount of records from the modern Taiwanese free-field network might be very useful for many regions in the world. The modern technologies allow a rapid worldwide information exchange after an earthquake. It is important for a regulatory authority to be well prepared to respond appropriately within a short time after a major event, in particular to the public media. The favourable site locations of the NPPs with respect to the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake and the rapid information on maximum accelerations had a positive effect in this case

  17. Chi 2 tests: how useful are they in the analysis of medical research data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J F

    1989-01-01

    This paper has outlined analyses of data for which the chi 2 test is commonly applied and has shown that on its own, a chi 2 test provides very little information about the interpretation of the data. In goodness to fit tests, at best, the chi 2 test is a mere first step in the interpretation of the data and much more information can be gleaned from the deviations between the observed and theoretical distributions, and graphical methods are more sensitive for assessing Normality. Similarly, the chi 2 test as the analysis of a 2 x 2 contingency table misses the most important features of the data. A chi 2 value and associated p value should not be presented without an estimation of the effect and its confidence interval. The use of NS, (not significant), after a chi 2 value (or any other test statistic) is particularly meaningless as it does not even specify a level of significance. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables should specify a measure of the effect such as the difference between two proportions, their ratio or the odds ratio. Confidence intervals should be calculated and least importantly, statistical significance assessed by the Standard Normal Deviate. Chi 2 has no useful role to play in the analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables. In fact, even with larger two dimensional tables, although chi 2 can be used to test the significance of associations between the rows and columns, such results are seldom of much interest as they give no indication of where in the table associations may exist. They are insensitive particularly if the categories of the row or column variables are quantitative since chi 2 takes no account of the ordering of the rows and columns. Although simple analyses of such tables are inefficient the advent of desk-top computers means that more sophisticated techniques such as logistic regression for proportions and Poisson regression for larger or multidimensional contingency tables can be applied. Although these methods may involve chi 2

  18. Measurement of chi(3510) and chi(3555) production in 190 GeV/c piminus-beryllium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmonium production in 190 GeV/c π--Be interactions has been observed. The states chi(3510) and chi(3555) are seen through their radiative decay into J/Psi, and are found to correspond to 0.29 +- 0.09 of total J/Psi production for J/Psi's with x/sub f/ > 0.2. The rate of production for the two chi states appears as Bsigma(chi(3555))/Bsigma(chi(3510) = 0.60 +- 0.35. The fraction of J/Psi's produced through chi decay appears to rise with higher x/sub f/. For J/Psi's with x/sub f/ > 0.42, chi decay is responsible for 0.345 +- 0.09 of the total J/Psi sample, with the two states produced at the rate Bsigma(chi(3555))/Bsigma(3510) = 0.82 +- 0.45

  19. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18-45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ.With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49 = 5.20; p < 0.001, domain scores: t (49 = 2.72 to 3.87; p < 0.01, except for hair growth. Half of the domains scores (3 of 6 and the total score of Chi-PCOSQ had a medium responsiveness, but WHOQOL-BREF was not sufficiently responsive to clinical changes of PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL, as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088. The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time.Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS.

  20. Measurement of the midrapidity transverse energy distribution from square root of [(s)NN] = 130 GeV Au + Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, D; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2001-07-30

    The first measurement of energy produced transverse to the beam direction at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is presented. The midrapidity transverse energy density per participating nucleon rises steadily with the number of participants, closely paralleling the rise in charged-particle density, such that / remains relatively constant as a function of centrality. The energy density calculated via Bjorken's prescription for the 2% most central Au+Au collisions at square root[s(NN)] = 130 GeV is at least epsilon(Bj) = 4.6 GeV/fm(3), which is a factor of 1.6 larger than found at sqrt[s(NN)] = 17.2 GeV ( Pb+Pb at CERN). PMID:11497762

  1. CHY-Graphs on a Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a new approach using a punctured Elliptic curve in the CHY framework in order to compute one-loop scattering amplitudes. In this note, we further develop this approach by introducing a set of connectors, which become the main ingredient to build integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$, the moduli space of n-punctured Elliptic curves. As a particular application, we study the $\\Phi^3$ bi-adjoint scalar theory. We propose a set of rules to construct integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$ from $\\Phi^ 3$ integrands on $\\mathfrak{M}_{0,n}$, the moduli space of n-punctured spheres. We illustrate these rules by computing a variety of $\\Phi^3$ one-loop Feynman diagrams. Conversely, we also provide another set of rules to compute the corresponding CHY-integrand on $\\mathfrak{M}_{1,n}$ by starting instead from a given $\\Phi^ 3$ one-loop Feynman diagram. In addition, our results can easily be extended to higher loops.

  2. Weighted least squares estimation of logistic distribution parameters of no failure data%无失效数据的 Logistic 分布参数的加权最小二乘估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明玥; 宋文晶

    2016-01-01

    In the case of no failure data, when the product life is subject to logistic distribution, this paper analyzes weighted least squares estimation of parameters of()=

  3. Measurements of polystyrene bead trajectories and spatial distributions in a turbulent water flow, square duct using high-speed digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hout, Rene; Rabencov, Boris; Arca, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Near neutrally buoyant, polystyrene beads (583 micrometers) were tracked in a square (50 × 50 mm2), closed-loop, turbulent water duct at a bulk flow Reynolds number of 10,602 (friction velocity 0.0208 m/s) using single view, inline digital holographic cinematography (at 1 kHz). The volume of interest (50 × 17.4 × 17.4 mm3) was positioned at the bottom part of the channel. The mean bead diameter normalized by inner wall coordinates was d+ = 14.2, with Stokes numbers of 8.5. In-house developed algorithms, fine-tuned to tracking single and overlapping beads were developed. Bead in-focus positions were determined by maximum intensity gradient method. Results showed that in agreement with literature publications, ascending beads lagged the mean streamwise water velocity while descending ones had similar velocities. Average streamwise bead velocities and number densities collapsed onto wall-normal-streamwise and spanwise-streamwise planes, indicated preferential segregation of ascending and descending beads up to a height of 100 wall units. Spanwise ``lane'' separation distances ranged between 150-200 wall units, larger but of the same order as the spanwise extent of coherent near-wall turbulence structures. Duct corners were nearly devoid of beads likely caused by secondary flows. Israel Science Foundation Grant 915/10 and COST Actions MP0806 and FP1005.

  4. Time evolution of the phonon and ionized impurity limited 2D hot carrier distribution function in a n-GaAs square quantum well (QW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandler, G.; Vass, E.

    1988-10-01

    The time evolution of the distribution function of hot electrons interacting with ionized impurities, acoustic and polar optical phonons is studied in terms of the Boltzmann integral equation. The calculated distribution functions are used to determine the charge carrier drift velocity, the average energy as well as the average momentum and energy loss rates as a function of time at constant values of the lattice temperature and charge carrier density. The stationary non-equilibrium values of these quantities are found to be established after 3-4 ps.

  5. A modified equilibrium void distribution model applicable to subchannel-scale vapor-liquid cross flow model for conventional square and tight lattice BWR fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the advanced subchannel code development project sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan, this paper describes improvement of the equilibrium void distribution model that is a main part of the vapor-liquid cross flow model. The three-component cross flow (TCCF) model is defined as the present framework that separates contributions of diversion, turbulent mixing and void drift. The Lahey's void settling model is introduced to express the latter two components. Based on the high-resolution air-water database and other published data of steam-water tests, general trends of vapor-liquid cross flow processes are examined. It can be assumed that subchannel void distributions are dominated by the three major effects, i.e. the fluid dynamic effect, the geometrical effect and the narrow gap effect. The equilibrium void distribution model is modified to include the above-mentioned three effects. Three characteristic parameters are assigned for each of the three effects and they are identified experimentally as functions of the void fraction. Multi-dimensional lattice geometries are incorporated based on the two-dimensional flow network model. The network equation is constructed by mapping the equilibrium void balance problem into the force-deflection problem. The resultant models are verified based on equilibrium void distribution data obtained by Sadatomi and Kawahara

  6. The Square Kilometre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Lazio, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be the premier instrument to study radiation at centimetre and metre wavelengths from the cosmos, and in particular neutral hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. The SKA will probe the dawn of galaxy formation as well as allow advances in many other areas of astronomy, such as fundamental physics, astro-biology and cosmology. The SKA will have a collecting area of up to one million square metres spread over at least 3000 km, providing a collecting area more than twenty times greater than the current largest radio telescope. Its field of view on the sky will be several tens of square degrees with potentially several large (100 square degrees) independent beams at the lower frequencies, providing a survey speed many thousands of times greater than current facilities. This paper summarises the key science drivers of the SKA and provides an update on the international project.

  7. Square and Delta reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanella, Laura; Hayut, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Starting from infinitely many supercompact cardinals, we force a model of ZFC where $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ satisfies simultaneously a strong principle of reflection, called $\\Delta$-reflection, and a version of the square principle, denoted $\\square(\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}).$ Thus we show that $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ can satisfy simultaneously a strong reflection principle and an anti-reflection principle.

  8. Categorization of Mechanics Problems by Students in Large Introductory Physics Courses: A Comparison with the Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser Study

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser [1], we asked introductory physics students in three introductory physics classes to categorize mechanics problems based upon similarity of solutions. To evaluate the effect of problem context on students' ability to categorize, two sets of problems were developed for categorization. Some problems in one of the problem sets that students were asked to categorize included those available from the prior study by Chi et al. Our findings, which contrast from those of Chi et al., suggest that there is a much wider distribution of expertise among introductory students.

  9. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ. Results With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49) = 5.20; p PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088). The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time. Conclusion Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS. PMID:27124836

  10. Asymptotic goodness-of-fit tests for the Palm mark distribution of stationary point processes with correlated marks

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Lothar; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic $\\chi^{2}$-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences...

  11. Non-parametric asymptotic statistics for the Palm mark distribution of \\beta-mixing marked point processes

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Lothar; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic \\chi^2-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean-square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences bet...

  12. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles and Square Speed of Sound Parameter in p-p or p-p-bar Collisions over an Energy Range from 0.053 to 7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton (p-p) or proton-antiproton (p-p-bar collisions over an energy range from 0.053 to 7 TeV are studied by using the four-component Landau hydrodynamic model. The results calculated by the model are in agreement with the experimental data of the UA5, PHOBOS, UA1, P238, CDF, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations which present orderly from low to high energies. According to the distribution widths of different components, the values and some features of square speed of sound parameter cs2 for “participant” and “spectator” quark components are obtained. It is shown that the speed of sound for “participant” quark components agrees approximately with that for “spectator” quark components in the error ranges. The present work is useful for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions in the related energy range

  13. Bi-normalized response spectral characteristics of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙军; 谢礼立

    2004-01-01

    To develop uniform and seismic environment-dependent design spectrum, common acceleration response spectral characteristics need to be identified. In this paper, a bi-normalized response spectrum (BNRS) is proposed, which is defined as a spectrum of peak response acceleration normalized with respect to peak acceleration of the excitation plotted vs. the natural period of the system normalized with respect to the spectrum predominant period, Tp. Based on a statistical analysis of records from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the conventionally normalized response spectrum(NRS) and the BNRS are examined to account for the effects of soil conditions, epicentral distance, hanging wall and damping. It is found that compared to the NRS, the BNRS is much less dependent on these factors. Finally, some simple relationships between the BNRS tor a specified damping ratio and that for a damping ratio of 5%, and between the spectra predominant period and epicentral distance for different soil types are provided.

  14. Search for the Z_1(4050)^+ and Z_2(4250)^+ States in bar B^0 to chi_{c1} K^- pi^+ and B^+ to chi_{c1} K^0_S pi^+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-10

    We search for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} states, reported by the Belle Collaboration, decaying to {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} where {chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 429 fb{sup -1}. In this analysis, we model the background-subtracted, efficiency-corrected {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution using the K{pi} mass distribution and the corresponding normalized K{pi} Legendre polynomial moments, and then test the need for the inclusion of resonant structures in the description of the {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution. No evidence is found for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} resonances, and 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions are reported for the corresponding B-meson decay modes.

  15. A $\\chi^2$ veto for continuous wave searches

    CERN Document Server

    de la Jordana, Llucia Sancho

    2008-01-01

    $\\chi^2$ vetoes are commonly used in searching for gravitational waves, in particular for broad-band signals, but they can also be applied to narrow-band continuous wave signals, such as those expected from rapidly rotating neutron stars. In this paper we present a $\\chi^2$ veto adapted to the Hough transform searches for continuous gravitational wave signals; we characterize the $\\chi^2$-significance plane for different frequency bands; and discuss the expected performance of this veto in LIGO analysis.

  16. O Tai Chi Chuan na percussão

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Mário Jorge Peixoto

    2013-01-01

    A good motricity and a strong psyche that allow for excellence in performance are essential in musical execution. Since Tai Chi Chuan is an activity that implies a considerable psychomotor and psychological development, it is the aim of this thesis to assess whether the practice of Tai Chi Chuan can be an optimising factor in a percussionist’s performance. Based on the outstanding physical and psychological effects that result from the practice of Tai Chi Chuan and the ce...

  17. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction, rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia, orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder, cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications.

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHI194 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 58.1 V112D8 mTn-3xHA/lacZ Insertion Library, strain Y2278 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic 5', genomic survey se...) Frame A: ksnfi*ii*knk*ynikndiisnylmy*gn*ndlktstrsi*kkyknsnkeiisinwfsd nwyifsictsmvfvtnwmdiygysmlwiilcwvcmw...uolar 4.0 %: nuclear 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for CHI194 is end 5' end seq. ID CHI194F 5' end se...CTTT TAATGGTTTAGTTTATAATCATTCATTTGCTGCTAGAAATTATTTGGATCTTTATAGAGT TGCTTTATTATCAAANNAATAAAATTAAATCATT Length of 3' end se...q. 754 Connected seq. ID CHI194P Connected seq. >CHI194P.Seq AAATCAAA

  19. Graphs with $\\chi=\\Delta$ have big cliques

    OpenAIRE

    Cranston, Daniel W.; Rabern, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Brooks' Theorem states that if a graph has $\\Delta\\ge 3$ and $\\omega \\le \\Delta$, then $\\chi \\le \\Delta$. Borodin and Kostochka conjectured that if $\\Delta\\ge 9$ and $\\omega\\le \\Delta-1$, then $\\chi\\le \\Delta-1$. We show that if $\\Delta\\ge 13$ and $\\omega \\le \\Delta-4$, then $\\chi\\le \\Delta-1$. For a graph $G$, let $\\mathcal{H}$ denote the subgraph of $G$ induced by vertices of degree $\\Delta$. We also show that if $\\omega\\le \\Delta-1$ and $\\omega(\\mathcal{H})\\le \\Delta-6$, then $\\chi\\le \\Del...

  20. Search for B --> chi_c K(*) decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bulten, H; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Elsen, E E; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Rubin, A E; Ryd, A; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tan, P; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; La Vaissière, C de

    2004-01-01

    We report on the search for the factorization suppressed decays B -> chi_c0 K(*) and B -> chi_c2 K(*), with chi_c0 and chi_c2 decaying into J/psi gamma. We use a sample of 124 million BBbar events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. No significant signal is found and upper bounds for the branching fractions are obtained. All results are preliminary.

  1. chi_c0 and chi_c2 Decays into eta eta, eta eta', and eta' eta' Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, G S; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; López, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; al, et

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 3 x 10^6 psi(2S) decays collected by the CLEO III and CLEO_c detector configurations, we present results of a study of \\chi_{c0} and \\chi_{c2} decays into eta-eta, eta-etaprime, and etaprime-etaprime final states. We find B(chi_{c0} -> eta-eta)= (0.31+-0.05+-0.04+-0.02)%, B(chi_{c0} -> eta-etaprime) etaprime-etaprime) = (0.17 +- 0.04 +-0.02 +-0.01)%. We also present upper limits for the decays of \\chi_{c2} into these final states. These results give information on the decay mechanism of \\chi_c states into pseudoscalars.

  2. Square Planar Monopole Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Ammann, Max

    1999-01-01

    A planar monopole may be realised by replacing the wire element of a conventional monopole with a planar element. In this case, the planar element which is square, is located above a groundplane and fed using an SMA connector as illustrated. The square monopole has a simple geometry and a smaller bandwidth compared to the circular-disc monopole. However, it is still a broadband antenna with a typical impedance bandwidth of 75 % at S band. This broadband antenna shows a constant radiation patt...

  3. Community Recovery and Sustainable Development in the Region of Seismic Center in Taiwan after the 1999 CHI-CHI Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Jen Jennifer, Yeh

    2006-01-01

    International audience The major purpose of this study is to evaluate the progress of community recovery and sustainable development of the region of seismic centre in Taiwan after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake. Data analyzed in this study were collected from a face-to-face interview survey conducted in the research site of Tzu-Shan Town, Nan-Tau County, an area close to the epicentre of Chi-Chi Town, Nan-Tau County. The analysis of this study indicates that before the earthquake the residen...

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHI458 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI458 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15607-1 CHI458P (Link to Original ... n*il nnnnynknnhqkhtlkkhkn*nkkkke*nn*kkiekimfqkv*lk*mis *qnlnh*ikll nlfhqmvivyikqlqtny*likilmkkrvkvmqrn*eq* ...

  5. Description of the particle distribution in the space of composite suspension casting by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grabian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a description of the reinforcement phase distribution in the space of composite suspension casting. The statistical methods used include Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient combined with the significance test, Chi-square test of independence and the test of contingency. The reinforcement phase consisted of SiC particles (15% by weight, and the matrix was AlSi11 alloy. Composites were made by mechanical stir casting method.

  6. Description of the particle distribution in the space of composite suspension casting by statistical methods

    OpenAIRE

    J. Grabian; K. Gawdzińska; W. Przetakiewicz; M. Pijanowski

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of the reinforcement phase distribution in the space of composite suspension casting. The statistical methods used include Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient combined with the significance test, Chi-square test of independence and the test of contingency. The reinforcement phase consisted of SiC particles (15% by weight, and the matrix was AlSi11 alloy). Composites were made by mechanical stir casting method.

  7. Model Waveform Accuracy Requirements for the $\\chi^2$ Discriminator

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives accuracy standards for model gravitational waveforms required to ensure proper use of the $\\chi^2$ discriminator test in gravitational wave (GW) data analysis. These standards are different from previously established requirements for detection and waveform parameter measurement based on signal-to-noise optimization. We present convenient formulae both for evaluating and interpreting the contribution of model errors to measured $\\chi^2$ values. Motivated by these formula, we also present an enhanced, complexified variant of the standard $\\chi^2$ statistic used in GW searches. While our results are not directly relevant to current searches (which use the $\\chi^2$ test only to veto signal candidates with extremely high $\\chi^2$ values), they could be useful in future GW searches and as figures of merit for model gravitational waveforms.

  8. The Square Kilometre Array

    OpenAIRE

    Lazio, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is intended as the next-generation radio telescope and will address fundamental questions in astrophysics, physics, and astrobiology. The international science community has developed a set of Key Science Programs: (1) Emerging from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization, (2) Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Dark Energy, (3) The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Magnetism, (4) Strong Field Tests of Gravity Using Pulsars and Black Holes, and (5) The Cradle of...

  9. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery, congestive heart failure (HF, and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD.

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHI575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI575 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16427-1 - (Link to Original site) ... yfg*ytlyiyiiq*nviffrtdfrkdgfhr*ry*ihgns*sck*irkryf*ngs ... nl*k*ncykiisins*fsk*csrkcc*mfrfin*ks*rftsnrny*yiik ... n--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value CHI575 (CHI575 ... 003.10. 2 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116956 |AC ... 12. 7 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value (Q86KD1) RecNa ...

  11. The Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlings, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) by outlining the science drivers for its Phase-1 (SKA1) and setting out the timeline for the key decisions and milestones on the way to the planned start of its construction in 2016. We explain how Phase-2 SKA (SKA2) will transform the research scope of the SKA infrastructure, placing it amongst the great astronomical observatories and survey instruments of the future, and opening up new areas of discovery, many beyond the confines of conventional astronomy.

  12. Dynamic mechanisms of the post-seismic deformation following large events:Case study of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ShouBiao; CAI YongEn

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of postseismic deformation related to strong earthquakes is important in geodynamics,and presumably afterslip or viscoelastic relaxation is responsible for the postsesimic deformation.The 1999 Chi-Chi,Taiwan of China,earthquake occurred in the region where GPS observation station is most densely deployed in the world.The unprecedented GPS data provides a unique opportunity to study the physical processes of postseismic deformation.Here we assume that the interactions of viscoelastic relaxation,afterslip,fault zone collapse,poroelastic rebound,flow of underground fluids,and all these combined contribute to the surface displacements following the main shock.In order to know the essence of the postseismic deformation after the strong event,fault zone collapse,poroelastic rebound,flow of underground fluids,and so on,are represented equivalently by the variations of the focal medium properties.Therefore,the viscoelastic relaxation,afterslip,and the variations of the equivalent focal medium properties are inverted by applying the GPS temporal series measurement data with viscoelastic finite element method.Both the afterslip rate distribution along the fault and the afterslip evolution with time are obtained by means of inversion.Also,the preliminary result suggests that viscosities of the lower crust and the upper mantle in Taiwan region is 2.7×10~(18) and 4.2×10~(20) Pa.s,respectively.Moreover,the inversion results indicate that the afterslip contributing to postseismic deformation of 44.6% in 450 days after the Chi-Chi earthquake,with 34.7% caused by the viscous relaxation and 20.7% by other factors such as fault zone collapse,poroelastic rebound,and the flow of liquids.

  13. Dynamic mechanisms of the post-seismic deformation following large events:Case study of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of postseismic deformation related to strong earthquakes is important in geodynamics, and presumably afterslip or viscoelastic relaxation is responsible for the postsesimic deformation. The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan of China, earthquake occurred in the region where GPS observation station is most densely deployed in the world. The unprecedented GPS data provides a unique opportunity to study the physical processes of postseismic deformation. Here we assume that the interactions of viscoelastic relaxation, afterslip, fault zone collapse, poroelastic rebound, flow of underground fluids, and all these combined contribute to the surface displacements following the main shock. In order to know the essence of the postseismic deformation after the strong event, fault zone collapse, poroelastic rebound, flow of underground fluids, and so on, are represented equivalently by the variations of the focal medium properties. Therefore, the viscoelastic relaxation, afterslip, and the variations of the equivalent focal medium properties are inverted by applying the GPS temporal series measurement data with viscoelastic finite element method. Both the afterslip rate distribution along the fault and the afterslip evolution with time are obtained by means of inversion. Also, the preliminary result suggests that viscosities of the lower crust and the upper mantle in Taiwan region is 2.7×1018 and 4.2×1020 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the inversion results indicate that the afterslip contributing to postseismic deformation of 44.6% in 450 days after the Chi-Chi earthquake, with 34.7% caused by the viscous relaxation and 20.7% by other factors such as fault zone collapse, poroelastic rebound, and the flow of liquids.

  14. Best fitting distributions for the standard duration annual maximum precipitations in the Aegean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Karahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the properties like amount, duration, intensity, spatial and temporal variation etc… of precipitation which is the primary input of water resources is required for planning, design, construction and operation studies of various sectors like water resources, agriculture, urbanization, drainage, flood control and transportation. For executing the mentioned practices, reliable and realistic estimations based on existing observations should be made. The first step of making a reliable estimation is to test the reliability of existing observations. In this study, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Square goodness of distribution fit tests were applied for determining to which distribution the measured standard duration maximum precipitation values (in the years 1929-2005 fit in the meteorological stations operated by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMİ which are located in the city and town centers of Aegean Region. While all the observations fit to GEV distribution according to Anderson-Darling test, it was seen that short, mid-term and long duration precipitation observations generally fit to GEV, Gamma and Log-normal distribution according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Chi-square tests. To determine the parameters of the chosen probability distribution, maximum likelihood (LN2, LN3, EXP2, Gamma3, probability-weighted distribution (LP3,Gamma2, L-moments (GEV and least squares (Weibull2 methods were used according to different distributions.

  15. Use of dipole sum rules to estimate upper and lower bounds for radiative and total widths of chi (3414), chi (3508), and chi (3552)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper and lower bounds on the widths for chi/sub J/→γpsi (3095) can be estimated by assuming E1 transitions and approximate Russell-Saunders coupling for the cc-bar system. Experimental widths for psi (3684) →γchi/sub J/ the lower bound more restrictive, giving radiative widths of 160→240, 230→400, and 280→480 keV for 3414-, 3508-, and 3552-MeV states, respectively. Cascade branching ratio data permit estimation of the total widths as >1.6, 0.3-1.5, and 0.6-4 MeV, respectively

  16. Tai chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Hong, Y.; Chan, K.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the characteristic effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on metabolism and cardiorespiratory response, and to measure its effect on cardiorespiratory function, mental control, immune capacity, and the prevention of falls in elderly people.

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHI228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI228 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16517-1 - (Link to Original site) ... *edmqvqv* ekviy*elkiffhlqevllnvvykvfqifilninhyymif*ivf *rtn*kkplihtyqql nqerdhkm*lylwlvvslmkrh*pftllil*ilv ...

  18. ELMO Bumpy Square proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELMO Bumpy Square (EBS) concept consists of four straight magnetic mirror arrays linked by four high-field corner coils. Extensive calculations show that this configuration offers major improvements over the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) in particle confinement, heating, transport, ring production, and stability. The components of the EBT device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory can be reconfigured into a square arrangement having straight sides composed of EBT coils, with new microwave cavities and high-field corners designed and built for this application. The elimination of neoclassical convection, identified as the dominant mechanism for the limited confinement in EBT, will give the EBS device substantially improved confinement and the flexibility to explore the concepts that produce this improvement. The primary goals of the EBS program are twofold: first, to improve the physics of confinement in toroidal systems by developing the concepts of plasma stabilization using the effects of energetic electrons and confinement optimization using magnetic field shaping and electrostatic potential control to limit particle drift, and second, to develop bumpy toroid devices as attractive candidates for fusion reactors. This report presents a brief review of the physics analyses that support the EBS concept, discussions of the design and expected performance of the EBS device, a description of the EBS experimental program, and a review of the reactor potential of bumpy toroid configurations. Detailed information is presented in the appendices

  19. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Lan; Ssu-Yuan Chen; May-Kuen Wong; Jin Shin Lai

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. T...

  20. Tai Chi Quan and Stroke Prevention and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Shuri; Cai, Dingfang

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability across the globe and remains the third leading cause of death in China, with the total stroke incidence increasing 6.7% annually from 1984 to 2004. The prevention of strokes is more important than their treatment. Tai Chi Quan is a slow and graceful Chinese exercise that includes a form of mindful meditation known for its health benefits. Many studies have shown that Tai Chi Quan not only improves gait, balance cap...

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHI718 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI718 (Link to dictyBase) - G20569 DDB0188420 Contig-U11787-1 CHI718P (Lin ... 4 (Q9QZ71) RecName: Full=Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus ... rece... 82 2e-14 (Q9R031) RecName: Full=Xenotropic ... and polytropic retrovirus ... rece... 82 2e-14 AF131096_1( AF131096 |pid:none) M ...

  2. Investigating Students' Understanding of Square Numbers and Square Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Hiebert, Erica Jemm Aileen

    2013-01-01

    The ideas related to square numbers and square roots, despite the apparent simplicity, appear problematic to high school students. I inquired into students' understanding of square numbers and square roots, focusing on obstacles that students face in considering these concepts and solution approaches that they prefer. The study followed a modified analytic induction methodology. A written questionnaire was administered to 51 pre-calculus 11 students and followed up with clinical interviews w...

  3. CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the subcommit......The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the...... tremendous amount of work from all areas of the human-computer interaction community. As co-chairs of the process, we are amazed at the ability of the community to organize itself to accomplish this task. We would like to thank the 2680 individual reviewers for their careful consideration of these papers. We...... that you enjoy these papers and notes, which represent the best research in human-computer interaction....

  4. Bayesian least squares deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Petit, P.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We develop a fully Bayesian least squares deconvolution (LSD) that can be applied to the reliable detection of magnetic signals in noise-limited stellar spectropolarimetric observations using multiline techniques. Methods: We consider LSD under the Bayesian framework and we introduce a flexible Gaussian process (GP) prior for the LSD profile. This prior allows the result to automatically adapt to the presence of signal. We exploit several linear algebra identities to accelerate the calculations. The final algorithm can deal with thousands of spectral lines in a few seconds. Results: We demonstrate the reliability of the method with synthetic experiments and we apply it to real spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic stars. We are able to recover the magnetic signals using a small number of spectral lines, together with the uncertainty at each velocity bin. This allows the user to consider if the detected signal is reliable. The code to compute the Bayesian LSD profile is freely available.

  5. Bayesian least squares deconvolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To develop a fully Bayesian least squares deconvolution (LSD) that can be applied to the reliable detection of magnetic signals in noise-limited stellar spectropolarimetric observations using multiline techniques. Methods. We consider LSD under the Bayesian framework and we introduce a flexible Gaussian Process (GP) prior for the LSD profile. This prior allows the result to automatically adapt to the presence of signal. We exploit several linear algebra identities to accelerate the calculations. The final algorithm can deal with thousands of spectral lines in a few seconds. Results. We demonstrate the reliability of the method with synthetic experiments and we apply it to real spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic stars. We are able to recover the magnetic signals using a small number of spectral lines, together with the uncertainty at each velocity bin. This allows the user to consider if the detected signal is reliable. The code to compute the Bayesian LSD profile is freely available.

  6. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  7. Prompt charmonia production and polarization at LHC in the NRQCD with kt-factorization. Part II: $\\chi_c$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of kt-factorization approach,the production of prompt $\\chi_c$ mesons in pp collisions at the LHC energies is studied. Our consideration is based on the off-shell amplitudes for hard partonic subprocesses $g^*g^*\\to\\chi_{cJ}$ and non-relativistic QCD formalism for bound states. The transverse momentum dependent (unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Taking into account both color singlet and color octet contributions, we deduce the corresponding non-perturbative long-distance matrix elements from the fits to the latest ATLAS data on $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ transverse momentum distributions at $\\sqrt s = 7$ TeV. We find that these distributions at small and moderate pt are formed mainly by the color singlet components. We successfully described the data on the differential cross sections and relative production rates $\\sigma(\\chi_...

  8. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world. PMID:26549554

  9. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  10. Squaring the Magic

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    We construct and classify all possible Magic Squares (MS's) related to Euclidean or Lorentzian rank-3 simple Jordan algebras, both on normed division algebras and split composition algebras. Besides the known Freudenthal-Rozenfeld-Tits MS, the single-split G\\"unaydin-Sierra-Townsend MS, and the double-split Barton-Sudbery MS, we obtain other 7 Euclidean and 10 Lorentzian novel MS's. We elucidate the role and the meaning of the various non-compact real forms of Lie algebras, entering the MS's as symmetries of theories of Einstein-Maxwell gravity coupled to non-linear sigma models of scalar fields, possibly endowed with local supersymmetry, in D = 3, 4 and 5 space-time dimensions. In particular, such symmetries can be recognized as the U-dualities or the stabilizers of scalar manifolds within space-time with standard Lorentzian signature or with other, more exotic signatures, also relevant to suitable compactifications of the so-called M*- and M'- theories. Symmetries pertaining to some attractor U-orbits of ma...

  11. Distribution Fitting 2. Pearson-Fisher, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Wilks-Shapiro, Cramer-von-Misses and Jarque-Bera statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jantschi, Lorentz; BOLBOACA, Sorana D.

    2009-01-01

    The methods measuring the departure between observation and the model were reviewed. The following statistics were applied on two experimental data sets: Chi-Squared, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Wilks-Shapiro, and Jarque-Bera. Both investigated sets proved not to be normal distributed. The Grubbs test identified one outlier and after its removal the normality of the set of 205 chemical active compounds was accepted. The second data set proved not to have any outliers. Kolmogorov-Smi...

  12. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Tung BUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the underlying factors affecting consumer acceptance of functional foods. The contribution of this study is to better understand customer willingness to buy such products in Ho Chi Minh City by shedding light on how socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants affect consumer's choices of foods. We conducted a survey using 217 respondents from Ho Chi Minh City. Next, we develop a binary-probit model to quantify the impact of each factor on consumer acceptance. The results show that having a sick relative, beliefs in health benefits positively affect acceptance level. Other than that, old people in Ho Chi Minh City tend to reject the use of functional foods. However, when they are provided with enough knowledge, they are the most intensive buyers of these products. Implications and further researches are also discussed.

  13. New Squaring Schema for Residue Number System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Residue number systems are an uncommon and non weighted numerical system. Some of methods of this systems are widely used in applications such as: digital signal processing, digital filters, coding, digital communication, RSA, Adhoc networks, distributed Storage and Retrieval Systems, error detection and correction and error tolerable systems. Computing the square is one of the important problems in this system that are applied in DSP applications based on RNS and even in computing the product. There are many methods that can compute square but most of them have a low speed or need high space. A new approach is proposed in this paper that can decrease squaring speed to a transistor delay

  14. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

  15. Observation of B0 -> chi_c0 K*0 and Evidence of B+ -> chi_c0 K*+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, : B.

    2008-08-13

    The authors present the observation of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0} as well as evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}, with an 8.9 and a 3.6 standard deviation significance, respectively, using a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B meson factory located at the Standard Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The measured branching fractions are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) = (1.4 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the first quoted errors are statistical and the second are systematic. They obtain a branching fraction upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) < 2.1 x 10{sup -4} at the 90% confidence level.

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHI642 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI642 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14351-1 CHI642E (Link to Original ... 37 (Q4G069) RecName: Full=Regulator of microtubule dynamics ... protein... 154 3e-36 AF151848_1( AF151848 |pid:non ... 36 (Q96DB5) RecName: Full=Regulator of microtubule dynamics ... protein... 153 5e-36 (Q5R8E4) RecName: Full=Regula ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHI478 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI478 (Link to dictyBase) - G01678 DDB0185605 Contig-U11784-1 CHI478P (Lin ... lis melanin b... 82 4e-14 ( P07524 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosinase ; EC=1.14.18.1; AltNam... 81 9e-14 AP009493_2447( A ... us subsp. gri... 80 2e-13 ( P06845 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosinase ; EC=1.14.18.1; AltNam... 79 4e-13 A24089( A24089 ) ...

  18. Search for Surface Magnetic Fields in Mira Stars. First Detection in chi Cyg

    CERN Document Server

    Lèbre, A; Fabas, N; Gillet, D; Herpin, F; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Petit, P

    2013-01-01

    In order to complete the knowledge of the magnetic field and of its influence during the transition from Asymptotic Giant Branch to Planetary Nebulae stages, we have undertaken a search for magnetic fields at the surface of Mira stars. We used spectropolarimetric observations, collected with the Narval instrument at TBL, in order to detect - with Least Squares Deconvolution method - a Zeeman signature in the visible part of the spectrum. We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of the S-type Mira star chi Cyg, performed around its maximum light. We have detected a polarimetric signal in the Stokes V spectra and we have established its Zeeman origin. We claim that it is likely to be related to a weak magnetic field present at the photospheric level and in the lower part of the stellar atmosphere. We have estimated the strength of its longitudinal component to about 2-3 Gauss. This result favors a 1/r law for the variation of the magnetic field strength across the circumstellar envelope of chi Cyg....

  19. Square Source Type Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  20. Quantitative analysis of urban sprawl in Tripoli using Pearson's Chi-Square statistics and urban expansion intensity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sharif, Abubakr A. A.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri

    2014-06-01

    Urban expansion is a spatial phenomenon that reflects the increased level of importance of metropolises. The remotely sensed data and GIS have been widely used to study and analyze the process of urban expansions and their patterns. The capital of Libya (Tripoli) was selected to perform this study and to examine its urban growth patterns. Four satellite imageries of the study area in different dates (1984, 1996, 2002 and 2010) were used to conduct this research. The main goal of this work is identification and analyzes the urban sprawl of Tripoli metropolitan area. Urban expansion intensity index (UEII) and degree of freedom test were used to analyze and assess urban expansions in the area of study. The results show that Tripoli has sprawled urban expansion patterns; high urban expansion intensity index; and its urban development had high degree of freedom according to its urban expansion history during the time period (1984-2010). However, the novel proposed hypothesis used for zones division resulted in very good insight understanding of urban expansion direction and the effect of the distance from central business of district (CBD).

  1. Measurement of hadronic production of the chi /sub 1//sup ++/(3507) and the chi /sub 2//sup ++/(3553) through their radiative decay to J/ psi

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Y; Barate, R; Bareyre, P; Bonamy, P; Borgeaud, P; Brabson, B B; Crittenden, R R; David, M; Duane, A; Gentit, F X; Heinz, R M; King, G J; Krider, J; Laurens, G; Marshall, T; McEwen, J G; Namjoshi, R; Nandi, B C; Pietrzyk, B; Villet, G; Websdale, D M; Wiejak, J; Zaninotti, S

    1982-01-01

    The chi /sub 1//sup ++/(3507) and the chi /sub 2//sup ++/(3553) states have been observed in the Goliath spectrometer at the CERN SPS in 185 GeV/c\\pi^{-}-Be collisions. Their radiative decays contribute 27.7% (for the chi /sub 1//sup ++/) and 12.8% (for the chi /sub 2//sup ++/) to J/ psi production. At this energy, their cross sections are 65+or-19 nb and 96+or-29 nb, respectively.

  2. Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayakawa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Schumann resonance phenomenon has been monitored at Nakatsugawa (near Nagoya in Japan since the beginning of 1999, and due to the occurance of a severe earthquake (so-called Chi-chi earthquake on 21 September 1999 in Taiwan we have examined our Schumann resonance data at Nakatsugawa during the entire year of 1999. We have found a very anomalous effect in the Schumann resonance, possibly associated with two large land earthquakes (one is the Chi-chi earthquake and another one on 2 November 1999 (Chia-yi earthquake with a magnitude again greater than 6.0. Conspicuous effects are observed for the larger Chi-chi earthquake, so that we summarize the characteristics for this event. The anomaly is characterized mainly by the unusual increase in amplitude of the fourth Schumann resonance mode and a significant frequency shift of its peak frequency (~1.0Hz from the conventional value on the By magnetic field component which is sensitive to the waves propagating in the NS meridian plane. Anomalous Schumann resonance signals appeared from about one week to a few days before the main shock. Secondly, the goniometric estimation of the arrival angle of the anomalous signal is found to coincide with the Taiwan azimuth (the unresolved dual direction indicates toward South America. Also, the pulsed signals, such as the Q-bursts, were simultaneously observed with the "carrier" frequency around the peak frequency of the fourth Schumann resonance mode. The anomaly for the second event for the Chia-yi earthquake on 2 November had much in common. But, most likely due to a small magnitude, the anomaly appears one day before and lasts until one day after the main shock, with the enhancement at the fourth Schumann resonance mode being smaller in amplitude than the case of the Chi-chi earthquake. Yet, the other characteristics, including the goniometric direction finding result, frequency shift, etc., are nearly the same. Although the emphasis of

  3. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  4. Modulational instability in the nonlocal chi(2)-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John Andreas; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    are recovered as the asymptotic limit of one of the branches of the plane waves (i.e. the adiabatic branch or the acoustic branch) of the full chi((2))-model by means of a singular perturbational approach. It is also proven that the stability results for the adiabatic branch continuously approach...

  5. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn aroun...

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHI113 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI113 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14338-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 37591_59( DQ437591 |pid:none) Variola virus strain Sumatra ... 1970... 33 3.0 AL844504_205( AL844504 |pid:none) P ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHI816 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI816 (Link to dictyBase) - G20190 DDB0202068 Contig-U14357-1 - (Link to O ... BD080275 |BD080275.1 Transgenic plant with altered morphology ... and endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene, promoter and pro ...

  8. Bisimulation Lattice of Asymmetric Chi Calculus with Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiaoju(董笑菊); Zhong Farong; Fu Yuxi

    2003-01-01

    This paper carries out a systematic investigation into the bisimulation lattice of asymmetric chi calculus with a mismatch combinator. It is shown that all the sixty three L-bisimilarities collapse to twelve distinct relations and they form a bisimulation lattice with respect to set inclusion. The top of the lattice coincides with the barbed bisimilarity.

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHI610 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI610 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14350-1 - (Link to Original site) ... CFFFFFWI*kk--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames ) Frame A: nsnthlthysqkkk**ink**in*ink*nfihi*lnfls* ...

  10. Measurement of $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ production with $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV $pp$ collisions at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The prompt and non-prompt production cross-sections for the $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ charmonium states are measured in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using 4.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The $\\chi_{c}$ states are reconstructed through the radiative decay $\\chi_{c}\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\,\\gamma$ (with $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$) where photons are reconstructed from $\\gamma\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ conversions. The production rate of the $\\chi_{c2}$ state relative to the $\\chi_{c1}$ state is measured for prompt and non-prompt $\\chi_{c}$ as a function of $J/\\psi$ transverse momentum. The prompt $\\chi_{c}$ cross-sections are combined with existing measurements of prompt $J/\\psi$ production to derive the fraction of prompt $J/\\psi$ produced in feed-down from $\\chi_{c}$ decays. The fractions of $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ produced in $b$-hadron decays are also measured. In addition to measurements of inclusive $\\chi_{c}$ production, the branching fraction ${\\cal B}(B^...

  11. A note on the asymptotic distribution of likelihood ratio tests to test variance components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Peter M

    2006-08-01

    When using maximum likelihood methods to estimate genetic and environmental components of (co)variance, it is common to test hypotheses using likelihood ratio tests, since such tests have desirable asymptotic properties. In particular, the standard likelihood ratio test statistic is assumed asymptotically to follow a chi2 distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of parameters tested. Using the relationship between least squares and maximum likelihood estimators for balanced designs, it is shown why the asymptotic distribution of the likelihood ratio test for variance components does not follow a chi2 distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of parameters tested when the null hypothesis is true. Instead, the distribution of the likelihood ratio test is a mixture of chi2 distributions with different degrees of freedom. Implications for testing variance components in twin designs and for quantitative trait loci mapping are discussed. The appropriate distribution of the likelihood ratio test statistic should be used in hypothesis testing and model selection. PMID:16899155

  12. From Square Dance to Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests a cross-curricular idea that can link with PE, dance, music and history. Teacher David Schmitz, a maths teacher in Illinois who was also a square dance caller, had developed a maths course that used the standard square dance syllabus to teach mathematical principles. He presents an intensive, two-week course…

  13. Algebraic Squares: Complete and Incomplete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Francis J.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates ways of using algebra tiles to give students a visual model of competing squares that appear in algebra as well as in higher mathematics. Such visual representations give substance to the symbolic manipulation and give students who do not learn symbolically a way of understanding the underlying concepts of completing the square. (KHR)

  14. Latin and Cross Latin Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanouilidis, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

  15. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annibaldi, A.; Truzzi, C.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche - Ancona, Department of Marine Science, Ancona (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the ''Mario Zucchelli'' Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 4.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Pb 13.2-81 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 33 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cu 126-628 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 378 {mu}g g{sup -1}). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m{sup -3} (average 3.4 pg m{sup -3}), Pb 8.7-48 pg m{sup -3} (average 24 pg m{sup -3}), Cu 75-365 pg m{sup -3} (average 266 pg m{sup -3}). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb ({proportional_to}10% and {proportional_to}5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not

  16. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2007-02-01

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural

  17. Equilibrium charge-state distributions of highly stripped ions in carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric equilibrium charge-state distributions observed for heavy ions (Z approx. >= 7) in carbon foils at high velocities (v > 3.6 x 108 Z0sup(.)45 cm s-1) are closely approximated by a simple statistical distribution: the reduced chi-squared model. The dependences of the mean charge and of the standard deviation of the charge on the projectile velocity are obtained by a previously-known and a newly-proposed relation, respectively. Finally charge-state fractions may be easily predicted using a simple formula depending only on the atomic number and on the velocity of the projectile. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of random laser scattering pulse signals with lognormal distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhen-Gang; Bian Bao-Min; Wang Shou-Yu; Lin Ying-Lu; Wang Chun-Yong; Li Zhen-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The statistical distribution of natural phenomena is of great significance in studying the laws of nature.In order to study the statistical characteristics of a random pulse signal,a random process model is proposed theoretically for better studying of the random law of measured results.Moreover,a simple random pulse signal generation and testing system is designed for studying the counting distributions of three typical objects including particles suspended in the air,standard particles,and background noise.Both normal and lognormal distribution fittings are used for analyzing the experimental results and testified by chi-square distribution fit test and correlation coefficient for comparison.In addition,the statistical laws of three typical objects and the relations between them are discussed in detail.The relation is also the non-integral dimension fractal relation of statistical distributions of different random laser scattering pulse signal groups.

  19. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  20. A SUCCESSIVE LEAST SQUARES METHOD FOR STRUCTURED TOTAL LEAST SQUARES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Plamen Y. Yalamov; Jin-yun Yuan

    2003-01-01

    A new method for Total Least Squares (TLS) problems is presented. It differs from previous approaches and is based on the solution of successive Least Squares problems.The method is quite suitable for Structured TLS (STLS) problems. We study mostly the case of Toeplitz matrices in this paper. The numerical tests illustrate that the method converges to the solution fast for Toeplitz STLS problems. Since the method is designed for general TLS problems, other structured problems can be treated similarly.

  1. Rates of convergence for estimation and testing in multinomial distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with various problems involving the multinomial distribution. Chapter 1 contains an asymptotic power comparison between the likelihood ratio test and a class of chi-square tests. The power comparison is based on the fact that suitably scaled the test statistics can be approximated by a normal. The comparison is similar to Hoeffding but his power comparison is made using the theory of large deviations. Chapters 2-4 deal with estimation of a single parameter. Expansion for the estimators and their mean square error are given. Many papers in this area have appeared including Rao, Effron, Ghosh and Subramanyam, and Robertson. Other authors justify the calculations for one fixed value of the parameter, in this paper it is shown how the calculations can be justified over the whole parameter space. It is also shown that there are other estimation procedures which have the same properties as minimum chi-square and maximum likelihood estimates. Chapter 4 contains examples of the expansions. When the examples are applied to the logistic model the results agree quite well with a computer study done by Berkson. Chapter 5 discussed estimation in the log-linear model. Under a full model a prior is defined for which the Bayes estimates can easily be calculated. Estimates for the submodel are obtained by projections. The results show that the contrasts in the log-odds of Lindley are Bayes with respect to a suitable prior

  2. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around and collide, and above which they continue to move-away from each other. For in-plane interaction, the theory allows prediction of the Outcome of a collision through the inwards escape angle, i.e., ...

  3. Feynman Rules of Higher-order Poles in CHY Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Rijun; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.

  4. Consumer Behaviour. Case: iPhone Ho Chi Minh City

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thi Xuan Oanh

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to figure out the factors that have influenced consumer behaviour of young iPhone users in Ho Chi Minh City. In this study, the author draw a conclusion based on the data collected from the survey and proposed some feasible recommendations for Apple and other high-end smartphone companies to understand their consumers and enhance brand equity. For the secondary data, a variety of theories, including consumers’ characteristics, promotion and the decision mak...

  5. Euclid Squares on Infinite Planes

    OpenAIRE

    W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy; Ilanthenral, K.; Florentin Smarandache

    2015-01-01

    In this book for the first time the authors study the new type of Euclid squares in various planes like real plane, complex plane, dual number plane, special dual like number plane and special quasi dual number plane.

  6. SQUARE AND RHOMBUS CENTRAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the flat central configurations of bodies using the characteristic set method. We completely solve two special cases of four planets, namely,the square and the rhombus. For the square case, we obtain that a square is a central configuration only in the case where the masses are equal and there exactly are two different square central configurations determined by the mass and the angular velocity; for the rhombus case, we obtain that if a rhombus is a central configuration, then the masses of the diagonal vertices must be equal. Furthermore, there are two or three or four different rhombus central configurations determined by the masses and the angular velocity.

  7. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING

    Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan

  8. Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B

    2011-01-01

    Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil.

  9. Monte carlo simulation study of the square lattice S=1/2 quantum heisenberg antiferromagnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J K

    1999-01-01

    For the two dimensional S= 1/2 isotopic quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice, we report our results of an extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulation for various physical observables such as the correlation length xi, the staggered magnetic susceptibility chi sub S sub T , the structure factor peak value S(Q), the internal energy epsilon, and the uniform susceptibility chi sub u. We find that chi sub S sub T approx chi sup 2 T and S(Q) approx xi sup 2 T sup 2 , in agreement with the predictions of the conventional theory but in disagreement with recent experiments. Our estimate of the spin stiffness constant rho sub s and spin wave velocity c, from the low temperature behavior of the chi sub u is shown to be consistent with the theoretical prediction of the low temperature behavior of the epsilon, and of the xi provided an additional correction up to T sup 2. However, our data are definitely inconsistent with the scenario of the crossover for the xi.

  10. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  11. Maximum likelihood, least squares and penalized least squares for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EM algorithm is the basic approach used to maximize the log likelihood objective function for the reconstruction problem in PET. The EM algorithm is a scaled steepest ascent algorithm that elegantly handles the nonnegativity constraints of the problem. The authors show that the same scaled steepest descent algorithm can be applied to the least squares merit function, and that it can be accelerated using the conjugate gradient approach. The experiments suggest that one can cut the computation by about a factor of 3 by using this technique. The results also apply to various penalized least squares functions which might be used to produce a smoother image

  12. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for B+- --> chi_c0 K+-

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevic, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graugès-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B+- --> chi_c0 K+- from a sample of 89 million BB pairs collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The chi_c0 meson is reconstructed through its two-body decays to pi+ pi- and K+ K-. We measure BR(B+- --> chi_c0 K+-)* BR(chi_c0 --> pi+ pi-) = (1.32^{+0.28}_{-0.27}(stat) +- 0.09(syst))*10^-6 and BR(B+- --> chi_c0 K+-) * BR(chi_c0 --> K+ K-) = (1.49^{+0.36}_{-0.34}(stat) +- 0.11(syst))* 10^-6. Using the known values for the chi_c0 decays branching fractions, we combine these results to obtain BR(B+- --> chi_c0 K+-) = (2.7+-0.7)* 10^-4.

  13. The best approximation of $P-$ metric space of $\\chi^{2}-$ defined by Musielak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGARAJAN SUBRAMANIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the idea of constructing sequence space $\\chi^{2}$ of best approximation in $p-$ metric defined by Musielak and also construct some general topological properties of approximation of $\\chi^{2}$

  14. Effect of tai chi exercise on proprioception of ankle and knee joints in old people

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, D.; Hong, Y; Li, J.; Chan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess if tai chi, a traditional Chinese form of exercise, could improve proprioception in old people and if the effects of tai chi on proprioception are more evident than other exercise forms in the elderly.

  15. Comparison of Distribution Models for Peakflow, Flood Volume and Flood Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Salarpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides peakflow, a flood event is also characterized by other possibly mutually correlated variables. This study was aimed at exploring the statistical distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume for Johor River in south of Peninsular Malaysia. Hourly data were recorded for 45 years from the Rantau Panjang gauging station. The annual peakflow was selected from the maximum flow in each water year (July-June. Five probability distributions, namely Gamma, Generalized Pareto, Beta, Pearson and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV were used to model the distribution of peakflow events. Anderson-Darling and Chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the best fit. Goodness-of-fit tests at 5% level of significance indicate that all the models can be used to model the distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume. However, Generalized Pareto distribution was found to be the most suitable model when tested with the Anderson-Darling-Smirnov test and the Chi-squared test suggested that Generalized Extreme Value was the best for peakflow. The result of this research can be used to improve flood frequency analysis.

  16. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-En Yang; Xing-Qi Huang; Yu Hang; Yin-Yin Deng; Qin-Qin Lu; Shan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of a-and b-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, b-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxy-lase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional comple-mentation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from b-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumu-lation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a b-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible e-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection.

  17. $\\chi^2$-confidence sets in high-dimensional regression

    OpenAIRE

    van de Geer, Sara; Stucky, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We study a high-dimensional regression model. Aim is to construct a confidence set for a given group of regression coefficients, treating all other regression coefficients as nuisance parameters. We apply a one-step procedure with the square-root Lasso as initial estimator and a multivariate square-root Lasso for constructing a surrogate Fisher information matrix. The multivariate square-root Lasso is based on nuclear norm loss with $\\ell_1$-penalty. We show that this procedure leads to an as...

  18. Least-squares dosimetry unfolding: the program STAY'SL. [STAY'SL Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perey, F. G.

    1977-10-01

    A PDP-10 FORTRAN IV computer program STAY'SL, which solves the dosimetry unfolding problem by the method of least squares, is described. The solution (the output spectrum and its covariance matrix) is calculated by minimizing chi-square based on the input data (the activation data, the input spectrum, the dosimetry cross sections and their uncertainties given by covariance matrices). The solution reflects therefore the uncertainties in all of the input data and their correlations. The correlations among the various dosimetry cross sections are taken into account; however, the activation data, input spectrum and cross sections as classes are assumed to be uncorrelated with each other.

  19. Search for Factorization-Suppressed $B \\to{ chi_c} K^(*)$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, S; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-01-01

    We search for the factorization-suppressed decays B -> chi_c0 K(*) and B -> chi_c2 K(*), with chi_c0 and chi_c2 decaying into J/psi gamma using a sample of 124 10^6 BBbar events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  20. Squared Metric Facility Location Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Cristina G; Miyazawa, Flávio K; Pedrosa, Lehilton L C

    2011-01-01

    Jain et al. proposed two well-known algorithms for the Metric Facility Location Problem (MFLP), that achieve approximation ratios of 1.861 and 1.61. Mahdian et al. combined the latter algorithm with scaling and greedy augmentation techniques, obtaining a 1.52-approximation for the MFLP. We consider a generalization of the Squared Euclidean Facility Location Problem, when the distance function is a squared metric, which we call Squared Metric Facility Location Problem (SMFLP). We show that the algorithms of Jain et al. and of Mahdian et al., when applied to this variant of the facility location, achieve approximation ratios of 2.87, 2.43, and 2.17, respectively. It is shown that, for the SMFLP, there is no 2.04-approximation algorithm, assuming P $\

  1. A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2012-01-01

    For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…

  2. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: taichi_nccamIMG_2962.jpg © Mariann Seriff ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Video › Tai Chi and Qi Gong for ...

  3. Quasi-least squares regression

    CERN Document Server

    Shults, Justine

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' substantial expertise in modeling longitudinal and clustered data, Quasi-Least Squares Regression provides a thorough treatment of quasi-least squares (QLS) regression-a computational approach for the estimation of correlation parameters within the framework of generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The authors present a detailed evaluation of QLS methodology, demonstrating the advantages of QLS in comparison with alternative methods. They describe how QLS can be used to extend the application of the traditional GEE approach to the analysis of unequally spaced longitu

  4. Signed shape tilings of squares

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Let T be a tile in the Cartesian plane made up of finitely many rectangles whose corners have rational coordinates and whose sides are parallel to the coordinate axes. This paper gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a square to be tilable by finitely many \\Q-weighted tiles with the same shape as T, and necessary and sufficient conditions for a square to be tilable by finitely many \\Z-weighted tiles with the same shape as T. The main tool we use is a variant of F. W. Barnes's algebrai...

  5. How The Semiotic Square Came

    OpenAIRE

    Badir, Sémir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I intend to give a presentation of the diagram known in semiotics as “the semiotic square”. More precisely, I would like to retrace semiotic square’s origins and early history until its “official” presentation in a dictionary of semiotics. One would expect that the logical square should have taken a great part in the invention of the semiotic diagram. However, the trajectory of the semiotic square was more fluctuating and heterogeneous than what is expected a priori, coming und...

  6. Least Squares Ranking on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Hirani, Anil N.; Kalyanaraman, Kaushik; Watts, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Given a set of alternatives to be ranked, and some pairwise comparison data, ranking is a least squares computation on a graph. The vertices are the alternatives, and the edge values comprise the comparison data. The basic idea is very simple and old: come up with values on vertices such that their differences match the given edge data. Since an exact match will usually be impossible, one settles for matching in a least squares sense. This formulation was first described by Leake in 1976 for ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHI614 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 850F7 (Roswell Park Cancer Institute Human BAC Library) complete sequence. 38 0.53 5 CR382125 |CR382125.1 Kluyveromyces lact...AAACCTTATTATCCA ATATTTTATTATCAGGTTTTAGG Length of 3' end seq. 743 Connected seq. ID CHI614P Connected seq. >...IILVXIINXVYNXFSGHS SEHTKNXLKXASKTSKKX--- ---DNHTFLRENRDPVKKMKHLPQGIL*sksirerffigfgtwhwwcts...ENRDPVKKMKHLPQGIL*sksirerffigfgtwhwwctsfsqss*ti*lc isitllvatyss*yv*tlvlcrn*sfmrtqisiikhwsrsksystmskrw*nya*ysts...d in the head. 40 2.1 2 CR238085 |CR238085.1 Forward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT insertion

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHI740 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI740 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16419-1 - (Link to Original site) ... krftxchenctx** Frame B: ---xkttslvfkmxtks*m*i**prssmlc kgsp**mfikmshmamnvklitmvknvxsd pidhhhqkfvh*dahqnmnv ... slrcptwp*m*s*sqw*rmlxqi p*ttttrslfikmptkt*m*i**sw*kmlc kdsl**sl*frlw*rf*m*n*t*wfkmlc p frkttpttt*km**empxrp ... *m*s*stwkrmlrccp*txtkmlfkmstkt*m*sqpxw*r mlc *sspr*mfiemstrp*m*s*stwkrmxrccp*tttemlikmstkt*m*nqs ... lw*rml c *k*k*lfnl*rpktvkekvyxvp*klyxlik Homology vs CSM-cD ...

  9. Two-Photon Widths of the chi_cJ States of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Ecklund, K M; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G

    2008-01-01

    Using a data sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) the reactions psi(2S)->gamma chi_cJ, chi_cJ->gamma gamma have been studied for the first time to determine the two-photon widths of the chi_cJ states of charmonium in their decay into two photons. The measured quantities are B(psi(2S)->gamma chi_c0)xB(chi_c0->gamma gamma)=(2.22+-0.32+-0.10)x10^-5, and B(psi(2S)->gamma chi_c2)xB(chi_c2->gamma gamma)=(2.70+-0.28+-0.15)x10^-5. Using values for B(psi(2S)->gamma chi_c0,c2) and \\Gamma(chi_c0,c2) from the literature the two-photon widths are derived to be \\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c0)=(2.53+-0.37+-0.26) keV, \\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c2)=(0.60+-0.06+-0.06) keV, and R=\\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c2)/\\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c0)= 0.237+-0.043+-0.034. The importance of the measurement of R is emphasized. For the forbidden transition, chi_c1->gamma gamma, an upper limit of \\Gamma_{gamma gamma}(chi_c1)<0.03 keV is established.

  10. Investigation of a Dielectric Square Resonator with Microwave Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental study of the symmetry properties and the momentum space representation of the field distributions of a dielectric square resonator as well as the comparison with a semiclassical model. The experiments have been performed with a flat ceramic microwave resonator and both the resonance spectra and field distributions were measured with different antenna configurations. The momentum space representation allows for a better understanding of the symmetry properties of the field distributions and the determination of the refractive index. The length spectrum deduced from the measured resonance spectrum and the trace formula for the dielectric square resonator are discussed in the framework of the semiclassical model.

  11. A square from similar rectangles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorichenko, Sergey; Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    In the present popular science paper we determine when a square can be dissected into rectangles similar to a given rectangle. The approach to the question is based on a physical interpretation using electrical networks. Only secondary school background is assumed in the paper.

  12. Two-photon widths of the $\\chi_{c0, 2}$ states and helicity analysis for $\\chi_{c2}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma$}

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R B; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M B; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A C; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K Y; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S P; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ulrich, M U; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M W; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A Z; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data sample of 106 M $\\psi^{\\prime}$ events collected with the BESIII detector, the decays $\\psi^{\\prime}\\ar\\gamma\\chi_{c0, 2}$,$\\chi_{c0, 2}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma$ are studied to determine the two-photon widths of the $\\chi_{c0, 2}$ states. The two-photon decay branching fractions are determined to be ${\\cal B}(\\chi_{c0}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma) = (2.24\\pm 0.19\\pm 0.12\\pm 0.08)\\times 10^{-4}$ and ${\\cal B}(\\chi_{c2}\\ar\\gamma\\gamma) = (3.21\\pm 0.18\\pm 0.17\\pm 0.13)\\times 10^{-4}$. From these, the two-photon widths are determined to be $\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c0}) = (2.33\\pm0.20\\pm0.13\\pm0.17)$ keV, $\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c2}) = (0.63\\pm0.04\\pm0.04\\pm0.04)$ keV, and $\\cal R$ $=\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c2})/\\Gamma_{\\gamma \\gamma}(\\chi_{c0})=0.271\\pm 0.029\\pm 0.013\\pm 0.027$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and those from the PDG ${\\cal B}(\\psi^{\\prime}\\ar\\gamma\\chi_{c0,2})$ and $\\Gamma(\\chi_{c0,2})$ errors, respectively. The ratio of the two-photon widths for helicity $\\lambda=0...

  13. Exclusive Baryon-Antibaryon Decays of the chi_cJ Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, P; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Méndez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 2.59 \\times 10^7 psi(2S) decays collected by the CLEO--c detector, we present results of a study of chi_{cJ} (J=0,1,2) decays into baryon-antibaryon final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the chi_cJ -> p-pbar and chi_cJ -> Lambda-Lambdabar branching fractions, and the first measurements of chi_c0 decays to other hyperons. These results illuminate the decay mechanism of the chi_c states.

  14. Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD. PMID:24224506

  15. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  16. Long-period ground motion characteristic of the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan, mainshock and aftershocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-feng; ZHANG Yang; ZHAO Jin-bao; TANG Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates long-period ground motion characteristic of the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan, mainshock and aftershocks on the basis of lots of high quality digital strong motion records. The study attaches the importance to the variation of strength of the long-period ground motion with the magnitude, distance, and site condition. In the meantime, the near-fault long-period ground motion characteristic is analyzed. The result shows that the shape of the long-period response spectrum is mainly controlled by site condition and magnitude (the spectrum of class D+E is wider than that of class B+C, and the spectrum of larger magnitude is wider than that of smaller magnitude), and the effect of fault distance on the shape is not evident. And near-fault long-period ground motion characteristic depends on fault activity apparently, that is to say, the long-term ground motion in the hanger is stronger than that in the footwall, and the long-term ground motion in the north is stronger than that in the south.

  17. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Naher; Soon Guan Tan; Chai Ling Ho; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Siti Hazar Ahmad; Faridah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil pa...

  18. High-level expression and characterization of two chitinases, ChiCH and ChiCW, of Bacillus cereus 28-9 in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many chitinase genes have been cloned and sequenced from prokaryotes and eukaryotes but overexpression of chitinases in Escherichia coli cells was less reported. ChiCH and ChiCW of Bacillus cereus 28-9 belong to two distinct groups based on their amino acid sequences of catalytic domains, and in addition, domain structures of two enzymes are different. In this study, we established an ideal method for high-level expression of chitinases in E. coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins using pGEX-6P-1 vector. Both ChiCH and ChiCW were successfully highly expressed in E. coli cells as soluble GST-chitinase fusion proteins, and recombinant native ChiCH and ChiCW could be purified after cleavage with PreScission protease to remove GST tag. Purified chitinases were used for biochemical characterization of kinetics, hydrolysis products, and binding activities. The results indicate that ChiCW is an endo-chitinase and effectively hydrolyzes chitin and chito-multimers to chito-oligomers and the end product chitobiose, and ChiCH is an exo-chitinase and degrades chito-oligomers to produce chitobiose. Furthermore, due to higher affinity of ChiCW toward colloidal chitin than Avicel, C-terminal domain of ChiCW should be classified as a chitin-binding domain not a cellulose-binding domain although that was revealed as a cellulose-binding domain by conserved domain analysis. Therefore, the method of high-level expression of chitinases is helpful to studies and applications of chitinases

  19. Chiral squaring and KLT relations

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that amplitudes based on matter supermultiplets can be combined to provide amplitudes of vector supermultiplets by means of KLT relations. In practice we do this by developing a procedure for removing supersymmetry supercharges from super Yang-Mills theory and supergravity supermultiplets, reducing them to vector and chiral supermultiplets respectively. This way, we reduce the super KLT relations to chiral KLT relations making chiral squaring of amplitudes manifest. We study th...

  20. Steenrod squares on conjugation spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Matthias; Puppe, Volker

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the coefficients of the so-called conjugation equation for conjugation spaces in the sense of Hausmann-Holm-Puppe are completely determined by Steenrod squares. This generalises a result of V.A. Krasnov for certain complex algebraic varieties. It also leads to a generalisation of a formula given by Borel and Haefliger, thereby largely answering an old question of theirs in the affirmative.

  1. Archimedes' calculations of square roots

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E B

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

  2. The Distribution of Periodontal Disease and Loss of Attachment in Jaw Sextants in Different Age Groups – Cross–Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Špalj, Stjepan; Plančak, Darije

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of periodontal disease stages is not the same in both human jaws, parts of the same jaw or in different ages of life. In the sample of 2,730 sextants, 455 persons 15+ years of age, analysis of distribution of both periodontal disease and loss of attachment in jaw sextants in different age groups was made, using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA). Statistical significance testing was checked using the Pearson Chi-Square-test with p...

  3. An Approximate Interval Estimate on the Parameter of Negative Binomial Distribution%负二项分布参数的一类近似区间估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜培华

    2012-01-01

    借助负二项分布和卡方分布的极限关系,推导给出当参数P较小条件下的近似区间估计,并通过数值例子介绍了此区间估计方法的应用.%An approximate interval estimate for small was gained with the limit relationship of negative binomi- al distribution and the chi - square distribution ; Finally, the method of interval estimate was studied and illustration was shown by examples.

  4. The CHY representation of tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Leonardo; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct a CHY representation for all tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes. The quarks may be massless or massive. We define a generalised cyclic factor $\\hat{C}(w,z)$ and a generalised permutation invariant function $\\hat{E}(z,p,\\varepsilon)$. The amplitude is then given as a contour integral encircling the solutions of the scattering equations with the product $\\hat{C} \\hat{E}$ as integrand. Equivalently, it is given as a sum over the inequivalent solutions of the scattering equations, where the summand consists of a Jacobian times the product $\\hat{C} \\hat{E}$. This representation separates information: The generalised cyclic factor does not depend on the helicities of the external particles, the generalised permutation invariant function does not depend on the ordering of the external particles.

  5. The CHY representation of tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Leonardo; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we construct a CHY representation for all tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes. The quarks may be massless or massive. We define a generalised cyclic factor Ĉ( w, z) and a generalised permutation invariant function Ê( z, p, ɛ). The amplitude is then given as a contour integral encircling the solutions of the scattering equations with the product ĈÊ as integrand. Equivalently, it is given as a sum over the inequivalent solutions of the scattering equations, where the summand consists of a Jacobian times the product Ĉ Ê. This representation separates information: The generalised cyclic factor does not depend on the helicities of the external particles, the generalised permutation invariant function does not depend on the ordering of the external particles.

  6. Parametric Optimization of Simulated Extrusion of Square to Square Section Through Linear Converging Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S. K.; Maity, K. P.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of various process parameters for determining extrusion load has been studied for square to square extrusion of Al-6061 alloy, a most used aluminium alloy series in forming industries. Parameters like operating temperature, friction condition, ram velocity, extrusion ratio and die length have been chosen as an input variable for the above study. Twenty five combinations of parameters were set for the investigation by considering aforementioned five parameters in five levels. The simulations have been carried out by Deform-3D software for predicting maximum load requirement for the complete extrusion process. Effective stress and strain distribution across the billet has been checked. Operating temperature, extrusion ratio, friction factor, ram velocity and die length have the significant effect in decreasing order on the maximum load requirement.

  7. The Effects of Tai Chi on Peripheral Somatosensation, Balance, and Fitness in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot and Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth I. Cavegn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy and loss of somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes can increase risk of falls and disability. In nondiabetic older adult population Tai Chi has been shown to enhance balance and fitness through improvements in somatosensation and neuromuscular control, and it is unclear if Tai Chi would elicit similar benefits in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week, three-hour-per-week Tai Chi intervention on peripheral somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants were eight Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Tai Chi intervention and a convenience sample of Hispanic older adults as a referent group. Baseline and postintervention assessments included ankle proprioception, foot tactile sense, plantar pressure distribution, balance, and fitness. After intervention, older adults with type 2 diabetes showed significant improvements in ankle proprioception and fitness and decreased plantar pressure in the forefoot, with no statistical effect noted in balance or tactile sensation. Study results suggest that Tai Chi may be beneficial for older adults with diabetes as it improves ankle proprioception; however, study findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample size randomized controlled trial.

  8. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction, with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground. Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more

  9. Chiral squaring and KLT relations

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that amplitudes based on matter supermultiplets can be combined to provide amplitudes of vector supermultiplets by means of KLT relations. In practice we do this by developing a procedure for removing supersymmetry supercharges from super Yang-Mills theory and supergravity supermultiplets, reducing them to vector and chiral supermultiplets respectively. This way, we reduce the super KLT relations to chiral KLT relations making chiral squaring of amplitudes manifest. We study these chiral KLT relations, discussing permutation symmetry and vanishing relations. Finally some explicit calculations are done to show how the relations work in detail.

  10. Counting Square-Free Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlewicz, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{1...

  11. Square Partitions and Catalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Matthew; Chari, Vyjayanthi; Dolbin, R. J.; Manning, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    For each integer $k\\ge 1$, we define an algorithm which associates to a partition whose maximal value is at most $k$ a certain subset of all partitions. In the case when we begin with a partition $\\lambda$ which is square, i.e $\\lambda=\\lambda_1\\ge...\\ge\\lambda_k>0$, and $\\lambda_1=k,\\lambda_k=1$, then applying the algorithm $\\ell$ times gives rise to a set whose cardinality is either the Catalan number $c_{\\ell-k+1}$ (the self dual case) or twice the Catalan number. The algorithm defines a t...

  12. Latin squares and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Keedwell, A Donald

    2015-01-01

    Latin Squares and Their Applications Second edition offers a long-awaited update and reissue of this seminal account of the subject. The revision retains foundational, original material from the frequently-cited 1974 volume but is completely updated throughout. As with the earlier version, the author hopes to take the reader 'from the beginnings of the subject to the frontiers of research'. By omitting a few topics which are no longer of current interest, the book expands upon active and emerging areas. Also, the present state of knowledge regarding the 73 then-unsolved problems given at the

  13. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms was applied. Traditional procedures such as ANCOVA, chi-squared analysis, and regression were used for comparisons. Discussion We present the rationale, design, and methodology of a placebo-controlled randomized trial to investigate a new complementary and alternative medicine strategy featuring a dietary supplement and a mind-body exercise for alleviating bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00625391

  14. Non-square Quadtree Transform Coefficients Energy Distribution Model and Improvement of the Scanning Pattern%非正方形四叉树变换系数能量分布模型及其扫描方式改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国韵; 刘梅锋; 徐洪珍

    2014-01-01

    The conventional coefficients scanning pattern of the non-square quadtree transform can not fit the energy distribution better enough, which worsens the coding efficiency. In order to improve the coding efficiency, a non-square quadtree transform coefficients energy distribution model is proposed and the coefficients scanning pattern is improved in this paper. The position distribution in spatial frequency domain of the non-square quadtree transform block is deduced. Based on this distribution, the energy distribution model is proposed theoretically. The model is verified by experiment. It is found from the experiment result that the energy decrease gradually from the top-left corner to lower-right corner, and the energy in lower left corner is close to that in upper right corner. According to the energy distribution model, the quantized coefficients scanning pattern in non-square quadtree transform is rebuilt to fit the entropy coding, where the scanning pattern prefers to an ascending order in coefficients. Experiment results show that the proposed scanning pattern achieves average 1.32%~3.74% bitrate saving and 9.05%~13.19% bitrates saving for the non-square transformed blocks with negligible loss in coding computational complexity and objective video quality, compared with the scanning pattern in NSQT.%传统的非正方形四叉树变换(NSQT)系数的扫描方式并不能很好地适应系数的能量分布,这将降低熵编码的编码效率。为了提高编码效率,该文提出非正方形四叉树变换系数能量分布模型,并改进了其系数扫描方式。首先推导了非正方形变换块的空间频率域位置分布,基于推导的分布,从理论上提出了其能量分布模型,并用实验进行了证实,发现能量从左上角到右下角逐渐递减,而左下角的能量与右上角的能量接近,根据该能量分布模型,重建了非正方形四叉树变换中量化系数的扫描模式,以适应熵编码,

  15. Observation of direct ion heating in double-pulsing CHI in helicity injected spherical torus plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous ion heating has been observed for the first time during flux/current amplification by double-pulsing coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in the helicity injected spherical torus (HIST) device. Doppler ion temperature increases significantly near the separatrix on the inboard side during the second CHI pulse, whereas electron temperature remains constant. The experimental results indicate that selective ion heating may be associated with viscous damping of poloidal flows driven by the CHI pulse. (author)

  16. Training in ChiRunning to reduce blood pressure: a randomized controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Kelly; Kumar, Deepak; Goldman, Veronica; Feng, Haojun; Mehling, Wolf; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Souza, Richard B.; Frederick M Hecht

    2015-01-01

    Background People with prehypertension (120–130/80–90 mmHg) are at increased risk of progressing to hypertension. Recommendations for prehypertension include engaging in regular physical activity. We aimed to assess feasibility and acceptability and collect preliminary outcome data on ChiRunning for people with elevated blood pressure. ChiRunning is a commercially available running program based on the mindful movements of Tai Chi, which is aimed at decreasing injury by both increasing body a...

  17. First Observation of Exclusive chi_cJ Decays to Two Charged and Two Neutral Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Q. He

    2008-01-01

    We study exclusive chi_c0, chi_c1 and chi_c2 decays to four-hadron final states involving two charged and two neutral mesons: pi^+pi^-pi^0pi^0, K^+K^-pi^0pi^0, pppi^0pi^0, K^+K^-etapi^0, and K^+-pi^-+K^0pi^0o. The chi_c states are produced in radiative decays of 3.08 million psi-prime resonance decays and observed in the CLEO detector. We also measure the largest substructure contributions to the modes pi^+pi^-pi^0pi^0 and K^+-pi^-+K^0pi^0.

  18. Study of {chi}{sub c} production using HERA-B data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, Aleksandar

    2010-07-15

    In this thesis the production of the charmonium states {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} in protonnucleus collisions at a proton-nucleon center-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV was studied. The data used for the analysis have been taken by the fixed-target experiment HERA-B that uses the HERA proton beam to scatter protons off the nuclei of different wire targets. About 122.10{sup 3} recorded muonic J/{psi} decays, J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, resulted in almost 10000 reconstructed {chi}{sub c}{yields}J/{psi}{gamma}. The ratio R{sub {chi}{sub c}}= sum {sub i=1,2}{sigma}({chi}{sub ci})Br({chi}{sub ci}{yields}J/{psi}{gamma})/{sigma}(J/{psi}), which is the ratio of J/{psi} from {chi}{sub c} decays to all produced J/{psi}, was measured in the kinematical range -0.35chi}{sub c}}=0.190{sub -0.029}{sup +0.030}. Despite the small separation of the masses of the two {chi}{sub c} states, comparable to the detector resolution, the ratio R{sub 12}=R{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 1}}/R{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 2}} was measured yielding R{sub 12}=1.30{sub -0.37}{sup +0.59} which corresponds to a production cross section ratio ({sigma}({chi}{sub c1}))/({sigma}({chi}{sub c2}))=0.74{sub -0.22}{sup +0.34}. By using the known J/{psi} production cross section, the {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} production cross sections are calculated to be {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})=(153{+-}27) nb/nucleon and {sigma}({chi}{sub c2})=(207{+-}39) nb/nucleon, respectively. All results were obtained under the assumption that both the J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} states are produced without polarization. In addition a study of possible deviations of R{sub {chi}{sub c}} and R{sub 12} due to the polarization of J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} was performed. By varying the polarization parameter, {lambda}{sub obs}, of all produced J/{psi} by 2{sigma} around the value measured by HERA-B, and assuming fully

  19. Learn with SAT to Minimize Büchi Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Barth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a minimization procedure for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA. For an automaton A another automaton A_min with the minimal number of states is learned with the help of a SAT-solver. This is done by successively computing automata A' that approximate A in the sense that they accept a given finite set of positive examples and reject a given finite set of negative examples. In the course of the procedure these example sets are successively increased. Thus, our method can be seen as an instance of a generic learning algorithm based on a "minimally adequate teacher'' in the sense of Angluin. We use a SAT solver to find an NBA for given sets of positive and negative examples. We use complementation via construction of deterministic parity automata to check candidates computed in this manner for equivalence with A. Failure of equivalence yields new positive or negative examples. Our method proved successful on complete samplings of small automata and of quite some examples of bigger automata. We successfully ran the minimization on over ten thousand automata with mostly up to ten states, including the complements of all possible automata with two states and alphabet size three and discuss results and runtimes; single examples had over 100 states.

  20. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  1. High chi polymer development for DSA applications using RAFT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Farnham, William B.; Tran, Hoang V.; Londono, J. David; Brun, Yefim

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is proving to be an interesting and innovative method to make three-dimensional periodic, uniform patterns useful in a variety of microelectronics applications. Attributes critical to acceptable DSA performance of block copolymers include molecular weight uniformity, final purity, and reproducibility in all the steps involved in producing the polymers. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization technology enables the production of such materials provided that careful process monitoring and compositional homogeneity measurement systems are employed. It is uniquely suited to construction of multiblocks with components of widely divergent surface energies and functionality. We describe a high chi diblock system comprising partially fluorinated methacrylates and substituted styrenics. While special new polymer separation strategies involving controlled polymer particle assembly in liquid media are required for some monomer systems and molecular weight regimes, we have been able to demonstrate high yield and compositionally homogeneous diblocks of lamellar and cylindrical morphology with polydispersities < 1.1. During purification processes, these diblock materials undergo assembly processes in liquid media, and with appropriate controls, this allows for removal of soluble homopolymer contaminants. SAXS analyses of solid polymer samples provide estimates of lamellar d-spacing, and a good correlation with molecular weight is shown. This system will be described.

  2. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region. PMID:26009880

  3. Acute Cardiovascular Response to Sign Chi Do Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. Rogers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safe and gentle exercise may be important for older adults overcoming a sedentary lifestyle. Sign Chi Do (SCD, a novel form of low impact exercise, has shown improved balance and endurance in healthy older adults, and there have been no SCD-related injuries reported. Sedentary older adults are known to have a greater cardiovascular (CV response to physical activity than those who regularly exercise. However their CV response to SCD is unknown. This study explored the acute CV response of older adults to SCD. Cross-sectional study of 34 sedentary and moderately active adults over age 55 with no previous experience practicing SCD. Participants completed a 10 min session of SCD. CV outcomes of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product were recorded at 0, 5, 10 min of SCD performance, and after 10 min of rest. HR was recorded every minute. There was no difference in CV scores of sedentary and moderately active older adults after a session of SCD-related activity. All CV scores increased at 5 min, were maintained at 10 min, and returned to baseline within 10 min post SCD (p < 0.05. SCD may be a safe way to increase participation in regular exercise by sedentary older adults.

  4. Central Exclusive Production of $\\chi$ Mesons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bjornstad, Pal Marius

    The LHCb experiment is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider, covering a range of pseudorapidity $1.9<\\eta<4.9$. It has a very precise vertex detector called the VELO, near the interaction point. The monitoring software for the VELO is discussed in this thesis. In proton-proton interactions, Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a process where the protons remain intact after the interaction, and an additional simple central system is produced. CEP processes are selected experimentally by requiring that there is no activity in the detector apart from the central system. The installation of additional detectors to increase the sensitivity at small angles from the beam axis is discussed. A geometrical description of the region of the LHC up to $100$~m on each side of the LHCb interaction point is developed. Simulated forward shower counters are added to the model, and the efficiencies of the detectors are measured. The main part of this thesis describes an analysis of CEP of $\\chi_c$ mes...

  5. Counting Square-Free Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlewicz, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{17}$. Using our implementation we were able to calculate the value for $n=10^{36}$ on a cluster.

  6. Multi-ring performance of the Kendall square multiprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    Performance of the hierarchical shared-memory system of the Kendall Square Research multiprocessor is measured and characterized. The performance of prefetch is measured. Latency, bandwidth, and contention are analyzed on a 4-ring, 128 processor system. Scalability comparisons are made with other shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors.

  7. "Miracolo dell'arte" Chi ha inventato il telescopio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, Francesca

    2006-02-01

    Who did invent the telescope? It seems a simple-answering question but this is untrue. The article recall the fundamental steps of the first phase in the telescope history between 16th and 17th century, from the first experiences with the lenses made by the Italian opticians to the Della Porta's theories, from the vicissitudes of the Dutch spectacle-makers to the spreading of the new instrument through the European squares. At last we meet the work of Galileo Galilei, the first man to use the telescope for scientific purposes, understanding all its potentialities.

  8. Observation of chi(cJ) decays to Lambda(Lambda)over-bar pi(+)pi(-)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Decays of the chi(cJ) states (J = 0, 1, 2) to Lambda(Lambda) over bar pi(+)pi(-), including processes with intermediate Sigma(1385), are studied through the E1 transition psi(1) -> gamma chi(cJ) using 106 x 10(6) psi(1) events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII. This is the first observati

  9. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  10. New parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom)); Roberts, R.G. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    Recent measurements of the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering made by the NMC and the CCFR collaboration provide new information on parton distribution, particularly in the 0.01<[chi]<0.1 interval. We describe (next-to-leading order) determinations of parton distributions which incorporate these new data together with other deep-inelastic and related data, and which allow the possibility of flavour dependence of the light quark sea (i.e. anti u[ne]anti d) as implied by the Gottfried sum rule. We discuss extrapolations to small [chi]. (orig.).

  11. $\\chi_{c2}$ formation in two-photon collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Gong, Z F; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pedace, M; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Sakar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1999-01-01

    Two-photon formation of the charmonium resonance $\\chi_{{\\rm c}2}$ has been studied with the L3 detector at LEP. The $\\chi_{{\\rm c}2}$ is identified through its decay $\\chi_{{\\rm c}2} \\rightarrow \\gamma {\\rm J}$, with a subsequent decay ${\\rm J} \\rightarrow {\\mathrm{e^+ e^-}}$ or ${\\rm J} \\rightarrow {\\mathrm{\\mu^+ \\mu^-}}$. With an integrated luminosity of 140 pb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s} \\simeq$ 91~\\textrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V} and 52 pb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s} \\simeq$ {Ge\\kern -0.1em V}, we measure the two-photon width of the $\\chi_{{\\rm c}2}$ to be \\begin{center} $\\Gamma_{\\gamma\\gamma}(\\chi_{{\\rm c}2})=1.02 \\pm 0.40 \\mbox{$\\;$(stat.)} \\pm 0.15 \\mbox{$\\;$(sys.)} \\pm 0.09(\\rm{BR.}) {\\mathrm{\\ ke\\kern -0.1em V}}$.

  12. An Assessment of Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive Ability in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Manh NGUYEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on cognitive performance of community - dwelling elderly in Vinh city, Vietnam. It is a controlled trial. One hundred subjected were recruited. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups. Tai Chi group was assigned 6 - months Tai Chi training. Control group was instructed to maintain their routine daily activities. Participants in Tai Chi group reported significant improvement cognitive ability, part A with F(1, 68 = 75.36, p < .001, and in part B with F(1, 68= 172.83, p < .001 in comparison with Control group. Tai Chi is beneficial to improve cognitive performance of the elderly.

  13. Sparse least-squares reverse time migration using seislets

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2015-08-19

    We propose sparse least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) using seislets as a basis for the reflectivity distribution. This basis is used along with a dip-constrained preconditioner that emphasizes image updates only along prominent dips during the iterations. These dips can be estimated from the standard migration image or from the gradient using plane-wave destruction filters or structural tensors. Numerical tests on synthetic datasets demonstrate the benefits of this method for mitigation of aliasing artifacts and crosstalk noise in multisource least-squares migration.

  14. Nonnegative Polynomials and Sums of Squares

    CERN Document Server

    Blekherman, Grigoriy

    2010-01-01

    In the smallest cases where there exist nonnegative polynomials that are not sums of squares we present a complete classification of the differences between these sets. We show that in these cases the fundamental reason that the set of sums of squares is smaller than the set of nonnegative polynomials is that polynomials of degree d satisfy certain linear relations known as the Cayley-Bacharach relations, which are not satisfied by polynomials of full degree 2d. For any nonnegative polynomial that is not a sum of squares we can write down a linear inequality coming from a Cayley-Bacharach relation that certifies that the polynomial is not a sum of squares. We also present structure results on the strictly positive sums of squares that lie on the boundary of the cone of sums of squares and results on extreme rays of the cone dual to the cone of sums of squares.

  15. What have we learned from HaChi (HAZE IN CHINA) project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    hygroscopic growth factors and particle number size distributions measured. Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) closure study is conducted with bulk CCN number concentration and calculated CCN number concentration based on the aerosol number size distribution and size-resolved activation properties. An evaluation of various methods for CCN parameterization is presented based on in situ measurements of aerosol activation properties within HaChi project. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles can significantly affect their single-scattering albedo, and consequently alters the aerosol effect on tropospheric photochemistry. At last, I will introduce the results on the relationship between aerosol hygroscopic properties and aerosol radiation including impacts of aerosol hygroscopic growth on the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient and the estimation of direct aerosol radiative effect in the North China Plan.

  16. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  17. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Converse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  18. New Urban Squares, Documentation for ten urban squares recently designed in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Shady

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that Dutch squares have no symbolic meaning or characteristics like in southern Europe. In the Netherlands, urban squares are only used for functional activities. Until the beginning of the 1980s and before the introduction of café terraces or the 'terrasje' culture, the urban squares were only used as ‘marktpleinen’ or market squares. However, this study concludes that almost all the design strategies tried to introduce spacious empty squares. In each example, the design of the...

  19. Measurement of the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{c2}$ and $\\chi_{c1}$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; 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Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Usai, Emanuele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{c2}$ and $\\chi_{c1}$ with 4.6 inverse femtobarns of data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The two states are measured via their radiative decays $\\chi_{c} \\to J/\\psi + \\gamma$, with the photon converting into a dielectron pair for J/$\\psi$ rapidity abs(y(J/$\\psi$)) 0.5 GeV. The measurement is given for six intervals of pt(J/$\\psi$) between 7 and 25 GeV. The results are compared to theoretical predictions.

  20. Characterization of new cell line stably expressing CHI3L1 oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonin V. P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize the immortalized 293 cell line after stable transfection with human oncogene (CHI3L1. Methods. 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1, and 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 as a negative control, were used throughout all experiments. The clones of CHI3L1-expressing 293 cells and 293 cells, transfected with pcDNA3.1, were analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; analyses of ERK1/2 and AKT activation and their cellular localization were performed with anti-phospho-ERK and anti-phospho-AKT antibodies. Specific activation of MAP and PI3 kinases was measured by densitometric analysis of Western-blot signals. Results. The obtained results show quite modest ability of CHI3L1 to stimulate cell growth and reflect rather an improved cellular plating efficiency of the 293 cells stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1 as compared to the 293 cells transfected with an «empty» vector. ERK1/2 and AKT are activated in the 293_CHI3L1 cells. In these cells phosphorylated ERK1/2 were localized in both cell cytoplasm and nuclei while AKT only in cytoplasm. The 293_CHI3L1 cells differed from the 293 cells, transfected with an «empty» vector, in their size and ability to adhere to the culture plates. Conclusions. The overexpression of CHI3L1 is likely to have an important role in tumorigenesis via a mechanism which involves activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways. The tumors which can be induced by orthotopic implantation of the transformed human cells with overexpressed human oncogene CHI3L1 into the rat brain can be used as a target for anticancer drug development.

  1. A {chi}{sup 2} veto for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho de la Jordana, Llucia; Sintes, Alicia M [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)], E-mail: llucia.sancho@uib.es, E-mail: sintes@aei.mpg.de

    2008-09-21

    {chi}{sup 2} vetoes are commonly used in searching for gravitational waves, in particular for broadband signals, but they can also be applied to narrowband continuous wave signals, such as those expected from rapidly rotating neutron stars. In this paper, we present a {chi}{sup 2} veto adapted to the Hough transform searches for continuous gravitational wave signals; we characterize the {chi}{sup 2} significance plane for different frequency bands and discuss the expected performance of this veto in LIGO analysis.

  2. The Diophantine Equation x[squared]+ky[squared]=z[squared] and Integral Triangles with a Cosine Value of 1 over n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2006-01-01

    We sometimes teach our students a method of finding all integral triples that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem x[squared]+y[squared]=z[squared]. These are called Pythagorean triples. In this paper, we show how to solve the equation x[squared]+ky[squared]=z[squared], where again, all variables are integers.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi for long-term low back pain (TAI CHI: Study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Amanda M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain persisting for longer than 3 months is a common and costly condition for which many current treatments have low-moderate success rates at best. Exercise is among the more successful treatments for this condition, however, the type and dosage of exercise that elicits the best results is not clearly defined. Tai chi is a gentle form of low intensity exercise that uses controlled movements in combination with relaxation techniques and is currently used as a safe form of exercise for people suffering from other chronic pain conditions such as arthritis. To date, there has been no scientific evaluation of tai chi as an intervention for people with back pain. Thus the aim of this study will be to examine the effects of a tai chi exercise program on pain and disability in people with long-term low back pain. Methods and design The study will recruit 160 healthy individuals from the community setting to be randomised to either a tai chi intervention group or a wait-list control group. Individuals in the tai chi group will attend 2 tai chi sessions (40 minutes/week for 8 weeks followed by 1 tai chi session/week for 2 weeks. The wait-list control will continue their usual health care practices and have the opportunity to participate in the tai chi program once they have completed the follow-up assessments. The primary outcome will be bothersomeness of back symptoms measured with a 0–10 numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes include, self-reports of pain-related disability, health-related quality of life and global perceived effect of treatment. Statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be based on the intention to treat principle. Linear mixed models will be used to test for the effect of treatment on outcome at 10 weeks follow up. This trial has received ethics approval from The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. HREC Approval No.10452 Discussion This study will be the first

  4. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficie...

  5. The Square Light Clock and Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J. Ronald; Amiri, Farhang

    2012-01-01

    A thought experiment that includes a square light clock is similar to the traditional vertical light beam and mirror clock, except it is made up of four mirrors placed at a 45[degree] angle at each corner of a square of length L[subscript 0], shown in Fig. 1. Here we have shown the events as measured in the rest frame of the square light clock. By…

  6. Broadband Corrugated Square-Shaped Monopole Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Ahirwar; C. Sairam

    2011-01-01

    Design and development of a corrugated square-shaped monopole antenna is presented with measured results. The operational bandwidth of the antenna is 300 MHz–3000 MHz. The antenna is derived from a square-shaped planar monopole antenna. This basic square-shaped radiating element is corrugated in its lateral dimension. This corrugation reduces the lateral dimension of the antenna by 60%. Electrical performance of this antenna is better than its parent counterpart. This paper presents design an...

  7. Mapping Ground Subsidence Phenomena in Ho Chi Minh City through the Radar Interferometry Technique Using ALOS PALSAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Ho Tong Minh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly developing urbanization since the last decade of the 20th century has led to extensive groundwater extraction, resulting in subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Recent advances in multi-temporal spaceborne SAR interferometry, especially with a persistent scatters interferometry (PSI approach, has made this a robust remote sensing technique for measuring large-scale ground subsidence with millimetric accuracy. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide an unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City from 2006 to 2010. The study shows that subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along the Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city. The groundwater extraction resulting from urbanization and urban growth is mainly responsible for the subsidence. Subsidence in turn leads to more flooding and water nuisance. The correlation between the reference leveling velocity and the estimated PSI result is R2 = 0.88, and the root mean square error is 4.3 (mm/year, confirming their good agreement. From 2006 to 2010, the estimation of the average subsidence rate is -8.0 mm/year, with the maximum value up to -70 mm/year. After four years, in regions along Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city, the land has sunk up to -12 cm. If not addressed, subsidence leads to the increase of inundation, both in frequency and spatial extent. Finally, regarding climate change, the effects of subsidence should be considered as appreciably greater than those resulting from rising sea level. It is essential to consider these two factors, because the city is inhabited by more than 7.5 million people, where subsidence directly impacts urban structures and infrastructure.

  8. From least squares to multilevel modeling: A graphical introduction to Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This tutorial presentation will introduce some of the key ideas and techniques involved in applying Bayesian methods to problems in astrostatistics. The focus will be on the big picture: understanding the foundations (interpreting probability, Bayes's theorem, the law of total probability and marginalization), making connections to traditional methods (propagation of errors, least squares, chi-squared, maximum likelihood, Monte Carlo simulation), and highlighting problems where a Bayesian approach can be particularly powerful (Poisson processes, density estimation and curve fitting with measurement error). The "graphical" component of the title reflects an emphasis on pictorial representations of some of the math, but also on the use of graphical models (multilevel or hierarchical models) for analyzing complex data. Code for some examples from the talk will be available to participants, in Python and in the Stan probabilistic programming language.

  9. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...... shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages. The...

  10. Fluid Flow Through Triangular and Square Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Nasaruddin

    2014-01-01

    Characteristicsof fluid flowing through triangular and square cylindershas been analyzed experimentally andnumerically by CFDat Reynolds number based on square cylinders diameter,Re = 14.730;26.040 and 37.192. Ratio of the distance between cylinders to square cylinders diameter (L/D) was variedas0.0;1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; and 5.0 while ratio of the triangular cylinders diameter to square cylinders diameter (d/D) was constant at 0.5. The results showed that the vortex is damped...

  11. A Deep Spitzer Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Young Double Cluster, h and chi Persei

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Ryan; Rieke, George; Kenyon, Scott J; Balog, Zoltan; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We analyze very deep IRAC and MIPS photometry of $\\sim$ 12,500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and $\\chi$ Persei, building upon on our earlier, shallower Spitzer studies (Currie et al. 2007a, 2008a). Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 {\\mu}m and 24 $\\mu$m indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 $\\mu$m excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower-mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 $\\mu m$ reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, although similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide better constraints. We combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nomi...

  12. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a series of slow, gentle ... stress. and qi gong A component of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, and controlled breathing. ...

  13. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture Series All Training Information News & Events ... features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a series of slow, gentle movements ...

  14. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... Y Z Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following ...

  15. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on complementary and integrative practices and a health condition All News & Events About NCCIH NCCIH At a Glance Mission and Vision Organizational ... Tai Chi and Qi ...

  16. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E F ... up Qi Gong Tai Chi Cool Down This page last modified February 12, 2015 Follow NCCIH: Read ...

  17. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH ... tool that features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a series of slow, ...

  18. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH ... tool that features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a series of slow, ...

  19. chi_cJ Decays to h^+h^-h^0

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, S; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; López, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 3x10^6 psi(2S) decays recorded by the CLEO detector, we study three body decays of the chi_{c0}, chi_{c1}, and chi_{c2} produced in radiative decays of the psi(2S). We consider the decay modes pi+ pi- eta, K+ K- eta, p pbar eta, pi+ pi- etaprime, K+ K- pi0, p pbar pi0, pi+ K- K0S, and K+ pbar Lambda measuring branching fractions or placing upper limits. For chi_{c1} to pi+ pi- eta, K+ K- pi0, and pi+ K- K0S our observed samples are large enough to study the substructure in a Dalitz plot analysis. The results presented in this document are preliminary.

  20. chi_{cJ} Decays to h^+h^-h^0

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, S; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; López, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; al, et

    2007-01-01

    Using a sample of 3 million psi(2S) decays recorded by the CLEO detector, we study three-body decays of the chi_c0, chi_c1, and chi_c2 produced in radiative decays of the psi(2S). We consider the final states pi+ pi- eta, K+ K- eta, p p-bar eta, pi+ pi- eta-prime, K+ K- pi0, p p-bar pi0, pi+ K- K0S, and K+ p-bar Lambda, measuring branching fractions or placing upper limits. For chi_c1 decays to pi+ pi- eta, K+ K- pi0, and pi+ K- K0S our observed samples are large enough to study the substructure in a Dalitz plot analysis.

  1. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool that features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a series of slow, gentle movements coordinated with breathing and meditation. The goal is to enhance physical functioning, improve balance and ...

  2. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E F G H I ... be an educational tool that features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a ...

  3. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool that features tai chi A practice in traditional Chinese medicine that uses a series of slow, ... reduce stress. and qi gong A component of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, and controlled ...

  4. PAPIRUS, a parallel computing framework for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, and estimation of parameter distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jaeseok, E-mail: jheo@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Kyung Doo, E-mail: kdkim@kaeri.re.kr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed an interface between an engineering simulation code and statistical analysis software. • Multiple packages of the sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation algorithms are implemented in the framework. • Parallel computing algorithms are also implemented in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously. - Abstract: This paper introduces a statistical data analysis toolkit, PAPIRUS, designed to perform the model calibration, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis for both linear and nonlinear problems. The PAPIRUS was developed by implementing multiple packages of methodologies, and building an interface between an engineering simulation code and the statistical analysis algorithms. A parallel computing framework is implemented in the PAPIRUS with multiple computing resources and proper communications between the server and the clients of each processor. It was shown that even though a large amount of data is considered for the engineering calculation, the distributions of the model parameters and the calculation results can be quantified accurately with significant reductions in computational effort. A general description about the PAPIRUS with a graphical user interface is presented in Section 2. Sections 2.1–2.5 present the methodologies of data assimilation, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis implemented in the toolkit with some results obtained by each module of the software. Parallel computing algorithms adopted in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously are also summarized in the paper.

  5. PAPIRUS, a parallel computing framework for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, and estimation of parameter distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed an interface between an engineering simulation code and statistical analysis software. • Multiple packages of the sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation algorithms are implemented in the framework. • Parallel computing algorithms are also implemented in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously. - Abstract: This paper introduces a statistical data analysis toolkit, PAPIRUS, designed to perform the model calibration, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis for both linear and nonlinear problems. The PAPIRUS was developed by implementing multiple packages of methodologies, and building an interface between an engineering simulation code and the statistical analysis algorithms. A parallel computing framework is implemented in the PAPIRUS with multiple computing resources and proper communications between the server and the clients of each processor. It was shown that even though a large amount of data is considered for the engineering calculation, the distributions of the model parameters and the calculation results can be quantified accurately with significant reductions in computational effort. A general description about the PAPIRUS with a graphical user interface is presented in Section 2. Sections 2.1–2.5 present the methodologies of data assimilation, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis implemented in the toolkit with some results obtained by each module of the software. Parallel computing algorithms adopted in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously are also summarized in the paper

  6. Deciding the weak definability of Büchi definable tree languages

    OpenAIRE

    Colcombet, Thomas; Kuperberg, Denis; Löding, Christof; Vanden Boom, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Weakly definable languages of infinite trees are an expressive subclass of regular tree languages definable in terms of weak monadic second-order logic, or equivalently weak alternating automata. Our main result is that given a Büchi automaton, it is decidable whether the language is weakly definable. We also show that given a parity automaton, it is decidable whether the language is recognizable by a nondeterministic co-Büchi automaton. The decidability proofs build on recent results abou...

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Patient-Reported Outcomes With Tai Chi Exercise in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan

    2013-01-01

    A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared ...

  8. Quality of Reporting of Randomized Clinical Trials in Tai Chi Interventions—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the reporting quality of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs in the Tai Chi literature following the publication of the CONSORT guidelines in 2001. Data Sources. The OVID MEDLINE and PUBMED databases. Review Methods. To survey the general characteristics of Tai Chi RCTs in the literature, we included any report if (i it was an original report of the trial; (ii its design was RCT; (iii one of the treatments being tested was Tai Chi; and (iv it was in English. In addition, we assessed the reporting quality of RCTs that were published between 2002 and 2007, using a modified CONSORT checklist of 40 items. The adequate description of Tai Chi interventions in these trials was examined against a 10-item checklist adapted from previous reviews. Results. The search yielded 31 Tai Chi RCTs published from 2002 to 2007 and only 11 for 1992–2001. Among trials published during 2002–2007, the most adequately reported criteria were related to background, participant eligibility and interpretation of the study results. Nonetheless, the most poorly reported items were associated with randomization allocation concealment, implementation of randomization and the definitions of period of recruitment and follow-up. In addition, only 23% of RCTs provided adequate details of Tai Chi intervention used in the trials. Conclusion. The findings in this review indicated that the reporting quality of Tai Chi intervention trials is sub-optimal. Substantial improvement is required to meet the CONSORT guidelines and allow assessment of the quality of evidence. We believe that not only investigators, but also journal editors, reviewers and funding agencies need to follow the CONSORT guidelines to improve the standards of research and strengthen the evidence base for Tai Chi and for complementary and alternative medicine.

  9. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai ...

  10. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Craig S.; Luo, Anna Y.; Krägeloh, Chris; Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background The poor health consequences of stress are well recognized, and students in higher education may be at particular risk. Tai Chi integrates physical exercise with mindfulness techniques and seems well suited to relieve stress and related conditions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education reported in the English and Chinese literature, using an evidence hierarchy approach, allowing the inclusion of studies additiona...

  11. Some Theoretical Essences of Lithuania Squares Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Tiškus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Lithuanian acts of law and in the scientific literature there are no clear criteria and notions to define a square. The unbuilt city space places or the gaps between buildings are often defined as the squares, which do not have clear limits or destination. The mandatory attributes of the place which is called the square are indicated in the article, the notion of square is defined. The article deals with Lithuanian squares theme, analyses the differences between representation and representativeness. The article aims to indicate an influence of city environmental context and monument in the square on its function. The square is an independent element of city plan structure, but it is not an independent element of city spatial structure. The space and environment of the square are related to each other not only by physical, aesthetical relations, but as well as by causalities, which may be named as the essences of squares’ formation. The interdisciplinary discourse analysis method is applied in the article.

  12. Lagrange’s Four-Square Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a formalized proof of the so-called “the four-square theorem”, namely any natural number can be expressed by a sum of four squares, which was proved by Lagrange in 1770. An informal proof of the theorem can be found in the number theory literature, e.g. in [14], [1] or [23].

  13. Cross-ratio Identities and Higher-order Poles of CHY-integrand

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto; Huang, Rijun

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of generic Cachazo-He-Yuan(CHY)-integrands is a big challenge and efficient computational methods are in demand for practical evaluation. In this paper, we propose a systematic decomposition algorithm by using cross-ratio identities, which provides an analytic and easy to implement method for the evaluation of any CHY-integrand. This algorithm aims to decompose a given CHY-integrand containing higher-order poles as a linear combination of CHY-integrands with only simple poles in a finite number of steps, which ultimately can be trivially evaluated by integration rules of simple poles. To make the method even more efficient for CHY-integrands with large number of particles and complicated higher-order pole structures, we combine the $\\Lambda$-algorithm and the cross-ratio identities, and as a by-product it provides us a way to deal with CHY-integrands where the $\\Lambda$-algorithm was not applicable in its original formulation.

  14. Least-squares inversion for density-matrix reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Opatrny, T.; Welsch, D. -G.; Vogel, W.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a method for reconstruction of the density matrix from measurable time-dependent (probability) distributions of physical quantities. The applicability of the method based on least-squares inversion is - compared with other methods - very universal. It can be used to reconstruct quantum states of various systems, such as harmonic and and anharmonic oscillators including molecular vibrations in vibronic transitions and damped motion. It also enables one to take into account various s...

  15. Focusing properties of a square electrostatic rainbow lens doublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telečki Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study on the properties of a square electrostatic rainbow lens doublet. The said optical element consists of two square electrostatic rainbow lenses with the second lens axially rotated for 45 degrees with respect to the first one. The propagation of a proton beam with a kinetic energy of 10 keV through the doublet is in the focus of our analysis. The potential of the electrodes of both lenses is 2 kV. The electrostatic potential and the electric field components of the lens doublet are calculated using a 3-D computer code based on the method of moments. Spatial and angular distributions of protons propagating through the lens doublet, as well as the parameters defining beam quality, are investigated. As in the case of the single square electrostatic rainbow lens, the evolution of these distributions is determined by the evolution of corresponding rainbow lines, generated by the use of the theory of crystal rainbows. Our study shows that a beam core in the shape of a cusped square is formed by the spatial rainbow line that appears first. This rainbow line occurs during proton propagation through the first lens. The beam core retains the cusped square shape during the propagation through the second lens. The electrostatic field of the second lens causes the appearance of an additional spatial rainbow line, which encompasses the beam core and defines the outer border of the beam. This rainbow line constitutes the main difference between the cases of the lens doublet and a single lens. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45006

  16. A Lower Bound on the Capacity of the Noncentral Chi Channel with Applications to Soliton Amplitude Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Nikita A; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Alvarado, Alex; Bayvel, Polina; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-01-01

    The channel law for amplitude-modulated solitons transmitted through a nonlinear optical fibre with ideal distributed amplification and a receiver based on the nonlinear Fourier transform is a noncentral chi distribution with $2n$ degrees of freedom, where $n=2$ and $n=3$ correspond to the single- and dual-polarisation cases, respectively. In this paper, we study the capacity of this channel in bits per channel use, and develop a semi-analytic capacity lower bound for arbitrary $n$ and a Rayleigh input distribution. An asymptotic analysis of the bound is also presented, which shows that this lower bound grows logarithmically with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), independently of the value of $n$. Numerical results for other input distributions are also provided. A half-Gaussian input distribution is shown to give larger rates than a Rayleigh input distribution for $n=1,2,3$. At an effective SNR of 30~dB, the obtained lower bounds are approximately 4 bit per channel use.

  17. Use of a chiA probe for detection of chitinase genes in bacteria from the Chesapeake Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Hill, R.T.; Chun, J.; Ravel, J.; Matte, M.H.; Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R.

    from several distantly re- lated bacteria facilitated selection of highly conserved re- gions of the chiA gene for design of PCR primers expected to have broad speci¢city for detection of chiA in a wide range of bacteria. Our aims were to construct a...,34]. In the present study, chiA gene-speci¢c PCR primers and a chiA gene probe were developed and their speci¢city veri¢ed using a large assemblage of reference strains. The chiA frag- ments ampli¢ed by PCR from representative strains were sequenced to con...

  18. Counterexamples to mean square almost periodicity of the solutions of some SDEs with almost periodic coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mellah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that, contrarily to what is claimed in some papers, the nontrivial solutions of some stochastic differential equations with almost periodic coefficients are never mean square almost periodic (but they can be almost periodic in distribution.

  19. Comparison of Probability Distribution Function in Determining Minimum Annual and Monthly Streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícolas Reinaldo Finkler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to provide the foundation studies of water availability in the Arroio Belo basin, in Caxias do Sul/RS. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the application of Weibull, Normal, LogNormal, Gumbel (minimum, LogPearson and Pearson theoretical probability functions to data of minimum streamflows for seven consecutive days of the basin. The analysis had two approaches: application in annual data, and then on monthly data, considering seasonality. To verify the adherence to the estimated probabilities of observed frequencies, we applied three tests: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Squared. The results show that the Log-Pearson III distribution shows greater accuracy in representing the annual data of the series and reach the best fit of the minimum streamflow. The monthly data analysis indicated the use of the distribution Pearson III, which showed higher suitability to the minimum streamflow data.

  20. Elasto-plastic finite element analysis of squaring circular tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuung-ming

    2008-01-01

    The flow rule of Prandtl-Reuss was adopted and incremental elasto-plastic finite-element analysis formulation of Coulomb's friction law combining the finite deformation theory was established,and Lagrangian formulation for simulating the squaring process of circular tube was updated.Incremental Coulomb's friction law was used in the global stiffness matrix to solve the sliding-sticking state of friction at the boundary contact interface.During the squaring process,the linear factor γmin was adopted to solve the non-linear boundary problems of changing node contact and separation,elasto-plastic transient situation in an element and the non-linear constitutive behavior of material so as to make each reasonable increment of the punch meet the demand of calculation for linear increment.The squaring process of circular tube,load distribution and final shape of work piece after unloading were simulated by this mode and compared with research data.It is known that the circular tube with higller geometrical ratio (R/t) could be pressed into symmetric square tube without collapse.This result can provide reference for the analysis of this process and evaluation and improvement of product defects.

  1. Partial update least-square adaptive filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive filters play an important role in the fields related to digital signal processing and communication, such as system identification, noise cancellation, channel equalization, and beamforming. In practical applications, the computational complexity of an adaptive filter is an important consideration. The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is widely used because of its low computational complexity (O(N)) and simplicity in implementation. The least squares algorithms, such as Recursive Least Squares (RLS), Conjugate Gradient (CG), and Euclidean Direction Search (EDS), can converge faster a

  2. Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition

    CERN Document Server

    Béziau, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    aiThe theory of oppositions based on Aristotelian foundations of logic has been pictured in a striking square diagram which can be understood and applied in many different ways having repercussions in various fields: epistemology, linguistics, mathematics, psychology. The square can also be generalized in other two-dimensional or multi-dimensional objects extending in breadth and depth the original theory of oppositions of Aristotle. The square of opposition is a very attractive theme which has been going through centuries without evaporating. Since 10 years there is a new growing interest for

  3. Quantitative analysis of urban sprawl in Tripoli using Pearson's Chi-Square statistics and urban expansion intensity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban expansion is a spatial phenomenon that reflects the increased level of importance of metropolises. The remotely sensed data and GIS have been widely used to study and analyze the process of urban expansions and their patterns. The capital of Libya (Tripoli) was selected to perform this study and to examine its urban growth patterns. Four satellite imageries of the study area in different dates (1984, 1996, 2002 and 2010) were used to conduct this research. The main goal of this work is identification and analyzes the urban sprawl of Tripoli metropolitan area. Urban expansion intensity index (UEII) and degree of freedom test were used to analyze and assess urban expansions in the area of study. The results show that Tripoli has sprawled urban expansion patterns; high urban expansion intensity index; and its urban development had high degree of freedom according to its urban expansion history during the time period (1984-2010). However, the novel proposed hypothesis used for zones division resulted in very good insight understanding of urban expansion direction and the effect of the distance from central business of district (CBD)

  4. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set...

  5. Elements with Square Roots in Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S. Lucido; M.R. Pournaki

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the probability that a randomly chosen element in a finite group has a square root, in particular the simple groups of Lie type of rank 1, the sporadic finite simple groups and the alternating groups.

  6. Coupling parameter series expansion for fluid with square-well plus repulsive-square-barrier potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble are performed for fluid with potential consisting of a square-well plus a square-barrier to obtain thermodynamic properties such as pressure, excess energy, constant volume excess heat capacity, and excess chemical potential, and structural property such as radial distribution function. The simulations cover a wide density range for the fluid phase, several temperatures, and different combinations of the parameters defining the potential. These simulation data have been used to test performances of a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE recently proposed by one of the authors [S. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 74, 031119 (2006], and a traditional 2nd-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE based on a macroscopic compressibility approximation (MAC used with confidence since its introduction in 1967. It is found that (i the MCA-based 2nd-order HTSE unexpectedly and depressingly fails for most situations investigated, and the present simulation results can serve well as strict criteria for testing liquid state theories. (ii The CPSE perturbation scheme is shown to be capable of predicting very accurately most of the thermodynamic properties simulated, but the most appropriate level of truncating the CPSE differs and depends on the range of the potential to be calculated; in particular, the shorter the potential range is, the higher the most appropriate truncating level can be, and along with rising of the potential range the performance of the CPSE perturbation scheme will decrease at higher truncating level. (iii The CPSE perturbation scheme can calculate satisfactorily bulk fluid rdf, and such calculations can be done for all fluid states of the whole phase diagram. (iv The CPSE is a convergent series at higher temperatures, but show attribute of asymptotic series at lower temperatures, and as a result, the surest asymptotic value occurs at lower-order truncation.

  7. Number One Pery Square Wine List, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  8. Applications of square-related theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2014-04-01

    The square centre of a given square is the point of intersection of its two diagonals. When two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre, there are in general four diagonals that go through the same square centre. The Two Squares Theorem developed in this paper summarizes some nice theoretical conclusions that can be obtained when two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre. These results provide the theoretical basis for two of the constructions given in the book of H.S. Hall and F.H. Stevens , 'A Shorter School Geometry, Part 1, Metric Edition'. In page 134 of this book, the authors present, in exercise 4, a practical construction which leads to a verification of the Pythagorean theorem. Subsequently in Theorems 29 and 30, the authors present the standard proofs of the Pythagorean theorem and its converse. In page 140, the authors present, in exercise 15, what amounts to a geometric construction, whose verification involves a simple algebraic identity. Both the constructions are of great importance and can be replicated by using the standard equipment provided in a 'geometry toolbox' carried by students in high schools. The author hopes that the results proved in this paper, in conjunction with the two constructions from the above-mentioned book, would provide high school students an appreciation of the celebrated theorem of Pythagoras. The diagrams that accompany this document are based on the free software GeoGebra. The author formally acknowledges his indebtedness to the creators of this free software at the end of this document.

  9. Diffractive performance of square Fresnel zone plates

    OpenAIRE

    Alda, Javier; Rico García, José María; Salgado Remacha, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Brea, Luis Miguel

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the optical behavior of square Fresnel zones plates. A theoretical analysis and numerical simulations based on the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld approach have been developed analyzing properties such as the depth of focus and the intensity of the focus in terms of the number of zones. In addition, an experimental verification has been performed using a Spatial Light Modulator to implement the designed square Fresnel zones plates.

  10. The square of opposition in orthomodular logic

    OpenAIRE

    Freytes, Hector; de Ronde, Christian; Domenech, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    In Aristotelian logic, categorical propositions are divided in Universal Affirmative, Universal Negative, Particular Affirmative and Particular Negative. Possible relations between two of the mentioned type of propositions are encoded in the square of opposition. The square expresses the essential properties of monadic first order quantification which, in an algebraic approach, may be represented taking into account monadic Boolean algebras. More precisely, quantifiers are considered as modal...

  11. Cutting sequences on square-tiled surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    We characterize cutting sequences of infinite geodesics on square-tiled surfaces by considering interval exchanges on specially chosen intervals on the surface. These interval exchanges can be thought of as skew products over a rotation, and we convert cutting sequences to symbolic trajectories of these interval exchanges to show that special types of combinatorial lifts of Sturmian sequences completely describe all cutting sequences on a square-tiled surface. Our results extend the list of f...

  12. Least-squares framework for projection MRI reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Jens; Rannou, Fernando

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic resonance signals that have very short relaxation times are conveniently sampled in a spherical fashion. We derive a least squares framework for reconstructing three-dimensional source distribution images from such data. Using a finite-series approach, the image is represented as a weighted sum of translated Kaiser-Bessel window functions. The Radon transform thereof establishes the connection with the projection data that one can obtain from the radial sampling trajectories. The resulting linear system of equations is sparse, but quite large. To reduce the size of the problem, we introduce focus of attention. Based on the theory of support functions, this data-driven preprocessing scheme eliminates equations and unknowns that merely represent the background. The image reconstruction and the focus of attention both require a least squares solution to be computed. We describe a projected gradient approach that facilitates a non-negativity constrained version of the powerful LSQR algorithm. In order to ensure reasonable execution times, the least squares computation can be distributed across a network of PCs and/or workstations. We discuss how to effectively parallelize the NN-LSQR algorithm. We close by presenting results from experimental work that addresses both computational issues and image quality using a mathematical phantom.

  13. The autonomic and rate pressure product responses of Tai Chi practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Figueroa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectral analysis of autonomic nervous system activity can provide insight into cardiovascular function. Rate pressure product is the parameter often targeted pharmacologically to decrease the incidence of myocardial events. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not Tai Chi Chuan practitioners would demonstrate autonomic responses that would be more cardioprotective when compared to non-trained controls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that measured the autonomic responses and rate pressure product of 2 groups of subjects; a Tai Chi Chuan trained (n = 13 and non-trained sedentary controls (n = 13 at rest and during 2 stressor phases that simulated functional activities of daily living. Results: The Tai Chi group maintained a greater parasympathetic outflow at rest and during the isometric grip stressor phase (P<0.05. Sympathetic outflow, systolic blood pressure and rate pressure product were significantly lower in the Tai Chi group at rest, during the isometric grip and standing stressor phases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be concluded in this study, the Tai Chi group was able to demonstrate efficiency of the myocardium with suppressed rate pressure product values and autonomic responses that favored parasympathetic outflow. This type of training may complement non-pharmacological anti-hypertensive therapy.

  14. Polarized $\\chi_{c2}$-charmonium production in antiproton-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A B; Bleicher, M

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the Feynman diagram representation of multiple scattering we consider the polarized $\\chi_c$(1P)-charmonia production in antiproton-nucleus reactions close to the threshold ($p_{\\rm lab}=5-7$ GeV/c). The rescattering and absorption of the incoming antiproton and outgoing charmonium on nucleons are taken into account, including the possibility of the elastic and nondiagonal (flavor-conserving) scattering $\\chi_{cJ} N \\to \\chi_{cJ^\\prime} N$, $J,J^\\prime=0,1,2$. The elementary amplitudes of the latter processes are evaluated by expanding the physical $\\chi_c$-states in the Clebsch-Gordan series of the $c \\bar c$ states with fixed values of internal orbital angular momentum ($L_z$) and spin projections on the $\\chi_c$ momentum axis. The total interaction cross sections of these $c \\bar c$ states with nucleons have been calculated in previous works using the QCD factorization theorem and the nonrelativistic quarkonium model and turned out to be strongly $L_z$-dependent due to the transverse size dif...

  15. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi for long-term low back pain (TAI CHI): Study rationale, design, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hall Amanda M; Maher Chris G; Latimer Jane; Ferreira Manuela L; Lam Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain persisting for longer than 3 months is a common and costly condition for which many current treatments have low-moderate success rates at best. Exercise is among the more successful treatments for this condition, however, the type and dosage of exercise that elicits the best results is not clearly defined. Tai chi is a gentle form of low intensity exercise that uses controlled movements in combination with relaxation techniques and is currently used as a safe...

  16. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluid on a Square Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Hai

    2000-01-01

    A two-level four-direction lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a square lattice to simulate compressible flows with a high Mach number. The particle velocities are adaptive to the mean velocity and internal energy. Therefore, the mean flow can have a high Mach number. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the 4th order velocity tensors are not involved in the calculations. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, o special treatment is need for the homogeneity of 4th order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were derived by the Chapman-Enskog method from the BGK Boltzmann equation. The model can be easily extended to three-dimensional cubic lattices. Two-dimensional shock-wave propagation was simulated

  17. Origin of emission from square-shaped organic microlasers

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, S; Gozhyk, I; Djellali, N; Milliet, L; Hickox-Young, D T; Ulysse, C; Bouche, D; Dubertrand, R; Bogomolny, E; Zyss, J; Lebental, M

    2016-01-01

    The emission from open cavities with non-integrable features remains a challenging problem of practical as well as fundamental relevance. Square-shaped dielectric microcavities provide a favorable case study with generic implications for other polygonal resonators. We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of square-shaped organic microlasers exhibiting a far-field emission that is strongly concentrated in the directions parallel to the side walls of the cavity. A semiclassical model for the far-field distributions is developed and validated by numerical calculations that is in agreement with even fine features of the experimental findings. Comparison of the model calculations with the experimental data allows the precise identification of the lasing modes and their emission mechanisms, providing strong support for a physically intuitive ray-dynamical interpretation. Special attention is paid to the role of diffraction and the finite side length.

  18. Moving least-squares corrections for smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First-order moving least-squares are typically used in conjunction with smoothed particle hydrodynamics in the form of post-processing filters for density fields, to smooth out noise that develops in most applications of smoothed particle hydrodynamics. We show how an approach based on higher-order moving least-squares can be used to correct some of the main limitations in gradient and second-order derivative computation in classic smoothed particle hydrodynamics formulations. With a small increase in computational cost, we manage to achieve smooth density distributions without the need for post-processing and with higher accuracy in the computation of the viscous term of the Navier–Stokes equations, thereby reducing the formation of spurious shockwaves or other streaming effects in the evolution of fluid flow. Numerical tests on a classic two-dimensional dam-break problem confirm the improvement of the new approach.

  19. Linearized least-square imaging of internally scattered data

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the quality of the migrated image obtained conventionally by imaging single scattering energy. However, imaging internal multiples properly has the potential to enhance the migrated image because they illuminate zones in the subsurface that are poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy such as nearly vertical faults. Standard migration of these multiples provide subsurface reflectivity distributions with low spatial resolution and migration artifacts due to the limited recording aperture, coarse sources and receivers sampling, and the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. Hence, we apply a linearized least-square inversion scheme to mitigate the effect of the migration artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution, and provide more accurate amplitude information when imaging internal multiples. Application to synthetic data demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed inversion in imaging a reflector that is poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy. The least-square inversion of doublescattered data helped delineate that reflector with minimal acquisition fingerprint.

  20. Wave-equation Q tomography and least-squares migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-03-01

    This thesis designs new methods for Q tomography and Q-compensated prestack depth migration when the recorded seismic data suffer from strong attenuation. A motivation of this work is that the presence of gas clouds or mud channels in overburden structures leads to the distortion of amplitudes and phases in seismic waves propagating inside the earth. If the attenuation parameter Q is very strong, i.e., Q<30, ignoring the anelastic effects in imaging can lead to dimming of migration amplitudes and loss of resolution. This, in turn, adversely affects the ability to accurately predict reservoir properties below such layers. To mitigate this problem, I first develop an anelastic least-squares reverse time migration (Q-LSRTM) technique. I reformulate the conventional acoustic least-squares migration problem as a viscoacoustic linearized inversion problem. Using linearized viscoacoustic modeling and adjoint operators during the least-squares iterations, I show with numerical tests that Q-LSRTM can compensate for the amplitude loss and produce images with better balanced amplitudes than conventional migration. To estimate the background Q model that can be used for any Q-compensating migration algorithm, I then develop a wave-equation based optimization method that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid-frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. Through numerical tests on synthetic and field data, I show that noticeable improvements in the migration image quality can be obtained from Q models inverted using wave-equation Q tomography. A key feature of skeletonized inversion is that it is much less likely to get stuck in a local minimum than a standard waveform inversion method. Finally, I develop a preconditioning technique for least-squares migration using a directional Gabor-based preconditioning approach for isotropic

  1. Towards ensemble asteroseismology of the young open clusters Chi Persei and NGC 6910

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Carrier, F; Michalska, G; Aerts, C; De Ridder, J; Briquet, M; Handler, G; Kolaczkowski, Z; Acke, B; Bauwens, E; Beck, P G; Blom, Y; Blommaert, J; Broeders, E; Cherix, M; Davignon, G; Debosscher, J; Degroote, P; Decin, L; Dehaes, S; De Meester, W; Deroo, P; Desmet, M; Drummond, R; Eggen, J R; Fu, J; Gazeas, K; Gelven, G A; Gielen, C; Huygen, R; Jiang, X; Kalomeni, B; Kim, S -L; Kim, D H; Kopacki, G; Kwon, J -H; Ladjal, D; Lee, C -U; Lee, Y -J; Lefever, K; Leitner, A; Lenz, P; Liakos, A; Lorenz, D; Narwid, A; Niarchos, P; Oestensen, R; Poretti, E; Prins, S; Provencal, J; Antolin, E Puga; Puschnig, J; Raskin, G; Reed, M D; Reyniers, M; Schmidt, E; Schmitzberger, L; Spano, M; Steininger, B; Steslicki, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Vanautgaerden, J; Vandenbussche, B; Van Helshoecht, V; Vanhollebeke, E; Van Winckel, H; Verhoelst, T; Vuckovic, M; Waelkens, C; Wolf, G W; Yakut, K; Zhang, C; Zima, W

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the variability survey in Chi Persei and NGC6910, the number of Beta Cep stars that are members of these two open clusters is increased to twenty stars, nine in NGC6910 and eleven in Chi Persei. We compare pulsational properties, in particular the frequency spectra, of Beta Cep stars in both clusters and explain the differences in terms of the global parameters of the clusters. We also indicate that the more complicated pattern of the variability among B type stars in Chi Persei is very likely caused by higher rotational velocities of stars in this cluster. We conclude that the sample of pulsating stars in the two open clusters constitutes a very good starting point for the ensemble asteroseismology of Beta Cep-type stars and maybe also for other B-type pulsators.

  2. Tai Chi for treating knee osteoarthritis: Designing a long-term follow up randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rones Ramel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA is a major cause of pain and functional impairment among elders. Currently, there are neither feasible preventive intervention strategies nor effective medical remedies for the management of KOA. Tai Chi, an ancient Chinese mind-body exercise that is reported to enhance muscle function, balance and flexibility, and to reduce pain, depression and anxiety, may safely and effectively be used to treat KOA. However, current evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi program compared with an attention control (wellness education and stretching on pain, functional capacity, psychosocial variables, joint proprioception and health status in elderly people with KOA. The study will be completed by July 2009. Methods/Design Forty eligible patients, age > 55 yr, BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2 with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (American College of Rheumatology criteria are identified and randomly allocated to either Tai Chi (10 modified forms from classical Yang style Tai Chi or attention control (wellness education and stretching. The 60-minute intervention sessions take place twice weekly for 12 weeks. The study is conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The primary outcome measure is the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC pain subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include weekly WOMAC pain, function and stiffness scores, patient and physician global assessments, lower-extremity function, knee proprioception, depression, self-efficacy, social support, health-related quality of life, adherence and occurrence of adverse events after 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Discussion In this article, we present the challenges of designing a randomized controlled trial with long-term follow up. The challenges encountered in this design are: strategies for recruitment, avoidance of selection bias, the actual practice of Tai Chi, and the maximization of adherence

  3. TAI CHI CHUAN: STATE OF THE ART IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: VOL 52 (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youlian Hong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This collection on the latest and practical research data about the characteristics and beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on various physiological and pathological matters is published as the 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE To address the effects of Tai Chi Chuan in the fields of biomechanics and physiology, sensory motor control and fall prevention, psychology and social aspects, as well as various clinical applications. FEATURES The book is organised into four sections, each containing four to seven chapters: the first section focuses on biomechanical and physiological aspects of Tai Chi in seven chapters, the second section addresses the benefits of the sport in terms of sensory motor control and fall prevention in five chapters, the third section highlights the psychological and social aspects in four chapters, and in the last section the application of Tai Chi in clinical intervention such as in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes is demonstrated in six chapters. AUDIENCE This is a thorough reference book for students, researchers, teachers and healthcare professionals in exercise science and medicine. In fact, anyone already practicing Tai Chi Chuan or considering it up would benefit from this book. ASSESSMENT This 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal on Tai Chi Chuan is a valuable and essential source of information brought together by recognized researchers around the Globe. The book is for everybody who is interested in understanding the effects and application of this fascinating form of exercise which has been developed as a form of martial arts and used for health exercise for centuries in China.

  4. Electrical properties of resistive switches based on Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films prepared by RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez H, A.; Hernandez R, E.; Zapata T, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calzada Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Guillen R, J. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Tampico, Puerto Industrial, Altamira 89600, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Cruz, M. P. [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Calzadilla A, O. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, San Lazaro y L. Municipio Plaza de la Revolucion, La Habana, Cuba (Cuba); Melendez L, M., E-mail: amarquez@ipn.m [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, A. P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, was proposed the use of Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3}(0{<=}x{<=}1) thin films for the construction of metal-insulator-metal heterostructures; and their great potential for the development of non-volatile resistance memories (ReRAM) is shown. The deposition of Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films was done by the RF co-sputtering technique using two magnetron sputtering cathodes with BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} targets. The chemical composition (x parameter) in the deposited Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films was varied through the RF powder applied to the targets. The constructed metal-insulator-metal heterostructures were Al/Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3}/nichrome. The I-V measurements of the heterostructures showed that their hysteretic characteristics change depending on the Ba/Sr ratio of the Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films; the Ba/Sr ratio was determined by employing the energy dispersive spectroscopy; Sem micrographs showed that Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films were uniform without cracks or pinholes. Additionally, the analysis of the X-ray diffraction results indicated the substitutional incorporation of Sr into the BaTiO{sub 3} lattice and the obtainment of crystalline films for the entire range of the x values. (Author)

  5. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Mary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen, bone formation (osteocalcin, and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16 to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal

  6. Connor H. G. Patros: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2015 recipient is Connor H. G Patros. Patros was chosen for "an excellent research paper that examines the complex relationship between working memory, choice-impulsivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype." Patros's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618965

  7. Novel probe of new light Higgs bosons from bottomonium chi_{b0} decay

    CERN Document Server

    Godfrey, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the branching ratios of chi_{b0} --> tau+ tau- via an s-channel Higgs boson and estimate the sensitivity to this process from Upsilon --> gamma chi_{b0} --> gamma tau+ tau-. We show that future running at the Upsilon(3S) at a very high luminosity super B factory can put significant constraints on the Type-II two Higgs doublet model when the discovered 125 GeV Higgs boson is the heavier of the two CP-even scalars.

  8. Variation in CHI3LI in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Noelle Rathcke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CHI3LI encoding the inflammatory glycoprotein YKL-40 is located on chromosome 1q32.1. YKL-40 is involved in inflammatory processes and patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D have elevated circulating YKL-40 levels which correlate with their level of insulin resistance. Interestingly, it has been reported that rs10399931 (-329 G/A of CHI3LI contributes to the inter-individual plasma YKL-40 levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and that rs4950928 (-131 C/G is a susceptibility polymorphism for asthma and a decline in lung function. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or haplotypes thereof the CHI3LI locus might influence risk of T2D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between SNPs and haplotype blocks of CHI3LI and T2D and T2D related quantitative traits. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven SNPs of CHI3LI were genotyped in 6514 individuals from the Inter99 cohort and 2924 individuals from the outpatient clinic at Steno Diabetes Center. In cas-control studies a total of 2345 T2D patients and 5302 individuals with a normal glucose tolerance test were examined. We found no association between rs10399931 (OR, 0.98 (CI, 0.88-1.10, p = 0.76, rs4950928 (0.98 (0.87-1.10, p = 0.68 or any of the other SNPs with T2D. Similarly, we found no significant association between any of the 11 tgSNPs and T2D related quantitative traits, all p>0.14. None of the identified haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D, all p>0.16. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: None of the examined SNPs or haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D or T2D related quantitative traits. Estimates of insulin resistance and dysregulated glucose homeostasis in T2D do not seem to be accounted for by the examined variations of CHI3LI.

  9. NLO corrections to $\\chi_{bJ}$ two-body exclusive decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Long-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The next-to-leading order QCD corrections for $\\chi_{bJ}$, the p-wave bottomonium, to $J/\\psi$ pair decay processes were evaluated utilizing NRQCD factorization formalism. It was determined that the scale dependence was depressed with NLO corrections, and hence the uncertainties in the leading order results were greatly reduced. The total branch ratios were found to be the order of $10^{-5}$ for all three $\\chi_{bJ}\\rightarrow J/\\psi J/\\psi$ processes,indicating that they were observable in the LHC and super-B experiments.

  10. Curve fitting of the corporate recovery rates: the comparison of Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongda Chen

    Full Text Available Recovery rate is essential to the estimation of the portfolio's loss and economic capital. Neglecting the randomness of the distribution of recovery rate may underestimate the risk. The study introduces two kinds of models of distribution, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density distribution estimation, to simulate the distribution of recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds. As is known, models based on Beta distribution are common in daily usage, such as CreditMetrics by J.P. Morgan, Portfolio Manager by KMV and Losscalc by Moody's. However, it has a fatal defect that it can't fit the bimodal or multimodal distributions such as recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds as Moody's new data show. In order to overcome this flaw, the kernel density estimation is introduced and we compare the simulation results by histogram, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation to reach the conclusion that the Gaussian kernel density distribution really better imitates the distribution of the bimodal or multimodal data samples of corporate loans and bonds. Finally, a Chi-square test of the Gaussian kernel density estimation proves that it can fit the curve of recovery rates of loans and bonds. So using the kernel density distribution to precisely delineate the bimodal recovery rates of bonds is optimal in credit risk management.

  11. The Rise and Fall of Debris Disks: MIPS Observations of h and chi Persei and the Evolution of Mid-IR Emission from Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Balog, Zoltan; Rieke, George; Bragg, Ann; Bromley, Ben

    2007-01-01

    We describe Spitzer/MIPS observations of the double cluster, h and $\\chi$ Persei, covering a $\\sim$ 0.6 square-degree area surrounding the cores of both clusters. The data are combined with IRAC and 2MASS data to investigate $\\sim$ 616 sources from 1.25-24 $\\mu m$. We use the long-baseline $K_{s}$-[24] color to identify two populations with IR excess indicative of circumstellar material: Be stars with 24 $\\mu m$ excess from optically-thin free free emission and 17 fainter sources (J$\\sim$ 14-15) with [24] excess consistent with a circumstellar disk. The frequency of IR excess for the fainter sources increases from 4.5 $\\mu m$ through 24 $\\mu m$. The IR excess is likely due to debris from the planet formation process. The wavelength-dependent behavior is consistent with an inside-out clearing of circumstellar disks. A comparison of the 24 $\\mu m$ excess population in h and $\\chi$ Per sources with results for other clusters shows that 24 $\\mu m$ emission from debris disks 'rises' from 5 to 10 Myr, peaks at $\\si...

  12. Introduction of a tryptophan side chain into subsite +1 enhances transglycosylation activity of a GH-18 chitinase from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtChiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umemoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Mizuhara, Mamiko; Sato, Hirokazu; Skriver, Karen; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2013-01-01

    A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glycol chitin...

  13. Gravity as the Square of Gauge Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiermaier, M.

    The BCJ squaring relations provide a simple prescription for thecomputation of gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge theory ingredients. Unlike the KLT relations, the squaring relations are directly applicable both at tree and loop level. We review the derivation of these relations from on-shell recursion relations, and discuss an off-shell approach to these relations in which the interactions of the gravity Lagrangian arise as the square of the gauge-theory interactions. This article is based on work with Zvi Bern, Tristan Dennen and Yu-tin Huang [Z. Bern, T. Dennen, Y.-t. Huang and M. Kiermaier, Phys. Rev. D textbf{82} (2010), 065003, arXiv:1004.0693 (Ref. 1))] which was presented at String Field Theory and Related Aspects 2010.

  14. Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela

    that help readers to understand and evaluate the computed solutions • many examples that illustrate the techniques and algorithms Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and professionals in the sciences and in engineering....... predictively. The main concern of Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications is how to do this on a computer with efficient and robust computational methods for linear and nonlinear relationships. The presentation also establishes a link between the statistical setting and the computational issues. In a......As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data...

  15. Least squares methods in physics and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lectures deal with numerical methods representing the state of the art, including the available computer software. First a brief background of basic matrix factorizations is given. Dense linear problems are then treated, including methods for updating the solution when rows and variables are added or deleted. Special consideration is given to weighted least squares problems and constrained problems. Regularization of ill-posed problems are briefly surveyed. Sparse linear least squares problems are treated in some detail. Different ordering schemes, including ordering to block-angular form and nested dissection, and iterative methods are discussed. Finally a survey of methods for nonlinear least squares problems is given. The Gauss-Newton method is analyzed and its local convergence derived. Levenberg-Marquardt methods are discussed and different methods using second derivative information surveyed. Special methods are given for separable linear-nonlinear problems. (orig.)

  16. A Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Square Enclosure with Non-Uniformly Heated Bottom Wall and Square Shape Heated Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahirul Haque Munshi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed to study has been carried out of natural convection in a square enclosure with non-uniformly heated bottom wall and square shape heated block with different Prandtl numbers of 0.71, 1.0 and 1.5 has been investigated numerically. The horizontal bottom wall of the square cavity was nonuniformly heated and inner square shape heated block kept at Th while the side walls of the cavity were maintained at a cold temperature Tc with Th>Tc and upper wall is adiabatic. Finite element method was employed to solve the dimensionless governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy of the problem. Using the developed code, a parametric study was performed, and the effects of the Rayleigh number and the different Prandtl number on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the square enclosure were investigated. The obtained results showed that temperature distribution and flow pattern inside the square enclosure depended on both strength of the magnetic field and Rayleigh number. For all cases two counter rotating eddies were formed inside the square enclosure. The magnetic field is decreased with the intensity of natural convection and flow velocity. Also it was found that for higher Rayleigh numbers a relatively stronger field was needed to decrease the heat transfer through natural convection.

  17. Mikulášek Square Brno

    OpenAIRE

    Kociánová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design Mikulášek Square in Brno - Starý Lískovec as a place of social activities, cultural events and active relaxation in connection with a park and green vegetation. The square is a place of social contact, place of everyday life and cultural events, public, living and generally a busy place. The park is more restful, green and natural place. The park is a green framework of social interaction and rest in the urban surroundings. However, both have something in...

  18. Limitation of the Least Square Method in the Evaluation of Dimension of Fractal Brownian Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Bingqiang; Zeng, Houdun; Li, Xiang; Dai, Benzhong

    2015-01-01

    With the standard deviation for the logarithm of the re-scaled range $\\langle |F(t+\\tau)-F(t)|\\rangle$ of simulated fractal Brownian motions $F(t)$ given in a previous paper \\cite{q14}, the method of least squares is adopted to determine the slope, $S$, and intercept, $I$, of the log$(\\langle |F(t+\\tau)-F(t)|\\rangle)$ vs $\\rm{log}(\\tau)$ plot to investigate the limitation of this procedure. It is found that the reduced $\\chi^2$ of the fitting decreases with the increase of the Hurst index, $H$ (the expectation value of $S$), which may be attributed to the correlation among the re-scaled ranges. Similarly, it is found that the errors of the fitting parameters $S$ and $I$ are usually smaller than their corresponding standard deviations. These results show the limitation of using the simple least square method to determine the dimension of a fractal time series. Nevertheless, they may be used to reinterpret the fitting results of the least square method to determine the dimension of fractal Brownian motions more...

  19. Finding A Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  20. Background deduction method based on inverse square law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the inverse square dependence of neutron signal amplitude on the distance between neutron detector and neutron source, a new method is suggested for radiation scattering background deduction in sensitivity calibration experiment for current-mode neutron detectors. Using this method, the traditional collimators and shielding materials are not necessary anymore. As the scattering background typically does not vary with the distance in the same way as the signal, a series of current can be measured at different positions and then analyses can be conducted, which give not only the sensitivity of the detector, but also background distributions at various positions. (authors)

  1. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    different years (from 1995 to 2002). In this dataset the Chi-Chi earthquake (MW = 7.6) which occurred on September 20, 1999 represents the major, but not unique, event. The analysis shows that all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (in terms of time and location) earthquakes with M > 4. The false positive rate remains zero even if only earthquakes with M > 4.5 are considered. In the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 3 SSTAs were identified (all within the established space-time correlation window), one of them appearing about 2 weeks before and very close to the epicentre of the earthquake just along the associated tectonic lineaments. The wide considered space-time window, together with the high seismicity of the considered area, surely positively conditioned the achieved results, so that further analyses should be carried out by using longer datasets and different geographic areas. However, also considering the coincidence with other (possible) precursor phenomena, independently reported (particularly within the iSTEP project) at the time of the Chi Chi earthquake, achieved results seem already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to a time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  2. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  3. Gregory Daniel Webster: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Gregory Daniel Webster, who received the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award "for an outstanding research paper whose findings report that APA journal articles became shorter in length after the year 2000." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115835

  4. Towards the Reuse of Municipal Biowastes in Vietnam: a case study about Ho Chi Minh City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.; Thi, Le K.O.

    2006-01-01

    Table of contents: 1. Solid waste segragation at source in Ho Chi Minh City. 2. Survey of technical efficiency and economic viability of existing composting ventures and survey of the institutional and regulatory framework regarding composting in Vietnam. 3. Demand analysis of urban waste compost. 4

  5. Hannah Höchi ja feministide peavoolu poliitikat häiriv eraelu / Rebeka Põldsam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldsam, Rebeka

    2010-01-01

    Saksa kunstniku Hannah Höchi näitus "Personal is Political. Hannah Höch ja tema kunsti tõlgendus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 17. oktoobrini 2010, kuraator Reet Varblane. Eksponeeritakse ka Guerrilla Girlsi (USA), Martha Rosleri (USA), Shadi Ghadiriani (Iraan), Anna-Stina Treumundi (Eesti) jt. töid

  6. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  7. Chi Sigma Iota Chapter Leadership and Professional Identity Development in Early Career Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2010-01-01

    As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…

  8. Observation of Persistent Edge Current Driven by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coaxial Helicity Injection, CHI, has been used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [B.A. Nelson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 3666] and HIT-II [T.R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1807] to initiate plasma and to drive up to 400 kA of toroidal current. On HIT-II, CHI initiated discharges have been successfully coupled to ohmic sustainment [R. Raman et al., Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2565]. This paper presents the first results on the use of CHI to demonstrate the persistence of edge current drive in a preestablished single-null diverted inductive discharge. Edge current drive has the potential to improve plasma stability limits [J.E. Menard et al., Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 595]. While most current drive methods drive current in the interior of the plasma, CHI is well suited for driving current in the edge plasma

  9. $\\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon systems: a status report

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavilla, R

    2015-01-01

    A status report on $\\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon electroweak structure and dynamics is provided, including electromagnetic form factors of few-nucleon systems, the $pp$ weak fusion and muon weak captures on deuteron and $^3$He, and a number of parity-violating processes induced by hadronic weak interactions.

  10. City networks and commodity chains: identifying global flows and local connections in Ho Chi Minh City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ingeborg; Fold, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Any analytical framework for understanding actual forms of the intensified incorporation of cities into the world economy needs to go beyond the exclusive focus on advanced producer services, which is characteristic of most of the World City Network (WCN) approach. Simultaneously, an account of t...... electronics industry located in Ho Chi Minh City and the agricultural sector in its rural hinterland, the Mekong Delta....

  11. Light stop decays into $W b \\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$ near the kinematic threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Grober, Ramona; Popenda, Eva; Wlotzka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the decays of the light stop in scenarios with the lightest neutralino $\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$ being the lightest supersymmetric particle, including flavour-violating (FV) effects. We analyse the region where the three-body decay $\\tilde{t}_1\\to W b \\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$ is kinematically allowed and provide a proper description of the transition region between the three-body decay and the four-body decay $\\tilde{t}_1 \\to\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0 b f \\bar{f}'$. The improved treatment has been implemented in the Fortran package {\\tt SUSY-HIT} and is used for the analysis of this region. A scan over the parameter range including all relevant experimental constraints reveals that the FV two-body decay into charm and $\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$ can be as important as the three-, respectively, four-body decays if not dominant and therefore should be taken into account in order to complete the experimental searches for the light stop.

  12. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and psychological health of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Hawley, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese form of conditioning exercise derived from martial arts and rooted in eastern philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Based on the inter-relatedness of mind, body and spirit this form of exercise focuses on producing an inner calmness which is thought to have both physical and psychological therapeutic value. This article provides a brief overview of selected current evidence examining the relationship between Tai Chi and physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in older people. This is an emerging and growing area of research and improvements have often been reported in health functioning, physical and emotional health, reducing falls, fear of falling and risk of falls, and possibly enhancing cardiovascular functioning in older adults although the effects on bone density, cognitive and immunological functioning are less clear. Results overall are inconsistent and health improvements have not been evident in all studies. Tai Chi is becoming increasingly popular in practice, and more recent evidence is emerging which is based on experimental and longitudinal designs, although many of the proposed benefits of Tai Chi are yet to be validated in large, randomised controlled trials. PMID:21762093

  13. The efficacy of Tai Chi Chuan in older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); M. Immink; A. van der Meulen; S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on fall prevention, balance and cardiorespiratory functions in the elderly. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out according to the Cochrane standards. A computerized literature

  14. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... Y Z Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: taichi_nccamIMG_2962.jpg © ...

  15. Effects of Aging and Tai Chi on a Finger-Pointing Task with a Choice Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. N. Tsang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of aging on performing finger-pointing tasks involving choices and whether experienced older Tai Chi practitioners perform better than healthy older controls in such tasks. Methods. Thirty students and 30 healthy older controls were compared with 31 Tai Chi practitioners. All the subjects performed a rapid index finger-pointing task. The visual signal appeared randomly under 3 conditions: (1 to touch a black ball as quickly and as accurately as possible, (2 not to touch a white ball, (3 to touch only the white ball when a black and a white ball appeared simultaneously. Reaction time (RT of anterior deltoid electromyogram, movement time (MT from electromyogram onset to touching of the target, end-point accuracy from the center of the target, and the number of wrong movements were recorded. Results. Young students displayed significantly faster RT and MT, achieving significantly greater end-point accuracy and fewer wrong movements than older controls. Older Tai Chi practitioners had significantly faster MT than older controls. Conclusion. Finger-pointing tasks with a choice paradigm became slower and less accurate with age. Positive findings suggest that Tai Chi may slow down the aging effect on eye-hand coordination tasks involving choices that require more cognitive progressing.

  16. $\\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon systems: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, Rocco [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A status report on $\\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon electroweak structure and dynamics is provided, including electromagnetic elastic form factors of few-nucleon systems, the $pp$ weak fusion and muon weak captures on deuteron and $^3$He, and a number of parity-violating processes induced by hadronic weak interactions.

  17. Immunosuppressive CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes in pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huijuan; Wan, Suigui; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells with immunosuppressive functions have been described to be associated with one of the mechanisms by which malignant tumors escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmunity. In the current study, when we attempted to characterize the peritoneal cells in pristane-induced lupus model, as reported previously, we observed that there were markedly increased CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, this type of monocytes was almost phenotypically identical to the reported monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Further analysis on how these CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells affected T cell response showed that they strongly suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro in a manner dependent on cell-cell contact, NO, and PGE2. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes inhibited Th1 differentiation but enhanced development of forkhead box p3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consistent with the in vitro experimental results, the in vivo adoptive cell transfer study showed that infusion of pristane-treated syngeneic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes significantly suppressed the production of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin antibodies induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were also increased significantly in spleen and peripheral blood and showed immunosuppressive characteristics similar to their peritoneal counterparts. Our findings indicate that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model are monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells instead of inflammatory monocytes, as demonstrated previously. To our knowledge, this is the first to describe myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model, which may lead to a better understanding of the role of CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in this specific pristane-induced lupus model. PMID:26657791

  18. Deformation analysis with Total Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation analysis is one of the main research fields in geodesy. Deformation analysis process comprises measurement and analysis phases. Measurements can be collected using several techniques. The output of the evaluation of the measurements is mainly point positions. In the deformation analysis phase, the coordinate changes in the point positions are investigated. Several models or approaches can be employed for the analysis. One approach is based on a Helmert or similarity coordinate transformation where the displacements and the respective covariance matrix are transformed into a unique datum. Traditionally a Least Squares (LS technique is used for the transformation procedure. Another approach that could be introduced as an alternative methodology is the Total Least Squares (TLS that is considerably a new approach in geodetic applications. In this study, in order to determine point displacements, 3-D coordinate transformations based on the Helmert transformation model were carried out individually by the Least Squares (LS and the Total Least Squares (TLS, respectively. The data used in this study was collected by GPS technique in a landslide area located nearby Istanbul. The results obtained from these two approaches have been compared.

  19. Iterative methods for weighted least-squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovnikova, E.Y.; Vavasis, S.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A weighted least-squares problem with a very ill-conditioned weight matrix arises in many applications. Because of round-off errors, the standard conjugate gradient method for solving this system does not give the correct answer even after n iterations. In this paper we propose an iterative algorithm based on a new type of reorthogonalization that converges to the solution.

  20. Square root kalman filter with contaminated observations

    OpenAIRE

    Cipra, Tomas; Romera, Rosario; Rubio, A.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithm of square root Kalman filtering for the case of contaminated observations is described in the paper. This algorithm is suitable for the parallel computer implementation allowing to treat dynamic linear systems with large number of state variables in a robust recursive way.

  1. Kendall Square multiprocessor: Early experiences and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    Initial performance results and early experiences are reported for the Kendall Square Research multiprocessor. The basic architecture of the shared-memory multiprocessor is described, and computational and I/O performance is measured for both serial and parallel programs. Experiences in porting various applications are described.

  2. Nonlinear Brownian motion - mean square displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Ebeling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic dynamics of self-propelled Brownian particles is studied by means of the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck approach. We model the driving by a nonlinear friction function which has a negative part at small velocities, leading to active Brownian motion of the particles. The mean square displacement is estimated analytically and compared with numerical simulations.

  3. Clar sextets in square graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    A periodic array of holes transforms graphene from a semimetal into a semiconductor with a band gap tuneable by varying the parameters of the lattice. In earlier work only hexagonal lattices have been treated. Using atomistic models we here investigate the size of the band gap of a square lattice...

  4. An algorithm for nonlinear least squares

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balda, Miroslav

    Praha : Humusoft, 2007, s. 1-8. ISBN 978-80-7080-658-6. [Technical Computing Prague 2007. Praha (CZ), 14.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0199 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : optimization * least squares * MATLAB Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  5. Chains of coupled square dielectric optical microcavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Chains of coupled square dielectric cavities are investigated in a 2-D setting, by means of a quasi-analytical eigenmode expansion method. Resonant transfer of optical power can be achieved along quite arbitrary, moderately long rectangular paths (up to 9 coupled cavities are considered), even with

  6. Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Tammy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Methods Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Results Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09, anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03, and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80, and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69 in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions.

  7. Graphs whose Complement and Square are Isomorphic (extended version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Sune; Milanic, Martin; Verret, Gabriel; Pellicer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We study square-complementary graphs, that is, graphs whose comple- ment and square are isomorphic. We prove several necessary conditions for a graph to be square-complementary, describe ways of building new square-complementary graphs from existing ones, construct innite families of square......-complementary graphs, and characterize square-complementary graphs within various graph classes. The bipartite case turns out to be of particular interest....

  8. Mathematical Construction of Magic Squares Utilizing Base-N Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas D.

    2006-01-01

    Magic squares have been of interest as a source of recreation for over 4,500 years. A magic square consists of a square array of n[squared] positive and distinct integers arranged so that the sum of any column, row, or main diagonal is the same. In particular, an array of consecutive integers from 1 to n[squared] forming an nxn magic square is…

  9. Nanoparticle formulation by Büchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer for oral mucoadhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha SN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sree N Harsha,1 Bander E Aldhubiab,1 Anroop B Nair,1 Ibrahim Abdulrahman Alhaider,1 Mahesh Attimarad,1 Katharigatta N Venugopala,1  Saminathan Srinivasan,2 Nagesh Gangadhar,2 Afzal Haq Asif3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, East Point College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Diabetes is considered one of the main threats to global public health in this era. It is increasing rapidly in every part of the world; the prevalence of the disease will grow to the point where 366 million people will be affected by 2030. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in the Saudi population is high, and the majority of patients suffer from type 2 DM. Marketed oral antidiabetic drugs have indicated poor tolerability during chronic treatments, and this contributes to the moderately large proportion of type 2 DM patients that remain inadequately managed. Vildagliptin nanospheres were prepared with aminated gelatin using a spray-drying method; narrow particle-size distribution was seen at 445 nm. The angle of repose was found to be θ <33.5°. The nanospheres appeared to be spherical with a smooth surface. The drug content and percentage yield of the nanospheres were found to be 76.2%±4.6% and 83%±2%, respectively. The nanosphere-swell profile was found to be 165%±7%. The pure drug was 100% dissolved in 30 minutes, and the nanosphere formulation took 12 hours to dissolve (97.5%±2%, and followed a Korsmeyer–Peppas kinetic model with an R2 of 0.9838. The wash-off test of nanospheres found that they exhibited an excellent mucoadhesive property at 86.7% for 8 hours. The stability-study data showed no changes in the physicochemical properties of the nanospheres, and suggested that the nanospheres be stored below room

  10. Modeling the Distribution of Rainfall Intensity using Hourly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salisu Dan'azumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Design of storm water best management practices to control runoff and water pollution can be achieved if a prior knowledge of the distribution of rainfall characteristics is known. Rainfall intensity, particularly in tropical climate, plays a major role in the design of runoff conveyance and erosion control systems. This study is aimed to explore the statistical distribution of rainfall intensity for Peninsular Malaysia using hourly rainfall data. Approach: Hourly rainfall data were collected from twelve stations spread across the Peninsular. Six hour separation time was used to divide the data into individual rainfall events and four probability distributions namely, Generalized Pareto (GP, Exponential (EXP, Beta (BT and Gamma (GM distributions were used to model the distribution of the hourly rainfall intensity. Kolmogorov-Sminov anderson-Darling and Chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the best fit. Results: The rainfall frequency, based on 6 h minimum inter-event time, ranges from 115-198 events. The distribution of the rainfall frequency and that of the highest intensity observed, over the recorded period, across the peninsular, is however irregular. The mean rainfall intensity ranges from 2.32-3.88 mm h-1. Kuala-Lumpur and Penang received the highest, while Segamat and Kedah received the lowest. Conversely, over the period of record, Segamat recorded the highest CV, skewness and kurtosis while Pahang has the least value for these parameters. Goodness-of-fit tests at 5% level of significance indicate that all the models can be used to model the distribution of rainfall intensity in Peninsular Malaysia. However, GP is found to be the most suitable model among the four probability distributions tested. Conclusion: Basic statistics of hourly rain intensity were obtained and probability distributions compared. It was found that GP is the most suitable model. Results can be useful, particularly, to

  11. Transport simulations of ohmic TFTR experiments with profile-consistent microinstability-based models for chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport simulations of ohmically heated TFTR experiments with recently developed profile-consistent microinstability models for the anomalous thermal diffusivities, chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, give good agreement with experimental data. The steady-state temperature profiles and the total energy confinement times, tau/sub e/, were found to agree for each of the ohmic TFTR experiments simulated, including three high radiation cases and two plasmas fueled by pellet injection. Both collisional and collisionless models are tested. The trapped-electron drift wave microinstability model results are consistent with the thermal confinement of large plasma ohmic experiments on TFTR. We also find that transport due to the toroidal ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) modes can cause saturation in tau/sub E/ at the highest densities comparable to that observed on TFTR and equivalent to a neoclassical anomaly factor of 3. Predictions based on stabilized eta/sub i/-mode-driven ion transport are found to be in agreement with the enhanced global energy confinement times for pellet-fueled plasmas. 33 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Observation of chi(cJ) decaying into the p(p)over-barK(+)K(-) final state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, L.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, R. R.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Grishin, S.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, G. C.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sonoda, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tang, X. F.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wan, X.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, M.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, L.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.; Zweber, P.

    2011-01-01

    First measurements of the decays of the three chi(cJ) states to p (p) over barK(+)K(-) final states are presented. Intermediate phi -> K+K- and Lambda(1520) -> pK(-) resonance states are observed, and branching fractions for chi(cJ) -> (p) over barK(+) Lambda(1520), Lambda(1520)(Lambda) over bar (15

  13. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  14. Source-finding for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) presents a number of challenges in the area of source finding and cataloguing. The data rates and image sizes are very large, and require automated processing in a high-performance computing environment. This requires development of new tools, that are able to operate in such an environment and can reliably handle large datasets. These tools must also be able to accommodate the different types of observations ASKAP will make: continuum imaging, spectral-line imaging, transient imaging. The ASKAP project has developed a source-finder known as Selavy, built upon the Duchamp source-finder (Whiting 2012). Selavy incorporates a number of new features, which we describe here. Since distributed processing of large images and cubes will be essential, we describe the algorithms used to distribute the data, find an appropriate threshold and search to that threshold and form the final source catalogue. We describe the algorithm used to define a varying threshold t...

  15. Machine Learning with Squared-Loss Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sugiyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutual information (MI is useful for detecting statistical independence between random variables, and it has been successfully applied to solving various machine learning problems. Recently, an alternative to MI called squared-loss MI (SMI was introduced. While ordinary MI is the Kullback–Leibler divergence from the joint distribution to the product of the marginal distributions, SMI is its Pearson divergence variant. Because both the divergences belong to the ƒ-divergence family, they share similar theoretical properties. However, a notable advantage of SMI is that it can be approximated from data in a computationally more efficient and numerically more stable way than ordinary MI. In this article, we review recent development in SMI approximation based on direct density-ratio estimation and SMI-based machine learning techniques such as independence testing, dimensionality reduction, canonical dependency analysis, independent component analysis, object matching, clustering, and causal inference.

  16. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Monecke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  17. The fate of the square root law for correlated voting

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We consider two-tier voting system and try to determine optimal weights for a fair representation in such systems. A prominent example of such a voting system is the Council of Ministers of the European Union. Under the assumption of independence of the voters, the square root law gives a fair distribution of power (based on the Penrose-Banzhaf power index) and a fair distribution of weights (based on the concept of the majority deficit), both given in the book by Felsenthal and Machover. In this paper, special emphasis is given to the case of correlated voters. The cooperative behaviour of the voters is modeled by suitable adoptions of spin systems known from statistical physics. Under certain assumptions we are able to compute the optimal weights as well as the average deviation of the council's vote from the public vote which we call the democracy deficit.

  18. The Spanish Square Kilometre Array White Book

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido, J A Acosta; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Alfaro, E J; Alonso-Herrero, A; Anglada, G; Arnalte-Mur, P; Ascasibar, Y; Ascaso, B; Azulay, R; Bachiller, R; Baez-Rubio, A; Battaner, E; Blasco, J; Brook, C B; Bujarrabal, V; Busquet, G; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C; Casares, J; Castro-Tirado, A J; Colina, L; Colomer, F; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; del Olmo, A; Desmurs, J-F; Diego, J M; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R; Estalella, R; Fernandez-Soto, A; Florido, E; Font, J; Font, J A; Fuente, A; Garcia-Burillo, S; Garcia-Benito, R; Garcia-Lorenzo, B; de Paz, A Gil; Girart, J M; Goicoechea, J R; Gomez, J F; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Gonzalez-Serrano, J I; Gorgas, J; Gorosabel, J; Guijarro, A; Guirado, J C; Hernandez-Garcia, L; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Herrero-Illana, R; Hu, Y-D; Huelamo, N; Huertas-Company, M; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Jeong, S; Jimenez-Serra, I; Knapen, J H; Lineros, R A; Lisenfeld, U; Marcaide, J M; Marquez, I; Marti, J; Marti, J M; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Martin-Pintado, J; Marti-Vidal, I; Masegosa, J; Mayen-Gijon, J M; Mezcua, M; Mimica, S/ Migliari P; Moldon, J; Morata, O; Negueruela, I; Oates, S R; Osorio, M; Palau, A; Paredes, J M; Perea, J; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Perez-Montero, E; Perez-Torres, M A; Perucho, M; Planelles, S; Pons, J A; Prieto, A; Quilis, V; Ramirez-Moreta, P; Almeida, C Ramos; Rea, N; Ribo, M; Rioja, M J; Espinosa, J M Rodriguez; Ros, E; Rubiño-Martin, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Sabater, J; Sanchez, M A P; Usero, A; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Vidal-Garcia, A; Vielva, P; Vilchez, J; Zhang, B-B

    2015-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is called to revolutionise essentially all areas of Astrophysics. With a collecting area of about a square kilometre, the SKA will be a transformational instrument, and its scientific potential will go beyond the interests of astronomers. Its technological challenges and huge cost requires a multinational effort, and Europe has recognised this by putting the SKA on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). The Spanish SKA White Book is the result of the coordinated effort of 119 astronomers from 40 different research centers. The book shows the enormous scientific interest of the Spanish astronomical community in the SKA and warrants an optimum scientific exploitation of the SKA by Spanish researchers, if Spain enters the SKA project.

  19. Accelerator modes of square well system

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Sheorey, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    We study accelerator modes of a particle, confined in an one-dimensional infinite square well potential, subjected to a time-periodic pulsed field. Dynamics of such a particle can be described by one generalization of the kicked rotor. In comparison with the kicked rotor, this generalization is shown to have a much larger parametric space for existence of the modes. Using this freedom we provide evidence that accelerator mode assisted anomalous transport is greatly enhanced when low order res...

  20. Coefficients of symmetric square L-functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAU; Yuk-Kam

    2010-01-01

    Let λsym2f(n) be the n-th coefficient in the Dirichlet series of the symmetric square L-function associated with a holomorphic primitive cusp form f.We prove Ω± results for λsym2f(n) and evaluate the number of positive(resp.,negative) λsym2f(n) in some intervals.

  1. Discrete least squares approximation with polynomial vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Van Barel, Marc; Bultheel, Adhemar

    1993-01-01

    We give a solution of a discrete least squares approximation problem in terms of orthogonal polynomial vectors. The degrees of the polynomial elements of these vectors can be different. An algorithm is constructed computing the coefficients of recurrence relations for the orthogonal polynomial vectors. In case the function values are prescribed in points on the real line or on the unit circle variants of the original algorithm can be designed which are an order of magnitude more efficient. Al...

  2. Self-avoiding walks crossing a square

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a restricted class of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) which start at the origin (0, 0), end at (L, L), and are entirely contained in the square [0, L] x [0, L] on the square lattice Z2. The number of distinct walks is known to grow as λL2+o(L2). We estimate λ = 1.744 550 ± 0.000 005 as well as obtaining strict upper and lower bounds, 1.628 1/3). We also consider the model in which a weight or fugacity x is associated with each step of the walk. This gives rise to a canonical model of a phase transition. For x 1/μ it grows as L2. Here μ is the growth constant of unconstrained SAWs in Z2. For x = 1/μ we provide numerical evidence, but no proof, that the average walk length grows as L4/3. Another problem we study is that of SAWs, as described above, that pass through the central vertex of the square. We estimate the proportion of such walks as a fraction of the total, and find it to be just below 80% of the total number of SAWs. We also consider Hamiltonian walks under the same restriction. They are known to grow as τL2+o(L2) on the same L x L lattice. We give precise estimates for τ as well as upper and lower bounds, and prove that τ < λ

  3. Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, Rob; Govoni, Federica; Green, Jimi; Hoare, Melvin; Jarvis, Matt; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Keane, Evan; Koopmans, Leon; Kramer, Michael; Maartens, Roy; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Mellema, Garrelt; Oosterloo, Tom; Prandoni, Isabella; Pritchard, Jonathan; Santos, Mario; Seymour, Nick; Stappers, Ben; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Tian, Wen Wu; Umana, Grazia; Wagg, Jeff; Bourke, Tyler L; AASKA14

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 it was 10 years since the publication of the comprehensive ‘Science with the Square Kilometre Array’ book and 15 years since the first such volume appeared in 1999. In that time numerous and unexpected advances have been made in the fields of astronomy and physics relevant to the capabilities of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The SKA itself progressed from an idea to a developing reality with a baselined Phase 1 design (SKA1) and construction planned from 2017. To facilitate the publication of a new, updated science book, which will be relevant to the current astrophysical context, the meeting "Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array" was held in Giardina Naxos, Sicily. Articles were solicited from the community for that meeting to document the scientific advances enabled by the first phase of the SKA and those pertaining to future SKA deployments, with expected gains of 5 times the Phase 1 sensitivity below 350 MHz, about 10 times the Phase 1 sensitivity above 350 MHz and with f...

  4. Variation in CHI3LI in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Holmkvist, Johan; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CHI3LI encoding the inflammatory glycoprotein YKL-40 is located on chromosome 1q32.1. YKL-40 is involved in inflammatory processes and patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) have elevated circulating YKL-40 levels which correlate with their level of insulin resistance. Interestingly, it...... has been reported that rs10399931 (-329 G/A) of CHI3LI contributes to the inter-individual plasma YKL-40 levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and that rs4950928 (-131 C/G) is a susceptibility polymorphism for asthma and a decline in lung function. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms...... 6514 individuals from the Inter99 cohort and 2924 individuals from the outpatient clinic at Steno Diabetes Center. In cas-control studies a total of 2345 T2D patients and 5302 individuals with a normal glucose tolerance test were examined. We found no association between rs10399931 (OR, 0.98 (CI, 0...

  5. Conjectures and experiments concerning the moments of $L(1/2,\\chi_d)$

    CERN Document Server

    Alderson, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    We report on some extensive computations and experiments concerning the moments of quadratic Dirichlet $L$-functions at the critical point. We computed the values of $L(1/2,\\chi_d)$ for $- 5\\times 10^{10} < d < 1.3 \\times 10^{10}$ in order to numerically test conjectures concerning the moments $\\sum_{|d|chi_d)^k$. Specifically, we tested the full asymptotics for the moments conjectured by Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein, and Snaith, as well as the conjectures of Diaconu, Goldfeld, Hoffstein, and Zhang concerning additional lower terms in the moments. We also describe the algorithms used for this large scale computation.

  6. Global Climate Change and Solutions for Urban Sustainability of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Phan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, the largest city in Vietnam, is steadily growing, certainly towards a mega city in the near future. Like other mega cities at the boom stage, it has to face with serious environmental matters insolvable for many years. The situation may be worse under the effects of global climate change, geological subsidence due to non-standard construction and sea level rise. The situation of HCMC can be damaged or even broken by resonant effects of unsolved environmental matters and latent impacts of climate change. This article shows the challenges to the urban sustainable development under the duo effect of urban environmental matters and climate change in Ho Chi Minh City. Opportunities and strategic directions to overcome the challenges are also analyzed and recommended.

  7. Study of \\chi_{bJ}(1P) Properties in the Radiative \\Upsilon(2S) Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Adamczyk, K; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Atmacan, H; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Aziz, T; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Ban, Y; Bansal, V; Barberio, E; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Behera, P; Belhorn, M; Belous, K; Berger, M; Besson, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bloomfield, T; Blyth, S; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bookwalter, C; Boulahouache, C; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Breibeck, F; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Waheed, E; Červenkov, D; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Crnkovic, J; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, N; Di Carlo, S; Dingfelder, J; Doležal, Z; Dossett, D; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dubey, S; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Frost, O; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Giordano, F; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Greenwald, D; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Grygier, J; Grzymkowska, O; Guo, H; Haba, J; Hamer, P; Han, Y L; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hasenbusch, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Heck, M; Hedges, M T; Heffernan, D; Heider, M; Heller, A; Higuchi, T; Himori, S; Hirose, S; Horiguchi, T; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hsu, C -L; Huschle, M; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Inguglia, G; Ishikawa, A; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwata, S; Jacobs, W W; Jaegle, I; Jeon, H B; Joffe, D; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kang, K H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Kato, E; Kato, Y; Katrenko, P; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Keck, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, B H; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, H -J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Kleinwort, C; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Koblitz, S; Kodyš, P; Koga, Y; Korpar, S; Kotchetkov, D; Kouzes, R T; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kulasiri, L; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kurihara, E; Kuroki, Y; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnička, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lai, Y -T; Lange, J S; Lee, D H; Lee, I S; Lee, S -H; Leitgab, M; Leitner, R; Levit, D; Lewis, P; Li, C H; Li, H; Li, J; Li, L; Li, X; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Loos, A; Louvot, R; Lubej, M; Lukin, P; Luo, T; MacNaughton, J; Masuda, M; Matsuda, T; Matvienko, D; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Mikami, Y; Miyabayashi, K; Miyachi, Y; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohanty, S; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Mori, T; Morii, T; Moser, H -G; Müller, T; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, K R; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakano, T; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Nanut, T; Nath, K J; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neichi, K; Ng, C; Niebuhr, C; Niiyama, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Palka, H; Panzenböck, E; Park, C -S; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Paul, S; Peak, L S; Pedlar, T K; Peng, T; Pesántez, L; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prasanth, K; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Pulvermacher, C; Purohit, M V; Rauch, J; Reisert, B; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rorie, J; Rostomyan, A; Rozanska, M; Rummel, S; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sasao, N; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schlüter, T; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schönmeier, P; Schram, M; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seidl, R; Seino, Y; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Seong, I S; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Soloviev, Y; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Steder, M; Strube, J F; Stypula, J; Sugihara, S; Sugiyama, A; Sumihama, M; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Z; Takeichi, H; Takizawa, M; Tamponi, U; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Tenchini, F; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Trusov, V; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Uozumi, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Waheed, E; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wehle, S; White, E; Widmann, E; Wiechczynski, J; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamada, S; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yashchenko, S; Ye, H; Yelton, J; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, L; Zhilich, V; Zhukova, V; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, M; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O

    2016-01-01

    We report a study of radiative decays of \\chi_{bJ}(1P)(J=0,1,2) mesons into 74 hadronic final states comprising charged and neutral pions, kaons, protons; out of these, 41 modes are observed with at least 5 standard deviation significance. Our measurements not only improve the previous measurements by the CLEO Collaboration but also lead to first observations in many new modes. The large sample allows us to probe the total decay width of the \\chi_{b0}(1P). In the absence of a statistically significant result, a 90% confidence-level upper limit is set on the width at \\Gamma_{total}< 2.4 MeV. Our results are based on 24.7 fb^{-1} of e+e- collision data recorded by the Belle detector at the \\Upsilon(2S) resonance, corresponding to (157.8\\pm3.6)\\times10^6 \\Upsilon(2S) decays.

  8. Multi-Core Emptiness Checking of Timed Büchi Automata using Inclusion Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laarman, Alfons; Olesen, Mads Chr.; Dalsgaard, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    the first parallel LTL model checking algorithm for timed automata. The algorithms are implemented in LTSmin, and experimental evaluations show the effectiveness and scalability of both contributions: subsumption halves the number of states in the real-world FDDI case study, and the multi......This paper contributes to the multi-core model checking of timed automata (TA) with respect to liveness properties, by investigating checking of TA Büchi emptiness under the very coarse inclusion abstraction or zone subsumption, an open problem in this field. We show that in general Büchi emptiness...... is not preserved under this abstraction, but some other structural properties are preserved. Based on those, we propose a variation of the classical nested depth-first search (NDFS) algorithm that exploits subsumption. In addition, we extend the multi-core cndfs algorithm with subsumption, providing...

  9. Evidence for $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi ^0$ at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, R; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Bay, A; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Dash, M; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Eidelman, S; Gabyshev, N; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, M; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y I; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Kyeong, S H; Lange, J S; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Mandl, F; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mori, T; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Pestotnik, R; Piilonen, L E; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Schneider, O; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Shapkin, M; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Vervink, K; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Won, E; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction for the Cabibbo- and color-suppressed $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1}\\pi^0$ decay based on a data sample of $657\\times 10^6$ $B\\bar B$ events collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. We observe a signal of $40\\pm9$ events with a significance of $4.7\\sigma$ including systematic uncertainties. The measured branching fraction is $\\mathcal {B}(B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi^0) = (1.12\\pm 0.25(\\rm {stat.})\\pm 0.12({\\rm syst.}))\\times 10^{-5}$.

  10. Polynomial reduction and evaluation of tree- and loop-level CHY amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Zlotnikov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We develop a polynomial reduction procedure that transforms any gauge fixed CHY amplitude integrand for $n$ scattering particles into a $\\sigma$-moduli multivariate polynomial of what we call the $\\textit{standard form}$. We show that a standard form polynomial must have a specific $\\textit{ladder type}$ monomial structure, which has finite size at any $n$, with highest multivariate degree given by $\\frac{(n-3)(n-4)}{2}$. This set of monomials spans a complete basis for polynomials with rational coefficients in kinematic data on the support of scattering equations. Subsequently, at tree and one-loop level, we employ the global residue theorem to derive a prescription that evaluates any CHY amplitude by means of collecting simple residues at infinity only. The prescription is then applied explicitly to some tree and one-loop amplitude examples.

  11. Influences of Seasoned Equity Offerings on Stock Return of Ho Chi Minh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Viet Tien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the impact of seasoned equity offerings (SEO on stock return of listed companies in Ho Chi Minh City market using the method “event study” which has been basically formed by Campbell, Lo, and MacKinlay (1997. The sample includes 332 SEOs from 2007 to 2010. The main findings show evidence that the Ho Chi Minh City market was not efficient in terms of the semi-strong form because the price has increased significantly on the ex-right date, day 0. In an opposite way, the market also reacted significantly negatively from T-4 to T-2. There are some significant impacts of timing on issue methods – equity right issues were in priority for favorable time and issues as “dividend by stocks” were chosen during unfavorable time.

  12. XAFS study of copper(II) complexes with square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A.; Klysubun, W.; Nitin Nair, N.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure of six Cu(II) complexes, Cu2(Clna)4 2H2O (1), Cu2(ac)4 2H2O (2), Cu2(phac)4 (pyz) (3), Cu2(bpy)2(na)2 H2O (ClO4) (4), Cu2(teen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (5) and Cu2(tmen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (6) (where ac, phac, pyz, bpy, na, teen, tmen = acetate, phenyl acetate, pyrazole, bipyridine, nicotinic acid, tetraethyethylenediamine, tetramethylethylenediamine, respectively), which were supposed to have square pyramidal and square planar coordination geometries have been investigated. The differences observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) features of the standard compounds having four, five and six coordination geometry points towards presence of square planar and square pyramidal geometry around Cu centre in the studied complexes. The presence of intense pre-edge feature in the spectra of four complexes, 1-4, indicates square pyramidal coordination. Another important XANES feature, present in complexes 5 and 6, is prominent shoulder in the rising part of edge whose intensity decreases in the presence of axial ligands and thus indicates four coordination in these complexes. Ab initio calculations were carried out for square planar and square pyramidal Cu centres to observe the variation of 4p density of states in the presence and absence of axial ligands. To determine the number and distance of scattering atoms around Cu centre in the complexes, EXAFS analysis has been done using the paths obtained from Cu(II) oxide model and an axial Cu-O path from model of a square pyramidal complex. The results obtained from EXAFS analysis have been reported which confirmed the inference drawn from XANES features. Thus, it has been shown that these paths from model of a standard compound can be used to determine the structural parameters for complexes having unknown structure.

  13. Design, Installation and Performance of the New insulator for NSTX CHI Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D; Chrzanowski, J; Gates, D; Menard, J; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Maqueda, R J; Schaffer, M J

    2008-03-05

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), a non-inductive method to initiate plasma and generate toroidal plasma current, is being investigated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The center stack and outer vacuum vessel are separated by insulating gaps at the top and bottom of the slim central column so that a high voltage (up to 2 kV) can be applied between them from a pulsed power supply or a capacitor bank to initiate an arc discharge. In the presence of a suitable poloidal magnetic field, the discharge is initiated at the lower gap (the injector gap) and because of the strong toroidal field develops a helical structure resulting in substantial toroidal plasma current being driven. In NSTX, up to 390 kA of toroidal current has been generated for an injected current of 25 kA. The early investigations of CHI however frequently developed arcs across the insulator at the top of the machine (the absorber gap), which terminated the desired discharge. This arcing greatly restricted the operational space available for CHI studies. During 2002, the absorber region was modified to suppress these arcs. The new design includes a new ceramic insulator on the high field side of the absorber region with a much longer tracking distance between conducting elements at the different potentials. Furthermore, two new coils were installed near the absorber to provide the ability to minimize the poloidal field connecting the center stack and outer vacuum vessel. During the subsequent experimental campaign, CHI operation was less prone to arcing in the absorber and those arcs that did occur did not terminate the main discharge.)

  14. Frog value chain case study in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Frog is valuable product in Vietnam but the natural frogs are overexploited thus, the new model to raising frog is desired. Many species of frogs are cultured in Vietnam, especially in Ho Chi Minh City, for trial of the adaptive ability of exotic species in Vietnam condition. Recently, the frogs’ species from Thailand and Taiwan are prepotent and spread out Vietnam. Nowadays, frog culture becomes one of the newest industries in Vietnam. With a short life cycle, frog culture is farming as econ...

  15. Knowledge Organization of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Case of Chi River Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Kaewboonma; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Wanida Kanarkard

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the research project on the Development of an Ontology-Based Semantic Search for Integrated Water Resources Management of the Chi River Basin (CRB), Thailand. The study aimed at developing the knowledge domain of water resources management for CRB. The research methods included document analysis and qualitative research by adopting Liou (1990)’s knowledge acquisition approach. Fifteen experts including ten experts in the areas of environmental engineerin...

  16. Users' Searching Behaviour in Using Online Databases at Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Sinh, Nguyen; Hong Nhung, Hoang Thi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper focuses on identifying the searching behaviors of the users, their difficulties as well as their expectations from library supports while using online databases at the Central Library of Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh city. Methods: Usage Reports of six online databases subscribed by the Central Library were analyzed and a survey by emailing users a questionnaire was conducted. Findings: The amount of usage increases yearly, however it is still low in comp...

  17. Tai Chi Chuan Optimizes the Functional Organization of the Intrinsic Human Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Luo; Xi-Nian Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC ...

  18. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC ...

  19. Formation of macrocyclic lactones in the Paternò–Büchi dimerization reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Manabu Abe; Yoshikazu Hiraga; Junya Arimura; Tsutomu Mizuta

    2011-01-01

    Furan-2-ylmethyl 2-oxoacetates 1a,b, in which the furan ring and the carbonyl moiety were embedded intramolecularly, were synthesized from commercially available furan-2-ylmethanol and their photochemical reaction (hν > 290 nm) was investigated. Twelve-membered macrocyclic lactones 2a,b with Ci symmetry including two oxetane-rings, which are the Paternò–Büchi dimerization products, were isolated in ca. 20% yield. The intramolecular cyclization products, such as 3-alkox...

  20. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbritt David W; Dibley Michael J; Huynh Dieu TT; Tran Hanh TM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline ...

  1. Implications of a $\\chi(3.86)$ State for Theoretical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tuan, S F

    2000-01-01

    Recent preliminary evidence for a $D \\bar{D}$ state $\\chi(3.86)$ raises extremely interesting implications for theoretical models, particularly those currently in vogue, e.g. the flux tube model and a molecular charmonium picture. We examine the experimental consequences as well as the possible unveiling of a strata of C-exotic states in heavy quarkonia systems by future facilities like BES Upgrade/Tau-Charm Factory and CLEO III/B-Factories.

  2. The pragmatic import of pronominal usage in chiShona discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Pedzisai Mashiri; Sinfree Makoni

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the pragmatic significance of chiShona pronouns by examining the use of different pronouns: personal, enumerative, and demonstrative, and by demonstrating their address and referential value and social meanings. Two important issues are addressed.  First, we demonstrate that a purely grammatical analysis of pronouns, which emphasise the internal analysis and the anaphoric function of pronouns, fails to capture the complexity of pronominal usage in ordinary conversations...

  3. The efficacy of Tai Chi Chuan in older adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, Arianne; Immink, M.; van der Meulen, A; Bierma-zeinstra, Sita

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on fall prevention, balance and cardiorespiratory functions in the elderly. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out according to the Cochrane standards. A computerized literature search was carried out. Studies were selected when they had an experimental design; the age of the study population was >50; one of the interventions was a form of TCC; and when falls, balance or cardiorespiratory f...

  4. Increased first and second pulse harmonics in Tai Chi Chuan practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wan-An; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-01-01

    Background Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is known to be a good calisthenics for people. This study examined the relationship between pulse harmonics and autonomic nervous modulation in TCC practitioners. Methods Power spectral measures of right pulse wave and heart rate variability (HRV) measures were compared between TCC practitioners and control subjects. Correlation analyses between pulse harmonics and HRV measures were performed using linear regression analysis. Results At baseline, the total power...

  5. Evaluating the effects of Tai Chi on physical fitness and mental health of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Manh Hung

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to examine the effects of 24-form Tai Chi exercise in six months on physical fitness, blood pressure and perceived health as well as sleep quality, visual attention, and balance ability of older people living in dwelling community. This study is also aimed to compare differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated health between German and Vietnamese older adults in terms cross-cultural study between Vietnamese and German samples. The subjects were divided...

  6. Changes in heart-rate variability of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer during Tai Chi Qigong practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Yam, Timothy T.T.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Lee, Y.M.; Chow, Lina P. Y.; Luk, W. S.; Ng, Shamay S.M.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the changes in heart-rate variability (HRV) of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) before, during, and after a Tai Chi (TC) Qigong exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven survivors of NPC participated voluntarily in the study. The heart rate of each participant was measured continuously for 1 minute before the TC Qigong intervention, during the 5-minute TC Qigong intervention, and for 1 minute after the intervention, using a Polar heart-rate monitor. Spectral HRV was...

  7. Tai Chi Chuan for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Nery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that Tai Chi Chuan can improve cardiac function in patients with heart disease. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: We performed a search for studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by three independent investigators, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the manuscripts. Results: The initial search found 201 studies that, after review of titles and abstracts, resulted in a selection of 12 manuscripts. They were fully analyzed and of these, nine were excluded. As a final result, three randomized controlled trials remained. The studies analyzed in this systematic review included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease, all were clinically stable and able to exercise. The three experiments had a control group that practiced structured exercise training or received counseling for exercise. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 months. Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests that Tai Chi Chuan can be an unconventional form of cardiac rehabilitation, being an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, the methodological quality of the included articles and the small sample sizes clearly indicate that new randomized controlled trials are needed in this regard.

  8. Effects of an Exercise Program with Tai Chi in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Andrea Silva-Zemanate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was aimed at determining the effects of an exercise program with the art of Tai Chi in older women. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental study with a longitudinal cutting was conducted; the study population was a group of elderly in the city of Popayan. It consisted of three phases: in the first one, an initial evaluation of physical capacity (walking, balance, daily basic activities was applied, afterward, the scale of Yesavage for signs of depression, and finally the Folstien Mini Mental Test to assess cognitive functions. In the second phase, a program of Tai Chi exercises in one weekly session for a twelve weeks period was implemented. In the third phase, the evaluation of the results of the program through participant re-evaluating was carried out. Results: The functional capacity improved in all the tested aspects, the difference in walking speed and the static and dynamic balance were statistically significant; in the same way, the cognitive ability improved in all the tested items, statistical significance was found in aspects such as memory, attention, calculation and language. All participants achieved full functionality of the daily basic activities. Conclusions: The application of a Tai Chi technique provides significant benefits in the balance and the cognitive ability of the elderly, leading to a breakthrough in their independent behavior and improving their functional capacity, so it could be recommended as an alternative technique of physiotherapeutic intervention in neuronal rehabilitation.

  9. Distribution of Earthquake Interevent Times in Northeast India and Adjoining Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes earthquake interoccurrence times of northeast India and its vicinity from eleven probability distributions, namely exponential, Frechet, gamma, generalized exponential, inverse Gaussian, Levy, lognormal, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, and Weibull distributions. Parameters of these distributions are estimated from the method of maximum likelihood estimation, and their respective asymptotic variances as well as confidence bounds are calculated using Fisher information matrices. Three model selection criteria namely the Chi-square criterion, the maximum likelihood criterion, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov minimum distance criterion are used to compare model suitability for the present earthquake catalog (Y adav et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 167:1331-1342, 2010). It is observed that gamma, generalized exponential, and Weibull distributions provide the best fitting, while exponential, Frechet, inverse Gaussian, and lognormal distributions provide intermediate fitting, and the rest, namely Levy, Maxwell Pareto, and Rayleigh distributions fit poorly to the present data. The conditional probabilities for a future earthquake and related conditional probability curves are presented towards the end of this article.

  10. Comparison of high energy gamma rays from absolute value of b greater than 30 deg with the galactic neutral hydrogen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, M. E.; Ogelman, H.; Tumer, T.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-energy gamma-ray (energy above 35 MeV) data from the SAS 2 satellite have been used to compare the intensity distribution of gamma rays with that of neutral hydrogen (H I) density along the line of sight, at high galactic latitudes (absolute values greater than 30 deg). A model has been constructed for the case where the observed gamma-ray intensity has been assumed to be the sum of a galactic component proportional to the H I distribution plus an isotropic extragalactic emission. A chi-squared test of the model parameters indicates that about 30% of the total high-latitude emission may originate within the Galaxy.

  11. Production of $J/\\psi + \\chi_c$ and $J/\\psi + J/\\psi$ with real gluon emission at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Likhoded, A K; Poslavsky, S V

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we study production of $J/\\psi + \\chi_c$ and $J/\\psi + J/\\psi$ in LHC. The first process is forbidden at the leading order in gluon fusion due to the $C$-parity conservation, and the first non-vanishing contribution is given by the process with additional emission of real gluon. Considering the direct production of $J/\\psi + J/\\psi$, where the leading order is allowed, we have found that the contribution from the higher order process with real gluon emission is comparable and even more significant than the leading order. Moreover, account of this higher order effect dramatically changes kinematical distributions. Through the present paper we study in details different channels of paired $J/\\psi + J/\\psi$ production: direct $J/\\psi + J/\\psi$ production, feed-down from $J/\\psi + \\chi_c$ channel, double parton scattering. We also try to find kinematical distributions that are most suitable to separate these different channels.

  12. Non-inductive plasma start-up on NSTX and projections to NSTX-U using transient CHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has generated toroidal current on closed-flux surfaces without the use of the central solenoid. When induction from the central solenoid was added, CHI initiated discharges in NSTX achieved 1 MA of plasma current using 65% of the solenoid flux of standard induction-only discharges. In addition, the CHI-initiated discharges have lower density and a low normalized internal plasma inductance of 0.35, as desired for achieving advanced scenarios. Transient CHI will be used for non-inductive plasma start-up on the upgrade to NSTX (NSTX-U) that is now under construction. It will have numerous improvements that significantly enhance CHI start-up capability. The TSC code is now starting to be used for full discharge simulation, which includes solenoid-less start-up with CHI and subsequent non-inductive current ramp-up using neutral beams. These results suggest that the increased injector flux capability of NSTX-U should allow CHI start-up at more than the 400 kA level and that the new tangential neutral beam system on NSTX-U should be able to ramp the current to the 1 MA levels. (paper)

  13. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen MH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Manh Hung Nguyen, Andreas KruseInstitute of Gerontology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, GermanyObjective: To evaluate the effects of Tai chi exercise on balance, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in community-dwelling elderly in Vinh city, Vietnam.Design: A randomized controlled trial.Participants: One hundred two subjects were recruited.Intervention: Subjects were divided randomly into two groups. The Tai chi group was assigned 6 months' Tai chi training. The control group was instructed to maintain their routine daily activities.Outcome measures: The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and Trail Making Test (TMT were used as primary outcome measures.Results: Participants in the Tai chi group reported significant improvement in TMT (part A (F [1, 71] = 78.37, P < 0.001 and in TMT (part B, (F [1, 71] = 175.00, P < 0.001 in comparison with the control group. Tai chi participants also reported better scores in FES (F [1, 71] = 96.90, P < 0.001 and in PSQI (F [1,71] = 43.69, P = 0.001 than the control group.Conclusion: Tai chi is beneficial to improve balance, sleep quality, and cognitive performance of the elderly.Keywords: Tai chi, sleep, balance 

  14. A small RNA controls expression of the chitinase ChiA in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper S Nielsen

    Full Text Available In recent years, more than 60 small RNAs (sRNAs have been identified in the gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, but their putative roles and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The sRNA LhrA was recently shown to be a post-transcriptional regulator of a single gene, lmo0850, which encodes a small protein of unknown function. LhrA controls the translation and degradation of the lmo0850 mRNA by an antisense mechanism, and it depends on the RNA chaperone Hfq for efficient binding to its target. In the present study, we sought to gain more insight into the functional role of LhrA in L. monocytogenes. To this end, we determined the effects of LhrA on global-wide gene expression. We observed that nearly 300 genes in L. monocytogenes are either positively or negatively affected by LhrA. Among these genes, we identified lmo0302 and chiA as direct targets of LhrA, thus establishing LhrA as a multiple target regulator. Lmo0302 encodes a hypothetical protein with no known function, whereas chiA encodes one of two chitinases present in L. monocytogenes. We show here that LhrA acts as a post-transcriptional regulator of lmo0302 and chiA by interfering with ribosome recruitment, and we provide evidence that both LhrA and Hfq act to down-regulate the expression of lmo0302 and chiA. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments show that Hfq stimulates the base pairing of LhrA to chiA mRNA. Finally, we demonstrate that LhrA has a negative effect on the chitinolytic activity of L. monocytogenes. In marked contrast to this, we found that Hfq has a stimulating effect on the chitinolytic activity, suggesting that Hfq plays multiple roles in the complex regulatory pathways controlling the chitinases of L. monocytogenes.

  15. Numerical simulations of square arrayed rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► CFD simulations with square arrayed rod bundles. ► Mesh dependency and turbulence model study by comparison with experiments. ► Gibson and Launder Reynolds stress model shows good agreement with experiments. ► Effect of pitch to diameter ratio and Reynolds number is correctly captured. - Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed with square arrayed rod bundles featuring pitch to diameter (P/D) ratio of 1.194 and 1.326 in order to find an optimal mesh and turbulence model for simulations with more complex geometries in the future. With the tighter lattice a mesh sensitivity and turbulence model study were accomplished and the post processed turbulence quantities, velocity field and wall shear stress were compared with experimental data ( Developed single phase turbulent flow through a square-pitch rod cluster. Nuclear Engineering and Design 60, 365–379.). The comparisons show that Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes method with the Reynolds stress model of Gibson and Launder in conjunction with an appropriate mesh can provide reasonable agreement with the experiment for this lattice. For pure bundle simulations the body fitted structured meshes are suggested, since slightly better agreement can be captured considering all quantities with the same number of cells. Based on the drawn conclusions the procession was repeated for P/D = 1.326, where, due to lack of experiment, just the correct tendencies of the turbulence quantities and velocity field were established. The results show Reynolds number independency correctly and the increase of P/D issues in more similar flow to axisymmetric pipe flow.

  16. The chitinase C gene PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. and its synergistic effects on larvicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanfang Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. strain TXG6-1, a chitinolytic gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from a vegetable field in Taixing city, Jiangsu Province, China. In this study, a Pseudomonas chitinase C gene (PsChiC was isolated from the chromosomal DNA of this bacterium using a pair of specific primers. The PsChiC gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1443 nucleotides and encoded 480 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 51.66 kDa. The deduced PsChiC amino acid sequence lacked a signal sequence and consisted of a glycoside hydrolase family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, a fibronectin type III-like domain (FLD and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain (ChBD. The amino acid sequence of PsChiCshowed high sequence homology (> 95% with chitinase C from Serratia marcescens. SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular mass of chitinase PsChiC was 52 kDa. Chitinase assays revealed that the chitobiosidase and endochitinase activities of PsChiCwere 51.6- and 84.1-fold higher than those of pET30a, respectively. Although PsChiC showed little insecticidal activity towards Spodoptera litura larvae, an insecticidal assay indicated that PsChiC increased the insecticidal toxicity of SpltNPV by 1.78-fold at 192 h and hastened death. These results suggest that PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. could be useful in improving the pathogenicity of baculoviruses.

  17. Django girls workshop at IdeaSquare

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Short video highlights of the Django Girls coding workshop organized at IdeaSquare on Feb 26-27, 2016 by the Rosehipsters non profit organization, supported by the CERN diversity team and the IT department, attracting 39 women from 15 countries. The aim of the workshop was to introduce participants to the world of computer programming and technology by teaching them how to successfully create a blog application and deploy it to the internet. Most of the 16 volunteer mentors were female. Django Girls is a non-profit organization and a community that empowers and helps women to organize free, one-day programming workshops by providing tools, resources and support.

  18. Hangover Square by Patrick Hamilton:Mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    Patrick Hamilton’s (1904–1962) books are filled with gin and jealousy and depict obsessive desire in oppressive circumstances. His early financial success funded his heavy drinking, but also allowed him to write some of the best fiction of the 20th century. Following a depressive illness towards the end of his short life he never wrote again, leaving his final series of novels unfinished, the villain forever escaping justice. Hangover Square, set on the eve of the Second World War, tells the ...

  19. An Overview of the Square Kilometre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Lazio, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be the premier instrument to study radiation at centimetre and metre wavelengths from the cosmos, and in particular hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. The SKA will probe the dawn of galaxy formation as well as allow advances in many other areas of astronomy, such as fundamental physics, astrobiology and cosmology. Phase 1, which will be about 10% of the full SKA collecting area, will be built in Australia and South Africa. This paper describes the key science drivers of the SKA, provides an update on recent SKA Organisation activities and summarises the baseline design for Phase 1.

  20. Transient Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, Rob; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Murphy, Tara; Deller, Adam; Paragi, Zsolt; Chatterjee, Shami

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the possibilities for transient and variable-source astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array. While subsequent chapters focus on the astrophysics of individual events, we focus on the broader picture, and how to maximise the science coming from the telescope. The SKA as currently designed will be a fantastic and ground-breaking facility for radio transient studies, but the scientifc yield will be dramatically increased by the addition of (i) near-real-time commensal searches of data streams for events, and (ii) on occasion, rapid robotic response to Target-of-Opprtunity style triggers.

  1. [Partial lease squares approach to functional analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, C

    2006-01-01

    We extend the partial least squares (PLS) approach to functional data represented in our models by sample paths of stochastic process with continuous time. Due to the infinite dimension, when functional data are used as a predictor for linear regression and classification models, the estimation problem is an ill-posed one. In this context, PLS offers a simple and efficient alternative to the methods based on the principal components of the stochastic process. We compare the results given by the PLS approach and other linear models using several datasets from economy, industry and medical fields. PMID:17124795

  2. The Square-Shoulder-Asakura-Oosawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    A new model for a colloidal size-asymmetric binary mixture is proposed: The Square-Shoulder-Asakura-Oosawa. This belongs to the larger class of non-additive hard-spheres models and has the property that its effective pair formulation is exact whenever the solvent particle fits inside the interstitial region of three touching solute particles. Therefore one can study its properties from the equivalent one-component effective problem. Some remarks on the phase diagram of this new model are also addressed.

  3. Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) the book of squares

    CERN Document Server

    Sigler, L E

    1987-01-01

    The Book of Squares by Fibonacci is a gem in the mathematical literature and one of the most important mathematical treatises written in the Middle Ages. It is a collection of theorems on indeterminate analysis and equations of second degree which yield, among other results, a solution to a problem proposed by Master John of Palermo to Leonardo at the Court of Frederick II. The book was dedicated and presented to the Emperor at Pisa in 1225. Dating back to the 13th century the book exhibits the early and continued fascination of men with our number system and the relationship among numbers

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Swimming and Tai Chi Chuan on Body Fat Composition in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yang Yu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of fat and substantial loss of muscle mass are common phenomenain the elderly. In this study, we observed the effects of Tai ChiChuan (TCC and swimming, two exercises suitable for elderly people, onthe percentage body fat and fat distribution by measuring subcutaneous adiposetissue thickness and body composition.Methods: Subjects were divided into three groups: regular swimmers (n = 20, regularTCC practitioners (n = 32, and age-matched control subjects (n = 31.Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness was taken using a Lange skinfoldcaliper at the chests, abdomens, and thighs in the men, and the triceps,suprailium, and thighs in the women. Mid-arm circumference (MAC wasmeasured on the non-dominant upper arm using fiberglass tape. Body compositionwas analyzed using the Inbody 3.0 logo, a bioelectrical impedanceanalysis (BIA system.Results: No significant differences were found between the three test groups in relationto total body adiposity and arm muscle circumference in the men andwomen. There was significantly less subcutaneous adipose tissue at theabdomen (p = 0.011 and thigh (p < 0.001 of TCC-group men and at thethighs (p < 0.001 of the swimming group compared with the control group.In women, only the thigh skinfold (p = 0.002 showed a decrease in the TCCgroup compared with the control group.Conclusion: Swimming and TCC may not decrease total fat adiposity in elderly men andwomen, however, they may change body fat distribution due to certain musclegroup usage. The differences observed in the effects of exercise on bodyfat distribution between elderly women and men may be gender-related.

  5. $J-\\psi$ Production via $\\chi_c$ Decays in 920 GeV pA Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, I; Adams, M; Albrecht, H; Amaral, V S; Amorim, A; Aplin, S J; Arefev, A; Arino, I; Atiya, M; Aushev, V M; Bagaturia, Yu S; Baghshetsyan, R; Balagura, V; Bargiotti, M; Barsuk, S; Barsukova, O; Bassetti, V; Bastos, J; Bauer, C; Bauer, T S; Beck, M; Belkov, A A; Belotelov, I; Belyaev, I; Berkhan, K; Bertin, A; Bobchenko, B M; Böcker, M; Bogatyrev, A; Böhm, G; Borgmeier, C; Brauer, M; Broemmelsiek, D R; Bruinsma, M; Bruschi, M; Buchholz, P; Büchler, M C; Buran, T; Capéans-Garrido, M; Capponi, M; Carvalho, J; Chamanina, J; Chen, B X; Chistov, R; Chmeissani, M; Christensen, A; Conde, P; Cruse, C; Dam, M; Danielsen, K M; Danilov, M; De Castro, S; Deckers, H; Dehmelt, K; Deppe, H; Dolgoshein, B A; Dong, X; Dreis, H B; Dressel, M; Dujmic, D; Eckmann, R; Egorytchev, V; Ehret, K; Eiges, V; Eisele, Franz; Emeliyanov, D; Erhan, S; Essenov, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Faccioli, P; Fallot-Burghardt, W; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Flammer, J; Fleckenstein, H; Fominykh, B A; Fourletov, S; Fuljahn, T; Funcke, M; Galli, D; García, A; Garrido, L; Gascón, D; Gellrich, A; Gerndt, K E K; Giacobbe, B; Glass, J; Glebe, T; Goloubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Golutvin, I A; Gorbunov, I V; Gorisek, A; Gouchtchine, O; Goulart, D C; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Guilitsky, Yu; Hamacher, T; Hansen, J D; Harr, R; Hast, C; Hausmann, S A; Hernández, J M; Hildebrandt, M; Hölscher, A; Höpfner, K; Hofmann, W; Hohlmann, M; Hott, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Husemann, U; Igonkina, O; Ispirian, M K; Issever, I; Itterbeck, H; Ivarsson, J; Jagla, T; Jia, Y; Jiang, C; Kaoukher, A; Kapitza, H; Karabekyan, S; Karchin, P; Karpenko, N; Ke, Z; Keller, S; Khasanov, F M; Kim, H; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kisel, I V; Klefenz, F; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetkov, V; Kolanoski, H; Korpar, S; Krauss, C; Kreuzer, P K; Krizan, P; Krücker, D; Kvaratskheliia, T; Lange, A; Lanyov, A V; Lau, K; Leffers, G; Legrand, I; Lewendel, B; Liu Ya Qian; Lohse, T; Loke, R; Lomonosov, B N; Lüdemann, J; Männer, R; Mankel, R; Marconi, U; Masciocchi, S; Massa, I; Matchikhilian, I; Medin, G; Medinnis, M; Mevius, M; Michetti, A; Mikhailov, Yu; Miquel, R; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, A; Moshkin, A; Moshous, B; Muresan, R; Nam, S; Negodaev, M A; Negri, I; Nörenberg, M; Nowak, S; Núñez-Pardo de Vera, M T; Oest, T; Oliveira, A; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Padilla, C; Pakhlov, P; Pavlenko, Yu N; Peralta, D; Pernack, R; Perschke, T; Pestotnik, R; Petersen, B AA; Piccinini, M; Pleier, M A; Poli, M; Popov, V; Pose, A V; Pose, D; Pugatch, V; Pylypchenko, Y; Pyrlik, J; Ramachandran, S; Ratnikov, F; Reeves, K; Ressing, D; Riechmann, K; Rieling, J; Rietz, M; Riu, I; Robmann, P; Rosen, J; Rothe, C; Rückstuhl, W; Rusinov, V Yu; Rybnikov, V; Ryzhikov, D; Saadi-Ludemann, F; Samtleben, D; Sánchez, F; Sang, M; Saveliev, V; Sbrizzi, A; Schaller, S C; Schlein, Peter E; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, S; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schreiner, A T; Schröder, H; Schultz, H D; Schwanke, U; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, A S; Schwenninger, B; Schwingenheuer, B; Schwitters, Roy F; Sciacca, F; Semenov, S; Semprini-Cesari, N; Sexauer, E; Seybold, L; Shiu, J; Shuvalov, S M; Siccama, I; Skrk, D; Sozuer, L; Soldatov, A; Solunin, S A; Somov, A; Somov, S V; Souvorov, V; Spahn, M; Spengler, J; Spighi, R; Spiridonov, A A; Spratte, S; Stanovnik, A; Staric, M; Saint-Denis, R; Stegmann, C; Steinbeck, S; Steinkamp, O; Stieler, D; Straumann, U; Sun, F; Sun, H; Symalla, M; Takach, S F; Tesch, N; Thurn, H; Tikhomirov, I; Titov, M L; Trunk, U; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V M; Van Eldik, C; Van Staa, R; Vasilev, Yu; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Vukotic, I; Wagner, G; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Walenta, Albert H; Walter, M; Walter, T; Wang, J J; Wang, Y M; Wanke, R; Wegener, D; Werthenbach, U; Weyers, P J; Wolters, H; Wurth, R; Würtz, A; Xella, S M; Yang, J; Zaitsev, Yu; Zavertyaev, M V; Zech, G; Zeuner, T; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Z; Zhu, Z; Zimmermann, R; Zivko, T; Zoccoli, A; Zweizig, J

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the HERA-B experiment, we have measured the fraction of J\\psi's produced via radiative chi_c decays in interactions of 920 GeV protons with carbon and titanium targets. We obtained R_{\\chi_c} = 0.32 \\pm 0.06_{stat} \\pm 0.04_{sys} for the fraction of J\\psi from chi_c decays averaged over proton-carbon and proton-titanium collisions. This result is in agreement with previous measurements and is compared with theoretical predictions.

  6. The Influence of Tai Chi Exercise on Proprioception in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Anna; McAlindon, Timothy; Schmid, Christopher H.; Wang, Chenchen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous long-term observational studies found that Tai Chi practitioners had better knee- joint proprioceptive acuity versus controls in an older population. We evaluated the effects of Tai Chi for knee- joint proprioception in knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: We randomized 40 eligible individuals (age > 55, BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2 with knee pain on most days of the previous month and tibiofemoral OA (K/L grade ≥2) to Tai Chi (10 modified forms from clas...

  7. Making the most out of the least (squares migration)

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2014-08-05

    Standard migration images can suffer from migration artifacts due to 1) poor source-receiver sampling, 2) weak amplitudes caused by geometric spreading, 3) attenuation, 4) defocusing, 5) poor resolution due to limited source-receiver aperture, and 6) ringiness caused by a ringy source wavelet. To partly remedy these problems, least-squares migration (LSM), also known as linearized seismic inversion or migration deconvolution (MD), proposes to linearly invert seismic data for the reflectivity distribution. If the migration velocity model is sufficiently accurate, then LSM can mitigate many of the above problems and lead to a more resolved migration image, sometimes with twice the spatial resolution. However, there are two problems with LSM: the cost can be an order of magnitude more than standard migration and the quality of the LSM image is no better than the standard image for velocity errors of 5% or more. We now show how to get the most from least-squares migration by reducing the cost and velocity sensitivity of LSM.

  8. Application of Linear Mean-Square Estimation in Ocean Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉萍; 陈柏宇; 陈超; 陈正寿; 刘桂林

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to obtain long-term observed data around some sea areas we concern is usually very hard or even impossible in practical offshore and ocean engineering situations. In this paper, by means of linear mean-square estimation method, a new way to extend short-term data to long-term ones is developed. The long-term data about concerning sea areas can be constructed via a series of long-term data obtained from neighbor oceanographic stations, through relevance analysis of different data series. It is effective to cover the insufficiency of time series prediction method’s overdependence upon the length of data series, as well as the limitation of variable numbers adopted in multiple linear regression model. The storm surge data collected from three oceanographic stations located in Shandong Peninsula are taken as examples to analyze the number-selection effect of reference oceanographic stations (adjacent to the concerning sea area) and the correlation coefficients between sea sites which are selected for reference and for engineering projects construction respectively. By comparing the N-year return-period values which are calculated from observed raw data and processed data which are extended from finite data series by means of the linear mean-square estimation method, one can draw a conclusion that this method can give considerably good estimation in practical ocean engineering, in spite of different extreme value distributions about raw and processed data.

  9. Making the most out of least-squares migration

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-09-01

    Standard migration images can suffer from (1) migration artifacts caused by an undersampled acquisition geometry, (2) poor resolution resulting from a limited recording aperture, (3) ringing artifacts caused by ripples in the source wavelet, and (4) weak amplitudes resulting from geometric spreading, attenuation, and defocusing. These problems can be remedied in part by least-squares migration (LSM), also known as linearized seismic inversion or migration deconvolution (MD), which aims to linearly invert seismic data for the reflectivity distribution. Given a sufficiently accurate migration velocity model, LSM can mitigate many of the above problems and can produce more resolved migration images, sometimes with more than twice the spatial resolution of standard migration. However, LSM faces two challenges: The computational cost can be an order of magnitude higher than that of standard migration, and the resulting image quality can fail to improve for migration velocity errors of about 5% or more. It is possible to obtain the most from least-squares migration by reducing the cost and velocity sensitivity of LSM.

  10. Application of linear mean-square estimation in ocean engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-ping; Chen, Bai-yu; Chen, Chao; Chen, Zheng-shou; Liu, Gui-lin

    2016-03-01

    The attempt to obtain long-term observed data around some sea areas we concern is usually very hard or even impossible in practical offshore and ocean engineering situations. In this paper, by means of linear mean-square estimation method, a new way to extend short-term data to long-term ones is developed. The long-term data about concerning sea areas can be constructed via a series of long-term data obtained from neighbor oceanographic stations, through relevance analysis of different data series. It is effective to cover the insufficiency of time series prediction method's overdependence upon the length of data series, as well as the limitation of variable numbers adopted in multiple linear regression model. The storm surge data collected from three oceanographic stations located in Shandong Peninsula are taken as examples to analyze the number-selection effect of reference oceanographic stations (adjacent to the concerning sea area) and the correlation coefficients between sea sites which are selected for reference and for engineering projects construction respectively. By comparing the N-year return-period values which are calculated from observed raw data and processed data which are extended from finite data series by means of the linear mean-square estimation method, one can draw a conclusion that this method can give considerably good estimation in practical ocean engineering, in spite of different extreme value distributions about raw and processed data.

  11. Update on the Square Kilometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    2002-01-01

    In August 2000 representatives of 24 groups in 10 countries signed a memorandum of understanding to continue cooperative technology development on five different antenna concepts intended to enable the cost-effective construction of a radio telescope array with one million square meters of collecting area; the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). The goal of this MOA is to find innovative ways of solving the many technical challenges posed by this mammouth array, and to drive down the costs so that this can realistically be afforded as a groundbased, international project for radio astronomy. The science drivers for this large instrument are diverse and very exciting; SETI being one of them. However, this means that the technical specifications are extremely challenging. There is historical reason to believe that these goals can be met. For the past six decades, the capability of radio astronomy facilities has been improving exponentially, and the SKA represents the logical extrapolation of this trend. In 2005 a selection of one or more of the current antenna concepts will be made, along with the choice of a suitable site and configuration for the array. Final detailed designs and prototyping will follow. Construction could start by the end of this decade. The SKA will permit SETI observations over a wider range of frequencies, and will offer a sensitivity that is two orders of magnitude better than current arrays. This improved performance justifies all the effort needed to overcome the technological, political, and bureaucratic challenges inherent in this international mega-science project.

  12. ON THE SEPARABLE NONLINEAR LEAST SQUARES PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Liu; Yaxiang Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Separable nonlinear least squares problems are a special class of nonlinear least squares problems, where the objective functions are linear and nonlinear on different parts of variables. Such problems have broad applications in practice. Most existing algorithms for this kind of problems are derived from the variable projection method proposed by Golub and Pereyra, which utilizes the separability under a separate framework. However, the methods based on variable projection strategy would be invalid if there exist some constraints to the variables, as the real problems always do, even if the constraint is simply the ball constraint. We present a new algorithm which is based on a special approximation to the Hessian by noticing the fact that certain terms of the Hessian can be derived from the gradient. Our method maintains all the advantages of variable projection based methods, and moreover it can be combined with trust region methods easily and can be applied to general constrained separable nonlinear problems. Convergence analysis of our method is presented and numerical results are also reported.

  13. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matsekh, Anna M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  14. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of

  15. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  16. Regularization Techniques for Linear Least-Squares Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Linear estimation is a fundamental branch of signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters from a corrupted measured data. Throughout the years, several optimization criteria have been used to achieve this task. The most astonishing attempt among theses is the linear least-squares. Although this criterion enjoyed a wide popularity in many areas due to its attractive properties, it appeared to suffer from some shortcomings. Alternative optimization criteria, as a result, have been proposed. These new criteria allowed, in one way or another, the incorporation of further prior information to the desired problem. Among theses alternative criteria is the regularized least-squares (RLS). In this thesis, we propose two new algorithms to find the regularization parameter for linear least-squares problems. In the constrained perturbation regularization algorithm (COPRA) for random matrices and COPRA for linear discrete ill-posed problems, an artificial perturbation matrix with a bounded norm is forced into the model matrix. This perturbation is introduced to enhance the singular value structure of the matrix. As a result, the new modified model is expected to provide a better stabilize substantial solution when used to estimate the original signal through minimizing the worst-case residual error function. Unlike many other regularization algorithms that go in search of minimizing the estimated data error, the two new proposed algorithms are developed mainly to select the artifcial perturbation bound and the regularization parameter in a way that approximately minimizes the mean-squared error (MSE) between the original signal and its estimate under various conditions. The first proposed COPRA method is developed mainly to estimate the regularization parameter when the measurement matrix is complex Gaussian, with centered unit variance (standard), and independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) entries. Furthermore, the second proposed COPRA

  17. $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $a_0(980)$ production in the $\\chi_{c1} \\to \\eta \\pi^+\\pi^-$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Wei-Hong; Oset, E

    2016-01-01

    We study the $\\chi_{c1} \\to \\eta \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decay, paying attention to the production of $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $a_0(980)$ from the final state interaction of pairs of mesons that can lead to these three mesons in the final state, which is implemented using the chiral unitary approach. Very clean and strong signals are obtained for the $a_0(980)$ excitation in the $\\eta \\pi$ invariant mass distribution and for the $f_0(500)$ in the $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$ mass distribution. A smaller, but also clear signal for the $f_0(980)$ excitation is obtained. The results are contrasted with experimental data and the agreement found is good, providing yet one more test in support of the picture where these resonances are dynamically generated from the meson-meson interaction.

  18. Visualizations of Boger fluid flows in a 4:1 square/square contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maria Arminda Costa; Pinho, Fernando Tavares de; Oliveira, Paulo Jorge dos Santos Pimentel de

    2010-01-01

    Visualizations of the 3-D flow in a 4:1 square/square sudden contraction for two viscoelastic Boger fluids and two Newtonian fluids were carried out at low Reynolds numbers. In these creeping flow conditions, the vortex length remained unchanged for Newtonian fluids, whereas a nonmonotonic variation with flow rate was observed for the Boger fluids. Initially, the corner vortex slightly increased with flow rate to a local peak at a Deborah number of De=6, before decreasing significantly to a m...

  19. Consumer Health Informatics in the Context of Engaged Citizens and eHealth Services - A New CHI Meta Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Griebel, Lena; Becker, Kurt; Pobiruchin, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a relatively new and interdisciplinary field in Medical Informatics. It focuses on consumer- rather than professional-centered services. However, the definitions and understanding of a) what is a "consumer"? or b) what is health technology in the context of CHI? and c) what factors and actors influence the usage of eHealth services? vary widely. The CHI special interest group (SIG) - associated with the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology - conducted two workshops in 2015 to improve the common understanding on these topics. The workshop outcomes, the derived CHI-specific meta model and examples how to apply this model are presented in this paper. The model supports the definition of multi-actor contexts, as it not solely reflects the conventional patient-physician relationship but also allows for the description of second health market providers. PMID:27332268

  20. Ly6Chi Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Möhle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6Chi monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6Chi monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6Chi monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6Chi monocytes.

  1. The concentration of manufacturing industries in Vietnam with particular reference to Ho Chi Minh City and its surrounding.

    OpenAIRE

    Ercole, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to invesDgate the economic agglomeration and concentration of manufacturing industries in Vietnam with particular reference to Ho Chi Minh and its surrounding provinces using a-spatial and spatial statistics.

  2. LUX Constraints on Magnetic Dark Matter in the $S\\bar{E} \\chi$y Model with(out) Naturality

    CERN Document Server

    Frandsen, Mads T; Shoemaker, Ian M; Svendsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We study phenomenological constraints in a simple $S\\bar{E} \\chi$y extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a 125 GeV Higgs, a vector-like heavy electron $(E)$, a complex scalar electron $(S)$ and a standard model singlet Dirac fermion $(\\chi)$. The interactions among the dark matter candidate $\\chi$ and the standard model particles occur via loop-induced processes involving the Yukawa interaction $S\\bar{E} \\chi$y. The model is an explicit perturbative realization of so-called magnetic dark matter. The field content allows for a cancelation of quadratic divergences in the scalar masses at one-loop, a phenomenon which we refer to as perturbative naturality. The basic model is constrained dominantly by direct detection experiments and its parameter space can be nearly entirely covered by up-coming ton-scale direct detection experiments. We conclude this work by discussing different variations of the model.

  3. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Schumak

    Full Text Available Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb, we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2, Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G or both cell types (by anti-Gr1 during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg. Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  4. Chinese-chi and Kundalini yoga Meditations Effects on the Autonomic Nervous System: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilesh Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is one of the major causes for death all over the world. Heart rate variability (HRV is a significant parameter that used in assessing Autonomous Nervous System (ANS activity. Generally, the 2D Poincare′ plot and 3D Poincaré plot of the HRV signals reflect the effect of different external stimuli on the ANS. Meditation is one of such external stimulus, which has different techniques with different types of effects on the ANS. Chinese Chi-meditation and Kundalini yoga are two different effective meditation techniques. The current work is interested with the analysis of the HRV signals under the effect of these two based on meditation techniques. The 2D and 3D Poincare′ plots are generally plotted by fitting respectively an ellipse/ellipsoid to the dense region of the constructed Poincare′ plot of HRV signals. However, the 2D and 3D Poincaré plots sometimes fail to describe the proper behaviour of the system. Thus in this study, a three-dimensional frequency-delay plot is proposed to properly distinguish these two famous meditation techniques by analyzing their effects on ANS. This proposed 3D frequency-delay plot is applied on HRV signals of eight persons practicing same Chi-meditation and four other persons practising same Kundalini yoga. To substantiate the result for larger sample of data, statistical Student t-test is applied, which shows a satisfactory result in this context. The experimental results established that the Chi-meditation has large impact on the HRVcompared to the Kundalini yoga.

  5. The effects of Tai-Chi-Soft-Ball training on physical functional health of Chinese older adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Cheung, Siu Yin; Chow, Bik Chu

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate a 10-week training effects of Tai-Chi-Soft-Ball (TCSB), a novel Chinese exercise which combined the elements of Tai Chi and badminton, on physical functional health of private institutionalized older adults. Thirty-four participants were recruited in the training group with 60 minutes per session and two sessions per week TCSB training. Thirty-two participants were recruited simultaneously in the control group (no training). The measurements included the...

  6. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antônio Rahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test. RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test.

  7. A Study on the Biodiversity of Natural Food Production to Support Community Upstream of Chi Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pramuk Srichaiwong; Luckhana Kwewjai; Patarapong Kroeksakul

    2013-01-01

    This biodiversity study of natural food production to supporting the communities upstream of Chi River Basin aims at collecting the name and species of natural food plants in the forest around the upstream areas of Chi River Basin. This is a phenomenal study of species and potential benefits of forest food. Qualitative methodology was mainly used to collect data; the study relied on the knowledge of the local people had to recall the local data, which significantly focused on the species of n...

  8. To explore the prevention and treatment of Tai Chi Chuan Exercise on hypertension based on the theory of chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Lin CHI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,review and analysis of  the fluctuations of blood pressure and pathogenesis of hypertension were presented a review and analysed based on chaos theory. At the same time, we interpreted philosophically the special concept of Tai Chi Chuan Exercise. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of prevention and treatment of Tai Chi Chuan on hypertension was reviewed on the basis of clinical research literature.

  9. Multiples least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the image quality, we propose multiples least-squares reverse time migration (MLSRTM) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. Since each recorded trace is treated as a virtual source, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required. Numerical tests on synthetic data for the Sigsbee2B model and field data from Gulf of Mexico show that MLSRTM can improve the image quality by removing artifacts, balancing amplitudes, and suppressing crosstalk compared to standard migration of the free-surface multiples. The potential liability of this method is that multiples require several roundtrips between the reflector and the free surface, so that high frequencies in the multiples are attenuated compared to the primary reflections. This can lead to lower resolution in the migration image compared to that computed from primaries.

  10. Science with the Square Kilometre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Huynh, Minh

    2010-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is the centimeter- and meter-wavelength telescope for the 21st Century. Its Key Science Projects are (a) The end of the Dark Ages, involving searches for an H i signature and the first metalrich systems; (b) Testing theories of gravitation using an array of pulsars to search for gravitational waves and relativistic binaries to probe the strong-field regime; (c) Observations of H i to a redshift z 2 from which to study the evolution of galaxies and dark energy. (d) Astrobiology including planetary formation within protoplanetary disks; and (c) The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetism, both within the Galaxy and in intergalactic space. The SKA will operate over the wavelength range of at least 1.2 cm to 4 m (70 MHz to 25 GHz), providing milliarcsecond resolution at the shortest wavelengths.

  11. Emotional agents at the square lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and investigate by numerical simulations a number of models of emotional agents at the square lattice. Our models describe the most general features of emotions such as the spontaneous emotional arousal, emotional relaxation, and transfers of emotions between different agents. Group emotions in the considered models are periodically fluctuating between two opposite valency levels and as result the mean value of such group emotions is zero. The oscillations amplitude depends strongly on probability ps of the individual spontaneous arousal. For small values of relaxation times tau we observed a stochastic resonance, i.e. the signal to noise ratio SNR is maximal for a non-zero ps parameter. The amplitude increases with the probability p of local affective interactions while the mean oscillations period increases with the relaxation time tau and is only weakly dependent on other system parameters. Presence of emotional antenna can enhance positive or negative emotions and for the optimal transition p...

  12. Magnetics calculations for an ELMO Bumpy Square

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations have been carried out to determine the vacuum magnetic parameters, forces, and the use of trim coils in an ELMO Bumpy Square. A configuration having five mirror coils per side and an eight-coil high-field toroidal solenoid corner assembly was studied. Favorable magnetic parameters are achieved in the device. An on-axis mirror ratio of 1.9, a global mirror ratio of 3.6, and excellent centering of plasma pressure contours are achieved. Particle losses are also minimal (<5%). The magnetic forces acting between coils are comparable with those encountered in the EBT-I/S magnet configuration. Circular trim coils were found to be suitable for restoring hot electron ring locations that are displaced when the coil currents are varied for performing magnetic studies or for assessing the effects on the EBS of the global mirror ratio

  13. Vehicle detection using partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembhavi, Aniruddha; Harwood, David; Davis, Larry S

    2011-06-01

    Detecting vehicles in aerial images has a wide range of applications, from urban planning to visual surveillance. We describe a vehicle detector that improves upon previous approaches by incorporating a very large and rich set of image descriptors. A new feature set called Color Probability Maps is used to capture the color statistics of vehicles and their surroundings, along with the Histograms of Oriented Gradients feature and a simple yet powerful image descriptor that captures the structural characteristics of objects named Pairs of Pixels. The combination of these features leads to an extremely high-dimensional feature set (approximately 70,000 elements). Partial Least Squares is first used to project the data onto a much lower dimensional sub-space. Then, a powerful feature selection analysis is employed to improve the performance while vastly reducing the number of features that must be calculated. We compare our system to previous approaches on two challenging data sets and show superior performance. PMID:20921579

  14. FLUID FLOW IN ROTATING HELICAL SQUARE DUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua-jun; Zhang Ben-zhao; Zhang Jin-suo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study is made for a fully developed laminar flow in rotating helical pipes.Due to the rotation, the Coriolis force can also contribute to the secondary flow.The interaction between rotation, torsion, and curvature complicates the flow characteristics.The effects of rotation and torsion on the flow transitions are studied in details.The results show that there are obvious differences between the flow in rotating ducts and in helical ducts without rotation.Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns are found.The effects of rotation and torsion on the friction factor are also examined.Present results show the characteristics of the fluid flow in rotating helical square ducts.

  15. The Square Kilometre Array: An Engineering Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    This volume is an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the engineering of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a revolutionary instrument which will be the world’s largest radio telescope. Expected to be completed by 2020, the SKA will be a pre-eminent tool in probing the Early Universe and in enhancing greatly the discovery potential of radio astronomy in many other fields. This book, containing 36 refereed papers written by leaders in SKA engineering, has been compiled by the International SKA Project Office and is the only contemporary compendium available. It features papers dealing with pivotal technologies such as antennas, RF systems and data transport. As well, overviews of important SKA demonstrator instruments and key system design issues are included. Practising professionals, and students interested in next-generation telescopes, will find this book an invaluable reference.

  16. Quantum mechanical streamlines. I - Square potential barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Christoph, A. C.; Palke, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Exact numerical calculations are made for scattering of quantum mechanical particles hitting a square two-dimensional potential barrier (an exact analog of the Goos-Haenchen optical experiments). Quantum mechanical streamlines are plotted and found to be smooth and continuous, to have continuous first derivatives even through the classical forbidden region, and to form quantized vortices around each of the nodal points. A comparison is made between the present numerical calculations and the stationary wave approximation, and good agreement is found between both the Goos-Haenchen shifts and the reflection coefficients. The time-independent Schroedinger equation for real wavefunctions is reduced to solving a nonlinear first-order partial differential equation, leading to a generalization of the Prager-Hirschfelder perturbation scheme. Implications of the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics are discussed, and cases are cited where quantum and classical mechanical motions are identical.

  17. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlings, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We review how the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will address fundamental questions in cosmology, focussing on its use for neutral Hydrogen (HI) surveys. A key enabler of its unique capabilities will be large (but smart) receptors in the form of aperture arrays. We outline the likely contributions of Phase-1 of the SKA (SKA1), Phase-2 SKA (SKA2) and pathfinding activities (SKA0). We emphasise the important role of cross-correlation between SKA HI results and those at other wavebands such as: surveys for objects in the EoR with VISTA and the SKA itself; and huge optical and near-infrared redshift surveys, such as those with HETDEX and Euclid. We note that the SKA will contribute in other ways to cosmology, e.g. through gravitational lensing and $H_{0}$ studies.

  18. Intrinsic mean-square displacements in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-07-01

    The thermal mean-square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width, and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), ribonuclease A, and staphysloccal nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  19. Domain wall brane in squared curvature gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Li, Hai-Tao

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a thick braneworld model in the squared curvature gravity theory. Despite the appearance of higher order derivatives, the localization of gravity and various bulk matter fields is shown to be possible. The existence of the normalizable gravitational zero mode indicates that our four-dimensional gravity is reproduced. In order to localize the chiral fermions on the brane, two types of coupling between the fermions and the brane forming scalar is introduced. The first coupling leads us to a Schr\\"odinger equation with a volcano potential, and the other a P\\"oschl-Teller potential. In both cases, the zero mode exists only for the left-hand fermions. Several massive KK states of the fermions can be trapped on the brane, either as resonant states or as bound states.

  20. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), Ribonuclease A and Staphysloccal Nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  1. Gravity as the Square of Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Huang, Yu-tin; Kiermaier, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We explore consequences of the recently discovered duality between color and kinematics, which states that kinematic numerators in a diagrammatic expansion of gauge-theory amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy Jacobi-like identities in one-to-one correspondence to the associated color factors. Using on-shell recursion relations, we give a field-theory proof showing that the duality implies that diagrammatic numerators in gravity are just the product of two corresponding gauge-theory numerators, as previously conjectured. These squaring relations express gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge-theory ingredients, and are a recasting of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye relations. Assuming that numerators of loop amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy the duality, our tree-level proof immediately carries over to loop level via the unitarity method. We then present a Yang-Mills Lagrangian whose diagrams through five points manifestly satisfy the duality between color and kinematics. The existence of such Lagrangians sugge...

  2. Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanning, T

    1993-07-01

    1. The health practitioner may encounter clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care. 2. One way that some choose to confront these systemic complaints is to employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. 3. Massage, acupuncture and acupressure, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement. PMID:8338610

  3. Relations for Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes from the CHY representation

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Leonardo; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We show that a recently discovered relation, which expresses tree-level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with one graviton and $(n-1)$ gauge bosons as a linear combination of pure Yang-Mills tree amplitudes with $n$ gauge bosons, can be derived from the CHY representation. In addition we show that there is a generalisation, which expresses tree-level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with $r$ gravitons and $(n-r)$ gauge bosons as a linear combination of pure Yang-Mills tree amplitudes with $n$ gauge bosons. We present a general formula for this case.

  4. Production of chi mesons in 225 GeV/c π-Be interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma rays associated with psi mesons have been studied in 225 GeV/c π-Be interactions. The psi-γ mass spectrum shows an excess of 47 +- 11 events above background centered at 3.531 GeV/c2 with an rms width of 22.4 MeV. Attributing this excess of events to the decay chi → psi γ implies that 38 +- 9 % of all psi mesons are produced by this mechanism. The experimental setup and results are detailed

  5. The Role of M\\"obius Constants and Scattering Functions in CHY Scalar Amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The integrations leading to the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) double-color $n$-point massless scalar amplitude are carried out one integral at a time. M\\"obius invariance dictates the final amplitude to be independent of the three M\\"obius constants $\\sigma_r, \\sigma_s, \\sigma_t$, but their choice affects integrations and the intermediate results. The effect of the M\\"obius constants, the two colors, and the scattering functions on each integration is investigated. A systematic way to carry out the $...

  6. Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain. PMID:21824591

  7. Formation of macrocyclic lactones in the Paternò–Büchi dimerization reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Abe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Furan-2-ylmethyl 2-oxoacetates 1a,b, in which the furan ring and the carbonyl moiety were embedded intramolecularly, were synthesized from commercially available furan-2-ylmethanol and their photochemical reaction (hν > 290 nm was investigated. Twelve-membered macrocyclic lactones 2a,b with Ci symmetry including two oxetane-rings, which are the Paternò–Büchi dimerization products, were isolated in ca. 20% yield. The intramolecular cyclization products, such as 3-alkoxyoxetane and 2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene derivatives, were not detected in the photolysate.

  8. The Effect of Tai Chi on Knee Osteoarthritis Pain in Cognitively Impaired Elders: Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Beck, Cornelia; Chang, Jason Y.; Hagen, Jody; Yong-Fang, Kuo; Roberson, Paula K.; Rosengren, Karl; Beuscher, Linda; Doan, Cathy; Anand, K. J. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the effect of tai chi (TC), a pharmacological adjunct and mild aerobic exercise, on osteoarthritic knee pain in elders with cognitive impairment (CI). The TC program included a warm-up, 12-form Sun-style TC, and a cool-down period, for a total of 20-40 minutes per session, twice a week for 15 weeks. The results showed no significant differences in knee pain after the TC intervention in 7 elders with CI. However, more minutes of TC attendance were related ...

  9. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; McDade, Elizabeth

    2006-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress-disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease. PMID:16455435

  10. GraphChi-DB: Simple Design for a Scalable Graph Database System -- on Just a PC

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrola, Aapo; Guestrin, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new data structure, Parallel Adjacency Lists (PAL), for efficiently managing graphs with billions of edges on disk. The PAL structure is based on the graph storage model of GraphChi (Kyrola et. al., OSDI 2012), but we extend it to enable online database features such as queries and fast insertions. In addition, we extend the model with edge and vertex attributes. Compared to previous data structures, PAL can store graphs more compactly while allowing fast access to both the incom...

  11. Breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City: Attitudes and confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Hanna; Westin, Frida

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding has several advantages for both mother and child. A woman’s attitude to breastfeeding is a good predictor for infant feeding method and her confidence in breastfeeding has an impact on her breastfeeding duration. Aim:The aim of the study was to assess the attitude to and confidence in breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City. The aim was also to investigate if the type of family, nuclear and extended, influences the Vietnamese women’s attitude to and confidence i...

  12. Evaluating Outlier Identification Tests: Mahalanobis "D" Squared and Comrey "Dk."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jeffrey Lee

    1988-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation was used to compare the Mahalanobis "D" Squared and the Comrey "Dk" methods of detecting outliers in data sets. Under the conditions investigated, the "D" Squared technique was preferable as an outlier removal statistic. (SLD)

  13. THE EFFECTS OF TAI CHI CHUAN COMBINED WITH VIBRATION TRAINING ON BALANCE CONTROL AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hung Chung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV, a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods.

  14. Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

    2008-01-01

    The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…

  15. Tai Chi Chuan and Qigong in scientific research: present and future. [Tai Chi Chuan y Qigong en el ámbito científico: presente y futuro].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Jiménez-Martín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Asian natural health practices are increasingly present in the physical and sporting habits of the Western population. In particular, the Tai Chi Chuan (TCC and Qigong (QG have become an everyday activity that can be performed both in parks and sports facilities in Western cities. The impact of these activities on a global level is very difficult to measure, however, given the lack of statistics on the number of practitioners, associations and existing schools. The degree of acceptance that these disciplines have achieved can be measured by the number of informative publications about them. According to the study by Perez and Gutierrez (2008, 215 (62.3 % of the 345 papers published between 1960 and 2006 on Chinese martial arts were on QG, and 115 (33.3 % papers were on TCC, implying that both practices represented 95.6 percent of these publications. More importantly, during the 1990-1999 and 2000-2006 time periods, TCC came to occupy the top of monographs published, ahead of the rest of all forms of Chinese, Japanese and Korean martial arts; during the last time period, QG represented the third most published. According to the authors, the rise of this activity can be attributed to motivation changes for sports. Health, personal development, education, and socialization, as opposed to competition, have become increasingly important goals, which both TCC and QG fit perfectly.

  16. Analysis of Concentric Split Ring Square Element for Broadband Reflectarray Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Yusop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of phase variation and phase range of concentric split ring square element for broadband reflectarray antenna is presented in this paper. This is realized by exploiting the physical geometry of three element shapes namely square element, concentric ring square element and concentric split ring square element. Modifying the current distribution of basic concentric ring square element, leads to a less steep phase variation and also the bandwidth performance. An analysis of frequency response is described and analysed. The physical interpretation of the elements is also discussed. The proposed antenna element effectively covers two frequency operations (13.44 GHz and 18.36 GHz in Ku-band range. Bandwidth broadening is achieved by introducing the ring square combination of element and the practical phase range is achieved through the use of RF 35 (thickness = 1.524 mm as the substrate. The new concept of split initiates to a wider bandwidth (up to 67.6 % for the antenna and can applied to any two frequency operations of Ku-band applications.

  17. Two Basic Programs to Compute Hotelling's T-Square Statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Stephen; Jones, Patricia B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes two BASIC computer programs that calculate Hotelling's T-square either for one sample or for two samples. Output of the progams includes the Mahalanobis distance D-square, the F ratio associated with T-square, and its probability level. (Author)

  18. An exact enumeration of self-avoiding loops on a square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exact enumeration of self-avoiding loops on a set of finite simple square lattices is performed. The partition function zeroes distribution is shown to be oval-like, in contrast to two intersecting circles, as in the case of the Ising model. An analysis of the partition function zeroes distribution shows the closeness of the critical point of the model to the ferromagnetic one of the Ising model. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. The Sequencing and Analysis of the Genome of ChiVMV Wenchang Isolate(ChiVMV-WC)%辣椒脉斑驳病毒文昌分离物基因组测序及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚殿; 王健华; 吴育鹏; 张雨良; 王洪星; 孙玉娟; 刘志昕

    2011-01-01

    辣椒脉斑驳病毒(Chilli veinal mottle virus,ChiVMV)近年来严重危害海南黄灯笼辣椒的产量,开展针对该病毒的研究以求达到对其有效防控迫在眉睫。本研究分7段克隆了ChiVMV文昌分离物(ChiVMV Wenchang isolate,ChiVMV-WC)的基因组。分段克隆的测序结果通过拼接,共获得ChiVMV-WC基因组9717个核苷酸(nt)序列(GenBank登录号:GQ981316)。在核苷酸序列的第164位~第9270位存在一个大的开放阅读框(ORF),编码一个多聚蛋白(分子量为350.44kD)。近年来被证实的马铃薯Y病毒科的一个新的ORF(pretty interesting potyviridae ORF,PIPO)存在于ChiVMV-WC基因组核苷酸序列的第2892位~第3110位,编码一个由72个氨基酸聚合而成的多肽(分子量为8.26kD)。ChiVMV-WC与ChiVMV其它分离物的基因组核苷酸序列比较发现该病毒存在着较高的变异率。本研究通过与同属内病毒的同源性分析以及系统进化树分析,确定了ChiVMV-WC在生物进化史上的地位。%Chilli veinal mottle virus,ChiVMV had recently brought catastrophic damages to the production of Capsicum chinense Jacp.'Yellow Lantern' in Hainan which lead to the development of the research project on this virus in order to find effective and efficient ways to prevent and control it.In the present study,we cloned the genome of ChiVMV Wenchang isolate(ChiVMV-WC) by dividing it into 7 segments.Then by assembling the results together,we obtained the genome of ChiVMV-WC of 9 717 nucleotide(GenBank Accession No.GQ9813-16).A large open reading frame(ORF) was located from the 164th to the 9 270th of the nucleotide sequence which encoding a polypeptide of 350.44 kD.Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF(PIPO) which was proved to be a completely novel ORF exsiting in Potyviridae was located form the 2 892th to the 3 110th of the nucleotide sequence,and encoding a 72 amino acids polypeptide of 8.26 kD.By comparing with other

  20. 辣椒脉斑驳病毒文昌分离物基因组测序及分析%The Sequencing and Analysis of the Genome of ChiVMV Wenchang Isolate (ChiVMV-WC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚殿; 王健华; 吴育鹏; 张雨良; 王洪星; 孙玉娟; 刘志昕

    2011-01-01

    辣椒脉斑驳病毒(Chilli veinal mottle virus,ChiVMV)近年来严重危害海南黄灯笼辣椒的产量,开展针对该病毒的研究以求达到对其有效防控迫在眉睫.本研究分7段克隆了ChiVMV文昌分离物(ChiVMV Wenchang isolate,ChiVMV-WC)的基因组.分段克隆的测序结果通过拼接,共获得ChiVMV-WC基因组9 717个核苷酸(nt)序列(GenBank登录号:GQ981316).在核苷酸序列的第164位~第9 270位存在一个大的开放阅读框(ORF),编码一个多聚蛋白(分子量为350.44 kD).近年来被证实的马铃薯Y病毒科的一个新的ORF (pretty interesting potyviridae ORF,PIPO)存在于ChiVMV-WC基因组核苷酸序列的第2 892位~第3 110位,编码一个由72个氨基酸聚合而成的多肽(分子量为8.26 kD).ChiVMV-WC与ChiVMV其它分离物的基因组核苷酸序列比较发现该病毒存在着较高的变异率.本研究通过与同属内病毒的同源性分析以及系统进化树分析,确定了ChiVMV-WC在生物进化史上的地位.%Chilli veinal mottle virus, ChiVMV had recently brought catastrophic damages to the production of Capsicum chinense Jacp. 'Yellow Lantern' in Hainan which lead to the development of the research project on this virus in order to find effective and efficient ways to prevent and control it. In the present study, we cloned the genome of ChiVMV Wenchang isolate (ChiVMV-WC) by dividing it into 7 segments. Then by assembling the results together, we obtained the genome of ChiVMV-WC of 9 717 nucleotide (GenBank Accession No. GQ9813-16). A large open reading frame (ORF) was located from the 164th to the 9 270th of the nucleotide sequence which encoding a polypeptide of 350.44 kD. Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF (PIPO) which was proved to be a com pletely novel ORF exsiting in Potyviridae was located form the 2 892th to the 3 110th of the nucleotide sequence, and encoding a 72 amino acids polypeptide of 8.26 kD. By comparing with other isolates of ChiVMV, we found that this isolate has